2017-2018 Final Report - South East Education Cooperative

2017-2018 Final Report - South East Education Cooperative

The purpose of this report is to provide an analysis of the results collected throughout the Beginning Teacher Network professional development series during the 2017-2018 school year. Christopher Thompson, M.S. South East Education Cooperative August 21, 2018

Beginning Teacher Network Evaluation Report (2017-2018) Page 2 Executive Summary The Beginning Teacher Network project is a one-year professional development training series for first-year educators seeking resources, networking, and support as they navigate through their first year of teaching. Participants in the Beginning Teacher Network received three full-day sessions of professional development throughout the first half of the 2017-2018 academic year.

There were a total of two cohorts (1 elementary; 1 secondary) of participants participating in the Beginning Teacher Network during 2017-2018. The total number of participants across both cohorts was 47, with 27 educators in the elementary cohort, and 20 educators in the secondary cohort.

The goal behind the Beginning Teacher Network was to provide new teachers with opportunities to enhance their classroom practices. It was expected that through participation in this professional development series, the following outcomes would occur: • Enhance teachers’ ability to manage student learning, student engagement, and parent relationships. • Increase teachers’ knowledge surrounding effective assessment practices. • Enhance teachers’ ability to use student work to guide instructional practices. The current evaluation will address the scope of the Beginning Teacher Network professional development series, its primary outcomes, and participants’ level of satisfaction with the project.

Data was collected through the administration of the BTN Individual Session Feedback Survey at the end of each session, and the BTN Implementation Survey administered at the end of the school year.

1. What is the scope of the Beginning Teacher Network? • A total of 47 educators participated in the Beginning Teacher Network across two cohorts – Elementary (27) and Secondary (20). • Educators participating in the Beginning Teacher Network represented 24 schools in 8 school districts (Fargo; Gackle-Streeter; Griggs County Central; Jamestown; Lidgerwood; Minnewaukan; North Sargent; Sargent Central). 2. What are the primary outcomes of the Beginning Teacher Network? • 90% or more participants who reported being “very knowledgeable” or “mostly knowledgeable” regarding communicating with parents (92.5%), active learning/student engagement (92.5%), and managing the classroom for learning (90.0%) after the training.

• Over 90% of participants reported being either “very knowledgeable” or “mostly knowledgeable” regarding each of the 5 topics related to effective assessment practices after the training session.

• Over 75% of participants reported being either “very knowledgeable” or “mostly knowledgeable” regarding analyzing student work (91.6%), managing the learning in a differentiated classroom (81.2%), and differentiated instruction (78.1%) after the training session. Approximately one-third of participants reported being either “somewhat”

Beginning Teacher Network Evaluation Report (2017-2018) Page 3 (25.0%) or “not knowledgeable at all” (3.1%) regarding tiered assignments to meet all learners’ needs at the end of the training session. • At the end of the year 70% of participants reported that their ability to respond to student needs more effectively increased at least moderately, and 65% indicated their ability to use student work to identify learning needs was moderately enhanced.

3. What are teachers’ level of satisfaction with the Beginning Teacher Network? • Across the 6 training sessions, 91.5% of participants surveyed after each session reported that the presenter was “very effective” (50.0%) or “effective” (41.5%). • Overall, 80.2% of participants reported either a “substantial” (30.2%) or “moderate” (50.0%) increase in their knowledge, and nearly 90% reported that they would be able to apply what they learned to a great or moderate extent.

• 95% of participants surveyed at the end of the year indicated that student learning had changed as a result of participating in this training. Overall, approximately 50% of participants noted that students are sharing more among themselves (52.6%) and students being more active in group work (47.4%). Background of the Beginning Teacher Network The Beginning Teacher Network is intended to provide first-year new to the profession teachers the opportunity to receive support from an experience mentor, to engage in collegial dialogue with other first-year teachers, and to receive training on effective classroom practices.

Through the development and administration of the Beginning Teacher Network, the following outcomes were expected: • Enhance teachers’ ability to manage student learning, student engagement, and parent relationships.

• Increase teachers’ knowledge surrounding effective assessment practices. • Enhance teachers’ ability to use student work to guide instructional practices. Data Collection Materials and Procedures The Beginning Teacher Network utilized two sources of data to evaluate the program’s effectiveness: 1) BTN Individual Session Feedback Survey; and 2) BTN Implementation Survey. A description of each of the data collection materials and the procedures for collecting data is presented below.

