Autumn 2018 - Scouts

Autumn 2018 - Scouts

Autumn 2018 - Scouts

Autumn 2018

Autumn 2018 - Scouts
Autumn 2018 - Scouts

3 14 things to try from the world of science, technology, engineering and maths 1 Learn how exercise changes your heart rate with GO Outdoors on page 6 2 Use chemical reactions and engineering to launch a bottle rocket with Rolls-Royce on page 8 3 Power a light bulb by using a potato to create an electrical circuit with IET on page 9 4 Test yourself on the history of flight with the RAF on page 12 5 Find out about the energy levels stored in different types of food with Jaffa on page 14 6 Put your maths skills to the test with a game of Astro-nought dash from BEAR Nibbles on page 16 7 Spot potential hazards in your meeting place with Northern Powergrid on page 19 8 Build an instrument to measure the wind with Heathrow on page 20 9 Make a cipher wheel for cracking secret codes and learn encryption with Raspberry Pi on page 22 10 Construct a paddle boat and learn about potential and kinetic energy with the Royal Navy on page 25 11 Give furry friends some exercise: engineer a hamster run with Pets at Home on page 26 12 Make a piston engine using tin cans with the British Army on page 28 13 Protect nearby trees by crafting a fixed campfire with Victorinox on page 30 14 Train to be an astronaut using a swimming pool with STA on page 32 Make. Do.

Share. Contents: The STEM issue Share your creations with us Don’t forget to share what you’ve made or your experiences of doing the activities in this issue. Please send your photos or videos to makedoshare@scouts.org.uk or #makedoshare 3

Autumn 2018 - Scouts

4 Make.Do.Share. is produced by Immediate Media Branded Content, 6th Floor, Tower House, Fairfax Street, Bristol BS1 3BN Printed in the UK by William Gibbons. All rights reserved. Unauthorised reproduction in whole or part is prohibited without written permission. Every effort has been made to secure permission for copyright material. In the event of any material being used inadvertently, or where it proved impossible to trace the copyright owner, acknowledgement will be made in a future issue. Published by the Scouts Gilwell Park, London E4 7QW Tel: 0345 300 1818 Fax: 0208 433 7103 Email: makedoshare@scouts.org.uk Read Make.Do.Share. online at scouts.org.uk/magazine. Make.Do.Share. Editors Jennifer Woolridge, Sarah Margono, Jess Moore, Matt Payler, Rachael Stiles Senior Art Editor Dermot Rushe Art Editor Richard Jenkins Photography Simon Lees, Jesse Wild Cover Supertotto/Debutart Special thanks to… Katriel Costello, Katie Farnish, Sarah Kerry, Emma Newstead, Laura Thorner Account Manager Ellen Wade Director of Immediate Media Branded Content Julie Williams Copyright 2018. The Scout Association Registered charity numbers: 306101 (England and Wales) SC038437 (Scotland) Please note that the views expressed by members and contributors in the magazine are not necessarily those of The Scout Association. Make.

Do. Share. 4 If you and your section would like to apply to become our next Wogglebox reader panel then all you need to do is email us at makedoshare@scouts.org.uk explaining why we should pick you and what makes your section unique in under 100 words. Good luck! How to apply for Wogglebox

Autumn 2018 - Scouts

5 A ccording to leader Amy Keogh, the 64th Birmingham Scout Group is one without boundaries – which is one of the reasons we selected them for this issue’s Wogglebox. Amy says: ‘Our group has young people from many different backgrounds, religions and races, young people who attend private schools and some who are living off food banks. But not one young person in the group cares about the background of another – they all support, play with and help each other. As former UK Chief Commissioner Wayne Bulpitt MBE once said on a visit, we are “the United Nations of Scouting”.’ The group’s work with its local community has earned them the Queens Award for Voluntary Service. Amy explains: ‘It’s an honour creating links with schools, homeless charities and other local projects. Working with so many different groups allows our young people and leaders to learn about the world and develop real life skills.’ She says the group was ‘super excited to be in a magazine’ and had loads of fun on the photo shoot. Beaver Tiana says: ‘One of the cameras was bigger than my head! I really liked the photography and the activities.’ Turn to pages 22 and 26 to hear what some of the other Beavers thought of this issue’s activities. Photo: Simon Lees Meet this issue’s Wogglebox group 5

