ALL ABOUT COFFEE COFFEE BRANCHES, FLOWERS, AND FRUIT

ALL ABOUT COFFEE COFFEE BRANCHES, FLOWERS, AND FRUIT

1 ALL ABOUT COFFEE COFFEE BRANCHES, FLOWERS, AND FRUIT Showing the Berry in its Various Ripening Stages from Flower to Cherry (Inset: 1, green bean; 2, silver skin; 3, parchment; 4, fruit pulp.) Painted from life by Blendon Campbell ALL ABOUT COFFEE By WILLIAM H. UKERS, M.A. Editor THE TEA AND COFFEE TRADE JOURNAL NEW YORK THE TEA AND COFFEE TRADE JOURNAL COMPANY 1922 Copyright 1922 BY THE TEA AND COFFEE TRADE JOURNAL COMPANY New York International Copyright Secured All Rights Reserved in U.S.A. and Foreign Countries PRINTED IN U.S.A. To My Wife HELEN DE GRAFF UKERS PREFACE SEVENTEEN years ago the author of this work made his first trip abroad to gather material for a book on coffee.

Subsequently he spent a year in travel among the coffee-producing countries. After the initial surveys, correspondents were appointed to make

2 researches in the principal European libraries and museums; and this phase of the work continued until April, 1922. Simultaneous re- searches were conducted in American libraries and historical museums up to the time of the return of the final proofs to the printer in June, 1922. Ten years ago the sorting and classification of the material was begun. The actual writing of the manuscript has extended over four years. Among the unique features of the book are the Coffee Thesaurus; the Coffee Chronology, containing 492 dates of historical impor- tance; the Complete Reference Table of the Principal Kinds of Coffee Grown in the World; and the Coffee Bibliography, containing 1,380 references.

The most authoritative works on this subject have been Robinson’s The Early History of Coffee Houses in England, published in London in 1893; and Jardin’s Le Café, published in Paris in 1895. The author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to both for inspiration and guidance. Other works, Arabian, French, English, German, and Italian, dealing with particular phases of the subject, have been laid under contribution; and where this has been done, credit is given by footnote reference. In all cases where it has been possible to do so, however, statements of historical facts have been verified by independent research.

Not a few items have required months of tracing to confirm or to disprove.

There has been no serious American work on coffee since Hewitt’s Coffee: Its History, Cultivation and Uses, published in 1872; and Thurber’s Coffee from Plantation to Cup, published in 1881. Both of these are now out of print, as is also Walsh’s Coffee: Its His- tory, Classification and Description, published in 1893. The chapters on The Chemistry of Coffee and The Pharmacology of Coffee have been prepared under the author’s direction by Charles W. Trigg, industrial fellow of the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research.

The author wishes to acknowledge, with thanks, valuable assistance and numerous courtesies by the officials of the following institu- tions: British Museum, and Guildhall Museum, London; Bibliothéque Nationale, Paris; Congressional Library, Washington; New York Pub- lic Library, Metropolitan Museum of Art, and New York Historical Society, New York; Boston Public Library, and Boston Museum of Fine Arts; Smithsonian Institution, Washington; State Historical Museum, Madison, Wis.; Maine Historical Society, Portland; Chi- cago Historical Society; New Jersey Historical Society, Newark; Harvard University Library; Essex Institute, Salem, Mass.; Peabody Institute, Baltimore.

Thanks and appreciation are due also to: Charles James Jackson, London, for permission to quote from his Illustrated History of English Plate; Francis Hill Bigelow, author; and The Macmillan Company, publishers, for permission to reproduce illustrations from Historic Silver of the Colonies; H.G. Dwight, author; and Charles Scribner’s Sons, publishers, for permission to quote from Constantinople, Old and New, and from the article on “Turkish Coffee Houses” in Scribner’s Magazine; Walter G. Peter, Washington, D.C., for permission to photograph and reproduce pictures of articles in the Peter collection at the United States National Museum; Mary P.

Hamlin and George Arliss, authors, and George C. Tyler, producer, for permission to reproduce the Exchange coffee-house setting of the first act of Hamilton; Judge A.T. Clearwater, Kingston N.Y.; R.T. Haines Halsey, and Francis P. Garvan, New York, for permission to publish pictures of historic silver coffee pots in their several collections; The secretaries of the American Chambers of Commerce in London, Paris, and Berlin; Charles Cooper, London, for his splendid co-operation and for his special contribution to chapter XXXV; Alonzo H. De Graff, London, for his invaluable aid and unflagging zeal in directing the London researches;

3 To the Coffee Trade Association, London, for assistance rendered; To G.J. Lethem, London, for his translations from the Arabic; Geoffrey Sephton, Vienna, for his nice co-operation; L.P. de Bussy of the Koloniaal Institute, Amsterdam, Holland, for assistance rendered; Burton Holmes and Blendon R. Campbell, New York, for courtesies; John Cotton Dana, Newark, N.J., for assistance rendered; Charles H. Barnes, Medford, Mass., for permission to publish the photograph of Peregrine White’s Mayflower mortar and pestle; Andrew L. Winton, Ph.D., Wilton, Conn., for permission to quote from his The Microscopy of Vegetable Foods in the chapter on The Microscopy of Coffee and to reprint Prof.

J. Moeller’s and Tschirch and Oesterle’s drawings; F. Hulton Frankel, Ph.D., Edward M. Frankel, Ph.D., and Arno Viehoever, for their assistance in preparing the chapters on The Botany of Coffee and The Microscopy of Coffee; A.L. Burns, New York, for his assistance in the correction and revision of chapters XXV, XXVI, XXVII, and XXXIV, and for much historical information supplied in connection with chapters XXX and XXXI; Edward Aborn, New York, for his help in the revision of chapter XXXVI; George W. Lawrence, former president, and T.S.B. Nielsen, president, of the New York Coffee and Sugar Exchange, for their as- sistance in the revision of chapter XXXI; Helio Lobo, Brazilian consul general, New York; Sebastião Sampaio, commercial attaché of the Brazilian Embassy, Washington; and Th.

