15 Semduramicin sodium

15 Semduramicin sodium

15 Semduramicin sodium O O NaO OH HO O H O H OH O O O O H O O H O OH H H Semduramicin sodium C45H75O16Na MW: 895.1 CAS No.: 119068-77-8 Semduramicin C45H76O16 MW: 873.1 CAS No.: 113378-31-7 [Summary of semduramicin sodium] Semduramicin is a polyether antibiotic obtained by the incubation of Actinomadura roseorufa, and has the chemical structure shown above. The one used as a feed additive is its sodium salt (SD). For physicochemical properties, SD technical occurs as white to gray-white crystalline powder. It is soluble in methanol, sparingly soluble in ethanol, slightly soluble in dichloromethane and in ether, and practically insoluble in water and in isooctane.

Formulations containing not less than 0.5 % of semduramicin are designated as deleterious substances under the Cabinet Order for the Designation of the Poisonous and Deleterious Substances (Cabnet Order No.2, 1965). For the handling of these substances, make sure to comform to the procedures specified in the Poisonous and Deleterious Substances Act (Act No.303, 1950). SD has an antibacterial effect on part of the Gram-positive bacteria and a growth promoting effect on chickens (including broilers). «Standards and specifications in the Act on Safety Assurance and Quality Improvement of Feeds» SD is a pure-grade antibiotic that was designated as a feed additive as of July 18, 1994.

The specifications for feeds containing this ingredient are specified in Appended Table 1, 1-(1)-C of the Ministerial Ordinance Concerning the Ingredient Specifications for Feeds and Feed Additives. (in g(potency)/t) Added amount 25 25 Feed of interest Starting chicks Growing chicks Starting broilers Growing broilers For chickens (except for broilers) For broilers Like SL, NR, MN and LS, excessive consumption of SD can cause growth disturbace in chickens. It is therefore necessary to strictly conform to the specified amounts of addition (25 g (potency) per 1 ton

of the feed of interest) and to achieve homogeneous mixture to secure the safety. For this reason, feed manufacturers are required to control the chicken feeds that contain SD according to the separately described control test method (6 Chiku B No.1012, notified by the Head of the Livestock Industry Bureau, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, as of July 18, 1994). [Methods listed in the Feed Analysis Standards] 1 Quantitative test method - Plate method 1.1 Premix [Feed Analysis Standards, Chapter 9, Section 2, 15.1.1] Scope of application: Premix not containing TP A. Reagent preparation 1) Dilution solvent: A mixture of water and methanol (7:3) 2) Semduramicin standard solution.

Dry a suitable amount of semduramicin working standard[1] under reduced pressure (not exceeding 0.67 kPa) at 100°C for 3 hours, weigh accurately not less than 40 mg, accurately add methanol and dissolve to prepare a semduramicin standard stock solution with a concentration of 1 mg (potency)/mL[2] .

At the time of use, accurately dilute a quantity of the standard stock solution with the dilution solvent to prepare high- and low-concentration standard solutions with concentrations of 2.5 and 1.25 µg (potency)/mL, respectively[3] . 3) Culture medium: Medium F-15 4) Bacterial suspension and amount of addition. Use Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 as the test organism. Add about 0.1 mL of a spore suspension with a concentration of 1×109 spores/mL per 100 mL of the culture medium 100 mL. 5) Agar plate. Proceed by the agar well method. 6) Extracting solvent: A mixture of dichloromethane[4] and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (1:1) B.

Preparation of sample solution Extraction. Weigh accurately 3 to 5 g of the analysis sample, place in a 200-mL stoppered Erlenmeyer flask, add 100 mL of the extracting solvent, extract with stirring for 20 minutes, and filter the extract through filter paper (No.5A). Dilute a quantity of the filtrate 2- to 10-fold with the extracting solvent[5] , and use as the sample solution subject to column treatment. Column treatment. Wash a silica gel minicolumn (690 mg) with 5 mL of methanol and with 5 mL of dichloromethane 5 mL in this order.

Accurately transfer a quantity of the sample solution (equivalent to 0.1 to 0.5 mg (potency) as SD) to the minicolumn and allow to flow down until the amount in the minicolumn reservoir reaches 1 mL. Add accurately 20 mL of a mixture of dichloromethane[4] and acetone (9:1) and accurately 8 mL of a mixture of dichloromethane[4] and acetone (4:1)[6] to the minicolumn, and allow to flow out in this order to wash the minicolumn. Place a 100-mL round-bottom flask under the minicolumn, and add 10 mL of a mixture of acetone and methanol (4:1) to the minicolumn to elute SD. Evaporate the eluate into dryness in a water bath at 50°C, and accurately add a quantity of the dilution solvent to dissolve the residue.

Accurately dilute a

quantity of of this liquid with the dilution solvent to prepare high- and low-concentration sample solutions with concentrations of 2.5 and 1.25 µg (potency)/mL, respectively. C. Quantification[7] Proceed by the 2-2 dose method[8] . «Summary of analysis method» This method is intended to determine the amount of SD in a premix by microbiological assay (2-2 dose method) using a sample solution prepared by extracting with a mixture of dichloromethane and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (1:1) and purifying through a silica gel minicolumn. The ratio of the concentration of the high-concentration standard solution to that of the low-concentration standard solution is set to 2 because the slope of the standard response line is relatively steep.

Except for TP, none of the antibacterial substances approved for combined use with SD interfere with the quantification of SD.

The flow sheet of this method is shown in Figure 9.2.15-1. Sample (3.0-5.0 g) Extract with 100 mL of dichloromethane-2,2,4-trimethylpentane (1:1). (magnetic sitter, 20 min) Filter (filter paper: No.5A). Wash the minicolumn with 20 mL of dichloromethane-acetone (9:1). Wash the minicolumn with 8 mL of dichloromethane-acetone (4:1). Evaporate into dryness under reduced pressure (in a water bath at 5°C). Dissolve the residue with 20-25 mL of water-methanol (7:3). Dispense to agar plates (allow to stand at 10-20°C). Incubate (35-37°C for 16-24 hr).

Measure the inhibition zone diameter. Calculate the potency by the 2-2 dose method.