BTN Individual Session Feedback Survey The BTN Individual Session Feedback Survey is a 17-item online survey which was administered to training participants online via a web link at the end of sessions 1, 2, and 3 for both cohorts.

The survey contains five demographic items asking training participants to identify their school and district, the session, and the cohort they participated in. Three items address the participants’ perceptions and level of knowledge for the session topics both prior to and after the

Beginning Teacher Network Evaluation Report (2017-2018) Page 4 training. Six items assess the participants’ perceptions surrounding the presenter’s effectiveness, and perceived impact of the training session related to changes in knowledge, skills, ability to apply the learning, and impact on students. There are also three open-ended items asking participants to reflect on the most valuable aspect of the day, any further support they need, and any other feedback they would like to provide about the session.

BTN Implementation Survey The IAL Implementation Survey is an 18-item online survey which was administered to participants at the end of the school year.

Items in the implementation survey aim to assess the impact the training had on participants related to changes in practice, impact on student engagement, and impact on student learning. Introduction to the Evaluation The Beginning Teacher Network program evaluation addresses three broad questions with data collected from administrations of the BTN Individual Session Feedback Survey, and the BTN Implementation Survey during the 2017-2018 academic year. The evaluation report is organized around each of these three questions. Prior to presenting the results for each, a brief description of the data sources and collection methods is included.

The three questions to be answered through this evaluation include the following: 1. What is the scope of the Beginning Teacher Network? 2. What are the primary outcomes of the Beginning Teacher Network? 3. What are educators’ level of satisfaction with the Beginning Teacher Network? Copies of the BTN Individual Session Feedback Survey, and BTN Implementation Survey are available upon request.

Beginning Teacher Network Evaluation Report (2017-2018) Page 5 Evaluation Report 1. What is the scope of the Beginning Teacher Network? Data Sources and Collection Methods Data for evaluating the scope of the Beginning Teacher Network come from participant registrations for the professional development series. Information of interest includes the participant’s school district and school. Results Participation A total of 47 first-year elementary and secondary educators participated in the 2017-2018 Beginning Teacher Network. The elementary cohort included 27 teachers from 15 schools in 4 school districts.

The secondary cohort included 20 teachers from 10 schools in 6 school districts. Each cohort participated in three full-day sessions of training with SEEC Beginning Teacher Network Coordinator, Carol Beaton, hosted in September, November, and December. A full list of participating schools and districts in each cohort is provided in Table 1 below: Table 1. Participating Districts and Schools by Cohort Participating Districts/Schools (Elementary Cohort) Participating Districts/Schools (Secondary Cohort) Fargo Bennett Elementary School Fargo Carl Ben Eielson Middle School Centennial Elementary School Davies High School Clara Barton Elementary School Discovery Middle School Eagles Education Center North High School Hawthorne Elementary School South High School Jefferson Elementary School Griggs County Central Griggs County Central Public School Lewis and Clark Elementary School Jamestown Jamestown Middle School Lincoln Elementary School Lidgerwood Lidgerwood Public School Longfellow Elementary School North Sargent North Sargent Public School Madison Elementary School Sargent Central Sargent Central Public School McKinley Elementary School Washington Elementary School Gackle-Streeter Gackle-Streeter Public School Lidgerwood Lidgerwood Public School Minnewaukan Minnewaukan Elementary School Attendance Both the elementary and secondary cohort sessions were well attended, as five out of six sessions facilitated had at least 95% attendance (Table 2 & 3).

Overall, the average attendance for both

Beginning Teacher Network Evaluation Report (2017-2018) Page 6 the elementary (93.8%) and secondary (98.3%) cohorts was above 90%. A full breakdown of the attendance rates for each session is provided in Tables 2 and 3 below. Table 2. BTN Training Participation by Session (Elementary Cohort) BTN Training Participation by Session (Elementary Cohort) Session # of Attendees # Registered Percent Session 1 – 9/20/2017 26 27 96.3% Session 2 – 11/1/2017 26 27 96.3% Session 3 – 12/13/2017 24 27 88.9% Average Attendance 25.3 27 93.8% Table 2. BTN Training Participation by Session (Secondary Cohort) BTN Training Participation by Session (Secondary Cohort) Session # of Attendees # Registered Percent Session 1 – 9/21/2017 20 20 100% Session 2 – 11/2/2017 19 20 95.0% Session 3 – 12/14/2017 20 20 100% Average Attendance 19.7 20 98.3% 2.

