AID DELIVERS Foreign Assistance in the 116th Congress - InterAction
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Foreign Assistance Overview | AID DELIVERS AID DELIVERS Foreign Assistance in the 116th Congress InterAction | 1
For further information and to answer any questions contact: Kevin Rachlin | Director, Public Policy and Government Affairs firstname.lastname@example.org 202-667-8227 Cover Photo: Miguel Sampler. This page, photo by Supriya Biswas
AID DELIVERS Foreign Assistance in the 116th Congress Who Is InterAction? InterAction is the largest alliance of U.S.-based international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) working to eliminate extreme poverty, strengthen human rights and citizen participation, safeguard a sustainable planet, promote peace, and ensure dignity for all people. InterAction serves as a convener and NGO community thought leader, working to mobilize our 200-plus members to collectively advocate for policies and solutions that advance the lives of people in the poorest and most marginalized conditions. Our members mobilize an estimated $15 bil- lion of private funding from American citizens and implement development and humanitarian programs in nearly every country around the globe. Learn more about InterAction at www.InterAction.org and join us in making the world a more peaceful, just, and prosperous place – together.
AID DELIVERS Table of Contents Foreign Assistance Overview Hot Topics for Consideration in the 116th International Development 101 2 Congress Humanitarian Action 101 6 Conflict and Humanitarian Protection U. S. Foreign Assistance 101 10 Countries in Conflict 47 Impact of U.S. Leadership and Investments 14 Refugees and Forced Displacement 48 How is U.S. Foreign Assistance Funded? 16 Advancing Conflict Prevention 49 Congressional Committee Map 18 Protection of Civilians in Conflict 50 Who is at the Table? 20 Disaster- and Climate-Related Displacement and Migration 51 Key Development Sectors Ending Violence Against Children 52 Climate Change and Natural Resource Management 26 Closing Space for Civil Society Conflict Management 28 Foreign Agent Registration Act 55 Democracy, Rights, and Governance 30 Derisking Policy and Financial Access Issues 56 Basic Education 32 Disinformation57 Economic Development 34 Challenges for Human Rights Defenders 58 Food Security, Agriculture, and Nutrition 36 Foreign Assistance Reform Gender Equality 38 Reforming Humanitarian Assistance 61 Global Health 40 Development Finance 62 Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene 42 Improving International Food Assistance 63 USAID Transformation Strengthening Core Capabilities 65 Journey to Self-Reliance 66 Effective Partnerships 67 Abreviations 68 Endnotes 69 Photo by Corinna Robbins
INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT 101 International development programs bring knowledge and resources to help communities and governments around the world as they work to end extreme poverty; support the advancement of human rights; and promote resilient, democratic societies while advancing global security and prosperity.
Foreign Assistance Overview | AID DELIVERS International Development Works Around the world, amazing progress in development is being made. More than 1 billion people have been lifted out of extreme poverty since 1990, with major gains made in health, education, and other areas that contribute to human well-being.1 While the world still faces considerable challenges, including inequality, conflict, and climate change, quality of life around the world is improving. State of global poverty is at Hunger has been cut in half Clean water is an all-time low From 1990 to 2016, there was a 50% drop in increasingly available the proportion of undernourished people in In 1990, about 35% of the global population In 2015, 5.2 billion people used safe drink- developing countries, from 23.3% to 12.9%.5 lived in poverty; by 2013 that number was ing-water services. Some 2.6 billion people cut by more than half and had decreased to have gained access to improved drinking 50% 10.7%. From 1990 to 2017, 1.1 billion people water since 1990.7 were lifted out of extreme poverty.2 Percent of Global Population Living in Poverty drop in proportion 35% 10.7% of undernourished people in developing countries 5.2 Billion 1990 2017 Communities are healthier More children have access Cultivating democracy as Polio cases have decreased worldwide by to education a driver over 99% since 1988, with only 22 reported Enrollment in primary education in develop- Almost 40% of the world’s population lived in cases in 2017.3 PEPFAR is saving 14 million ing regions reached 91% in 2015, up from a free country in 2017. This, however, leaves people with antiretroviral treatment (ART) as 83% in 2000.6 approximately 60% of the global population of March 2018, and nearly 2.2 million babies living in countries that are partly or not free.8 that would otherwise have been infected were born HIV-free.4 InterAction | 3
AID DELIVERS | Foreign Assistance Overview International Development 101 (continued) How does the world work together to What work remains to be done? make development progress? Despite encouraging progress, many global challenges have been improved by development efforts, the need for assistance continues. The U.S. has a long bipartisan history of working with and within the international system to advance evidence-based development priori- •• Millions of children still die from preventable and treatable dis- ties and solutions. American leadership and engagement in multilateral eases. 5.6 million children still die each year of preventable and treat- organizations and other international organizations is crucial and helps able diseases. Up to 45% of deaths occurring among children under drive development successes. 5 are due in part to malnutrition.12 Since 2015, international development has been shaped by the Sus- •• Conflict and environmental shocks present new challenges for tainable Development Goals (SDGs), a 15-year agenda divided into 17 communities. The number of extreme climate-related disasters, different goals that provide a shared blueprint for tackling development including extreme heat, droughts, floods and storms, has doubled challenges and advancing human rights, has driven international devel- since the early 1990s. These harm agricultural productivity contrib- opment.9 The U.S. was a key driver in the creation of the SDGs, which uting to shortfalls in food availability, leading to food price hikes and were developed and adopted by all 193 member countries in the United income losses.13 Nations (UN). The SDGs build on the eight Millennium Development •• Economic growth is unequal. Half of all people living on less than Goals (MDGs) established in 2000 to “combat poverty, hunger, disease, $1.90 a day live in sub-Saharan Africa.14 If women farmers had the illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against wom- same access to financial resources as men, the number of hungry in en.”10 The SDGs currently guide international development investments the world could be reduced