Langgaard de Menezes, American representative of the Sociedade Promotora da Defeza do Café; Felix Coste, secretary and manager, the National Coffee Roasters Association; and C.B. Stroud, superintendent, the New York Coffee and Sugar Exchange, for information supplied and assistance rendered in the revision of several chapters; F.T. Holmes, New York, for his help in the compilation of chronological and descriptive data on coffee-roasting machinery; Walter Chester, New York, for critical comments on chapter XXVIII.

The author is especially indebted to the following, who in many ways have contributed to the successful compilation of the Com- plete Reference Table in chapter XXIV, and of those chapters having to do with the early history and development of the green coffee and the wholesale coffee-roasting trades in the United States: George S. Wright, Boston; A.E. Forbes, William Fisher, Gwynne Evans, Jerome J. Schotten, and the late Julius J. Schotten, St. Louis; James H. Taylor, William Bayne, Jr., A.J. Dannemiller, B.A. Livierato, S.A. Schonbrunn, Herbert Wilde, A.C. Fitzpatrick, Charles Meehan, Clarence Creighton, Abram Wakeman, A.H.

Davies, Joshua Walker, Fred P. Gordon, Alex. H. Purcell, George W. Vander- hoef, Col. William P. Roome, W. Lee Simmonds, Herman Simmonds, W.H. Aborn, B. Lahey, John C. Loudon, J.R. Westfal, Abraham Reamer, R.C. Wilhelm, C.H. Stewart, and the late August Haeussler, New York; John D. Warfield, Ezra J. Warner, S.O. Blair, and George D. McLaughlin, Chicago; W.H. Harrison, James Heekin, and Charles Lewis, Cincinnati; Albro Blodgett and A.M. Woolson, Toledo; R.V. Engelhard and Lee G. Zinsmeister, Louisville; E.A. Kahl, San Francisco; S. Jackson, New Orleans; Lewis Sherman, Milwaukee; Howard F. Boardman, Hartford; A.H.

Devers, Portland, Ore.; W. James Mahood, Pittsburgh; William B. Harris, East Orange, N.J.

New York, June 17, 1922. FOREWORD

4 Some introductory remarks on the lure of coffee, its place in a rational dietary, its universal psychological appeal, its use and abuse CIVILIZATION in its onward march has produced only three important non-alcoholic beverages—the extract of the tea plant, the extract of the cocoa bean, and the extract of the coffee bean. Leaves and beans—these are the vegetable sources of the world’s favorite non-alcoholic table-beverages. Of the two, the tea leaves lead in total amount consumed; the coffee beans are second; and the cocoa beans are a distant third, although advancing steadily.

But in international commerce the coffee beans occupy a far more important position than either of the others, being imported into non-producing countries to twice the extent of the tea leaves. All three enjoy a world-wide consumption, although not to the same extent in every nation; but where either the coffee bean or the tea leaf has established itself in a given country, the other gets com- paratively little attention, and usually has great difficulty in making any advance. The cocoa bean, on the other hand, has not risen to the position of popular favorite in any important consuming country, and so has not aroused the serious opposition of its two rivals.

Coffee is universal in its appeal. All nations do it homage. It has become recognized as a human necessity. It is no longer a luxury or an indulgence; it is a corollary of human energy and human efficiency. People love coffee because of its two-fold effect—the pleas- urable sensation and the increased efficiency it produces.

Coffee has an important place in the rational dietary of all the civilized peoples of earth. It is a democratic beverage. Not only is it the drink of fashionable society, but it is also a favorite beverage of the men and women who do the world’s work, whether they toil with brain or brawn. It has been acclaimed “the most grateful lubricant known to the human machine,” and “the most delightful taste in all nature.” No “food drink” has ever encountered so much opposition as coffee. Given to the world by the church and dignified by the medi- cal profession, nevertheless it has had to suffer from religious superstition and medical prejudice.

During the thousand years of its development it has experienced fierce political opposition, stupid fiscal restrictions, unjust taxes, irksome duties; but, surviving all of these, it has triumphantly moved on to a foremost place in the catalog of popular beverages.

But coffee is something more than a beverage. It is one of the world’s greatest adjuvant foods. There are other auxiliary foods, but none that excels it for palatability and comforting effects, the psychology of which is to be found in its unique flavor and aroma. Men and women drink coffee because it adds to their sense of well-being. It not only smells good and tastes good to all mankind, heathen or civilized, but all respond to its wonderful stimulating properties. The chief factors in coffee goodness are the caffein con- tent and the caffeol. Caffein supplies the principal stimulant. It increases the capacity for muscular and mental work without harmful reaction.

The caffeol supplies the flavor and the aroma—that indescribable Oriental fragrance that wooes us through the nostrils, forming one of the principal elements that make up the lure of coffee. There are several other constituents, including certain in- nocuous so-called caffetannic acids, that, in combination with the caffeol, give the beverage its rare gustatory appeal. The year 1919 awarded coffee one of its brightest honors. An American general said that coffee shared with bread and bacon the distinction of being one of the three nutritive essentials that helped win the World War for the Allies.

So this symbol of human brotherhood has played a not inconspicuous part in “making the world safe for democracy.” The new age, ushered in by the Peace of Versailles and the Washington Conference, has for its hand-maidens temperance and self-control. It is to be a world democracy of right-living and clear thinking; and among its most precious adjuncts are coffee, tea, and cocoa—because these beverages must always be associated with rational living, with greater comfort, and with better cheer.

Like all good things in life, the drinking of coffee may be abused. Indeed, those having an idiosyncratic susceptibility to alkaloids should be temperate in the use of tea, coffee, or cocoa. In every high-tensioned country there is likely to be a small number of people who, because of certain individual characteristics, can not drink coffee at all. These belong to the abnormal minority of the human family. Some people can not eat strawberries; but that would not be a valid reason for a general condemnation of strawber- ries. One may be poisoned, says Thomas A. Edison, from too much food. Horace Fletcher was certain that over-feeding causes all our ills.