What are the primary outcomes of the Beginning Teacher Network? Data Sources and Collection Methods Data for evaluating the primary outcomes of the 2017-2018 Beginning Teacher Network come from administrations of the BTN Individual Session Feedback Survey, and the BTN Implementation Survey at the end of the school year. The BTN Individual Session Feedback Survey was administered after sessions 1-3, which is targeted towards assessing participants’ perceptions of the effectiveness of the session and changes in knowledge and skills. Additionally, the feedback survey asks participants to rate the usefulness of the content provided, as well as to rate their knowledge of specific content highlighted during the session before and after the training.

The BTN Implementation Survey was administered online to all training participants prior to the end of the school year in early May. The BTN Implementation Survey aimed at assessing the impact the training had on individuals’ professional practice, their students’ engagement, and their students’ learning.

Results The Beginning Teacher Network attempted to achieve the following three outcomes: 1. Enhance teachers’ ability to manage student learning, student engagement, and parent relationships. 2. Increase teachers’ knowledge surrounding effective assessment practices. 3. Enhance teachers’ ability to use student work to guide instructional practices.

Beginning Teacher Network Evaluation Report (2017-2018) Page 7 Outcome 1: Enhance teachers’ ability to manage student learning, student engagement, and parent relationships. The first outcome that this program sought to achieve was enhancing teachers’ ability to manage student learning, student engagement, and parent relationships.

Participants were asked after Session 1 to rate the usefulness of the content provided related to each of the following topics on the BTN Individual Session Reflection Survey using a 4-point Likert-type scale (“Very useful”; “Useful”; “Somewhat useful”; “Not at all useful”): • Communicating with parents; Parent/Teacher Conferences • Managing the classroom for learning • Active learning/student engagement Of the 46 participants who attended this session, 32 (69.6%) completed the BTN Individual Session Reflection Survey. Looking at those who responded, a vast majority of participants indicated that the content provided was either “very useful” or “useful” for each of the three topics bulleted above, with each topic above 75% of respondents (Figure 1).

Similar response distributions were found for each of the session topics.

Figure 1. Participant Perceptions of Usefulness of Session 1 Content. n = 32. Comparing the two cohorts, few differences were found. The only notable difference found was the secondary cohort was 25% more likely to indicate the “Communicating with Parents; Parent/Teacher Conferences” information as being “very useful” or “useful” compared to the elementary cohort (Figure 2).

Beginning Teacher Network Evaluation Report (2017-2018) Page 8 Figure 2. Participant Perceptions of Usefulness of Session 1 Content by Cohort. NElem = 25; NSec = 15. Additionally, participants were asked to rate their level of knowledge retrospectively for each of these topics both before and after the session.

Prior to the session, between 50-70% of participants indicated being at least “mostly knowledgeable” regarding each of the topics (Figure 3). After the training, these percentages increased to 90-92.5% across all three topics. Most importantly, no individuals indicated being “not knowledgeable at all” after the training. Figure 3. Participants’ Perceived Knowledge Regarding Session 1 Topics (Pre-Post). n = 40. Comparing the two cohorts on their perceived knowledge of Session 1 topic content before and after the training, few differences emerged. After the training, each cohort had over 85% of participants indicating that they were at least “mostly knowledgeable” regarding each of the training topics highlighted (Figure 4).

The secondary cohort was slightly more likely than the elementary cohort to indicate being “very knowledgeable” regarding active learning/student engagement after the training.