by up to 150 million.15 and track progress and effectiveness through an intersectional set of •• The number of hungry people is rising for the first time in a indicators. decade. In 2017, 821 million people were estimated to suffer from Around the world, country governments, NGOs, civil society organiza- hunger – up from 777 million in 2015.16 tions, and donors are working in coordination to meet the SDGs by 2030. •• Rapid population growth threatens past progress. The world’s The UN characterizes the SDGs in five key categories:11 population continues to grow; the population of Africa is on track to •• People: We are determined to end poverty and hunger, in all their doubling by 2050, compounding strains on health care, labor mar- forms and dimensions, and to ensure that all human beings can fulfill kets, and agriculture, among others.17 their potential with dignity, equality, and a healthy environment. •• Millions continue to lack access to lifesaving health care. Over •• Planet: We are determined to protect the planet from degradation, 14 million people living with HIV still do not have access to antiretrovi- including through sustainable consumption and production, sustain- ral therapy, and 1.8 million people became newly infected with HIV in able management of its natural resources, and urgent action on cli- 2017. Less than half of 2.1 million children living with HIV have access mate change, so that it can support the needs of present and future to lifesaving antiretroviral drugs.18 generations. •• Rural and urban communities face different access challenges •• Prosperity: We are determined to ensure that all human beings can to reach development goals. Four billion people have no access to enjoy prosperous and fulfilling lives and that economic, social, and electricity worldwide – most of whom live in rural areas of the devel- technological progress occurs in harmony with nature. oping world.19 The overall growth of the world’s population could add another 2.5 billion people to urban areas by 2050, with close to 90% •• Peace: We are determined to foster peaceful, just, and inclusive of this increase taking place in Asia and Africa.20 societies that are free from fear and violence. There can be no sus- tainable development without peace and no peace without sustain- To address current and upcoming challenges, the internationalcom- able development. munity of partners in development must support growth of much- needed technologies, knowledge, and policies in places where •• Partnership: We are determined to mobilize the means required to they’re needed most. implement this agenda through a revitalized Global Partnership for Sustainable Development, based on a spirit of strengthened global solidarity, focused in particular on the needs of the poorest and most vulnerable and with the participation of all countries, all stakeholders, and all people. The interlinkages and integrated nature of the sustain- able development goals are of crucial importance in ensuring that the purpose of the new agenda is realized. Photo by Arez Ghaderi 4 | InterAction
Foreign Assistance Overview | AID DELIVERS Who contributes to international development programs? Effective development programs are driven by local country ownership and partnership and support a country’s capacity and commitment to solve their own development challenge. Development does not take place unless local ownership exists. Resources for international development programs come in all forms and demonstrate the wide diversity of people committed to and invest- ing in ending global poverty. Key contributors include: •• local and international NGOs •• local country governments •• multilateral organizations •• donor country governments •• local and international businesses •• universities and research institutions •• private foundations •• individuals These contributions to international development programs help to combat global poverty and support the development of peaceful and sustainable societies. The implementaton of international development programs falls pre- dominantly to local and international NGOs and faith-based organiza- tions working at the country and subnational level, often in conjunction with local governments. In recent years, the international private sector has emerged as a key complement to other sources of development assistance helping accelerate development growth and achieve greater impact and scale. Recognizing that developing economies represent many of the fastest growing markets, customer bases and workforces, a growing number of private sector actors — including U.S. and global corporations, local businesses based in developing countries, finan- cial institutions, impact investors and entrepreneurs — are proactively seeking opportunities to drive growth and profitability while delivering impact in the communities and countries where they operate. InterAction | 5
HUMANITARIAN ACTION 101 Humanitarian responses assist people affected by disasters due to natural hazards or armed conflict, and seek to enhance the safeguarding of their rights. NGOs are guided by the humanitarian imperative to save lives and reduce human suffering wherever it happens.
Foreign Assistance Overview | AID DELIVERS State of Humanitarian Action Humanitarian Principles25 An ever-growing number of global crises have resulted in: Humanitarian organizations, in order to reach the civilians •• 134.1 million people in need of humanitarian assistance21 who do not have access to basic goods and services neces- •• 68.5 million have been forcibly displaced22 sary for their survival, abide by four commonly agreed upon and ratified humanitarian principles: •• 83 million require emergency food assistance23 While these numbers are staggering and difficult to fully comprehend, one must remember that individual human lives are behind the statis- tics, individual men, women, and children torn away from their daily HUMANITY Humanity existences by conflict or natural disasters they have no control over. Human suffering must be addressed Despite the increased needs of these vulnerable people, who lack the Human whereversuffering it is found.must basics for survival (food, water, shelter, medical attention), resources be addressed wherever devoted to global humanitarian responses remain wildly insufficient, the it is found. gap approaching $10 billion each year.24 NEUTRALITY Along with short term responses, humanitarian action also encom- Neutrality passes longer-term challenges to survival such as means to protect Humanitarian actors must not take from violence, recurring natural disasters or prolonged conflicts and Humanitarian actors sides in hostilities must in or engage population displacements. not take sides in hostilitiesracial, controversies of a political, orreligious, engage orin ideological controver-nature. Most international large-scale humanitarian responses now focus on sies of a political, racial, the needs of affected populations in conflict; crises that tend to last for religious, or ideological years or decades and require political solutions. Responses to natural IMPARTIALITY