All in all it's Just Another Brick in the Wall

All in all it’s Just Another Brick in the Wall
Grade Level: 2nd Grade
Presented by: Don Gilmore, Springdale Elementary, Springdale, WA
               Mary Sulgrove, Springdale Elementary, Springdale, WA
Length of Unit: Six Lessons

           I.          ABSTRACT
                       These lessons will take an in-depth look at the similarities and differences
                       between plant and animal cells. The lessons will begin with a history/biography
                       lesson on Antoni van Leeuwenhoek and his contribution to the progression of
                       cellular research. We will then move to note difference and similarities between
                       plant and animal cells and learn why those differences are significant to the
                       particular cell.

           II.         OVERVIEW
                       A. Concept Objectives
                               1.      Students will understand the contributions of science
                                       biographers.
                               2.      Students will understand the components, structure, and
                                       organization of systems and the interconnections among them.
                       B. Content from the Core Knowledge Sequence
                               1.      All living things are made up of cells, too small to be seen
                                       without a microscope.
                               2.      Cells make up tissues.
                               3.      Tissues make up organs.
                               4.      Organs work in systems.
                       C. Skill Objectives
                               1.      Know the major functions and the use of microscopes.
                               2.      View various prepared slides of animal and plant cells using a
                                       microscope.
                               3.      Pencil sketch and label similarities and differences in plant and
                                       animal cells.
                               4.      Verbally and in written form explain the differences in plant and
                                       animal cells.
                               5.      Explain the importance of the contributions made by Antoni van
                                       Leeuwenhoek in terms of cellular research.
                               6.      Learn new vocabulary words peculiar to cell structure.
                               7.      Take notes on vocabulary specific to plant and animal cells.

           III.        BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE
                       A. For Teachers
                              1.      Plant and animals have many differences and similarities.
                              2.      The specific differences that should be noted are that the plant
                                      cell has Chloroplasts, Vacuoles, and a Cell Wall.
                              3.      The specific differences in an animal cell are Centriole and
                                      Lysosomes.
                              4.      The similarities between each cell are Cell Membranes,
                                      Mitochondrion, Nucleus, and Ribosome’s.
                                      (Please see appendix G for a brief biography on Anton van
                                      Leeuwenhoek and Robert Hooke.)



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B. For Students
                              1.       Plant and animal growth (Kindergarten Core Knowledge
                                       Sequence).
                              2.       The Human Body (Kindergarten Core Knowledge Sequence).
                              3.       Body systems, Skeletal System, Muscular System, Digestive
                                       System, Circulatory System, and Nervous System (1st Grade
                                       Core Knowledge Sequence).

           IV.         RESOURCES
                       A.   www.purchon.com/biology/cells.htm
                       B.   www.teach-nology.com/worksheets/science/cell/2/
                       C.   www.enchantedlearning.com/subject/plants/cell/label/label.gif.
                       D.   www.enchantedlearning.com/subject/animals/cell/label/label.gif
                       E.   www.sirinet.net/~igjohnso/comparingcells.jpg
                       F.   www.sirinet.net/~igjohnso/plantyanimalcell.jpg

           V.          LESSONS
                       Lesson One
                       A. Daily Objectives
                              1.      Concept Objective(s)
                                      a.       Students will understand the contributions of science
                                               biographers.
                              2.      Lesson Content
                                      a.       Learn the working parts of microscopes.
                                      b.       Understand the contributions made by Antoni van
                                               Leeuwenhoek and other scientists.
                              3.      Skill Objective(s)
                                      a.       Students will manipulate a microscope to identify plant
                                               and animal cells.
                                      b.       Students will discuss the contributions made by Antoni
                                               van Leeuwenhoek.
                       B. Materials
                              1.      Several individual microscopes or a projection microscope.
                              2.      Several prepared slides of animal and plant cells.
                       C. Key Vocabulary
                              1.      Microscope-Tool used to identify cells too small to be seen with
                                      the naked eye.
                              2.      Cells-All Living things are made up of cells.
                              4.      Magnification-Making an object look larger than it is.
                       D. Procedures/Activities
                              1.      Teacher begins the lesson by recalling prior knowledge about
                                      plants and animal growth, animals and their needs, and the
                                      human body from kindergarten. Teacher will also recall their
                                      learning in first grade concerning body systems.
                              2.      Teacher will go on to explain that Robert Hooke is given credit
                                      as the actual inventor of the microscope but Leeuwenhoek made
                                      a microscope that magnified objects up to 200 times their size.
                                      Because of this he was able to identify and describe cells
                                      previously never seen before. He was the first to actually see
                                      blood cells as well as numerous plant and animal cells.