Beginning Teacher Network Evaluation Report (2017-2018) Page 9 Figure 4. Participants’ Perceived Knowledge Regarding Session 1 Topics by Cohort (Pre-Post). NElem = 25; NSec = 15. Outcome 2: Increase teachers’ knowledge surrounding effective assessment practices. The second outcome which the Beginning Teacher Network sought to achieve was an increase in teachers’ knowledge regarding effective assessment practices. Data used to evaluate this outcome was collected through administration of the BTN Individual Session Feedback Survey after Session 2. Participants were asked after the session to rate the usefulness of the content provided related to each of the following topics using a 4-point Likert-type scale (“Very useful”; “Useful”; “Somewhat useful”; “Not at all useful”): • Clear learning targets, deconstructing the standards • The assessment - sound design • Purposes of assessment: pre-assessment, formative vs.

summative • Communication - effective feedback • Student involvement in the process Of the 45 participants who attended Session 2 between both cohorts, 34 (75.6%) completed the BTN Individual Session Reflection Survey after the session. Looking at those who responded, a vast majority of participants indicated the content provided was either “very useful” or “useful” for each of the five topics highlighted, with four of five topics above 75% of respondents (Figure 5). Similar response distributions were found for each topic regarding usefulness of content. Comparing the two cohorts, a few differences were found.

The elementary cohort was 22.8% more likely to indicate that the topic of clear learning targets and deconstructing the standards was “very useful” or “useful” compared to the secondary cohort (Figure 6). On the other hand, the secondary cohort was nearly 20% more likely to indicate that the purposes of assessment and the communication topics were “very useful” or “useful.”

Beginning Teacher Network Evaluation Report (2017-2018) Page 10 Figure 5. Participant Perceptions of Usefulness of Session 2 Content. n = 34. Figure 6. Participant Perceptions of Usefulness of Session 2 Content by Cohort. NElem = 19; NSec = 15. Additionally, participants were asked to rate their level of knowledge retrospectively for each of these topics both before and after the session. Prior to the session, there was only one topic in which 75% of participants reported being either “very knowledgeable” or “mostly

Beginning Teacher Network Evaluation Report (2017-2018) Page 11 knowledgeable” – “Communication – effective feedback” (Figure 7).

In fact, the average percentage of respondents reporting being either “very knowledgeable” or “mostly knowledgeable” across the five topics was 65.9%. By the end of the training session, all five topics had over 90% of respondents indicating being either “very knowledgeable” or “mostly knowledgeable” with an overall average of 95.3% across topics. More importantly, there were no individuals that reported being “not knowledgeable at all” for any of the topics post session. Figure 7. Participants’ Perceived Knowledge Regarding Session 2 Topics (Pre-Post). n = 34. Comparing the two cohorts on their perceived knowledge of Session 2 topic content before and after the training, a few differences emerged.

Before the training, the elementary cohort was nearly 30% more likely to indicate being at least “mostly knowledgeable” than the secondary cohort regarding “clear learning targets, deconstructing the standards” and “purposes of assessment.” The secondary cohort was 27.4% more likely to indicate being at least “mostly knowledgeable” regarding “student involvement in the assessment process” compared to the elementary cohort prior to the training. By the end of the training, each cohort had over 85% of participants indicating that they were at least “mostly knowledgeable” regarding each of the training topics highlighted (Figure 8).

In fact, 100% of elementary cohort respondents reported being at least “mostly knowledgeable” regarding the topics of clear learning targets, purposes of assessment, and effective feedback. Similar response distributions were found after the session for both cohorts for each of the five topics highlighted.

Beginning Teacher Network Evaluation Report (2017-2018) Page 12 Figure 8. Participants’ Perceived Knowledge Regarding Session 2 Topics by Cohort (Pre-Post). NElem = 19; NSec = 15. Outcome 3: Enhance teachers’ ability to use student work to guide instructional practices. The third and final outcome which the Beginning Teacher Network sought to achieve was to enhance teachers’ ability to use student work to guide instructional practice. Data used to evaluate this outcome was collected through administration of the BTN Individual Session Feedback Survey after Session 3. Participants were asked after the session to rate the usefulness of the content provided related to each of the following topics using a 4-point Likert-type scale (“Very useful”; “Useful”; “Somewhat useful”; “Not at all useful”): • Analyzing Student Work • Introduction to Differentiated Instruction • Tiered Assignments to Meet All Learners' Needs • Managing the Learning in a Differentiated Classroom Of the 44 participants who attended Session 3 between both cohorts, 32 (72.7%) completed the BTN Individual Session Reflection Survey after the session.