nature. disasters require less and less support and assistance from interna- Impartiality Humanitarian action must be carried tional organizations as the capacities and response systems are now effective in most disaster prone countries and regions. out based on need Humanitarian actionalone, mustgiving priority be carried out based on distress to the most urgent cases of and making need alone,no distinctions giving prioritybased on The Humanitarian Sector nationality, race, gender, to the most urgent cases class, or political opinions. religious belief, The humanitarian sector, from its voluntary roots, has in the past 30 of distress and making no years dramatically professionalized, defining stringent technical, oper- distinctions based on nationality, race, gender, ational, and financial standards to be as effective and accountable as INDEPENDENCE possible to the beneficiaries of its programs as well as to its funders. Independance religious belief, class, or The humanitarian sector is employing an estimated 570,000 people political opinions. Humanitarian action must be globally, overwhelmingly originating from the countries that are experi- Humanitarian autonomous from action the political, encing conflicts and disasters. must be autonomous economic, military, or other objectives from the actor that any political, where humanitarian economic, military, action is being or implemented. other objectives that any actor may hold in relation to areas Adherence to these where principles help humani- ensure the impartiality of humanitarian tarian efforts action is being and ensure that humanitarians are implemented. able to reach those in greatest need. InterAction | 7
AID DELIVERS | Foreign Assistance Overview Humanitarian Action 101 (continued) Photo by Laura Eldon/Oxfam 8 | InterAction
Foreign Assistance Overview | AID DELIVERS The Global Humanitarian System Challenges in Humanitarian To facilitate predictable, effective, timely, and coordinated responses Response to humanitarian crises, United Nations agencies and nongovernmen- While subsequent papers cover specific issues impacting humanitarian tal organizations (NGOs) work together at the local and global level. action in greater depth, there are key topline issues that should be high- Key components of the global humanitarian system: lighted. •• Inter-Agency Steering Committee (IASC) – The primary mech •• Restrictions on humanitarian access – Affected populations’ anism for inter-agency coordination of humanitarian assistance access to services is essential to an effective humanitarian response. globally. It is composed of various lead UN agencies (such as the However, host governments, nonstate groups, and even donor gov- Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, the High Commis- ernments are increasingly hampering humanitarian actors’ ability to sioner for Refugees, the World Food Program, and others), and access people in need through unnecessary regulations, restrictions, consortia of international NGOs (including InterAction). and compliance requirementsAdditionally, restrictions on popula- tions freedom of movement and security concerns further hinder •• The cluster system – A means of assuring that all responding peoples’ ability to receive assistance. agencies align strategies, identify gaps in coverage at the technical sector level (health, nutrition or protection, for instance). •• Disregard for international norms – Parties to conflict and other actors have shown increasing disregard for humanitarian principles and international humanitarian law. This results in physical attacks on humanitarian actors and civilians, direct attacks upon civilian infrastructure used to facilitate humanitarian response, and physical denial of access to vulnerable populations among other concerns. •• Funding gap – The gap between humanitarian needs and funding to meet those needs is an ongoing problem, but one that has grown more pronounced in the last decade. •• Connectivity with preparedness and recovery – While constrained by the above factors, humanitarian response is also hampered by insufficient preparation for cyclical or man-made crises and for con- necting with development actors after the early recovery. InterAction | 9
U.S. FOREIGN ASSISTANCE 101 Foreign assistance is aid given by the U.S. government to support global peace, security, and development efforts, and to provide humanitarian relief during times of crisis. Foreign assistance promotes American leadership and is a strategic, economic, and moral imperative for the United States.
Foreign Assistance Overview | AID DELIVERS U.S. Foreign Assistance Drives Progress U.S. investments in antipoverty programs have yielded huge dividends. U.S. foreign assistance programs have a history of bipartisan action U.S. Foreign Assistance and leadership. Programs are data-driven, cost effective, transparent, inclusive and accountable to the American people. At approximately Account Funding by 1% of the federal budget, foreign assistance can continue to make Objective an enormous difference in saving lives, protecting children, improving health, and helping families and communities become self-reliant.26 FY2017 Actual - $38,463,302,000 U.S. leadership and investments impact people around the world, creating healthier, safer, and more stable 4% communities. U.S. investments: •• Save lives and reaffirm the rights of individuals. •• Make communities and our planet more resilient to shocks and 26.5% stressors. 24% •• Mitigate crises and reduce the need for emergency humanitarian action. •• Increase global prosperity and help to expand markets, supporting U.S. economic interests. Over the last 30 years, U.S. assistance has contributed to cutting in half 7% the number of preventable deaths of children under 5,27 the number of people living in poverty, and the number of children and adolescents 10% out of school. USAID programming has lifted 23.4 million people in rural communities and mobilized up to $2.3 billion in private financing for more than 100,000 entrepreneurs. Such results show that U.S. govern- 28.5% ment engagement matters and is consistent with the values and gener- osity of the American people. AMERICAN CITIZENS ARE INVESTED IN FOREIGN ASSISTANCE Peace and Security The American public’s strong support for foreign assistance is con- Governing Justly and Democractically sistently evident in polling data. However, the public thinks our official assistance is vastly higher than it is. In a recent poll, the median esti- mate of foreign aid’s share of the federal budget was 25% while the Investing in People median preferred level was 10%. The actual level is approximately 1%, only one-tenth of the public’s median preference level.28 Economic Growth On practical grounds, our foreign assistance helps develop and open Humanitarian Assistance economies around the world; 11 of America’s top 15 trading partners were once recipients of foreign aid.29 Most Americans agree that assist- Program Support ing those affected by disasters and supporting those pulling themselves out of poverty stem directly from American values, regardless of other U.S. contributions. * Categories of assistance as defined in the Congressional Budget Justification: Department of State, Foreign Operations and Related Programs FY19 InterAction | 11