Autumn 2018 - Scouts

6 Keep healthy and learn how to measure your heart rate during rest and exercise Body maths T he heart beats an incredible 2.5 billion times over an average person’s lifetime. Keeping fit is essential for heart health, but how can you figure out what kind of exercise is the best? The activity you choose to keep fit should elevate your heart rate and the way to do this is by exercising for at least 30 minutes several times a week. To work out your maximum heart rate, take 220 beats per minute, which is an adult’s maximum heart rate, and minus your age (if under 18). So a 10-year-old’s maximum exercise heart rate should be 210 and a 16-year-old’s should be 204. With exercise, the aim is to achieve a target heart rate of between 50- 85% of your maximum heart rate. Take your pulse Use the first two fingers of one hand to feel the pulse on the opposite wrist, just below the thumb.

Autumn 2018 - Scouts

Suitable for Cubs, Scouts, Explorers and Network Time needed 60 minutes Badge GO Outdoors partners the Hikes Away Staged Activity Badge Partner Outcomes Planning a hike around other forms of exercise to measure and compare heart rate will reveal the science behind exercise and show which forms of exercise are best to keep your heart healthy. By recording their results, young people will see that different activities affect heart rate differently. The activity shows that a short burst of vigorous exercise bumps up the heart rate, whereas they would have to do moderate exercise, such as walking, for a longer time to achieve the same result. Taking it further Ask the young people to compare heart rates with others in the group to see how they vary from person to person and between people of different ages. More information GO Outdoors is supporting Scouts of all ages in achieving the Hikes Away and Nights Away Staged Activity Badges, by providing downloadable resources, in-store activities and much more to prepare them for adventures. To find out more about GO Outdoors, visit: scouts.org.uk/gooutdoors. More information about running a hike and hillwalking can be found here: scouts.org.uk/a-z.

7 3 At the chosen points on the route, assign appropriate exercise for an allotted time, for example, 10 minutes of running on the spot. At the same time, get the young people to check their pulse rates after one, two and five minutes of activity, and at the end. Just count the number of beats in 10 seconds then multiply by six. Ask them to write down each of the results. 4 At the next stopping point on the route, encourage the young people to choose a different exercise and repeat the process, stopping to measure their pulses and record the results again. 5 Also, ask them to measure their pulses after each stage of the hike and see how they compare with the pulse rates at the start of the hike, during the middle and at the end. 6 When the hike is finished, ask the group to compare the results and see which exercise produced a higher heart rate. You will find that 10 minutes of hiking, which is moderate exercise, results in a lower heart rate, while a burst of star jumps will increase the heart rate because it is more intense. You will need ■ paper ■ pens or pencils ■ timer ■ calculator Instructions 1 Plan a hike with your young people, with the aim of measuring heart rates. They should identify areas on the route suitable for them to skip, jog on the spot or do star jumps, to see how their resting heart rate compares with their target exercise heart rate. 2 Suggest that they practise finding their pulse, using the first two fingers of one hand to feel the pulse on the opposite wrist, just below the thumb (see diagram on opposite page). To measure the resting heart rate, take your pulse while you are relaxed and sitting down, for example, before the hike begins. Take the number of beats you count in 10 seconds and multiply them by six. Ask the young people to write this figure down on a piece of paper. 1 hour / 3 miles 1 hour / 3 miles + 1 hour / 2,000 feet 1 hour / 2,000 feet Naismith’s rule Plan a hike by using Naismith’s rule, which allows one hour for every 5km (3 miles), plus one hour for every 600 metres (2,000 feet) of ascent. For group hikes, work out the speed of the slowest person.