Looking at those who responded, a vast majority of participants indicated the content provided was either “very useful” or “useful” for each of the topics highlighted, with all four topics above 75% of respondents (Figure 9). Similar response distributions were found for each topic regarding usefulness of content,

Beginning Teacher Network Evaluation Report (2017-2018) Page 13 although participants were 15-25% more likely to indicate “introduction to differentiated instruction” and “tiered assignments to meet all learners’ needs” as being “very useful.” Figure 9. Participant Perceptions of Usefulness of Session 3 Content. n = 32. Comparing the two cohorts, some notable differences were found. The secondary cohort was between 20-45% more likely to indicate that each of the individual topics were “very useful” compared to the elementary cohort (Figure 10). In fact, 76.5% of secondary participants responding indicated that “tiered assignments to meet all learners’ needs” was “very useful”, and 64.7% felt that “introduction to differentiated instruction” was “very useful.” Figure 10.

Participant Perceptions of Usefulness of Session 2 Content by Cohort. NElem = 15; NSec = 17.

Beginning Teacher Network Evaluation Report (2017-2018) Page 14 Additionally, participants were asked to rate their level of knowledge retrospectively for each of these topics both before and after the session. Prior to the session, there were no topics which 75% of participants reported being either “very knowledgeable” or “mostly knowledgeable” (Figure 11). In fact, the average percentage of respondents reporting being either “very knowledgeable” or “mostly knowledgeable” across the four topics prior to the training was 43.8%. By the end of the training session, three of four topics had over 75% of respondents indicating being either “very knowledgeable” or “mostly knowledgeable” with an overall average of 80.5% across topics.

Figure 11. Participants’ Perceived Knowledge Regarding Session 3 Topics (Pre-Post). n = 32. Comparing the two cohorts on their perceived knowledge of Session 3 topic content before and after the training, a few differences emerged. Before the training, the elementary cohort was 23- 35% more likely to indicate being at least “mostly knowledgeable” than the secondary cohort regarding each of the four topics addressed during the session (Figure 12). Both groups were least likely to indicate having knowledge beforehand regarding “tiered assignments to meet all learners’ needs” with over 40% of the secondary cohort indicating not having any knowledge at all regarding this.

By the end of the training a majority of participants in each cohort reported being at least “mostly knowledgeable” regarding each of the four content areas addressed, although elementary cohort participants were slightly more likely to indicate being at least “mostly knowledgeable.” The elementary cohort was 28.7% more likely to indicate being at least “mostly knowledgeable” regarding the introduction to differentiated instruction, and 22.7% more likely to indicate being at least “mostly knowledgeable” regarding how to manage a differentiated classroom. A full comparison of pre-post training knowledge ratings across the 3 sessions for the elementary cohort is provided in Figure 13, and the secondary cohort in Figure 14 on Page 16.

Beginning Teacher Network Evaluation Report (2017-2018) Page 15 Figure 12. Participants’ Perceived Knowledge Regarding Session 3 Topics by Cohort (Pre-Post). NElem = 15; NSec = 17.

Beginning Teacher Network Evaluation Report (2017-2018) Page 16 Figure 13. Elementary Cohort Perceived Knowledge of Session Content (Pre-Post) – All Sessions. NS1 = 25; NS2 = 19; NS3 = 15. Figure 14. Secondary Cohort Perceived Knowledge of Session Content (Pre-Post) – All Sessions. NS1 = 15; NS2 = 15; NS3 = 17.

Beginning Teacher Network Evaluation Report (2017-2018) Page 17 3.

What are educators’ level of satisfaction with the Beginning Teacher Network? Data Sources and Collection Methods Data for evaluating teachers’ level of satisfaction with the Beginning Teacher Network come from session by session administrations of the BTN Individual Session Feedback Survey, and the BTN Implementation Survey administered at the end of the school year. Questions assessing teachers’ satisfaction with the Beginning Teacher Network asked teachers to report on the effectiveness of the speaker, to what extent the session increased their knowledge and skills, to what extent they would be able to apply what they learned, and to what extent what they learned would impact their students.

Items assessing teachers’ satisfaction on the BTN Implementation Survey address teachers’ perceptions regarding changes in their instructional practice, as well as their students’ learning and engagement.

Results Quality of PD Received Beginning Teacher Network participants completed the BTN Individual Session Feedback Survey at the end of each session in which they participated. Overall, a total of 106 Feedback Surveys were completed representing 78.5% of the 135 total participants across all six sessions offered. Of those who completed the feedback surveys, 91.5% reported that the presenter was “very effective” or “effective” (Figure 15). In fact, 50% of respondents felt that the presenter was “very effective”, and more importantly, no individuals felt that the presenter was “not effective at all.” Looking at changes in knowledge and skills, over 75% of attendees across all sessions reported either “substantial” or “moderate” increases in their knowledge (80.2%) and skills (75.4%) (Figure 16).