AID DELIVERS | Foreign Assistance Overview U.S. Foreign Assistance 101 (continued) A Brief History of U.S. Foreign Assistance The first major U.S. aid program took place shortly after World War II. Spearheaded by Secretary of State George Marshall, this program provided significant aid to Europe after the war to assist in rebuilding the infrastructure, stabiliz- ing the region, and strengthening the economy. This led to the creation of several additional foreign assistance programs, culminating in the enactment of the Foreign Assistance Act, signed by President Kennedy, and the creation of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). USAID became the first U.S. agency to primarily focus was long-term global develop- ment, including economic and social progress. Over the past several decades, U.S. international development assistance has undergone many iterations and shifts in priorities to make develop- ment programs more effective and efficient and to reach more communities. Today, USAID has missions in over 100 countries to support coun- try partners in becoming self-reliant and capable of leading their own development journeys.31 Photo by Geoff Olivier Bugbee 12 | InterAction
Foreign Assistance Overview | AID DELIVERS U.S. Support for Humanitarian PRIMARY U.S. FOREIGN ASSISTANCE AGENCIES INCLUDE: Assistance U.S. Agency for International Development With the generous support of Congress, the U.S. government is the •• USAID’s mission promotes democratic values abroad and advances world’s largest single donor for humanitarian response. While the U.S. a free, peaceful, and prosperous world. government itself rarely provides direct humanitarian assistance, key U.S. personnel assure taxpayer accountability, make policy decisions in •• In-country missions manage partnerships with organizations and act Washington, D.C., and help implementing partners through embassies, as de facto diplomats for democracy abroad. USAID missions and field coordination teams. U.S. Department of State Humanitarian needs are increasingly a result of a changing climate and/or •• The Office of U.S. Foreign Assistance Resources (F), established in conflict. Conflict prompts more interaction between humanitarian actors 2006, leads the coordination of U.S. foreign assistance. and parties to conflict – including the United States military. It is vitally •• It advances U.S. national interest and development objectives important for the sake of principled and effective response in conflict by coordinating policy, planning, and performance management settings to avoid any appearance of implementing partners supporting efforts; promoting evidence-informed decision making; and provid- or receiving direct support from any military. However, humanitarian and ing strategic direction for the DoS and USAID foreign assistance military actors do need to acknowledge shared space, and may some- resources. times be driven together during a sudden onset emergency. In order to define and facilitate such coordination, InterAction worked with the U.S. Millennium Challenge Corporation military and the U.S. Institute for Peace (USIP) to develop guidelines to •• MCC provides time-limited grants to allow partner governments to address how the US military and US non-governmental organizations refine and implement their own development solutions in alignment should behave towards each other in non-permissive environments like with the new SDGs. those in Iraq and Afghanistan.30 •• MCC works to funds programs so countries can cement good poli- cies and governmental reach. Partners in Action: U.S. Government U.S. Department of Treasury Agencies and Nongovernmental •• The Department of Treasury supports global development progress as well as U.S. national security and economic interests overseas by Organizations promoting strong financial sector stability and governance in devel- Countless international and local NGOs, civil society organizations oping countries. (CSOs), and faith-based organizations are devoted to solving inter- •• Through Treasury, the U.S. also exercises leadership in international national development challenges. U.S.-based international NGOs are financial institutions such as the World Bank, and other regional key partners and implementers of U.S. development and humanitarian development banks. programs. International NGOs and CSOs are also pivotal connectors U.S. Development Finance Corporation to local communities. •• Created by the passage of the BUILD Act in 2018, the U.S. DFC con- Several U.S. government agencies play key roles in U.S. foreign assis- solidates the Development Credit Authority (DCA) from USAID and tance, reflecting the multifaceted impact and investment of U.S. inter- the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) to better equip national and development programs. Guided by strategic direction from the U.S. government with development finance tools to catalyze mar- USAID and the Department of State (DoS), each agency contributes its ket-based, private-sector development, spur economic growth in expertise to the spectrum of international development and humanitarian less-developed countries, and advance the foreign-policy interests programs to ensure U.S. foreign assistance is effective and efficient. of the United States. The U.S. government directs development support through agencies that often use NGOs’ capacities to implement programs abroad. U.S. foreign assistance works across many agencies, from the Centers for Disease Control to the Department of Defense (DoD), to implement its goals in specific ways. This coalition allows the United States to address the full spectrum of development and humanitarian needs. InterAction | 13
IMPACT OF U.S. LEADERSHIP AND INVESTMENTS IN FOREIGN ASSISTANCE U.S. foreign assistance programs have a history of bipartisan action and are inclusive, data-driven, transparent, and accountable to the American people. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT BASIC EDUCATION BASIC EDUCATION From 2011-2017, USAID education programs have reached over 109 million CONFLICT MANAGEMENT learners in more 80% of the countries in which USAID works are fragile than 50 countries, including 22.6 million children living in conflict and conflict-affected. U.S. government funds or crisis settings.33 upward of $750 million ECONOMIC DEVELOPOMENT ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT annually to directly and indirectly address violent conflict abroad. USAID has mobilized up to $2.3 DEMOCRACY, RIGHTS, AND GOVERNANCE DEMOCRACY, RIGHTS, AND GOVERNANCE billion in private financing for Since 2011, USAID’s Human Rights Grants more than VOTE Program has addressed the most urgent Human Rights challenges in 100,000 89 entrepreneurs around the world over the different countries.32 past 12 years, through USAID’s Development Credit 14 | InterAction Authority.34