Over-indulgence in meat is likely to spell trouble for the strongest of us. Coffee is, perhaps, less often abused than wrongly accused. It all depends. A little more tolerance!

Trading upon the credulity of the hypochondriac and the caffein-sensitive, in recent years there has appeared in America and abroad a curious collection of so-called coffee substitutes. They are “neither fish nor flesh, nor good red herring.” Most of them have been shown by official government analyses to be sadly deficient in food value—their only alleged virtue. One of our contemporary at- tackers of the national beverage bewails the fact that no palatable hot drink has been found to take the place of coffee. The reason is not hard to find. There can be no substitute for coffee. Dr. Harvey W.

Wiley has ably summed up the matter by saying, “A substitute should be able to perform the functions of its principal. A substitute to a war must be able to fight. A bounty-jumper is not a substi-

5 tute.” It has been the aim of the author to tell the whole coffee story for the general reader, yet with the technical accuracy that will make it valuable to the trade. The book is designed to be a work of useful reference covering all the salient points of coffee’s origin, cultiva- tion, preparation, and development, its place in the world’s commerce and in a rational dietary. Good coffee, carefully roasted and properly brewed, produces a natural beverage that, for tonic effect, can not be surpassed, even by its rivals, tea and cocoa. Here is a drink that ninety-seven percent of individuals find harmless and wholesome, and without which life would be drab indeed—a pure, safe, and helpful stimulant compounded in nature’s own laboratory, and one of the chief joys of life!

CONTENTS A COFFEE THESAURUS Encomiums and descriptive phrases applied to the plant, the berry, and the beverage Page xxvii THE EVOLUTION OF A CUP OF COFFEE Showing the various steps through which the bean passes from plantation to cup Page xxix CHAPTER I Dealling with the Etymology of Coffee Origin and translation of the word from the Arabian into various languages—Views of many writers Page 1 CHAPTER II History of Coffee Propagation A brief account of the cultivation of the coffee plant in the Old World, and of its introduction into the New—A romantic coffee adventure Page 5 CHAPTER III Early History of Coffee Drinking Coffee in the Near East in the early centuries—Stories of its origin—Discovery by physicians and adoption by the Church—Its spread through Arabia, Persia, and Turkey—Persecutions and Intolerances—Early coffee manners and customs Page 11 CHAPTER IV Introduction of Coffee into Western Europe When the three great temperance beverages, cocoa, tea, and coffee, came to Europe—Coffee first mentioned by Rauwolf in 1582— Early days of coffee in Italy—How Pope Clement VIII baptized it and made it a truly Christian beverage—The first European cof- fee house, in Venice, 1645—The famous Caffè Florian—Other celebrated Venetian coffee houses of the eighteenth century—The romantic story of Pedrocchi, the poor lemonade-vender, who built the most beautiful coffee house in the world Page 25 CHAPTER V

6 The Beginnings of Coffee in France What French travelers did for coffee—the introduction of coffee by P. de la Roque into Marseilles in 1644—The first commercial importation of coffee from Egypt—The first French coffee house—Failure of the attempt by physicians of Marseilles to discredit coffee—Soliman Aga introduces coffee into Paris—Cabarets à caffè—Celebrated works on coffee by French writers Page 31 CHAPTER VI The Introduction of Coffee into England The first printed reference to coffee in English—Early mention of coffee by noted English travelers and writers—The Lacedæmo- nian “black broth” controversy—How Conopios introduced coffee drinking at Oxford—The first English coffee house in Oxford— Two English botanists on coffee Page 35 CHAPTER VII The Introduction of Coffee into Holland How the enterprising Dutch traders captured the first world’s market for coffee—Activities of the Netherlands East India Com- pany—The first coffee house at the Hague—The first public auction at Amsterdam in 1711, when Java coffee brought forty-seven cents a pound, green Page 43 CHAPTER VIII The Introduction of Coffee into Germany The contributions made by German travelers and writers to the literature of the early history of coffee—The first coffee house in Hamburg opened by an English merchant—Famous coffee houses of old Berlin—The first coffee periodical and the first kaffee- klatsch—Frederick the Great’s coffee roasting monopoly—Coffee persecutions—”Coffee-smellers”—The first coffee king Page 45 CHAPTER IX Telling How Coffee Came to Vienna The romantic adventure of Franz George Kolschitzky, who carried “a message to Garcia” through the enemy’s lines and won for himself the honor of being the first to teach the Viennese the art of making coffee, to say nothing of falling heir to the supplies of the green beans left behind by the Turks; also the gift of a house from a grateful municipality, and a statue after death—Affectionate regard in which “Brother-heart” Kolschitzky is held as the patron saint of the Vienna Kaffee-sieder—Life in the early Vienna café’s Page 49 CHAPTER X The Coffee Houses of Old London One of the most picturesque chapters in the history of coffee—The first coffee house in London—The first coffee handbill, and the first newspaper advertisement for coffee—Strange coffee mixtures—Fantastic coffee claims—Coffee prices and coffee li- censes—Coffee club of the Rota—Early coffee-house manners and customs—Coffee-house keepers’ tokens—Opposition to the coffee house—”Penny universities”—Weird coffee substitutes—The proposed coffee-house newspaper monopoly—Evolution of the club—Decline and fall of the coffee house—Pen pictures of coffee-house life—Famous coffee houses of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries—Some Old World pleasure gardens—Locating the notable coffee houses Page 53