When asked if what they learned would have an impact on their students, 86.8% reported it would have a least a “moderate” impact, with 40.6% indicating it would have a “substantial” impact on their students.

Figure 15. IAL Participants’ Perceived Effectiveness of PD Sessions. n = 106.

Beginning Teacher Network Evaluation Report (2017-2018) Page 18 Figure 16. Participants’ Perceived Impact of PD Sessions. n = 106. Comparing participants’ perceived effectiveness of the professional development they received by cohort and by session, few differences emerged. Similar response patterns were observed between the two cohorts for each session, however, participants were less likely to indicate the second session as being effective compared to Sessions 1 and 3 (Figure 17).

Overall, at least 80% of participants from each cohort indicated that the presenter was either “very effective” or “effective” for each session.

Figure 17. Participants’ Perceived Effectiveness of PD by Cohort and Session. Training Impact Participants were asked to reflect on the impact that the Beginning Teacher Network had on their practice and their students at the end of the year on the BTN Implementation Survey. Overall, 20 out of 47 participants (42.5%) in the training completed the BTN Implementation Survey. Of

Beginning Teacher Network Evaluation Report (2017-2018) Page 19 the 20 who responded to the survey, 19 (95.0%) indicated that what they learned made an impact on their practice to at least a “slight” extent.

Two-thirds of participants indicated to at least a “moderate” extent with one in five indicating it changed their practice “substantially.” A total of 75% of respondents noted that they are reflecting on their practice more frequently, and 65% reported providing more opportunities for collaborative learning. The training was particularly effective at enhancing teachers’ ability to respond to student needs more effectively and using student work to identify learning needs, which 70% and 65% of respondents reported as being enhanced at least moderately, respectively (Figure 18). Other areas of impact include using assessment data to increase student learning (60%), and using formative assessment data to guide instruction (60%).

Figure 18. Participants’ Perceived Impacts of Training on Instructional Practice. n = 20. In regard to changes in student engagement and student learning, 95% of respondents to the BTN Implementation Survey indicated that the changes they made in their practice made an impact on student engagement – 60% to at least a “moderate” extent. When it comes to student learning, 19 out of 20 respondents indicated at least one change related to student learning throughout the year. Specifically, participants were most likely to indicate changes such as students sharing more among themselves (52.6%), being more active in group work (47.4%), and volunteering answers more often (42.1%) as shown in Figure 19.

Beginning Teacher Network Evaluation Report (2017-2018) Page 20 Figure 19. Participants’ Perceived Impacts of Training on Student Learning. n = 20. Additionally, participants were asked if participating in this training series enhanced their relationships with students and their parents, their communication and organization skills, as well as the culture of their classroom overall. Participants were most likely to indicated that their communication with their students was enhanced (70%), and slightly over half indicated that their relationships with their students (55%) and their students’ parents (55%) improved (Figure 20).

One participant volunteered open-ended feedback supporting the program saying “I had been out of the classroom for 8 years before this year. The training helped me significantly because things have changed so much since I was in school. Everything we went through were things my school is also focusing on so it aligned very well with things for me. It truly helped me a lot!” Overall it appears that this training had a variety of different impacts for teachers participating.

Figure 20. Participants’ Perceived Impacts of Training on Classroom. n = 20.

Beginning Teacher Network Evaluation Report (2017-2018) Page 21 Lastly, participants were asked to provide open-ended feedback about the impact the training had. One participant noted that “One of the biggest benefits to the training has been being able to connect with other first year teachers.” It appears that for first-year teachers it is beneficial to be able to network with other first-year teachers who may be going through the same struggles. Another educator commented “Everything we went through were things my school is also focusing on so it aligned very well with things for me.

It truly helped me a lot!” Based on this feedback it appears that the session content was both relevant and valuable for beginning teachers.

Conclusion Overall, it appears that the Beginning Teacher Network was largely successful at achieving each of its intended outcomes. Participants expressed many positive sentiments about their experiences throughout the training, and it appears that this training has helped improve the learning experience for students in these teachers’ classrooms.