Autumn 2018 - Scouts

8 Launch a rocket Time needed 45 minutes Badge Rolls-Royce partners the Cub Scientist Activity Badge Partner Outcomes Talk to your section about the chemical reaction that occurs within the bottle. The baking soda contains sodium bicarbonate and the vinegar contains acetic acid. When these two elements are mixed, carbon dioxide forms and builds up inside the corked bottle. The pressure forces the top off and causes the rocket to ‘fly’. Taking it further Suggest the young people discuss the shape of the rocket they built and think about why it is important for flight, especially the fins and the nose. Ask them what they would change about the design to make the rocket reach a certain height. If they were to design a rocket that had the capacity to carry a fragile object, such as an egg, what kind of design changes would that need? More information Rolls-Royce partners the Cub Scientist Activity Badge to inspire young people about science, technology, engineering and maths. Fun and educational activities like this aim to take the fear out of science for Cub leaders and support Cubs in achieving their Scientist Activity Badge. Learn more at: scouts.org.uk/rollsroyce. You will need (per rocket) ■ large plastic bottle ■ three sturdy paper drinking straws ■ red, yellow and green vinyl tape ■ clear sticky tape ■ a cork ■ cardboard ■ white vinegar ■ baking soda (bicarbonate of soda) ■ funnel ■ scissors ■ paper towels Instructions 1 Divide your section into small groups. Ask each group to take a bottle and tape three straws to it. They should be positioned at the drinking end so they act as a stand for the upside-down bottle. The straws are secured in place by wrapping tape around both them and the bottle several times. 2 Next, ask the young people to draw four rocket fins on a piece of cardboard and cut them out. Each one should then be wrapped with a layer of red vinyl tape, making sure the fin shape is retained. Using clear tape, stick a fin to each side of the bottle. 3 Ask the group to make a cone out of cardboard for the top of the rocket, securing it with clear tape. It should fit over the bottom of the bottle. Cover the cone with red tape then stick a layer of yellow tape over the tip. Cover the join with a strip of green tape then secure the cone to the bottle. 4 Next, ask the young people to make sure the cork fits the bottle correctly. If necessary, they can use some tape to make it fit more securely. The cork needs to be tight enough to allow pressure to build up in the bottle once baking soda is added, but not so tight it won’t be forced out by the pressure. 5 Ask the young people to take the bottle outside, along with the baking soda, paper towels and vinegar. Find a safe place to launch the rocket, keeping away from any walls and windows.

6 Pour a tablespoon of baking soda into a paper towel. Wrap the soda with the towel, making a sausage shape so it can be inserted in through the neck of the bottle (but don’t do this yet). The paper towel acts as a time release, allowing enough time to step away from the bottle before it takes off. Make sure the group stands at least five feet away from the rocket. Make rockets out of baking soda and vinegar and see which one soars the highest! Suitable for Beavers, Cubs and Scouts 7 Pour the vinegar into the bottle until it is half full, then insert the parcel of baking soda. At the same time, replace the cork swiftly and then turn the bottle upside down. Step back quickly and watch as the rocket launches into the air!

Autumn 2018 - Scouts

9 Potato power! Time needed 45 minutes Badge The Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) partners the Scout Electronics Activity Badge Partner Outcomes Your group will be introduced to the basics of electronics and conduction by learning how to harness the energy stored in vegetables to power a light bulb. The activity uses three simple circuits to conduct energy when the different metals and juice from the potato create a small amount of voltage. Taking it further Scouts could take it further by completing a digital electronics project, such as the reaction and memory game, which requires a kit and uses resistors, LEDs and switches to test reaction times and memory. For more information, click on the Scout Electronics Activity Badge link here: scouts.org.uk/iet. More information The Institution of Engineering and Technology is one of the world’s largest professional engineering institutions, which aims to encourage young people to consider further learning and careers in the engineering and technology sector. For more information go to: scouts.org.uk/iet.

You will need (per group) ■ potato ■ sharp knife and chopping board ■ pieces of copper wire x 3 ■ pennies x 2 ■ long zinc-plated nails x 2 ■ light bulb and bulb holder Instructions 1 Split your section into small groups. Ask each group to safely cut their potato in half. In each half, they should cut a slit big enough to fit a penny inside. 2 Tell them to wrap a piece of copper wire a few times around each penny, with loose ends on both. 3 Each penny should be placed halfway into a slit in the potatoes, leaving the loose ends of the copper wire sticking out.