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3. Teacher will then group students in which they will share
                                     microscopes to view prepared slides of plant and animal cells.
                              4.     The teacher will give a short demonstration on how to adjust the
                                     view lens to make the image sharper and easier to see.
                              5.     The teacher will assist students in placing the slides into the
                                     microscope and have them attempt to adjust the lens to focus on
                                     the cells.
                              6.     Teacher will float offering assistance where needed.
                              7.     Allow enough time for this activity so that all students are able to
                                     view both the plant and animal cells.
                       E. Assessment/Evaluation
                              1.     Assessment for the lecture on Leeuwenhoek will be in the
                                     follow-up questioning on what the students learned about him.
                                     A. Follow-up questions from lecture.
                                              a.      What did Leeuwenhoek do for a living?
                                              b.      Why did he build a microscope?
                                              c.      How many times did his microscope magnify
                                                      objects?
                                              d.      What type of cells did Leeuwenhoek discover?
                                              e.      How do you think his discoveries have helped
                                                      us?
                              2.     Assessment for the use of microscopes will be in the form of
                                     observation on how well the students were able to focus on the
                                     looked at object.

                       Lesson Two
                       A. Daily Objectives
                              1.      Concept Objective(s)
                                      a.       Students will understand the components, structure, and
                                               organization of systems and the interconnections among
                                               them.
                                                i. Students will learn that all living things are made up
                                                   of cells.
                                               ii. Students will learn that cells make up tissues.
                                              iii. Students will understand that tissues make up
                                                   organs.
                                              iv. Students will learn that organs make up systems.
                              2.      Lesson Content
                                      The teacher should use his/her knowledge of the ability of their
                                      students as to how many differences and similarities should be
                                      taught during this lesson. The following is only a suggestion on
                                      the content that will be taught in this specific lesson.
                                      a.       Plant cells are different from animal cells in that they
                                               have Cell Walls, Central Vacuoles, and Chloroplasts.
                                      b.       Animal cells are different from plant cells in that they
                                               have Centrioles and Lysosomes.
                                      c.       Plant and animal cells are similar in that they both have
                                               Cell Membranes, Nucleus’, and Cytoplasm. (Please see
                                               Appendix D for definitions of these terms).