7 CHAPTER XI History of the Early Parisian Coffee Houses The introduction of coffee into Paris by Thévenot in 1657—How Soliman Aga established the custom of coffee drinking at the court of Louis XIV—Opening of the first coffee houses—How the French adaptation of the Oriental coffee house first appeared in the real French café of François Procope—Important part played by the coffee houses in the development of French literature and the stage—Their association with the Revolution and the founding of the Republic—Quaint customs and patrons—Historic Parisian café’s Page 91 CHAPTER XII Introduction of Coffee into North America Captain John Smith, founder of the Colony of Virginia, is the first to bring to North America a knowledge of coffee in 1607—The coffee grinder on the Mayflower—Coffee drinking in 1668—William Penn’s coffee purchase in 1683—Coffee in colonial New England—The psychology of the Boston “tea party,” and why the United States became a nation of coffee drinkers instead of tea drinkers, like England—The first coffee license to Dorothy Jones in 1670—The first coffee house in New England—Notable coffee houses of old Boston—A skyscraper coffee-house Page 105 CHAPTER XIII History of Coffee in Old New York The burghers of New Amsterdam begin to substitute coffee for “must,” or beer, for breakfast in 1668—William Penn makes his first purchase of coffee in the green bean from New York merchants in 1683—The King’s Arms, the first coffee house—The historic Merchants, sometimes called the “Birthplace of our Union”—The coffee house as a civic forum—The Exchange, Whitehall, Burns, Tontine, and other celebrated coffee houses—The Vauxhall and Ranelagh pleasure gardens Page 115 CHAPTER XIV Coffee Houses of Old Philadelphia Ye Coffee House, Philadelphia’s first coffee house, opened about 1700—The two London coffee houses—The City tavern, or Mer- chants coffee house—How these, and other celebrated resorts, dominated the social, political, and business life of the Quaker City in the eighteenth century Page 125 CHAPTER XV The Botany of the Coffee Plant Its complete classification by class, sub-class, order, family, genus, and species—How the Coffea arabica grows, flowers, and bears— Other species and hybrids described—Natural caffein-free coffee—Fungoid diseases of coffee Page 131 CHAPTER XVI The Microscopy of the Coffee Fruit How the beans may be examined under the microscope, and what is revealed—Structure of the berry, the green, and the roasted beans—The coffee-leaf disease under the microscope—Value of microscopic analysis in detecting adulteration Page 149 CHAPTER XVII

8 The Chemistry of the Coffee Bean By Charles W. Trigg. Chemistry of the preparation and treatment of the green bean—Artificial aging—Renovating damaged coffees—Extracts— ”Caffetannic acid”—Caffein, caffein-free coffee—Caffeol—Fats and oils—Carbohydrates—Roasting—Scientific aspects of grinding and packaging—The coffee brew—Soluble coffee—Adulterants and substitutes—Official methods of analysis Page 155 CHAPTER XVIII Pharmacology of the Coffee Drink By Charles W. Trigg General physiological action—Effect on children—Effect on longevity—Behavior in the alimentary régime—Place in dietary—Ac- tion on bacteria—Use in medicine—Physiological action of “caffetannic acid”—Of caffeol—Of caffein—Effect of caffein on mental and motor efficiency—Conclusions Page 174 CHAPTER XIX The Commercial Coffees of the World The geographical distribution of the coffees grown in North America, Central America, South America, the West India Islands, Asia, Africa, the Pacific Islands, and the East Indies—A statistical study of the distribution of the principal kinds—A commercial coffee chart of the world’s leading growths, with market names and general trade characteristics Page 189 CHAPTER XX Cultivation of the Coffee Plant The early days of coffee culture in Abyssinia and Arabia—Coffee cultivation in general—Soil, climate, rainfall, altitude, propagation, preparing the plantation, shade, wind breaks, fertilizing, pruning, catch crops, pests, and diseases—How coffee is grown around the world—Cultivation in all the principal producing countries Page 197 CHAPTER XXI Preparing Green Coffee for Market Early Arabian methods of preparation—How primitive devices were replaced by modern methods—A chronological story of the development of scientific plantation machinery, and the part played by English and American inventors—The marvelous coffee package, one of the most ingenious in all nature—How coffee is harvested—Picking—Preparation by the dry and the wet meth- ods—Pulping—Fermentation and washing—Drying—Hulling, or peeling, and polishing—Sizing, or grading—Preparation methods of different countries Page 245 CHAPTER XXII The Production and Consumption of Coffee A statistical study of world production of coffee by countries—Per capita figures of the leading consuming countries—Coffee-con- sumption figures compared with tea-consumption figures in the United States and the United Kingdom—Three centuries of coffee trading—Coffee drinking in the United States, past and present—Reviewing the 1921 trade in the United States Page 273 CHAPTER XXIII

9 How Green Coffees Are Bought and Sold Buying coffee in the producing countries—Transporting coffee to the consuming markets—Some record coffee cargoes shipped to the United States—Transport over seas—Java coffee “ex-sailing vessels”—Handling coffee at New York, New Orleans, and San Francisco—The coffee exchanges of Europe and the United States—Commission men and brokers—Trade and exchange contracts for delivery—Important rulings affecting coffee trading—Some well-known green coffee marks Page 303 CHAPTER XXIV Green and Roasted Coffee Characteristics The trade values, bean characteristics, and cup merits of the leading coffees of commerce, with a “Complete Reference Table of the Principal Kinds of Coffee Grown in the World”—Appearance, aroma, and flavor in cup-testing—How experts test coffee—A typi- cal sample-roasting and cup-testing outfit Page 341 CHAPTER XXV Factory Preparation of Roasted Coffee Coffee roasting as a business—Wholesale coffee-roasting machinery—Separating, milling, and mixing or blending green coffee, and roasting by coal, coke, gas, and electricity—Facts about coffee roasting—Cost of roasting—Green-coffee shrinkage table—”Dry” and “wet” roasts—On roasting coffee efficiently—A typical coal roaster—Cooling and stoning—Finishing or glazing—Blending roasted coffees—Blends for restaurants—Grinding and packaging—Coffee additions and fillers—Treated coffees, and dry extracts Page 379 CHAPTER XXVI Wholesale Merchandising of Coffee How coffees are sold at wholesale—The wholesale salesman’s place in merchandising—Some coffee costs analyzed—Handy coffee- selling chart—Terms and credits—About package coffees—Various types of coffee containers—Coffee package labels—Coffee package economies—Practical grocer helps—Coffee sampling—Premium method of sales promotion Page 407 CHAPTER XXVII Retail Merchandising of Roasted Coffee How coffees are sold at retail—The place of the grocer, the tea and coffee dealer, the chain store, and the wagon-route distributer in the scheme of distribution—Starting in the retail coffee business—Small roasters for retail dealers—Model coffee departments— Creating a coffee trade—Meeting competition—Splitting nickels—Figuring costs and profits—A credit policy for retailers—Premi- ums Page 415 CHAPTER XXVIII A Short History of Coffee Advertising Early coffee advertising—The first coffee advertisement in 1587 was frank propaganda for the legitimate use of coffee—The first printed advertisement in English—The first newspaper advertisement—Early advertisements in colonial America—Evolution of advertising—Package coffee advertising—Advertising to the trade—Advertising by means of newspapers, magazines, billboards, electric signs, motion pictures, demonstrations, and by samples—Advertising for retailers—Advertising by government propagan- da—The Joint Coffee Trade publicity campaign in the United States—Coffee advertising efficiency Page 431