Load a quantity of the filtrate onto a silica gel minicolumn (previously washed with 5 mL of methanol and 5 mL of dichloromethane). Dilute a quantity of the solution with water-methanol (7:3) to prepare high- and low-concentration sample solutions (2.5 and 1.25 µg(potency)/mL, i l ) Elute SD with 10 mL of acetone-methanol (4:1) (into a 200-mL round-bottom Figure 9.2.15-1 Quantitative test methods for semduramicin sodium (premix) References: Shoichi Yamatani: Research Report of Animal Feed, 21, 113 (1996) History in the Feed Analysis Standards [18] New

«Validation of analysis method» Spike recovery and repeatability Chicken premix 1 0.4~10 3 100.7~103.7 7.0 Chicken premix 2 0.4~10 3 98.0~100.3 1.8 Chicken premix 3 0.4~10 3 98.3~101.0 1.7 Sample type Repeat Spike concentration (g(potency)/kg) Spike recovery (%) Repeatability RSD(% or less) Collaborative study Chicken premix 8 2 99.2 2.1 3.6 No. of labs Sample type Spike concentration (g(potency)/kg ) Spike recovery (%) Intra-lab repeatability RSDr(%) Inter-lab reproducibility RSDR(%) «Notes and precautions» [1] For the difinition etc. of semduramicin working standard, refer to «Notes and precautions» [9] in Section 1, 1 of this Chapter.

[2] For the method of preparation for the standard stock solution, refer to «Notes and precautions» [10] in Section 1, 1 of this Chapter. Method of preparation: example (when the weighed amount is 50 mg) If the labeled potency of the working standard is 951 µg (potency)/mg, 50 mg of the working standard contains 47,550 µg (potency) (i.e., 50 mg × 951 µg (potency)/mg. To prepare a standard stock solution with a concentration of 1,000 µg (potency)/m, the required amount of solvent is thus calculated to be 47.55 mL (i.e., 47,550 µg (potency) / 1,000 µg (potency)/mL. Therefore, completely transfer 50 mg of the working standard to an Erlenmeyer flask containing 47.55 mL of methanol and dissolve to prepare a standard stock solution with a concentration of 1,000 µg (potency)/mL.

[3] For method of preparation for the standard solution, refer to «Notes and precautions» [8] in Section 1, 1 of this Chapter.

An example method of preparation semduramicin standard solution is shown in Table 9.2.15-1. Table 9.2.15-1 Method of preparation for semduramicin standard solution (premix, example) Test tube No. 1 2 3 4 Amount (mL) of standard solution 2 2 5 5 18 18 15 5 Concentration (µg(potency)/mL) 100 10 2.5 1.25 Note: "2 mL" means "2 mL of standard stock solution (1 mg(potency)/mL)". Amount (mL) of water-methanol (7:3) [4] The dichloromethane shall be of JIS Guaranteed grade. Although there are some dichloromethane formulations spiked with about 0.3% methanol as a stabilizing agent for testing residual pesticides and PCB, the use of such grades affect the retention of the column and results in a poor recovery.

[5] Exa ples of the dilution factor for the filtrate, the amount loaded onto the column , etc. are shown in Table 9.2.15-2.

[6] The amount of the mixture of dichloromethane and acetone (4:1) shall be precisely 8 mL. The larger the amount, the lower the recovery. Table 9.2.15-2 Dilution factor for the filtrate, amount loaded onto the column, etc. 2 2 10 20 5 10 4 10 25 10 50 10 10 25 20 Note: the concentration of the residue in the solution prepared by diluting the residue with dilution solvent in a flask. Dilute this solution further with dilution solvent to prepare high and low-concentration sample solutions with concentrations of 2.5 and 1.25 µg(potency)/mL, respectively.

Amount of sample collected (equivalent to mg(potency)) Dilution factor for filtrate (-fold) Amount loaded onto column (mL) Amount of dissolved residue (mL) Concentration of solution (µg(potency)/mL) [7] An example standard response line for SD is shown inFigure 9.2.15-2.

The ratio of the concentration of the high-concentration standard solution to that of the low- concentration standard solution is set to 2 because the slope of the standard resonse line is relatively steep. Figure 9.2.15-2 Standard response line for semduramicin (premix, example) (Bacillis subtilis ATCC 6633, Medium F-15, Agar well method) [8] Refer to «Notes and precautions» [53] to [60] in Section 1, 1 of this Chapter. 1.2 Feed [Feed Analysis Standards, Chapter 9, Section 2, 15.2.1] Scope of application : Feed not containing TP 25 20 15 Corrected inhibition zone diameter (mm) Concentration of semduramicin (µg (potency)/mL) 0.5 1 2 4 10

A. Reagent preparation 1) Dilution solvent: A mixture of water and methanol (7:3) 2) Semduramicin standard solution. Dry a suitable amount of semduramicin working standard under reduced pressure (not exceeding 0.67 kPa) at 100°C for 3 hours, weigh accurately not less than 40 mg, accurately add methanol and dissolve to prepare a semduramicin standard stock solution with a concentration of 1 mg (potency)/mL. At the time of use, accurately dilute a quantity of the standard stock solution with dilution solvent to prepare high- and low-concentration standard solutions with concentrations of 2.5 and 1.25 µg (potency)/mL, respectively[1] .

3) Culture medium: Medium F-15 4) Bacterial suspension and amount of addition. Use Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 as the test organism. Add about 0.1 mL of the spore suspension with a concentration of 1×109 spores/mL per 100 mL of the culture medium. 5) Agar plate. Proceed by the agar well method. B. Preparation of sample solution Extraction. Weigh accurately a quantity of the analysis sample (equivalent to 0.5 mg (potency) as SD)[2] , place in a 200-mL stoppered Erlenmeyer flask, add 100 mL of a mixture of dichloromethane[3] and 2,2,4- trimethylpentane (1:1), and extract with stirring for 20 minutes.

Transfer the extract to a 50-mL stoppered centrifuge tube, centrifuge at 650×g for 15 minutes, and use as the sample solution subject to column treatment.