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3.          Skill Objective(s)
                                              a.      Students will draw plant and animal cells as guided by
                                                      the teacher.
                                              b.      Students will label their plant and animal cell drawings
                                                      with the guidance of their teacher.
                                              c.      Students will complete a Venn diagram noting the
                                                      similarities and differences between plant and animal
                                                      cells. (See Appendix E)
                       B. Materials
                              1.     Drawing paper
                              2.     Sharp Pencils
                              3.     Copies of Venn Diagram (Appendix E)
                              4.     Colored pencils (Optional)
                       C. Key Vocabulary
                              1.     Cell Wall (For the following terms please see Appendix D for
                                     definitions).
                              2.     Central Vacuoles
                              3.     Chloroplast
                              4.     Centrioles
                              5.     Lysosomes
                              6.     Cell Membrane
                              7.     Mitochondrion
                              8.     Nucleus
                              9.     Cytoplasm
                       D. Procedures/Activities
                              1.     Hand out drawing paper and pencils.
                              2.     Have students fold their drawing paper “Hamburger” style.
                              3.     Teacher will guide students drawing both the plant animal cells
                                     at the same time. (See Appendices A, B, & C for sample
                                     drawings) I usually draw the plant cell on the left and the animal
                                     cell on the right. Stop occasionally to check student’s progress.
                              4.     Write the terms Cell Membrane, Mitochondrion, Nucleus, and
                                     Cytoplasm between both cells.
                              5.     Draw lines from each of the terms to the appropriate organelle
                                     within each cell. Note: Both cells should be labeled with these
                                     terms.
                              6.     Write the terms Cell Wall, Central Vacuole, and Chloroplast left
                                     of the plant cell. Draw a line from each term to the appropriate
                                     organelle within the plant cell.
                              7.     Write the terms Centrioles and Lysosomes on the right side of
                                     the animal cell. Draw a line from the term to the appropriate
                                     organelle within the animal cell.
                              8.     Finish the drawings by using the colored pencils to highlight
                                     each organelle. I use green for the chloroplasts, Brown for the
                                     nucleus, dark blue for the Central Vacuoles, Red for the Cell
                                     Wall, Orange for the Cell Membranes, light blue for the
                                     Mitochondrion, Yellow for the Cytoplasm, Purple for Centrioles,
                                     and Pink for the Lysosomes.
                       E.     Assessment/Evaluation
                              1.     Teacher observation of the student’s drawings.



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2.          Teacher will write the following columns on the board. Plant,
                                              Animal, both Plant and Animal. (See Appendix H for sample)
                                              Students may use their complete drawings to help answer the
                                              questions. The teacher will go through each term and write it in
                                              the correct column based on the student’s answers.
                                  3.          Students will independently complete a Venn diagram (See
                                              Appendix E) using their drawings.

                       Lesson Three
                       A.     Daily Objectives
                              1.     Concept Objective(s)
                                     a. Students will understand the components, structure, and
                                         organization of systems and the interconnections among
                                         them.
                                                i. Students will understand that organelles work within
                                                   the cell to perform certain functions.
                              2.     Lesson Content
                                     a.       Students will learn the definitions of the following
                                              terms.
                                              1.       Cell Membrane
                                              2.       Cell Wall
                                              3.       Chloroplast
                                              4.       Central Vacuole
                                              5.       Nucleus
                                              6.       Lysosomes
                                              7.       Mitochondrion
                                              8.       Cytoplasm
                                              9.       Centrioles
                              3.     Skill Objective(s)
                                     a. Note taking and paper organization
                       B. Materials
                              1.     Lined notebook paper
                              2.     Pen or Pencil
                       C. Key Vocabulary
                              1.     See list above
                       D. Procedures/Activities
                              1.     Students may use their drawings as a reference to what the
                                     teacher is talking about.
                              2.     Teacher will explain and demonstrate the format in which the
                                     paper will be completed.
                                     a.       Students will use the red line on the left of their paper as
                                              a guide as to where to begin writing the definition.
                                     b.       Students will use the muted red line on the right side of
                                              their paper as to where to finish writing then moving to
                                              the next line.
                                     c.       Students will write the term on their paper followed by a
                                              dash. (The teacher will also be writing and
                                              demonstrating this on the board).
                                     d.       Students will write the definition of each word.
                                     b.       When a new word is going to be written the students will
                                              skip a line before writing that definition.


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E. Assessment/Evaluation
                              1.      Teacher will collect the student’s work and assess according to
                                      the above criterion.