10 CHAPTER XXIX The Coffee Trade in the United States The coffee business started by Dorothy Jones of Boston—Some early sales—Taxes imposed by Congress in war and peace—The first coffee-plantation-machine, coffee-roaster, coffee-grinder, and coffee-pot patents—Early trade marks for coffee—Beginnings of the coffee urn, the coffee container, and the soluble-coffee business—Chronological record of the most important events in the history of the trade from the eighteenth century to the twentieth Page 467 CHAPTER XXX Development of the Green and Roasted Coffee Business in the United States A brief history of the growth of coffee trading—Notable firms and personalities that have played important parts in green coffee in the principal coffee centers—Green coffee trade organizations—Growth of the wholesale coffee-roasting trade, and names of those who have made history in it—The National Coffee Roasters Association—Statistics of distribution of coffee-roasting establish- ments in the United States Page 475 CHAPTER XXXI Some Big Men and Notable Achievements B.G.

Arnold, the first, and Hermann Sielcken, the last of the American “coffee kings”—John Arbuckle, the original package-coffee man—Jabez Burns, the man who revolutionized the roasted-coffee business by his contributions as inventor, manufacturer, and writer—Coffee trade booms and panics—Brazil’s first valorization enterprise—War-time government control of coffee—The story of soluble coffee Page 517 CHAPTER XXXII A History of Coffee in Literature The romance of coffee, and its influence on the discourse, poetry, history, drama, philosophic writing, and fiction of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and on the writers of today—Coffee quips and anecdotes Page 541 CHAPTER XXXIII Coffee in Relation to the Fine Arts How coffee and coffee drinking have been celebrated in painting, engraving, sculpture, caricature, lithography, and music—Epics, rhapsodies, and cantatas in praise of coffee—Beautiful specimens of the art of the potter and the silversmith as shown in the coffee service of various periods in the world’s history—Some historical relics Page 587 CHAPTER XXXIV The Evolution of Coffee Apparatus Showing the development of coffee-roasting, coffee-grinding, coffee-making, and coffee-serving devices from the earliest time to the present day—The original coffee grinder, the first coffee roaster, and the first coffee pot—The original French drip pot, the De Belloy percolator—Count Rumford’s improvement—How the commercial coffee roaster was developed—The evolution of filtra- tion devices—The old Carter “pull-out” roaster—Trade customs in New York and St.

Louis in the sixties and seventies—The story of the evolution of the Burns roaster—How the gas roaster was developed in France, Great Britain, and the United States Page 615

11 CHAPTER XXXV World’s Coffee Manners and Customs How coffee is roasted, prepared, and served in all the leading civilized countries—The Arabian coffee ceremony—The present-day coffee houses of Turkey—Twentieth century improvements in Europe and the United States Page 655 CHAPTER XXXVI Preparation of the Universal Beverage The evolution of grinding and brewing methods—Coffee was first a food, then a wine, a medicine, a devotional refreshment, a con- fection, and finally a beverage—Brewing by boiling, infusion, percolation, and filtration—Coffee making in Europe in the nineteenth century—Early coffee making in the United States—Latest developments in better coffee making—Various aspects of scientific coffee brewing—Advice to coffee lovers on how to buy coffee, and how to make it in perfection Page 693 A COFFEE CHRONOLOGY Giving dates and events of historical interest in legend, travel, literature, cultivation, plantation treatment, trading, and in the prepara- tion and use of coffee from the earliest time to the present Page 725 A COFFEE BIBLIOGRAPHY A list of references gathered from the principal general and scientific libraries—Arranged in alphabetic order of topics Page 738 INDEX Page 769 ILLUSTRATIONS Color Plates Facing page Coffee branches, flowers, and fruit (painted by Blendon Campbell) Frontispiece v Coffea arabica; leaves, flowers, and fruit (painted by M.E.

Eaton) 1 The coffee tree bears fruit, leaf, and blossom at the same time16 A close-up of ripe coffee berries 32 Coffee under the Stars and Stripes 144 Coffee scenes in British India 160 Picking and sacking coffee in Brazil 176 Mild-coffee culture and preparation 192 Coffee scenes in Java 200 Coffee scenes in Sumatra 216 Coffee preparation in Central and South America 248 Typical coffee scenes in Costa Rica 336 Principal varieties of green-coffee beans, natural size and color 352 Coal-roasting plant, New York408 Coffee scenes in the Near and Far East 544 Primitive transportation methods, Arabia640 Hulling coffee in Aden, Arabia656 Black and White Illustrations