Column treatment. Wash a silica gel minicolumn (690 mg) with 5 mL of methanol and 5 mL of dichloromethane in this order. Transfer accurately 25 mL of the sample solution to the minicolumn, and allow to flow down until the amount remaining in the reservoir reaches 1 mL. Accuraetly add 20 mL of a mixture of dichloromethane[3] and acetone (9:1) and 8 mL of a mixture of dichloromethane and acetone (4+1)[4] to the minicolumn, and allow to flow out in this order to wash the minicolumn. Place a 100-mL round-bottom flask under the minicolumn, add 10 mL of a mixture of acetone and methanol (4:1) to the minicolumn to elute SD.

Evaporate the eluate into dryness in a water bath at 50°C, and accurately add 25 mL of the dilution solvent to dissolve the residue. Accurately dilute a quantity of this liquid with the dilution solvent to prepare high- and low-concentration sample solutions with concentrations of 2.5 and 1.25 µg (potency)/mL, respectively.

C. Quantification[5] Proceed by the 2-2 dose method[6] . «Summary of analysis method» This method is intended to determine the amount of SD in a feed by microbiological assay using a sample solution prepared by extracting with a mixture of dichloromethane and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (1:1) and purifying through a silica gel minicolumn. The ratio of the concentration of the high- concentration standard solution to that of the low-concentration standard solution is set to 2 as the slope

of the standard response line is relatively steep. This method is almost the same as the quantitative test method for SD in a premix.

Except for TP, none of the antibacterial substances approved for combined use with SD interfere with the quantification of SD. The flow sheet of this method is shown in Figure 9.2.15-3. Sample (usually 20 g, equivalent to 0.5 mg(potency) as SD) Extract with 100 mL of dichloromethane-2,2,4-trimethylpentane (1:1). (magnetic stirrer, 20 min) Centrifuge (at 650×g for 15 min). Wash the silica gel minocolumn with 20 mL of dichloromethane-aceton (9:1). Wash the silica gel minicolumn with 8 mL of dichloromethane-acetone (4:1). Elute SD with 10 mL of acetone-methanol (4:1) (into a 200-mL round-bottom fla Evaporate into dryness under reduced pressure (in a water bath at 50°C).

Dissolve the residue in 25 mL of water-methanol (7:3). Dispense to agar plates (allow to stand at 10-20°C for 2 hr). Incubate (at 35-37°C for 16-24 hr).

Measure the inhibition zone diameter. Calculate the potency by the 2-2 dose method. Load 25 mL of the supernatant liquid onto a silica gel minicolumn (previously washed with 5 mL of methanol and 5 mL of dichloromehtane). Dilute a quantity of the solution with water-methanol (7:3) to prepare high- and low-concentration sample solutions (2.5 and 1.25 µg(potency)/mL, i l ) Figure 9.2.15-3 Quantitative test methods for semduramicin sodium (feed not containing TP) References: Shoichi Yamatani: Research Report of Animal Feed, 19, 155 (1994) History in the Feed Analysis Standards [18] New «Validation of analysis method» Spike recovery and repeatability Starting chick formula feed 25~50 3 99.3~107.0 11.0 Starting broiler formula feed 25~50 3 97.7~105.0 3.4 Growing broiler formula feed 25~50 3 98.3~99.7 8.5 Sample type Repeat Spike concentration (g(potency)/t) Spike recovery (%) Repeatability RSD(% or less)

Collaborative study Growing broiler formula feed 7 25 100.3 3.8 5.2 No. of labs Sample type Spike concentration (g(potency)/t) Spike recovery (%) Intra-lab repeatability RSDr(%) Inter-lab reproducibility RSDR(%) «Notes and precautions» [1] For the method of preparation for the standard solution, refer to «Notes and precautions» [8] in Section 1, 1 of this Chapter. An example method of preparation for the semduramicin standard solution is shown in Table 9.2.15-3. Table 9.2.15-3 Method of preparation for semduramicin standard solution (feed that does not contain TP, example) Test tube No. 1 2 3 4 Amount (mL) of standard solution 2 2 5 5 18 18 15 5 Concentration (µg(potency)/mL) 100 10 2.5 1.25 Note: "2 mL" means "2 mL of standard stock solution (1 mg(potency)/mL)".

Amount (mL) of water-methanol (7:3) [2] Usually corresponds to 20 g. [3] The dichloromethane shall be of JIS Guaranteed grade. Although there are some dichloromethane formulations spiked with about 0.3% methanol as a stabilizing agent for testing residual pesticides and PCB, the use of such grades affect the retention of the column and results in a poor recovery. [4] The amount of the mixture of dichloromethane and acetone (4:1) shall be accurately 8 mL. The larger the amount, the lower the recovery.

[5] An example standard response line for SD is shown in Figure 9.2.15-4. [6] Refer to «Notes and precautions» [53] to [60] in Section 1, 1 of this Chapter. Figure 9.2.15-4 Standard response line for semduramicin (feed that does not contain TP, example) (Bacillis subtilis ATCC 6633, Medium F-15, Agar well method) 25 20 15 0.5 1 2 4 10 Corrected inhibition zone diameter (mm) Concentration of semduramicin (µg (potency)/mL)

2 Quantitative test method for polyether antibiotics by liquid chromatography 2.1 Premix [Feed Analysis Standards, Chapter 9, Section 2, 15.1.2] Antibiotics of interest: SL, SD, NR and MN (4 components) A.

Reagent preparation 1) Salinomycin sodium standard solution. Dry a suitable amount of salinomycin working standard[1] under reduced pressure (not exceeding 0.67 kPa) at 60°C for 3 hours, weigh accurately a quantity equivalent to 20 mg (potency), place in a 100-mL volumetric flask, add methanol to dissolve, and further add methanol up to the marked line to prepare a salinomycin sodium standard stock solution (1 mL of this solution contains an amount equivalent to 0.2 mg (potency) as salinomycin sodium). At the time of use, accurately dilute a quantity of standard stock solution with a mixture of methanol and water (9:1) to prepare several salinomycin sodium standard solutions containing salinomycin sodium in amounts equivalent to 2.5 to 20 µg (potency) in 1 mL.

2) Semduramicin sodium standard solution. Weigh accurately a quantity of semduramicin working standard equivalent to 20 mg (potency)[1] , place in a 100-mL volumetric flask, add methanol to dissolve, and further add methanol up to the marked line to prepare a standard stock solution (1 mL of this solution contains an amount equivalent to 0.2 mg (potency) as semduramicin sodium). At the time of use, accurately dilute a quantity of the standard stock solution with methanol to prepare several semduramicin sodium standard solutions containing semduramicin sodium in amounts equivalent to 2.5 to 20 µg (potency) in 1 mL.