                       Lesson Four
                       A.     Daily Objectives
                              1.     Concept Objective(s)
                                     A.       Students will understand the contributions of science
                                              biographers.
                                     B.       Students will understand the components, structure, and
                                              organization of systems and the interconnections among
                                              them.
                              2.     Lesson Content
                                     a.       This lesson will be reviewing all content learned in this
                                              unit.
                              3.     Skill Objective(s)
                                     a.       This lesson will be reviewing all skills learned in this
                                              unit.
                       B.     Materials
                              1.     Microscopes
                              2.     Prepared Slides
                              3.     Drawing paper
                              4.     Pencils
                              5.     Matching worksheets (See Appendix I)
                       C.     Key Vocabulary
                              1.     No new vocabulary
                       D.     Procedures/Activities
                              1.     Teacher will set up the following workstations within the
                                     classroom.
                                     a.       Two microscope centers complete with several prepared
                                              slides. Students will examine several prepared slides of
                                              both plant and animal cells.
                                     b.       Two drawing centers complete with drawing paper,
                                              pencils, colored pencils, and a list of key terms. The
                                              students will independently draw both the plant and
                                              animal cells and label the correct organelle.
                                     c.       Two Matching centers with copies of the Matching
                                              worksheets. (See Appendix I-This is meant to be a
                                              practice sheet prior to the final assessment. However, it
                                              could be used as an assessment)
                              2.     Students will work independently at each of the centers to
                                     complete the appropriate tasks.
                              3.     Teacher will float around the room observing and offering
                                     assistance if needed.
                              4.     Allow enough time for each center period to enable students to
                                     complete their tasks. (About 15 minutes per center)
                       E.     Assessment/Evaluation
                              1.     Teacher will collect all work completed by students and assess
                                     according to the criteria spelled out from the previous lessons.
                              3.     Teacher will assess the use of microscopes by observation.



All in all it’s Just Another Brick in the Wall, Grade 2   2004 Conference                               6
Lesson Five
                       Reteaching
                       This lesson will only be used if there are major gaps in the learning from this
                       unit. Based on Lesson number four the teacher will use his/her judgment on
                       whether or not any of the unit needs to be re-taught.

           VI.         CULMINATING ACTIVITY
                       A.   Final Assessment
                                  1.        Matching Vocabulary Terms to Organelle Test.
                                           (See Appendix F)


           VII.        HANDOUTS/WORKSHEETS
                       See attached

           VIII.       BIBLIOGRAPHY
                       A.    www.purchon.com/biology/cells.htm
                       B.    www.teach-nology.com/worksheets/science/cell/2/
                       C.    www.enchantedlearning.com/subject/plants/cell/label/label.gif.
                       D.    www.enchantedlearning.com/subject/animals/cell/label/label.gif
                       E.   www.sirinet.net/~igjohnso/comparingcells.jpg
                       F.   www.sirinet.net/~igjohnso/plantyanimalcell.jpg




All in all it’s Just Another Brick in the Wall, Grade 2   2004 Conference                                7
Appendix A

Note: This picture may be expanded for use in the copy machine by clicking on the picture then
using your mouse at one corner of the highlighted area. You then hold the shift key down and
expand as needed.




All in all it’s Just Another Brick in the Wall, Grade 2   2004 Conference                        8
Appendix B

Note: This picture may be expanded for use in the copy machine by clicking on the picture then
using your mouse at one corner of the highlighted area. You then hold the shift key down and
expand as needed.




All in all it’s Just Another Brick in the Wall, Grade 2   2004 Conference                        9
Appendix C

Note: This picture may be expanded for use in the copy machine by clicking on the picture then
using your mouse at one corner of the highlighted area. You then hold the shift key down and
expand as needed.




All in all it’s Just Another Brick in the Wall, Grade 2   2004 Conference                        10
Appendix D

                                      Vocabulary Words and Their Definitions

Cell Membrane—A thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds both plant and animal cells. It is
semi-permeable that allows sugars and other substances to pass through but blocks starch and
other substances.

Cell Wall—A rigid non-living layer within the cell membrane in a plant cell. Made up of
cellulose fiber, which gives the plant cell strength and structure. It bonds with the other cell walls
to form the structure of the plant.

Chloroplast—A disc-shaped organelle, which contains chlorophyll. Photosynthesis takes place
in this organelle. Located only within the plant cell.

Mitochondrion—Mitochondrion is present in both the plant and animal cells. Most often they
are spherical in shape but can be rod shaped also. They have double membranes, which the inner
membrane folds over itself to create a series of projections. It converts energy from glucose to
feed the cell.

Cytoplasm—A jellylike substance outside of the cell nucleus. This substance fills the cell and
helps give it shape. It controls the production of proteins and contains DNA.