12 Page Coffee tree in flower 4 De Clieu and his coffee plant 7 Legendary discovery of coffee drink 10 Title page of Dufour’s book 13 Frontispiece from Dufour’s book 15 Turkish coffee house, 17th century 21 Serving coffee to a guest, Arabia 23 First printed reference to coffee 24 An 18th-century Italian coffee house 26 Nobility in an early Venetian café 27 Goldoni in a Venetian coffee house 28 Florian’s famous coffee house 29 Title page of La Roque’s work 32 Coffee tree as pictured by La Roque 32 Coffee branch in La Roque’s work 33 First printed reference in English 37 Reference in Sherley’s travels 39 References in Biddulph’s travels 40 Mol’s coffee house at Exeter 41 Reference in Sandys’ travels 42 Richter’s coffee house, Leipsic 46 Coffee house, Germany, 17th century 47 Kolschitzky in his Blue Bottle coffee house 48 First coffee house in Leopoldstadt 50 Statue of Kolschitzky 51 First advertisement for coffee 55 First newspaper advertisement 57 Coffee house, time of Charles II 60 London coffee house, 17th century 61 Coffee house, Queen Anne’s time 62 Coffee-house keepers’ tokens (plate 1) 63 A broadside of 1663 64 Coffee-house keepers’ tokens (plate 2) 65 A broadside of 1667 68 A broadside of 1670 70 A broadside of 1672 70 A broadside of 1674 71 White’s and Brooke’s coffee houses 78 London coffee-house politicians 78 Great Fair on the frozen Thames 79 Lion’s head at Button’s 80 Trio of notables at Button’s 81 Vauxhall Gardens on a gala night 82 Rotunda in Ranelagh Gardens 83 Garraway’s coffee house 84 Button’s coffee house 84 Slaughter’s coffee house 85 Tom’s coffee house 85 Lloyd’s coffee house86 Dick’s coffee house 87 Grecian coffee house 87 Don Saltero’s coffee house 88 British coffee house 88 French coffee house in London 89 Ramponaux’ Royal Drummer café 90 La Foire St.-Germain 92 Street coffee vender of Paris 92

13 Armenian decorations in Paris café 93 Corner of historic Café de Procope 93 Café de Procope, Paris 95 Cashier’s desk in coffee house, Paris 96 Café Foy 97 Café des Mille Colonnes 99 Café de Paris 101 Interior of a typical Parisian café 103 Chess at the Café de la Régence 104 Types of colonial coffee roasters 106 Early family coffee roaster 106 Historic relics, early New England 107 Mayflower “coffee grinder” 108 Crown coffee house, Boston 108 Coffee devices, Massachusetts colony 109 Coffee devices of western pioneers 110 Coffee pots of colonial days 110 Green Dragon tavern, Boston 111 Metal coffee pots, New York colony 112 Exchange coffee house, Boston 113 President-elect Washington’s official welcome at Merchants Coffee House 114 King’s Arms coffee house, New York 116 Burns coffee house 117 Merchants coffee house 119 Tontine coffee house 121 Tontine building of 1850 122 Niblo’s Garden 122 Coffee relics, Dutch New York 122 New York’s Vauxhall Garden of 1803 123 Tavern and grocers’ signs, old New York 124 Second London coffee house, Philadelphia 127 Selling slaves, old London coffee house 128 City tavern, Philadelphia 129 Coffee-house scene in “Hamilton” 130 Coffee tree, flowers and fruit 132 Germination of the coffee plant 133 Brazil coffee plantation in flower 134 Coffea arabica, Porto Rico 135 Coffea arabica, flower and fruit, Costa Rica 135 Young Coffea arabica, Kona, Hawaii 136 Survivors of first Liberian trees in Java 136 Coffea arabica in flower, Java 137 Liberian coffee tree, Lamoa, P.I.

138 Coffea congensis, 21⁄2 years old 138 Flowering of 5-year-old Coffea excelsa 139 Branches of Coffea excelsa 140 Coffea stenophylla 140 Near view of Coffea arabica berries 141 Wild caffein-free coffee tree 142 Coffee bean characteristics 142 Coffea arabica berries 143 Robusta coffee in flower 144 One-year-old robusta estate 145 Coffea Quillou flowers 146 Quillou coffee tree in blossom 147 Coffea Ugandæ 148 Coffea arabica under the microscope 149 Cross-section of coffee bean 150

14 Cross-section of hull and bean150 Epicarp and pericarp under microscope 151 Endocarp and endosperm under microscope 152 Spermoderm under microscope 152 Tissues of embryo under microscope 152 Coffee-leaf disease under microscope 153 Green and roasted coffee under microscope 153 Green and roasted Bogota under microscope 154 Cross-section of endosperm 156 Portion of the investing membrane 157 Structure of the green bean 157 Ground coffee under microscope 167 Coffee tree in bearing, Lamoa, P.I. 196 Early coffee implements 198 Cross-section of mountain slope, Yemen198 First steps in coffee-growing 199 Coffee nursery, Guatemala 200 Coffee under shade, Porto Rico 201 Boekit Gompong estate, Sumatra 202 Estate in Antioquia, Colombia 203 Weeding and harrowing, São Paulo 204 Fazenda Dumont, São Paulo 205 Fazenda Guatapara, São Paulo 206 Picking coffee, São Paulo 207 Intensive cultivation, São Paulo 207 Private railroad, São Paulo 208 Coffee culture in São Paulo 209 Heavily laden coffee tree, Bogota 210 Picking coffee, Bogota 211 Altamira Hacienda, Venezuela 212 Carmen Hacienda, Venezuela 213 Heavy fruiting, Coffea robusta, Java 214 Road through coffee estate, Java 215 Native picking coffee, Sumatra216 Administrator’s bungalow, Java216 Administrator’s bungalow, Sumatra 217 Coffee culture in Guatemala 218 Indians picking coffee, Guatemala 219 Bungalow, coffee estate, Guatemala 220 Thirty-year-old coffee trees, Mexico 221 Mexican coffee picker 222 Receiving coffee, Mexico 223 Heavily laden coffee tree, Porto Rico 224 Coffee cultivation, Costa Rica 225 Picking Costa Rica coffee 226 Mountain coffee estate, Costa Rica 226 Mysore coffee estate227 Coffee growing under shade, India 228 Coffee estate at Harar 229 Wild coffee near Adis Abeba 231 Mocha coffee growing on terraces 232 Picking Blue Mountain berries, Jamaica 233 Coffee pickers, Guadeloupe 234 Coffee in blossom, Panama 235 Robusta coffee, Cochin-China 237 Bourbon trees, French Indo-China 238 Picking coffee in Queensland 239 Coffee in bloom, Kona, Hawaii 240