4 Next, ask the young people to take a zinc-plated nail and wrap it with the third piece of copper wire. As before, ask them to leave one end loose. Stick the nail into one of the potato halves. 5 Ask them to pick up the potato with the nail in it and take the loose end of the wire that’s on the penny and wrap it around the second nail. This nail is then stuck into the other half of the potato. 6 Finally, ask them to connect the two loose ends of the wire to the light bulb holder and watch it light up! Experiment with a vegetable and some different metals and watch as the chemical reaction between them creates energy Suitable for all 9

Autumn 2018 - Scouts

10 Life is a rollercoaster Explorers from the 64th Birmingham Scout Group not willing to travel that far. Luckily, we have a close link with a local charity that was happy to donate a minibus for us to use, in return for a bit of ground clearance work on their land, so we got stuck in with all the Explorers. The other challenge was the weather. When we left on the Sunday morning there was thunder and lightning, with floods in all the local roads spilling into houses and submerging cars. We had all intentions of cancelling the event until we called ahead and found that the forecast at Alton Towers Resort was sunny all day! What did the young people think of the day – was it a fun day out? They all said they had a really good day. The feedback from them included that it was fun to have an opportunity to talk to new people – they even met some people from other Scout groups! Michaela said it was better than she expected. Anjali said the fast passes were helpful as it gave them a chance to do more and to go on every ride. Were there any challenges you encountered during the trip? As leader, the biggest challenge we faced was the weather. The sun was out all day and we all came back a bit sun- burned. None of us expected it when we left Birmingham! Everyone had wrapped up warm and we were baking at the park. Making sure the young people drank enough water was tough, as they were all off having fun. But I think our Explorers would definitely go again. Did you enjoy the day, as a leader? Personally I am not a fan of the rides, but as a leader it was fantastic seeing all the young people coming off the rides with a beaming smile on their faces. The best thing for me was seeing those who normally wouldn’t go on rides coming off and wanting to go straight back on again. We also have a few Explorers who wouldn’t be able to go to something like this by themselves, for various reasons, so for them this was a fantastic opportunity they wouldn’t normally get.

How did the young people react when you told them they were going to Alton Towers Resort? Our Explorers were overjoyed to have been chosen. Joseph said he couldn’t believe that we could do something like that, and got really excited when the minibus turned up. Michaela has a fear of rides but was still really excited about spending a day out with her section. This trip is something we as a group may have struggled to fund and organise so we are massively grateful for this opportunity. As a leader, what were some of the practical things you had to consider before the trip? The issue for us was transport to the event. It’s an hour and a half journey each way for us, so the parents were The weather nearly scuppered a day out given to Explorers from 64th Birmingham Scout Group, but section leader Jamie Burrell powered through and they enjoyed a day of thrills at Alton Towers Resort. We caught up with him to find out how it went...

11 Merlin for Groups offers a variety of experiences and ticket options at their theme parks around the country. Find out more at merlinforgroups.com. Book a day out for your section ‘Wicker Man was my favourite bit!’ Jordan ‘Wicker Man was super scary but I was pushed on by my friends, faced my fears, and then really enjoyed it.’ Michaela ‘Smiler was my favourite.’ Corbin ‘Wicker Man was awesome and it was funny to see my friends scared.’ Joe ‘Smiler, because it was scary but was the best ride. And spending time with friends.’ Anjali Some of the Explorers share highlights from the day ‘When I found out I was really excited to go and have a day out with my mates’

12 Explore the history of aircraft engineering To mark 100 years since the end of WWI, take this quiz and discover how engineering and new technologies contributed to the war effort 1 Which distinctive feature of a biplane makes it different from other types of aeroplanes? 2 What three materials were aircraft commonly made of at the time? T he introduction of aeroplanes during World War I had a huge impact on how it was fought and won. Developments in how aeroplanes were built made them more safe, reliable and useful. Run activities to explore the topic with your section. For example, a relay to match photos with facts, an information scavenger hunt, or a dominos game with questions and answers. Then, try out this quiz to show the important role of engineering. Suitable for Scouts Before you start Go to scouts.org.uk/raf to download a PDF containing some key background information

Time needed 40 minutes Badge The Royal Air Force partners the Scout Air Researcher Activity Badge Partner Outcomes Young people will explore the role of aeronautical engineering in World War I. They will use what they learn about early aeroplanes to think about how their development changed the experience of flying them and made them safer. It will inspire them to think about how things work and the important role engineering plays in aeroplanes and other kinds of transport and technology. Taking it further Arrange to take your Scouts on a visit to the nearest RAF museum where they can see some of the planes that would have been used during different wars and learn more about their role. More information The Royal Air Force is delighted to be working in partnership with the Scouts as part of a strategy to inspire and enthuse young people about science, technology, engineering and maths. Please visit the partner page to download the Air Researcher Activity Badge resources and to find information on future Scout take-over days: scouts.org.uk/RAF.