3) Narasin standard solution. Weigh accurately a quantity of narasin working standard equivalent to 20 mg (potency)[1] , place in a 100-mL volumetric flask, add methanol to dissolve, and further add methanol up to the marked line to prepare a narasin standard stock solution (1 mL of this solution contains narasin in an amount equivalent to 0.2 mg (potency)). At the time of use, accurately dilute a quantity of the standard stock solution with a mixture of methanol and water (9:1) to prepare several narasin standard solutions containing narasin in amounts equivalent to 0.5 to 20 µg (potency) in 1 mL.

4) Monensin sodium standard solution. Weigh accurately a quantity of monensin working standard equivalent to 20 mg (potency)[1] , place in a 100-mL volumetric flask, add methanol to dissolve, and further add methanol up to the marked line to prepare a monensin sodium standard stock solution (1 mL of this solution contains an amount equivalent to 0.2 mg (potency) as monensin sodium). At the time of use, accurately dilute a quantity of the standard stock solution with a mixture of methanol and water (9:1) to prepare several monensin sodium standard solutions containing monensin sodium in amounts equivalent to 2.5 to 20 µg (potency) in 1 mL.

B. Quantification Extraction. Weigh accurately 2 to 5 g of the analysis sample, place in a 200-mL stoppered Erlenmeyer flask, add 100 mL of a mixture of methanol and water (9:1), extract with stirring for 20 minutes, and filter the extract through filter paper (No.5A). Accurately dilute a quantity of the filtrate with a mixture of methanol and water (9:1), filter through membrane filter (pore size not exceeding 0.5 µm), and use the filtrate as the sample solution subject to liquid chromatography.

Liquid chromatography. Inject 20 µL each of the sample solution and antibiotic standard solutions into a liquid chromatograph to obtain chromatograms. Example operating conditions Detector: Ultraviolet-visible absorption detector (measured wavelength: 520 nm) Column: Octadecylsilanized silica gel column (4.6 mm in internal diameter, 150 mm in length, 5 µm in particle size)Note 1 [2] Eluent: A mixture of methanol, water and acetic acid (940:60:1) Reaction solutionNote 2 : Gradually add 10 mL of sulfuric acid to 475 mL of methanol while stirring, add 15 g of vanillin and dissolve (prepare at the time of use).

Flow rate: 0.6 mL/min for the eluent; 0.6 mL/min for the reaction solution Reaction vessel temperature: 95°C Calculation. Calculate the peak height or peak area from the obtained chromatogram[3] to prepare the calibration curve, and estimate the amount of each antibioticNote 3, 4 .

Note 1. Use a Mightysil RP-18 GP (Kanto Chemical Co., Inc.) or an equivalent. 2. Develop by allowing the eluate from the column to react with the reaction solution through the reaction coil (0.5 mm in internal diameter, 5 mm in length (10 m )) in the reaction vessel, and immediately transfer to the ultraviolet-visible absorption detector. The reaction solution shall be used in a light-resistant container. 3. For monensin sodium, the calculated amount of monensin A shall be regarded as the amount of monensin sodium. The peak of monensin A appears as the main peak on the chromatogram from each monensin sodium standard solution.

On the chromatogram of the sample solution, the peak of monensin A appears at the same retention time as the peak of monensin A from the standard solution.

4. For narasin, the calculated amount of narasin A shall be regarded as the amount of narasin. The peak of narasin A appears as the main peak on the chromatogram of each narasin standard solution. On the chromatogram from the sample solution, the peak of narasin A appears at the same retention time as the peak of narasin A from the standard solution. «Summary of analysis method» This method is intended to determine the amount of salinomycin, semduramicin, narasin A, and monensin A in a premix by determining the absorbances of their derivatives produced by extracting with a mixture of methanol and water (9:1), separating by liquid chromatography using an octadecylsilanized silica gel (ODS) column, and allowing to react with vanillin.

It is also called the post-column derivatization method.

The principle of this derivatization (chromogenic) reaction depends on the so-called Komarowsky reaction, which involves aldol condensation of the alcoholic hydroxyl groups of salinomycin, semduramicin, narasin A and monensin A with the benzaldehyde group of vanillin, in an acidic solution containing sulfuric acid, to produce derivatives of these antibiotics that have wavelengths of maximal absorption of about 520 nm.

This method allows for simultaneous quantification of salinomycin sodium (SL), semduramicin sodium (SD), narasin (NR), and monensin sodium (MN).

Care should be taken that, of the peaks of monensin sodium, the peak of monensin B can appear at the same retention time as the peak of semduramicin sodium, and thus interfere with the quantification. For reference, the nature of separation of the mixed standard solution is shown in Figure 9.3.1-1. Because of the above-mentioned possibility of interference from peaks other than those of interest, it is preferable to use a single-component standard solution rather than a mixed standard solution for the preparation of the calibration curve.

Figure 9.3.1-1 Chromatogram for a mixed standard solution (SL: 100 ng, SD: 200 ng, NR-A: 100 ng, MN-A: 50 ng) Narasin is a mixture of narasin A, narasin B, narasin D and narasin I, and the “narasin” designated as a feed additive is defined as containing narasin A as the main ingredient. Monensin is a mixture of monensin A, monensin B, monensin C and monensin D, and the “monensin” designated as a feed additive is defined as containing monensin A as the main ingredient. In the test method described here, the quantified amounts of narasin A and of monensin A are regarded as the amounts of narasin and of monensin, respectively, based on the premises that commercial narasin and monensin formulations contain narasin and monensin at a concentration of not less than 95%, respectively.

It should be borne in mind, therefore, that the “narasin” and “monensin” quantified by this method are not exactly the same as the “narasin” and “monensin” quantified by microbiological assay.