15 Coffee at Hamakua, Hawaii 241 Coffee trees, South Kona, Hawaii 242 Plantation near Sagada, P.I. 243 Coffee preparation, São Paulo 244 Walker’s original disk pulper 246 Early English coffee peeler 246 Group of English cylinder pulpers 247 Copper covers for pulper cylinders 248 Granada unpulped coffee separator 249 Hand-power double-disk pulper 249 Tandem coffee pulper 250 Horizontal coffee washer 251 Vertical coffee washer 251 Cobán pulper, Venezuela 252 Niagara power coffee huller 252 British and American coffee driers 253 American Guardiola drier 254 Smout peeler and polisher 254 Smout peeler and polisher, exposed 255 O’Krassa’s coffee drier 255 Six well-known hullers and separators 256 El Monarca coffee classifier 257 Hydro-electric installation, Guatemala 258 Preparing Brazil coffee for market 259 Working coffee on the drying flats 260 Fermenting and washing tanks, São Paulo 260 Drying grounds, Fazenda Schmidt 261 Preparing Colombian coffee for market 262 Old-fashioned ox-power huller263 Street-car coffee transport, Orizaba 264 Coffee on drying floors, Porto Rico 264 Sun-drying coffee 265 Drying patio, Costa Rica 266 Early Guardiola steam drier 266 Indian women cleaning Mocha coffee 267 Cleaning-and-grading machinery, Aden 268 Drying coffee at Harar 269 Preparing Java coffee for market 270 Coffee transport in Java 271 Meeting of Amsterdam coffee brokers, 1820 291 Bill of public sale of coffee, 1790 292 Last sample before export, Santos 304 Stamping bags for export 304 Preparing Brazil coffee for export 305 Grading coffee at Santos 306 The test by the cups, Santos 306 New York importers’ warehouse, Santos 307 Pack-mule transport in Venezuela 308 Coffee-carrying cart, Guatemala 308 Pack-oxen fording stream, Colombia 308 Coffee transport, Mexico and South America 309 Donkey coffee-transport at Harar 310 Coffee camels at Harar 310 Selling coffee by tapping hands, Aden 310 Packing and transporting coffee, Aden 311 Coffee camel train at Hodeida 312 Methods of loading coffee, Santos 313 Coffee freighter, Cauca River, Colombia 314

16 Coffee steamers on the Magdalena 314 Loading heavy cargo on Santa Cecilia 315 Unloading Java coffee from sailing vessel317 Receiving piers for coffee, New York 318 Unloading coffee, covered pier, New York 319 Receiving and storing coffee, New York 320 Tester at work, Bush Terminal, New York 321 Loading lighters, Bush Docks, Brooklyn 321 New Terminal system on Staten Island 322 Motor tractor, Bush piers 322 Unloading with modern conveyor 323 Coffee handling, New Orleans piers 324 Coffee in steel-covered sheds, New Orleans 325 Unloading and storing coffee, San Francisco 326 Modern device for handling green coffee327 Handling green coffee at European ports328 New York Coffee and Sugar Exchange 329 Coffee section, Coffee and Sugar Exchange 330 Blackboards, Coffee Exchange331 “Coffee afloat” blackboard 332 Well known green-coffee marks 339 Bourbon-Santos beans, roasted 343 Flat and Bourbon-Santos beans, roasted 343 Rio beans, roasted 343 Mexican beans, roasted 347 Guatemala beans, roasted 347 Bogota (Colombia) beans, roasted 348 Maracaibo beans, roasted 349 Mocha beans, roasted 351 Washed Java beans, roasted 353 Sample-roasting and cup-testing outfit 357 Modern gas coffee-roasting plant 380 Sixteen-cylinder coal roasting plant 382 Green-coffee separating and milling machines 384 English gas coffee-roasting plant 385 German gas coffee-roasting plant 386 French gas coffee-roasting plant 387 Jumbo coffee roaster, Arbuckle plant 388 Roasting plant of Reid, Murdoch & Co.

389 Complete gas coffee-plant installation 390 Burns Jubilee gas roaster 391 Burns coal roaster 392 Open perforated cylinder with flexible back head 392 Trying the roast 394 Monitor gas roaster 394 A group of roasting-room accessories 394 Dumping the roast 395 A four-bag coffee finisher 396 Burns sample-coffee roaster 396 Lambert coal coffee-roasting outfit 397 Coles No. 22 grinding mill 398 Monitor coffee-granulating machine 398 Challenge pulverizer398 Burns No. 12 grinding mill 399 Monitor steel-cut grinder, separator, etc 399 Johnson carton-filling, weighing, and sealing machine 400 Ideal steel-cut mill 400 Smyser package-making and filling machine 401

17 Automatic coffee-packing machine 402 Complete coffee-cartoning outfit 403 Automatic coffee-weighing machines 404 Units in manufacture of soluble coffee 405 Types of coffee containers 411 Fresh-roasted-coffee idea in retailing 414 Premium tea and coffee dealer’s display 416 Chain-store interior 417 Familiar A & P store front 418 Specialist idea in coffee merchandising 419 Monitor gas roaster, cooler, and stoner 420 Royal gas coffee roaster for retailers 420 Burns half-bag roaster, cooler, and stoner 421 Lambert Jr. roasting outfit for retailers 421 Faulder and Simplex gas roasters 422 Coffee roasters used in Paris shops 423 Small German roasters 424 Popular French retail roaster 424 Uno cabinet gas roaster and cooler 424 Educational window exhibit 425 Better-class American grocery, interior 426 Prize-winning window display 427 Americanized English grocer’s shop 429 Famous package coffees 430 First coffee advertisement in U.S.