Vacuole—A very large space within a plant cell that has its own membrane and is filled with
fluid. Most plant cells have only one vacuole. The vacuole helps maintain the shape of the cell.

Lysosome—An organelle located in an animal cell. It produces proteins to feed the cell.

Centriole---It is a small body located near the nucleus. This is where microtubules are made.
During mitosis the centriole also divides and the two parts move to opposite sides of the dividing
cell.




All in all it’s Just Another Brick in the Wall, Grade 2   2004 Conference                           11
Appendix E

Note: This picture may be expanded for use in the copy machine by clicking on the picture then
using your mouse at one corner of the highlighted area. You then hold the shift key down and
expand as needed.




All in all it’s Just Another Brick in the Wall, Grade 2   2004 Conference                        12
Appendix F

                              Matching Vocabulary Terms to Organelle Test

Note: This picture may be expanded for use in the copy machine by clicking on the picture then
using your mouse at one corner of the highlighted area. You then hold the shift key down and
expand as needed.




All in all it’s Just Another Brick in the Wall, Grade 2   2004 Conference                        13
Appendix G

                                                Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
                                                      (1632-1723)

        Leeuwenhoek was born in Delft, Holland in 1632. He was not a trained scientist,
nor did he have much if any formal scientific education. As a hobby he created a single
double convex lens that was mounted between brass plates and was held near the eye.
Something that is quite similar to the magnifying glass.

       Using this lens he was able to see things that were mounted on pinheads. His lens
was able to magnify objects up to 300 times their actual size. In 1668 he was able to see
how red corpuscles circulated through a rabbit’s ears.

        Leeuwenhoek continued studying just about anything that he could look at
through his microscope. Through his investigations he was able to define bacteria,
protests, animal sperm cells, blood cells, microscopic nematodes, and rotifers. He even
studied the plaque on his wife and daughter’s teeth. In his writing concerning the plaque
he mentioned them only as female humans.

                                                          Robert Hooke
                                                           (1635-1703)

         Robert Hooke was a very educated man. He was a chemist, mathematician, and inventor.
He invented many machines as well as improved many mechanical devises. He invented the
spiral spring used in timepieces. He invented the Gregorian Microscope. In 1665 he used the term
“cell”. He used this term to describe the features of plant tissue that he was able to see under his
microscope.




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Appendix H



                  Plant                                     Animal          Plant and Animal




All in all it’s Just Another Brick in the Wall, Grade 2   2004 Conference                      15
Appendix I

Name :______________________________________

Directions: Read the definitions of the vocabulary words. Choose the correct word from the list
below to match the correct word to the correct definition.

Cell Membrane Chloroplast Cytoplasm Mitochondrion Vacuole Centriole Cell Wall
Lysosome




1. ___________________________ A thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds both plant and
animal cells. It is semi-permeable that allows sugars and other substances to pass through but
blocks starch and other substances.

2. ___________________________ A rigid non-living layer within the cell membrane in a plant
cell. Made up of cellulose fiber, which gives the plant cell strength and structure. It bonds with
the other cell walls to form the structure of the plant.

3. ___________________________ A disc-shaped organelle, which contains chlorophyll.
Photosynthesis takes place in this organelle. Located only within the plant cell.

4. ___________________________ Is present in both the plant and animal cells. Most often they
are spherical in shape but can be rod shaped also. They have double membranes, which the inner
membrane folds over itself to create a series of projections. It converts energy from glucose to
feed the cell.

5. __________________________ A jellylike substance outside of the cell nucleus. This
substance fills the cell and helps give it shape. It controls the production of proteins and contains
DNA.

6. __________________________ A very large space within a plant cell that has its own
membrane and is filled with fluid. Most plant cells have only one vacuole. The vacuole helps
maintain the shape of the cell.

7. __________________________ An organelle located in an animal cell. It produces proteins to
feed the cell.

8. __________________________ It is a small body located near the nucleus. This is where
microtubules are made. During mitosis it also divides and the two parts move to opposite sides of
the dividing cell.




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