For more details, refer to «Notes and precautions» [1] of General Notice 13 in Chapter 1. The flow sheet of this method is shown in Figure 9.3.1-2. SD MN SL NR 10 SD derivative NR-A derivative SL derivative MN-A derivative 10 Retention time (min) Absorbance

2.0-5.0 g of sample Filter (through filter paper No.5A). LC-UV (520 nm) Extract with 100 mL of methanol-water (9:1) (with a magnetic stirrer for 20 min). Dilute a quantity of the filtrate with methanol- water (9:1). Filter through membrane filter (pore size not exceeding 0.5 µm). Figure 9.3.1-2 Quantitation test method for salinomycin sodium, semduramicin sodium, narasin, and monensin sodium by liquid chromatography (premix) References: Daisaku Makino: Research Report of Animal Feed, 27, 57 (2002) Daisaku Makino: Research Report of Animal Feed, 27, 64 (2002) Mayumi Nishimura: Research Report of Animal Feed, 28, 69 (2003) Katsumi Yamamoto, Tetsuo Chihara: Research Report of Animal Feed, 28, 82 (2003) History in the Feed Analysis Standards [25] New, [26] Component addition (semduramicin sodium, narasin) «Validation of analysis method» Spike recovery and repeatability Starting chick grower premix 12.5~85.0 3 99.3~102.1 3.8 Broiler fattener finisher premix 12.5~85.0 3 96.3~102.7 3.0 Meat cattle fattener premix 12.5~85.0 3 98.0~100.8 2.8 Chicken premix 1 8~42 3 99.8~101.8 2.4 Chicken premix 2 8~42 3 98.5~102.4 2.8 Chicken premix 3 8~42 3 98.2~100.7 2.7 Chicken premix 1 8~80 3 98.7~103.8 0.9 Chicken premix 2 8~80 3 96.0~ 99.4 0.8 Chicken premix 3 8~80 3 96.6~ 99.8 0.5 Starting chick grower premix 5~80 3 98.2~102.4 2.1 Broiler fattener finisher premix 5~80 3 101.4~102.5 2.0 Meat cattle fattener premix 5~80 3 96.6~99.5 4.7 Spike recovery (%) Repeatability RSD(% or less) Monensin sodium Sample type Repeat Spiked component Salinomycin sodium Narasin Semduramicin sodium Spike concentration (g(potency)/kg) «Notes and precautions» [1] For the definition etc.

of the working standards for salinomycin, semduramicin, narasin, and monensin, refer to «Notes and precautions» [9] in Section 1, 1 of this Chapter. [2] Any column is applicable as long as it is packed with an equivalent end-capped material. The columns used for the validation of this method were Shodex C18M 4D for narasin and Mightysil RP- 18 GP for salinomycin, semduramicin, and monensin.

[3] Example chromatograms for salinomycin are shown in Figure 9.3.1-3. Standard solution (200 ng) Chicken premix (50.0 g/kg) Figure 9.3.1-3 Chromatograms for salinomycin (The arrow indicate the peak of the SL derivative) Example chromatograms for semduramicin are shown in Figure 9.3.1-4. Standard solution (equivalent to 200 ng (potency) as SD) Chicken premix (equivalent to 200 ng (potency) as SD) Figure 9.3.1-4 Chromatograms for semduramicin (The arrow indicate the peak of the SD derivative) Example chromatograms for narasin are shown in Figure 9.3.1-5. Retention time (min) Retention time (min) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Absorbance Absorbance Retention time (min) Retention time (min) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Absorbance Absorbance

Standard solution (200 ng) Chicken premix (80 g (potency)/kg) Figure 9.3.1-5 Chromatograms for narasin (The arrow indicate the peak of the NR-A derivative) Example chromatograms for monensin are shown in Figure 9.3.1-6. Standard solution (200 ng) Chicken premix (33.3 g/kg) Figure 9.3.1-6 Chromatograms for monensin (The arrows indicate the peaks of the MN-A derivative (main peak) and MN-B derivative) 2.2 Feed [Feed Analysis Standards, Chapter 9, Section 2, 15.2.2] Antibiotics of interest: SL, SD, NR and MN (4 components) A. Reagent preparation 1) Salinomycin sodium standard solution. Prepare a salinomycin sodium standard stock solution as directed in 1.1-A.

At the time of use, accurately dilute a quantity of the standard stock solution with a mixture of methanol and water (9:1) to prepare several salinomycin sodium standard solutions containing salinomycin sodium in amounts equivalent to 0.5 to 8 µg (potency) in 1 mL. 2) Semduramicin sodium standard solution[1] . Prepare a semduramicin standard stock solution as directed in 1.1-A. At the time of use, accurately dilute a quantity of standard stock solution with methanol to prepare several semduramicin sodium standard solutions containing semduramicin sodium in amounts equivalent to 0.5 to 10 µg (potency) in 1 mL.

Retention time (min) Retention time (min) MN-B Absorbance 0 2 4 6 8 MN-B MN-A MN-A Absorbance 0 2 4 6 8 Retention time (min) 0 10 Retention time (min) 0 10 Absorbance Absorbance

3) Narasin standard solution. Proceed as directed in 1.1-A. 4) Monensin sodium standard solution. Prepare a monensin standard stock solution as directed in 1.1-A. At the time of use, accurately dilute a quantity of the standard stock solution with a mixture of methanol and water (9:1) to prepare several monensin sodium standard solutions containing monensin sodium in amounts equivalent to 0.5 to 15 µg (potency) in 1 mL.

B. Quantification Extraction. Weigh 10.0 g of the analysis sample, place in a 200-mL stoppered Erlenmeyer flask, add 100 mL of a mixture of methanol and water (9:1), extract with stirring for 20 minutes, and filter the extract through filter paper (No.5A). Filter the filtrate through membrane filter (pore size not exceeding 0.5 µm) and use as a sample solution subject to liquid chromatography.

Liquid chromatography. Proceed as directed in 1.1-B Liquid chromatography[2] . Calculation. Proceed as directed in 1.1-B Calculation[3] . «Summary of analysis method» This method is intended to determine the amount of salinomycin, semduramicin, narasin A and monensin A in a chicken feed or cattle feed by post-column derivatization liquid chromatography using a sample solution prepared by extracting with a mixture of methanol and water (9:1) as described in 1.1. Quantification test method for polyether antibiotics by liquid chromatography (premix) in this Sectoin. For the principle of the measurement etc., refer to 1.1 «Summary of analysis method».

In this method, none of the antibacterial substances approved for combined use with semduramicin sodium interfere with the quantification of semduramicin sodium. Of the monensin sodium that are not approved for combined use, however, monensin B was found to interfere with the quantification of semduramicin sodium.