13 How did you do? Download the answers here: scouts.org.uk/RAF 3 Aeroplanes were first used by the armed forces during WWI. Name three things they were used for. 4 What were some of the limitations of the aircraft used during WWI? 5 What developments in engineering would make them more useful? 6 The fuel tank on early planes was at the back of the aircraft instead of in the middle – why was this a problem? 7 What was the benefit of the early planes having two sets of wings? 8 Before planes, static observation balloons were used to get an aerial view. What was the biggest limitation of using balloons? 9 The RAF did not allow female pilots during WWI. What role did women play in the RAF at the time? 10 Before planes could carry radios, how did pilots communicate with those on the ground?

14 Suitable for Beavers and Cubs Healthy kebabs E nergy keeps us alive, keeps us warm and active and helps us to grow. Food provides us with that energy, but not all foods are equal. For example, fat contains more than twice the amount of energy as protein and protein has slightly more energy than carbohydrate. ■ When we say fat, we mean oils, meat, dairy, oily fish, nuts, seeds and avocado. ■ When we say carbohydrate, we mean bread, rice, potatoes, pasta and breakfast cereals. It can also be found in fruit, vegetables and milk. ■ When we say protein, we mean meat, fish, eggs, dairy, bread, soya, nuts and pulses (like lentils or chickpeas). To give an idea of how energy works, it is measured in kilojoules or kj, which is what you’ll see on food packaging. For example, an apple has 140kj per 100g and will give you enough energy for a 10-minute walk. Potato crisps have 2,240kj per 100g and will give you enough energy for a 160-minute walk (a typical pack of crisps is about 25g). Discover the best sources of energy and cook up some tasty kebabs on the campfire Did you know? Oily fish, cheese, nuts, seeds and avocados are high in energy because they contain healthier types of fat

Time needed 45 minutes Badge Jaffa partners the Beaver Health and Fitness Activity Badge and the Cub Our Skills Challenge Award Partner Outcomes Your section will find out about energy in foods and discover which foods contain the most energy. It will also give the young people the opportunity to try different kinds of fruit and vegetables they may not have tried before. Taking it further Talk to your section about the foods they would choose to help them achieve a balanced diet and what they would choose to make sure they have enough energy to see them through their day. Talk about the fact that while certain food groups outweigh others in terms of the energy they give, other food groups provide far greater health benefits. More information Jaffa is committed to educating future generations about the importance of nutrition and a healthy lifestyle, and hopes to generate enthusiasm around healthy eating in young people. Resources for both badges are available at scouts.org.uk/jaffa. Follow Jaffa on Twitter @JaffaFruit and on Facebook @LoveJaffa for updates.

Instructions 1 Check whether there are any dietary requirements or allergies. Explain to the young people that different types of foods give us different levels of energy, using the examples provided. 2 Ask them to choose which fruit or vegetables they want to try, then ask them to peel and chop the food into bite-sized chunks, using knives safely. 3 Give each person a skewer to load with the fruit or vegetables. 4 Help them to roast the kebabs on a campfire, making sure the young people are closely supervised. The vegetables will cook, while the fruit will caramelise slightly on the outside. 15 Low energy foods ■ fruit ■ vegetables ■ low-fat soup ■ lean protein ■ fibre-rich foods High energy foods ■ chocolate ■ cakes ■ biscuits ■ deep-fried foods Ideas for fruit kebabs ■ orange ■ banana ■ peach ■ plum ■ mango ■ pineapple ■ apple ■ blackberry Ideas for vegetable kebabs ■ pepper ■ mushroom ■ cherry tomato ■ courgette ■ broccoli ■ cauliflower ■ onion ■ aubergine Nutritional value One orange provides the recommended daily allowance of vitamin C. And it contains fibre, B vitamins, vitamin A, calcium and potassium.