Foreign Assistance Overview | AID DELIVERS FOOD SECURITY, AGRICULTURE, CLIMATE CHANGE AND NATURAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND NATURAL RESOURCE AND NUTRITION RESOURCE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT In Kenya USAID investments in natural resource management have helped to put FOOD SECURITY, AGRICULTURE, AND 6 million NUTRITION hectares Since 2011, the Feed the Future Initiative has lifted (roughly the size of West Virginia) under improved management practices, making 23.4 million people the area more resilient in the face of drought.38 in rural communities out of poverty.35 GENDER EQUALITY GENDER EQUALITY WASH WATER, Currently, USAID has gender SANITATION, AND programs in HYGIENE 80 From 2009-2017, 37.3 million countries. people received In Afghanistan, USAID works to sustainable access strengthen women’s participation to an improved water civil society, helps women gain business and management skills, supply, and and fosters women’s increased par- ticipation in government.36 24.1 million people received GLOBAL GLOBAL HEALTH improved access to HEALTH As of March 2018, PEPFAR had supported lifesaving sanitation facilities.39 treatment for 14 million people, prevented 2.2 million children from being born with HIV, and trained nearly 250,000 new health workers in HIV and other essential services.37 InterAction | 15
HOW IS U.S. FOREIGN ASSISTANCE FUNDED? LEGISLATIVE U.S. GOVERNMENT AUTHORITY BUDGET OVERVIEW The authority for funding foreign assistance The government goes through the budget pro- comes from the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, 1961 cess annually to determine discretionary spend- 1% which “promote[s] the foreign policy, security, and ing levels (32% of the overall U.S. federal budget). general welfare of the United States by assist- ing peoples of the world in their efforts toward The latest spending levels show that the State, economic development and internal and external Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Bill, security, and for other purposes.”40 The Foreign which funds most of humanitarian and develop- Assistance Act has been amended multiple times ment accounts, represents approximately 1% since initial passage but never fully reauthorized. of the entire budget.41 KEY FOREIGN ASSISTANCE ACCOUNTS International Humanitarian Assistance Development The U.S. government provides humanitarian assistance primarily through three accounts, The primary development accounts are Develop- which together total $7.6 billion: International ment Assistance and the Economic Support Disaster Assistance, Migration and Refugee Fund. These accounts fund Food Security and Assistance, and Emergency Refugee and Agricultural Development, Democracy Programs, Migration Assistance.43 Environmental Programs, and Basic Education across the globe, together totaling $7 billion.42 International Global Organizations and Health’ The U.S. provides $8.7 billion in global health Programs funding for maternal and child health, nutrition, The International Organizations and Pro- family planning, and vaccines, as well as for pre- grams (IO&P) account provides voluntary con- vention and treatment for HIV, malaria, and tuber- tributions to international organizations that culosis.44 advance U.S. strategic goals across a broad spectrum of critical development, humanitarian, and scientific activities. HOW U.S. FUNDING Guided by directives from Congress, government agencies and departments set policy and implement programs. Most of these agencies and organizations deliver the funds to beneficia- IS DELIVERED TO ries on the ground through implementing partners, such as NGOs in the InterAction community, PROGRAMS in the form of grants, cooperative agreements, and/or contracts.
U.S. GOVERNMENT FUNDING PROCESS The Executive Branch58 Agencies and OMB develop budget justifications for the entire U.S. government. Regular •• The budget development process can begin more than two years in advance of enactment. •• Each year, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) creates general guidelines for Appropriations the budgeting process of each agency. The agencies will develop their budgets based on those guidelines and their needs, submitting the resulting budget request to OMB. Process •• OMB develops and publishes the President’s Budget Request for Congress after internal review. STEP 1 The Legislative Branch Appropriations subcommittees Congress appropriates funding through 12 appropriations bills each fiscal year. of both chambers draft and vote on the bill. Appropriations Authority The Congressional Budget Process •• Congress has the constitutional •• The Congressional Appropriations Pro- power to appropriate money for the cess begins after the release of the Pres- STEP 2 federal government. ident’s Budget Request. Congress then holds hearings on topics of interest to the Appropriations committees of •• Appropriations subcommittees will put drafting of the appropriations bills. both chambers vote on the bill. together 12 appropriations bills that fund the operations and programs of •• The regular appropriations process is sup- the U.S. government. posed to end on September 30 of the pre- •• Currently, foreign assistance funding vious fiscal year with the enactment ofthe STEP 3 12 appropriation bills the appropriations comes from three different appropri- bill; recently, however, the government has STEP 3. Full House and ations bills: The State and Foreign been operating on continuing resolutions Senate floor discussion and Operations Bill (SFOPs), the Agricul- and enacting final legislation in February or vote on the bill. ture Appropriations Bill, and the Labor, March of the year for which they are appro- Health and Human Services Bill. priating funds. •• Recently, the process has been signifi- STEP 4 cantly delayed, often with no agreement reached until February or March. The STEP 4. Conference by both process that is supposed to take a few chambers to reach an months instead takes more than a year. agreement on the bill. Foreign Assistance Allocation Process Congress and Executive Agencies work together to allocate appropriated funds. STEP 5 •• After enactment, the Foreign Assistance Act and the SFOPs bill require DoS/USAID to develop STEP 5. Becomes public law after and submit certain plans and notifications to Congress for some programs. the President signs the bill. •• The agencies present plans and notifications to Congress. •• Upon completion, funds then undergo a procurement process – a process that identifies ways for the agencies to disburse and spend money. •• This entire process, from enactment to spending, can take up to two years. FUNDING CHALLENGES The growing need. U.S. foreign assistance The threat of rescissions. The threat of resources have not kept pace with the grow- rescissions for humanitarian and development FOR U.S. FOREIGN ing global need. funds limits or reduces the scale and scope ASSISTANCE The uncertain process. The long and com- of beneficiaries that depend on the U.S.’ help to survive. plex funding processes prevent beneficiaries from obtaining the best development and humanitarian assistance available.