For the nature of separation of the mixed standard solution, refer to Figure 9.3.1-1. The flow sheet of this method is shown in Figure 9.3.1-7. 10.0 g of sample Filter (through filter paper No.5A). LC-UV (520 nm) Extract with 100 mL of methanol-water (9:1) (with a magnetic stirrer for 20 min). Filter through membrane filter (pore size not exceeding 0.5 µm). Figure 9.3.1-7 Quantitation test method for salinomycin sodium, semduramicin sodium, narasin and monensin sodium by liquid chromatography (feed) References: Toshiaki Hayakawa, Masato Funatsu: Research Report of Animal Feed, 26, 51 (2001) Ikumi Kobayashi: Research Report of Animal Feed, 27, 71 (2002) Tetsuo Chihara: Research Report of Animal Feed, 27, 94 (2002) Toshiaki Hayakawa, Daisaku Makino: Research Report of Animal Feed, 26, 60 (2001)

History in the Feed Analysis Standards [23] New, [24] Component addition (narasin), [25] Component addition (semduramicin sodium) «Validation of analysis method» Spike recovery and repeatability Starting chick grower formula feed 25~50 3 96.7~101.7 4.6 Broiler fattener starter formula feed 25~50 3 96.0~ 98.7 2.1 Broiler fattener finisher formula feed 25~50 3 97.7~101.3 4.0 Calf grower formula feed 7.5~22.5 3 97.0~100.7 4.6 Meat cattle fattener starter formula feed 7.5~22.5 3 98.3~103.3 4.6 Meat cattle fattener finisher formula feed 7.5~22.5 3 97.7~103.0 4.0 Starting chick grower formula feed 12.5~37.5 3 95.6~97.8 1.3 Broiler fattener starter formula feed 12.5~37.5 3 97.5~98.7 1.9 Broiler fattener finisher formula feed 12.5~37.5 3 97.7~98.3 1.5 Narasin Starting chick grower formula feed 40~120 3 97.8~102.2 2.7 Broiler fattener starter formula feed 40~120 3 99.4~102.5 2.7 Broiler fattener finisher formula feed 40~120 3 96.3~99.8 1.9 Starting chick grower formula feed 40~120 3 99.0~100.3 1.0 Broiler fattener starter formula feed 40~120 3 99.3~99.7 1.2 Broiler fattener finisher formula feed 40~120 3 98.7~100.0 1.0 Calf grower formula feed 15~45 3 100.3~102.0 1.2 Meat cattle fattener starter formyla feed 15~45 3 98.0~99.7 1.7 Meat cattle fattener finisher formula feed 15~45 3 100.7~102.0 1.7 Spike recovery (%) Repeatability RSD(% or less) Sample type Salinomycin sodium Monensin sodium Repeat Spiked component Semduramicin sodium Spike concentration (g(potency)/kg) Collaborative study Salinomycin sodium Chicken formula feed 7 50 94.4 2.7 2.0 0.22 Semduramicin sodium Broiler finisher formula feed 7 25 97.9 1.8 1.8 0.18 Narasin Starting chick grower formula feed 7 80 99.7 2.9 2.1 0.25 Monensin sodium Cattle formula feed 6 30 98.0 2.0 2.6 0.27 No.

of labs Spiked component HorRat Sample type Spike concentration (g(potency)/t) Spike recovery (%) Intra-lab repeatability RSDr(%) Inter-lab reproducibility RSDR(%) «Notes and precautions» [1] As low concentrations of the standard solution are likely to change over time, make sure to prepare immediately before analysis. The peak that appears at a retention time approximately 1.5 times greater than the main peak is that of hydroxyl semduramicin, a degraded substance of the standard substance. [2] The columns used for validation of this method are Shodex C18M4D for narasin and Mightysil RP- 18 GP for salinomycin, semduramicin, and monensin.

[3] Example chromatograms for salinomycin are shown in Figure 9.3.1-8.

Standard solution (40 ng) Starting chick grower formula feed (50 g (potency)/t) Figure 9.3.1-8 Chromatograms for salinomycin (The arrow indicate the peak of the SL derivative) Example chromatograms for semduramicin are shown in Figure 9.3.1-9. 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 min V 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 min V Standard solution (50 ng) Chicken formula feed (25 g (potency)/t) Figure 9.3.1-9 Chromatograms for semduramicin (The arrow indicate the peak of an SD derivative) Example chromatograms for narasin are shown in Figure 9.3.1-10.

1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 µV 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 µV Retention time (min) 0 2 4 6 8 10 Absorption Absorption Retention time (min) 0 2 4 6 8 10 Retention time (min) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Absorption Absorption Retention time (min) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Standard solution (160 ng) Starting chick grower formula feed (80 g (potency)/t) Figure 9.3.1-10 Chromatograms for narasin (The arrow indicate the peak of NR-A derivative) Example chromatograms for monensin are shown in Figure 9.3.1-11. Standard solution (30 ng) Meat calf grower formula feed (30 g (potency)/t) Figure 9.3.1-11 Chromatograms for monensin (The arrow indicate the peak of the MN-A derivative) 3 Trace quantitative test method - Trace quantitative test method for polyether antibiotics by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (Feed) [Feed Analysis Standards, Chapter 9, Section 2, 15.3.1] Antibiotics of interest: SL, SD, NR, MN and LS (5 components) Scope of application: Formula feeds A.

Reagent preparation 1) Standard stock solution of each antibiotic[1] . Weigh accurately a quantity equivalent to 20 mg (potency) each of salinomycin working standardNote 1 , semduramicin working standard, narasin working standard, monensin working standard, and lasalocid working standard, place each in a 100-mL volumetric flask, add methanol to dissolve, and further add methanol up to the marked line to prepare respective standard 10 10 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 µV 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 µV Retention time (min) 0 2 4 6 8 10 Absorption Absorption Retention time (min) 0 2 4 6 8 10 Retention time (min) 0 10 Absorption Absorption 0 10 Retention time (min)

stock solutions (1 mL each of these solutions contains an amount equivalent to 0.2 mg (potency) as salinomycin sodium, semduramicin sodium, narasin, monensin sodium, and lasalocid sodium, respectively). 2) Mixed standard solution. At the time of use, mix quantities of the standard stock solutions of salinomycin sodium, semduramicin sodium, narasin, monensin sodium, and lasalocid sodium. Accurately dilute the mixture with methanol to prepare several mixed standard solutions containing amounts equivalent to 0.1 to 2 µg (potency) as each antibiotic in 1 mL. B. Quantification Extraction. Weigh 10.0 g of the analysis sample, place in a 200-mL stoppered Erlenmeyer flask, add 100 mL of acetonitrile, extract with stirring for 30 minutes, and filter the extract through filter paper (No.5A).