19 Danger zone! Time needed 45 minutes Badge Northern Powergrid partners the Cub Home Safety Activity Badge Partner Outcomes Your group will learn how to spot any potential hazards in the meeting place, using fun methods that nevertheless have a serious message. They’ll learn the importance of eliminating risks and pick up some useful safety tips. Taking it further Most of these risks can be found in homes too. Ask your young people to share their findings for staying safe with their parents. Also ask them how they can share the message with the wider community – especially elderly people, anyone living at home with a serious illness or with poor mobility – so they know about the hazards in their homes. More information To find out more, visit: scouts.org.uk/.northernpowergrid. Spot potential hazards in your meeting place and find out how to protect against them 4 Encourage the group to talk about each of the hazards they have identified and to explain the dangers and how to prevent them.

5 Ask the teams to prioritise the hazards, putting the most dangerous first. Suitable for Cubs Instructions 1 Divide your section into small groups and give out the equipment. 2 Ask each group to design a symbol that represents a danger. They should draw it several times and colour it in, making it as eye-catching as possible, then cut out the shapes. 3 Ask the young people to identify the biggest dangers inside your meeting place and to mark out the hazardous areas with their symbols. Make sure they do not get too close to the hazards, for example hot kettles. You will need ■ pens and felt tips ■ paper ■ crayons ■ scissors ■ Blu-Tack or sticky tape 19

20 Suitable for Cubs and Scouts Find out how aviators test the direction and speed of wind – and have a go at building the instrument that measures it Activity 1 Make an anemometer straw flat against the cup and tape down. Repeat this step with three more cups. Make sure the four cups are all facing the same direction. 3 Ask the young people to turn the anemometer upside down and use a sharpened pencil to pierce a hole in the middle of the bottom of the centre cup. Sharp end first, insert the pencil through the bottom of the centre cup and make a hole big enough for the pencil to fit through. When the hole is big enough, take out the pencil then reinsert it, eraser-end first. Let the eraser meet the place where the straws cross. 4 Next, ask them to turn the anemometer the right way up and push the noticeboard pin through the intersecting straws and into the eraser. Don’t push the pin right in, so it can still spin round. Finally, get the group to mark one of the cups with a marker pen – this will be the cup the group uses for counting when measuring wind speed. You will need (per group) ■ paper cups x 5 ■ paper straws x 2 ■ tape ■ noticeboard pin ■ pencil with eraser ■ stapler ■ hole punch ■ marker pen Instructions 1 First, split the section into small groups. Ask each group to punch four holes through one paper cup, 1cm under the rim, one on each side, then to feed two straws through the holes and out the other side, so the straws cross in the middle.

2 Next, ask each group to take a paper cup and punch a hole near the opening. Holding the cup so the opening is on its side, insert one of the straws on the cross shape into the hole until ½cm to 1cm of the straw is poking through into the cup. Bend this bit of Wind speed

You will need ■ anemometer ■ pen ■ paper Instructions 1 Take the anemometers outside to measure wind speed. Ask each group to decide who will be the official counter, who will be the timekeeper and who will hold the anemometer. 2 Ask the timekeeper to draw two short columns on the paper, the first column headed ‘Time’ the second ‘Number of spins’. They will use this table to record their findings. Time needed 30 minutes Badge Heathrow partners the Air Activities Staged Activity Badge Partner Outcomes This activity will introduce your section to the instruments aviators use to measure windspeed and it will enable them to build an anemometer for themselves. Testing out the instrument will show the young people how it is used to record levels of wind speed. Aviators use this information to measure how long a flight will take and whether or not it is safe to fly. Wind speed has a direct effect on the aeroplane’s progress on its journey and can indicate whether or not there is a storm ahead. Taking it further Talk with your group about how the anemometer shows the direction the wind is blowing and how aviators use this information to determine whether there is a headwind or a tailwind. A headwind blows against the direction of travel, which is preferred during take- off and landing as it helps lift the aircraft and reduces ground speed, resulting in a shorter take-off run. During the flight, pilots will hope for a tailwind as this blows in the direction of travel and means shorter journey times. If air pressure around the wing is disrupted at take-off, lift is decreased and the wing stalls. This can be corrected by an increase in forward pressure. More information Heathrow is keen to engage with young people about the importance and responsibilities of aviation. They have produced fun activities to inspire the next generation’s curiosity and enthusiasm around aviation. Visit: scouts.org.uk/heathrow.