THE CONGRESSIONAL AID DELIVERS | Foreign Assistance Overview COMMITTEE MAP Key Congressional Committees engaged in U.S. Foreign Assistance Several congressional committees have oversight over U.S. foreign assistance, some with overarching jurisdic- tion and some with program specific jurisdiction. Congress also established dozens of member caucuses to develop policy or raise awareness on specific issues, including, the Effective Foreign Assistance Caucus, the Hunger Caucus, the International Basic Education Caucus and the Tuberculosis Elimination Caucus, as well as, several regional or country specific caucuses. Key congressional committees include: United States Senate45 SENATE COMMITTEE ON SENATE COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN SENATE COMMITTEE ON THE BUDGET APPROPRIATIONS RELATIONS The Budget Committee, created by the Con- The Senate Appropriations Committee and its The Senate Committee on Foreign Relations gressional Budget and Impoundment Control 12 subcommittees are responsible for legisla- and its seven subcommittees are responsible for Act of 1974, is responsible for drafting plans tion that allocates federal funds to the numer- developing and influencing U.S. foreign policy. for Congress and monitoring and enforcing ous government agencies, departments, and rules surrounding spending, revenue, and The committee holds jurisdiction over trea- organizations on an annual basis. the federal budget. The committee’s principal ties, diplomatic nominations, and other foreign responsibility is to develop a concurrent reso- Appropriations are generally limited to the lev- policy legislation, shaping U.S. foreign policy. lution on the budget to serve as the framework els set by the budget resolution, drafted by Specifically, the committee is responsible for for congressional action on spending, reve- the Senate Committee on the Budget. Each overseeing (but not administering) foreign nue, and its debt-limit legislation. subcommittee is responsible for reviewing the aid programs as well as arms sales; training President’s budget request, hearing testimony for national allies and multilateral banks; and from officials, and drafting spending plans for reviewing matters relating to U.S. national the coming fiscal year. security policy, foreign policy, and interna- tional economic policy. Key Subcommittee: Subcommittees: State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs (SFOPs) – SFOPs has jurisdiction •• Near East, South Asia, Central Asia, and over agencies relating to DoS and other for- Counterterrorism eign policy spending initiatives. These include •• Europe and Regional Security Cooperation DoS, USAID, peacekeeping operations, pov- •• Western Hemisphere, Transnational Crime, erty-focused and humanitarian assistance Civilian Security, Democracy, Human accounts, and global health programs. Rights, and Global Women’s Issues •• Africa and Global Health Policy •• East Asia, the Pacific, and International Cybersecurity Policy •• Multilateral International Development, Multilateral Institutions, and International Economic Energy and Environmental Policy •• DoS and USAID Management, International Operations, and Bilateral International Development 18 | InterAction
United States House of Representatives46 HOUSE COMMITTEE ON HOUSE FOREIGN AFFAIRS COMMITTEE HOUSE COMMITTEE ON THE BUDGET APPROPRIATIONS The House Foreign Affairs Committee and its The Budget Committee, created by the Con- The House Appropriations Committee and 12 six subcommittees are responsible for devel- gressional Budget and Impoundment Control subcommittees are responsible for legislation oping and influencing U.S. foreign policy. The Act of 1974, is responsible for drafting plans that allocates federal funds to the numerous committee holds jurisdiction over foreign pol- for Congress and monitoring and enforcing government agencies, departments, and icy legislation. Specifically, the committee is rules surrounding spending, revenue, and organizations on an annual basis. Appropria- responsible for overseeing (but not adminis- the federal budget. The committee’s principal tions are generally limited to the levels set by tering) foreign aid programs as well as arms responsibility is to develop a concurrent reso- the House Committee on the Budget’s draft sales; training for national allies and multilat- lution on the budget to serve as the framework budget resolution. Each subcommittee is eral banks; and reviewing matters relating to for congressional action on spending, reve- responsible for reviewing the President’s bud- U.S. national security policy, foreign policy, nue, and its debt-limit legislation. get request, hearing testimony from officials, and international economic policy. and drafting spending plans for the coming fiscal year. Subcommittees: •• Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights, Key Subcommittee: and International Organizations State, Foreign Operations, and Related •• Asia and the Pacific Programs (SFOPs) – SFOPs has jurisdiction over agencies relating to DoS and other for- •• Europe, Eurasia, and Emerging Threats eign policy spending initiatives. These include •• Middle East and North Africa DoS, USAID, peacekeeping operations, pov- •• Terrorism, Nonproliferation, and Trade erty-focused and humanitarian assistance accounts, and global health programs. •• Western Hemisphere InterAction | 19
AID DELIVERS | Foreign Assistance Overview WHO IS AT THE TABLE? The U.S. government is just one of many actors combating global poverty and contributing to international development and humanitarian successes. Other key partners and actors, from other countries, to the United Nations (UN), to foundations, to private investments, to U.S.-based NGOs, administer international development and humanitarian assistance programs. U.S. government investments often act as a catalyst for additional investment and help to guide global priorities. Local Country Governments International and Multilateral Country ownership is routinely highlighted as a key principle of good Organizations development practice. Country ownership is the full and effective par- The roots of modern multilateral organizations go back to the cre- ticipation of a country’s population through legislative bodies, civil ation of the UN in 1945, after World War II. Additionally, the immedi- society, private sector and local, regional and national government in ate postwar years witnessed the creation of a system of multilateral conceptualizing, implementing, monitoring and evaluating development financial institutions to rebuild the global economic order devastated policies, programs and processes. This allows for better targeting of by the Great Depression and World War II. These institutions include resources, strengthened accountability among the various stakehold- the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, and what ers, and increased sustainability and success. By empowering and became the World Trade Organization. The Cold War years brought supporting governments and citizens to plan, finance, and implement about the formation of multiple regional development banks – the solutions to solve its own development challenges, NGOs, partnering African, Asian, and Inter-American Development Banks – to provide agencies, etc. help countries on the path to become self-reliant. specialized lending and technical assistance. Today, multilateral orga- nizations have evolved to work on every continent and in every sector. Local Civil Society There are dozens of multilateral organizations, each with its own size and scope, and each created to tackle some specific set of interna- Civil society organizations (CSOs) are the third sector of society, along- tional issues. Multilateral organizations are important elements of global side government and business. They comprise community groups, the development and humanitarian response. Multilateral organizations press, NGOs, labor unions, indigenous groups, faith-based organi- play an important role in the social and