Transfer exactly 25 mL of the filtrate to a 100-mL recovery flask, condense under reduced pressure almost into dryness in a water bath at 40°C, and evaporate into dryness by introducing nitrogen gas.

Add 10 mL of a mixture of hexane and ethyl acetate (9:1) to dissolve the residue, and use as the sample solution subject to column treatment. Column treatment. Wash a silica gel minicolumn (690 mg) with 10 mL of hexane, and on the minicolumn reservoir place a funnel previously loaded with approximately 20 g of sodium sulfate (anhydrous)[2] . Pour the sample solution into the funnel, and allow to flow down until the liquid level reaches the top of the column packing material. Wash the recovery flask that contained the sample solution 3 times with 5 mL of a mixture of hexane and ethyl acetate (9:1), transfer the washings each time to the funnel , and allow to flow down in the same manner.

Further, wash the sodium sulfate in the funnel with 5 mL of a mixture of hexane and ethyl acetate (9:1), allow to flow down in the same manner, remove the funnel, and add 10 mL of a mixture of hexane and ethyl acetate (9:1) to wash the minicolumn. Place a 50-mL recovery flask under the minicolumn, and add 15 mL of a mixture of hexane and ethanol (4:1) to the minicolumn to elute each antibiotic. Condense the eluate almost into dryness under reduced pressure in a water bath at 40°C, and evaporate into dryness by introducing nitrogen gas. Add exactly 10 mL of methanol to dissolve the residue, centrifuge at 5,000×g for 5 minutes, and use the supernatant liquid as the sample solution subject to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Measurement by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Inject 5 µL each of the sample solution and mixed standard solutions into a liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer to obtain selected ion detection chromatograms.

Example operating conditions Column: Octadecylsilanized silica gel column (2 mm in internal diameter, 50 mm in length, 5 µm in particle size)Note 2 Eluent: A mixture of 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution and acetonitrile (1:4) Flow rate: 0.2 mL/min Column temperature: 40°C Detector: Quadrupole mass spectrometerNote3 Ionization method: Electrospray ionization (ESI) (positive ion mode)

Nebulizer gas: N2 (1.5 L/min) CDL temperature: 250°C Heat block temperature: 200°C Monitored ions[3] : m/z 769 (salinomycin) m/z 891 (semduramicin) m/z 783 (narasin A) m/z 688 (monensin A) m/z 608 (lasalocid) Calculation.

Calculate the peak height or peak area from the obtained selected ion detection chromatogram[4] to prepare a calibration curve, and estimate the amount of each antibiotic in the sample solutionNote 4 . Note 1. Prepared by drying a suitable amount under reduced pressure (not exceeding 0.67 kPa) at 60°C for 3 hours 2. Gemini 5µ C18 110A (Phenomenex; the retention times of salinomycin, semduramicin, narasin A, monensin A and lasalocid are approximately 9, 6, 13, 8 and 4 minutes, respectively, under the operating conditions of this method) or an equivalent 3. Operating conditions for LCMS-2010EV (Shimadzu) 4.

For narasin, the calculated amount of narasin A shall be regarded as the amount of narasin. For monensin, the calculated amount of monensin A shall be regarded as the amount of monensin sodium.

«Summary of analysis method» This method is intended to determine the amounts of SL, SD, NR, MN and LS in a feed at the same time by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization (ESI) (positive ion mode) using a sample solution prepared by extracting with acetonitrile, purifying through a silica gel minicolumn, and dissolving in methanol. The flow sheet of this method is shown in Figure 9.3.4-1.

10.0 g of the sample Sep-Pak Plus Silica cartridge (previously washed with 10 mL of hexane). LC-MS Add 100 mL of acetonitrile and stir for 30 min.

Filter (through filter paper No.5A). Wash the sodium sulfate (anhydrous) with 5 mL of hexane-ethyl acetate (9:1). Place on the minicolumn a funnel containing approximately 20 g of sodium sulfate (anhydrous). Add 10 mL of hexane-ethyl acetate (9:1). Load the sample solution. Wash with 5 mL of hexane-ethyl acetate (9:1) (3 times). Collect 25 mL of the filtrate. Centrifuge at a high speed (at 5,000×g for 5 min). Add 10 mL of methanol.

Condense under reduced pressure (at 40°C or lower) and evaporate into dryness (with nitrogen gas). Wash the silica gel minicolumn with 10 mL of hexane-ethyl acetate (9:1). Elute with 15 mL of hexane-ethanol (4:1). Condense under reduced pressure (at 40°C or lower) and evaporate into dryness (with nitrogen gas). Figure 9.3.4-1 Method of collective trace quantitation for polyether antibiotics by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry References: Daisaku Makino, Miho Yamada: Research Report of Animal Feed, 33, 62 (2008) History in the Feed Analysis Standards [31] New «Validation of analysis method» Spike recovery and repeatability Spiked component Sample type Spike concentration (g(potency)/t) Repeat Spike recovery (%) Repeatability RSD(% or less) Adult chicken grower formula feed 0.5~5 3 95.0~96.2 2.4 Meat pig fattener formula feed 0.5~5 3 95.5~98.4 2.3 Meat cattlefattener formula feed 0.5~5 3 89.7~98.8 2.9 Adult chicken grower formula feed 0.5~5 3 89.4~89.5 1.2 Meat pig fattener formula feed 0.5~5 3 80.0~84.6 10 Meat cattlefattener formula feed 0.5~5 3 88.7~90.0 3.9 Adult chicken grower formula feed 0.5~5 3 86.8~88.9 7.6 Meat pig fattener formula feed 0.5~5 3 83.0~88.3 6.6 Meat cattlefattener formula feed 0.5~5 3 83.4~89.7 13 Adult chicken grower formula feed 0.5~5 3 104.3~108.7 1.5 Meat pig fattener formula feed 0.5~5 3 104.1~104.5 0.9 Meat cattlefattener formula feed 0.5~5 3 103.7~107.5 1.1 Adult chicken grower formula feed 0.5~5 3 91.6~94.5 2.8 Meat pig fattener formula feed 0.5~5 3 86.0~91.4 4.5 Meat cattlefattener formula feed 0.5~5 3 85.2~89.4 3.8 Lasarosid sodium Salinomycin sodium Semduramicin sodium Narasin Monensin sodium