433 Coffee advertisement of 1790 434 First colored handbill for package coffee 435 Reverse side of colored handbill 435 St. Louis handbill of 1854 436 Advertising-card copy, 1873 437 Handbill copy of the seventies437 Box-end sticker, 1833 438 Chase & Sanborn advertisement, 1888 438 A Goldberg cartoon, 1910 439 Copy used by Chase & Sanborn, 1900 439 An effective cut-out 442 How coffee is advertised to the trade 443 Joint Coffee Trade Publicity Committee 447 Magazine and newspaper copy, 1919 449 Copy that stressed helpfulness of coffee, 1919–20 450 Joint Committee’s house organ451 Introductory medical-journal copy 451 Telling the doctors the truth, 1920 452 Joint Committee’s attractive booklets 453 More medical journal copy, 1920 454 Magazine and newspaper copy, 1921 455 Educating the doctor, 1922 456 Magazine and newspaper copy, 1922 457 Specimen of early Yuban copy459 Historical association in advertising 459 Package coffee advertising in 1922 460 The social distinction argument 461 Drawing upon history for atmosphere 461 An impressive electric sign, Chicago 462 How coffee is advertised outdoors 463 Attractive car cards, spring of 1922 464 Effective iced-coffee copy 465 European advertising novelty, New York 465

18 Coenties Slip, in days of sailing vessels 466 First U.S. coffee-grinder patent469 Carter’s Pull-out roaster patent469 First registered trade mark for coffee 470 Original Arbuckle coffee packages 471 Merchants coffee house tablet 473 Departed dominant figures in New York green coffee trade 476 “Their association with New York green coffee trade dates back nearly fifty years” 477 Green coffee trade-builders who have passed on 478 “Their race is run, their course is done” 479 112 Front Street, New York, 1879 480 At 87 Wall Street, New York, years ago 480 Wall and Front Streets, New York, 1922 481 Front Street, New York, 1922 483 In the New Orleans coffee district 486 Green coffee district, New Orleans 487 California Street, San Francisco 488 San Francisco’s coffee district 489 Pioneer coffee roasters, New York City 493 Oldtime New York coffee roasters 495 Pioneer coffee roasters of the North and East, U.S.500 Pioneer coffee roasters of the South and West, U.S.504 Ground coffee price list of 1862 507 Organization convention, N.C.R.A., 1911 510 Former presidents, N.C.R.A.

512 Earliest coffee manuscript 540 Song from “The Coffee House” 555 Dr. Johnson’s seat, the Cheshire Cheese 567 Original coffee room, old Cock Tavern 568 Morning gossip in the coffee room 569 “His Warmest Welcome at an Inn” 571 Alexander Pope at Button’s, 1730 577 Dutch coffee house, 1650 (by Van Ostade) 586 White’s coffee house, 1733 (by Hogarth) 588 Tom King’s, 1738 (by Hogarth) 589 Petit Déjeuner (by Boucher) 590 Coffee service in the home of Madame de Pompadour (by Van Loo) 590 Madame Du Barry (by Decreuse) 591 Coffee house at Cairo (by Gérôme) 592 Kaffeebesuch (by Philippi) 593 Coffee comes to the aid of the Muse (by Ruffio) 593 Mad dog in a coffee house (by Rowlandson) 594 Napoleon and the Curé (by Charlet) 595 Coffee, a chanson (music by Colet) 596 Statue of Kolschitzky 597 Betty’s Aria, Bach’s coffee cantata 598 Café Pedrocchi, Padua 599 Coffee grinder set with jewels 600 Italian wrought-iron coffee roaster 600 Seventeenth-century tea and coffee pots 601 Lantern coffee pot, 1692 602 Folkingham pot, 1715–16 602 Wastell pot, 1720–21 603 Dish of coffee-boy design, 1692 603 Chinese porcelain coffee pot 604 Silver coffee pots, early 18th century 604 Silver coffee pots, 18th century 605 Pottery and porcelain pots 606

19 Silver coffee pots, late 18th century 607 Porcelain pots, Metropolitan Museum 608 Vienna coffee pot, 1830 609 Spanish coffee pot, 18th century 609 Silver coffee pots in American collections 610 Coffee pot by Win. Shaw and Wm. Priest611 Pot of Sheffield plate, 18th century 611 Pot by Ephraim Brasher 611 French silver coffee pot 612 Green Dragon tavern coffee urn 612 Coffee pots by American silversmiths 613 Twentieth-century American coffee service 613 Turkish coffee set, Peter collection 614 Oldest coffee grinder 616 Grain mill used by Greeks and Romans 616 First coffee roaster 616 First cylinder roaster, 1650 616 Historical relics, U.S.

National Museum 617 Turkish coffee mill 618 Early French wall and table grinders 618 Bronze and brass mortars, 17th century 619 Early American coffee roasters619 Roaster with three-sided hood 620 Roasting, making, and serving devices, 17th century 620 English and French coffee grinders 621 Eighteenth-century roaster 621 Original French drip pot 621 Belgian, Russian, and French pewter pots622 17th and 18th century pewter pots 623 Count Rumford’s percolator 623 Drawings of early French coffee makers 624 Early French filtration devices 624 Early American coffee-maker patents 625 French coffee makers, 19th century 625 First English commercial roaster patent 626 Early French coffee-roasting machines 627 Battery of Carter pull-out machines 628 Early English and American roasters 630 Early Foreign and American coffee-making devices 632 Dakin roasting machine of 1848 633 Globe stove roaster of 1860 634 Hyde’s combined roaster and stove 634 Original Burns roaster, 1864 635 Burns granulating mill, 1872–74 636 Napier’s vacuum machine 637 German gas and coal roasting machines 638 Other German coffee roasters 639 Original Enterprise mill 640 Max Thurmer’s quick gas roaster 640 An English gas coffee-roasting plant 641 French globular roaster 642 Sirocco machine (French) 642 English roasting and grinding equipment 643 Magic gas machine (French) 644 Burns Jubilee gas machine 644 Double gas roasting outfit (French) 645 Lambert’s Victory gas machine646 One of the first electric mills 647

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