economic programs of develop- zations, professional associations, and organizations that work in the ing and transitioning countries.47 interests of citizens. CSOs play a vital voice in enabling people to claim their rights, in promoting rights-based approaches, in shaping develop- ment policies and partnerships, and in overseeing their implementation, THE UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM operating as a valuable check for government and business through The United Nations is a primary actor in nearly all development and partnership and engagement. humanitarian spaces and mobilizes the UN member states and the broader international community to collectively combat global pov- erty and conflict and promote human rights.The UN system is made up of the UN itself and dozens of affiliated programs, funds, and specialized agencies, all with their own membership, leadership, and budget. The UN works across the globe to maintain international peace and security, protect human rights, deliver humanitarian aid, promote sustainable development, and uphold international law. Since 2015, the UN programming and investments have been driven by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), a 15-year plan divided into 17 different goals that provide a shared blueprint on how to tackle development challenges. The SDGs currently guide international devel- opment investments and track progress and effectiveness through a intersectional set of indicator.48 20 | InterAction
Foreign Assistance Overview | AID DELIVERS INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF) China is another key development player. China has long con- tributed to international development through foreign assistance The IMF comprises 189 countries and works to foster global monetary mechanisms primarily intended for commercial access and market cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, pro- expansion. As a result, almost half of China’s aid was spent on infra- mote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce structure sectors including energy generation and supply, trans- poverty around the world. The IMF’s primary purpose is to ensure the portation, storage and communication. In 2018, China announced stability of the international monetary system.49 the creation of the China International Development Cooperation Agency (CIDCA), which will centralize and eventually expand China’s WORLD BANK international development efforts.53 The World Bank fights poverty through grants, loans, and technical assistance provided to low- and middle-income countries. Governed by 189 member countries, the Bank is one of the world’s largest sources The Private Sector of funding and knowledge for developing countries. Its five institutions In recent years, engagement with the international private sector has share a commitment to reducing poverty, increasing shared prosperity, emerged as a key complement to other sources of development assis- and promoting sustainable development.50 tance to help accelerate economic growth and achieve greater impact and scale.54 Recognizing that developing economies represent many of GLOBAL FUND TO FIGHT AIDS, TUBERCULOSIS AND the fastest growing markets, customer bases and workforces, a grow- MALARIA ing number of private sector actors — including U.S. and global corpo- The Global Fund is an international public-private partnership designed rations, local businesses based in developing countries, financial insti- to accelerate efforts to end the AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria epi- tutions, impact investors and entrepreneurs — are proactively seeking demics. The Global Fund works with national governments, civil soci- opportunities to drive growth and profitability while delivering impact in ety, the private sector, and those affected by HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, the communities and countries where they operate. and malaria to fund targeted efforts to end the epidemics. Since 2002, Each private sector actor engages in development differently, some are the Global Fund partnership has saved 27 million lives and has main- involved in advancing the development agenda through their bottom tained strong U.S. bipartisan support for its efficient and collaborative line and others via corporate social responsibility. The U.S. has infra- work with the U.S. bilateral programs, its ability to leverage domestic structure abroad to support and promote U.S. private sector engage- resources and donor investments in global health, protect U.S. health ment in development. This infrastructure will be further enhanced by security, and spur economic growth.51 the new U.S. Development Finance Corporation that was authorized in 2018.55 Donor Countries Private foundations also play a vital role in international development programs as key funders for program implementation and interna- The U.S. is not the only country that invests in international develop- tional advocacy. Private foundations play an increasingly prominent ment programs. In fact, according to an Organization for Economic role in the scale of their giving and in their ability to set the agenda Co-operation and Development’s (OECD) report, in 2017, the 30 coun- for international development. Examples of some of the largest U.S. tries of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) contributed private foundations working to support developments include: The Bill a total of $146.6 billion in official development assistance to poorer & Melinda Gates Foundation, Open Society Foundations, Ford Foun- countries. The United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, Japan, dation, William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, and United Nations and France give the largest dollar amounts. In comparison, Sweden, Foundation.56 Luxemberg, Norway, and Denmark’s contributions represented the largest percentage of their gross national income.52 InterAction | 21
AID DELIVERS | Foreign Assistance Overview WHO IS AT THE TABLE? (continued) U.S. Based International NGOs57 U.S. based international NGOs play a critical role in implementation of development and humanitarian programs, shaping of international develop- ment policy, and serving as a connector for the American people. InterAction is the largest alliance of U.S.-based international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) working to eliminate extreme poverty, strengthen human rights and citizen participation, safeguard a sustainable planet, promote peace, and ensure dignity for all people. InterAction serves as a convener and NGO community thought leader, working to mobilize our 200-plus members to collectively advocate for policies and solutions that advance the lives of people in the poorest and most marginalized conditions. Our members mobilize an estimated $15 billion of private funding from American citizens and implement development and humanitarian programs in nearly every country around the globe. INTERACTION’S WORK INTERACTION’S MEMBERS Our members work around the world, united by the commitment to Access to Learning and Information working with the world’s poor and vulnerable and a belief that we can •• InterAction’s field mission reports, white papers, and other publica- make the world a more peaceful, just, and prosperous place – together. tions provide timely updates on current issues. Our members’ activities mobilize an estimated $15 billion of private •• Our annual InterAction Forum, CEO Retreat, and over 800 meetings funding thanks to generous contributions from the American people. each year bring together members, outside experts, government InterAction membership represents the diversity of the American peo- officials, and other stakeholders on numerous issues. ple. Our members include all types of organizations, big and small, •• Adhering to InterAction’s standards gives member agencies widely faith-based/founded and secular, multisectoral and sector-specific, recognized legitimacy in the vital areas of governance, financial man- each with diverse perspectives and approaches to tackling interna- agement, and program performance. tional and humanitarian development challenges. But all members Increased Exposure embody a philosophy that reflects InterAction’s values of partnership, •• We amplify the voice of the sector and complement member efforts humanitarianism, sustainable development, justice, diversity, ethical with traditional and social media strategies, press referrals, and practice, and gender equality, and are required to follow a rigorous set online tactics. of operational standards that are designed to ensure that programs •• The members-only InterAction NGO Aid Map provides an at-a-glance are effective and efficient. mapping of who is doing what, where, around the globe. 