Collaborative study Salinomycin sodium Adult chicken grower formula feed 8 0.5 95.0 2.7 6.4 0.36 Semduramicin sodium Adult chicken grower formula feed 8 0.5 98.6 2.6 8.0 0.45 Narasin Adult chicken grower formula feed 8 0.5 88.5 3.5 5.7 0.31 Monensin sodium Adult chicken grower formula feed 8 0.5 101.0 3.6 5.0 0.28 Lasarosid sodium Adult chicken grower formula feed 8 0.5 93.3 3.8 8.2 0.46 Inter-lab reproducibility RSDR(%) Sample type No. of labs HorRat Spiked component Spike concentration (g(potency)/t) Spike recovery (%) Intra-lab repeatability RSDr(%) Lower detection limit*: 0.5 g (potency)/t for each component «Notes and precautions» [1] For the definition etc.

of each working standard, refer to «Notes and precautions» [9] in Section 1, 1 of this Chapter.

[2] It is recommended to stuff a small amount of absorbent cotton at the top of the funnel stem on which to place sodium sulfate (anhydrous). Alternatively, a reservoir with an appropriate frit packed with sodium sulfate (anhydrous) is applicable. [3] Ammonium adduct ion [M+NH4]+ of each antibiotic shall be used as monitored ions. The mass spectra for salinomycin, semduramicin, narasin A, monensin A and lasalocid are shown in Figure 9.3.4-2. Under the example operating conditions mentioned above, fragment ions were detected other than the monitored ions of interest for each antibiotic. It is therefore necessary to confirm in advance the possible production of these fragment ions and their charge/mass ratios, as they can differ depending on the operating conditions and the type of the liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer.

Typical fragment ions produced under the operating conditions of this test include m/z 734, 629, 748, 635 (or 618) and 573 (or 555) for salinomycin, semduramicin, narasin A, monensin A and lasalocid, respectively.

When these antibiotics are detected by this test method, it is recommended not only to quantify by monitoring the ions of interest but to confirm that the same fragment ions are detected in the sample solution as in the standard solutions under the operating conditions employed.

SL SD NR MN LS Figure 9.3.4-2 Mass spectrum for each antibiotic [4] Example selected ion detection (SIM) chromatograms obtained from a mixed standard solution and sample solution are shown in Figure 9.3.4-3. Mixed standard solution (equivalent to 0.6 ng (potency)) Adult chicken grower formula feed (equivalent to 0.5 g (potency)/t) Figure 9.3.4-3 SIM chromatograms for the mixed standard solution and sample solution m/z m/z m/z m/z m/z 500 700 900 500 700 900 500 700 900 500 700 900 500 700 900 Relative ion intensity Relative ion intensity Relative ion intensity Relative ion intensity Relative ion intensity 0 5 10 15 0 5 10 15 Retention time (min) Retention time (min) Signal intensity Signal intensity LS SD MN MN SD LS SL SL NR NR

(The arrow indicates the peak of each antibiotic) 4 Identification test method - Microbioautography 4.1 Premix [Feed Analysis Standards, Chapter 9, Section 2, 15.4.1] A. Reagent preparation 1) Semduramicin standard solution. Dry a suitable amount of semduramicin working standard under reduced pressure (not exceeding 0.67 kPa) at 100°C for 3 hours, weigh accurately not less than 40 mg, accurately add methanol and dissolve to prepare a semduramicin standard stock solution with a concentration of 1 mg (potency)/mL.

At the time of use, accurately dilute a quantity of standard stock solution with methanol to prepare a standard solution with a concentration of 10 µg (potency)/mL[1] .

2) Culture medium: Medium F-15 3) Spore suspension and amount of addition. Use Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 as the test organism. Add about 0.2 mL of the spore suspension with a concentration of 1×109 spores/mL per 100 mL of the culture medium. 4) Extracting solvent: A mixture of dichloromethane and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (1:1) 5) Developing solvent i) A mixture of ethyl acetate, hexane, acetone and methanol (20:8:1:1) ii) A mixture of acetonitrile, ethyl acetate and acetone (2:1:1) 6) Chromogenic reagent. Dissolve 100 mg of 3-(4-iodophenyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride in water to make 200 mL.

B. Preparation of sample solution Extraction. Weigh accurately 3 to 5 g of analysis sample, place in a 200-mL stoppered Erlenmeyer flask, add 100 mL of the extracting solvent, extract with stirring for 20 minutes, and filter the extract through filter paper (No.5A). Dilute a quantity of the filtrate 2- to 10-fold with extracting solvent, and use as the sample solution for column treatment. Column treatment. Wash a silica gel minicolumn (690 mg) with 5 mL of methanol and 5 mL of dichloromethane in this order.

Accuraetly transfer a quantity of sample solution (equivalent to 0.1 to 0.5 mg (potency) as SD) to the minicolumn, allow to flow down until the amount in the reservoir of the minicolumn reaches 1 mL[2] , add accurately 20 mL of a mixture of dichloromethane and acetone (9:1) and accurately 8 mL of a mixture of dichloromethane and acetone (4:1) to the minicolumn, and allow to flow out in this order to wash the minicolumn.

Place a 100-mL round-bottom flask under the minicolumn, and add 10 mL of a mixture of acetone and methanol (4:1) to the minicolumn to elute SD. Evaporate the eluate into dryness in a water bath at 50°C, and accurately add a quantity of methanol to dissolve the residue[3] to prepare a sample solution with a concentration of 10 µg (potency)/mL. C. Identification Proceed as directed in the Thin-layer chromatography, Preparation of agar plates, Incubation, and

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