200+ Ability to Influence Government InterAction member NGOs are supported by $15 billion of private •• We open doors and access to top-level government officials and contributions. 1.5 million disseminate timely information on legislative, policy, and budgetary issues that impact the community. volunteers Leading Change •• InterAction works to address bold issues including international More than Christian, Jewish, Muslim, and humanitarian law; prevention of sexual abuse; and gender-based vio- lence, risk, and disinformation. 60,000 Buddhist congregation and faith communities. •• Our NGO Futures Initiative convenes leaders to adapt to the rapidly changing political, environmental, technological, and economic sec- HOW INTERACTION ENGAGES WITH U.S. CONGRESS AND tor shifts. THE ADMINISTRATION: Engaging in Global Processes InterAction advocates for the policy priorities of its members, primar- •• InterAction represents NGO perspectives through our active engage- ily with the Legislative and Executive Branch of the U.S. Government, ment in the United Nations Inter-Agency Standing Committee. but also with partners, think tanks, and the private sector. We work to •• InterAction has taken the lead on NGO engagement through our role coordinate the policy positions of InterAction members, as well as the on the Grand Bargain facilitation team for more effective information community’s outreach efforts, to maximize the effectiveness of NGOs sharing and collective positioning. in influencing the U.S. government’s policy decisions and budget pri- orities. InterAction’s advocacy focuses on funding poverty-focused development programs and humanitarian relief, while also engaging on issues such as foreign assistance reform; democracy, rights, and gov- ernance; global health; food security and nutrition; water and sanitation; and humanitarian access. 22 | InterAction
InterAction Member Organizations (as of December 2018) 1,000 Days CORE Group Charities (IOCC) Solidarity Center ACDI/VOCA Creative Learning International Relief Teams SPOON Action Against Hunger USA Cross International International Rescue Committee (IRC) Syrian American Medical Society Foundation Adventist Development and Relief Doctors of the World USA International Social Service — United Agency International (ADRA) States of America Branch, Inc. Syria Relief and Development Embrace Relief African Methodist Episcopal Service International Youth Foundation Team Rubicon Global and Development Agency (AME-SADA) Engineers Without Borders USA IntraHealth International, Inc. Trickle Up Program Aga Khan Foundation USA Episcopal Relief & Development Islamic Medical Association of North Unitarian Universalist Service Airlink Ethiopian Community Development America Committee Council Alliance for International Medical Action Islamic Relief USA United Methodist Committee on Relief (ALIMA USA) Feed the Children Jesuit Refugee Service/USA All Hands and Hearts - Smart Response Food for the Hungry UnitedMission for Relief and Jhpiego – an affiliate of The Johns Development Alliance for Peacebuilding Friends of ACTED Hopkins University Friends of the Global Fight U.S. Climate Action Network (USCAN) Alliance to End Hunger Keystone Human Services International FXB USA U.S. Committee for Refugees and American Jewish World Service Life for Relief and Development Immigrants American Red Cross International Giving Children Hope Lutheran World Relief U.S. Fund for UNICEF Services Global Communities MAG America USA for UNHCR American Refugee Committee Global Health Council Management Sciences for Health (MSH) Village Enterprise American Relief Agency for the Horn of Global Impact Africa (ARAHA) Medical Care Development WaterAid America Global Links MedShare International AmeriCares Water for South Sudan Good Neighbors Mennonite Central Committee U.S. AmericasRelief Team WEEMA International Habitat for Humanity International Mercy Corps Amref Health Africa, INC. WellShare International Headwaters Relief Organization Mercy-USA for Aid and Development Ananda Marga Universal Relief Team Women for Women International (AMURT & AMURTEL) Healey International Relief Foundation Mercy Without Limits Women’s Refugee Commission, Inc. Aspen Network of Development Heart to Heart International Mobility International USA Entrepreneurs (ANDE) World Bicycle Relief Heartland Alliance National Association of Social Workers Association of Volunteers in World Concern Heifer International The Nature Conservancy International Service, USA (AVSI-USA) World Connect Helen Keller International NCBA CLUSA Asylum Access World Food Program USA HelpAge USA Near East Foundation Bank Information Center World Hope International Helping Hand for Relief and Norwegian Refugee Council USA Baptist World Alliance Development World Institute on Disability Basic Education Coalition (BEC) ONE World Justice Project Helvetas USA Bethany Christian Services Global, LLC Operation USA World Learning HIAS Better World Fund Oxfam America World Rehabilitation Fund Himalayan Cataract Project BOMA Project PATH World Renew Holt International Children’s Services BRAC USA PCI World Vision Humentum Bread for the World Perkins International Worldwide Orphans Foundation The Hunger Project Bread for the World Institute Physicians for Peace Zakat Foundation of America IHC Global Coalition for Inclusive Bridge of Life Housing and Sustainable Cities Plan International USA Brother’s Brother Foundation iMMAP Planet Aid ASSOCIATE MEMBERS Buddhist Tzu Chi Foundation INMED Partnerships for Children Plant with Purpose American Relief Coalition for Syria Build Change Interchurch Medical Assistance, Inc. Population Communication Center for Justice and Peacebuilding, (IMA World Health) Eastern Mennonite University Cadasta Foundation Presbyterian Disaster Assistance and International Budget Partnership Hunger Program Crown Agents Foundation CARE International Catholic Migration Project C.U.R.E. GBG Foundation Catholic Relief Services Commission (ICMC) Project Hope Institute of International Humanitarian CDA Collaborative Learning Projects International Center for Not-for-Profit Affairs, Fordham University Law Refugees International Center for Civilians in Conflict (CIVIC) International Development, Community, International Center for Research on Relief International and Environment Dept., Clark University Center for Health and Gender Equity (CHANGE) Women (ICRW) RESULTS Public Interest Registry (PIR) Child Aid International Emergency and ReSurge International Development Aid (IEDA Relief) RTI International ChildFund International Rise Against Hunger The Notre Dame Initiative for Global International Eye Foundation USA Church World Service Save the Children Development (NDIGD) International Lifeline Fund Coalition for Integrity Seva Foundation Transnational NGO Initiative of the International Medical Corps Moynihan Institute of Global Affairs at Combat Blindness International Society for International Development Maxwell School of Syracuse University International Medical Health (SID) CONCERN Worldwide U.S., Inc. Organization (IMHO) War Child Canada Solar Cookers International Congressional Hunger Center International Orthodox Christian InterAction | 23
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