Activity 2 Measure wind speed 21 3 The person holding the anemometer should position it so it has full access to the wind from all directions. 4 The timekeeper says ‘go’ and the counter keeps track of how many times the marked cup passes them in one minute, when the timekeeper says ‘stop’. 5 To calculate an average speed, ask the group to repeat step three a further four more times. With a handmade anemometer, 10 turns per minute indicates a wind speed of one mile per hour. Top tip You can carry out this experiment indoors using an electric fan as the source of wind.

22 Suitable for Beavers and Cubs Activity Make a cipher wheel Be a secret agent Learn the basics of computer coding and encryption by deciphering messages from other agents using a cipher wheel You will need (per person) ■ printed template ■ scissors ■ pen and pencil ■ paper fastener Instructions 1 Print off the cipher wheel templates from scouts.org.uk/raspberry-pi. You will need one cipher wheel for each ‘agent’. Distribute the templates and ask the young people to safely cut out both of the circles. 2 Ask the young people to write the alphabet in the outer boxes of both circles, with one letter in each box. 3 Show them how to punch a hole through the centre of each circle with a pencil. Then push a paper fastener through the small circle first and then the larger one, before securing it at the back. 4 Explain to the group that the letters can be ‘encrypted’ and ‘decrypted’ to create coded messages, which is how computers send information. Refer to ‘How to use the cipher wheels’ across the page for the rest of the activity...

Time needed 45 minutes Badge Raspberry Pi partners the Digital Maker Staged Activity Badge Partner Outcomes This activity will introduce your section to the basics of encryption and decryption. Encryption is when you hide a word and decryption is revealing the word. By creating the cipher wheel, the young people will learn how to encrypt and decrypt letters manually so they can send and receive secret messages. More information The Raspberry Pi Foundation works to put the power of digital making into the hands of people all over the world. Making things with technology can help young people learn how to solve problems, build resilience, help their communities and express themselves. Projects and ideas to help towards the Digital Maker Staged Activity Badge are available at scouts.org.uk/raspberrypi. Divide the young people into small groups or pairs. They should turn their cipher wheels so that the ‘A’ on both wheels are lined up. Next, ask each group to choose two secret letters – one from each wheel – and remember them. Suggest they choose something that’s easy to remember, for example the first letter in their siblings’ or pets’ names. Next, they should move the wheels so that the two secret letters line up. The outer wheel is used as the code alphabet and the inner wheel as the normal alphabet. From now on, the letters in the outer wheel will match the letters in the inner wheel and the agents will be able to encrypt and decrypt secret messages within their group, but only if they know the secret letters. How to use the cipher wheels Joshua says: ‘It was really fun working out the messages. We felt like super cool spies like James Bond and that was awesome!’ Wogglebox 23 Leader Amy Keogh: ‘The Beavers really enjoyed it and found the concept of the wheel exciting. They did have some difficulty remembering what their two letters were but the oldest two got the hang of it quickly and coded a whole conversation – it was really funny hearing them try to speak to each other in their new code language!’

Y ou have probably heard by now that the law on data protection has changed. As a member of the Scouts, we will continue to send you information relevant to your role. But we won’t be able to tell you about exclusive member offers unless you say ‘yes’ to hearing from us in the future. If you don’t take action now, you’ll lose direct access to member-only discounts, exclusive opportunities, competitions and special news from our partners. Log in to compass today and update your marketing preferences. Follow these five easy steps: 1. Use your membership number to sign in to Compass. 2. Click on the ‘Communications Preferences’ tab.

3. Click the ‘yes’ option to the benefits you’d like to receive. 4. Double-check that your email address is correct and that your main role is set to ‘primary’ on Compass. 5. To ensure you receive essential communications for your specific role, make sure you’re using an email address on Compass that is unique to you (so if you currently share one with someone in your family who is also a member of the Scouts, make sure you update it to an email address only you use).

Time needed 45 minutes Badge Royal Navy partners the Time on the Water Staged Activity Badge Partner Outcomes This activity will not count towards the badge but will introduce young people to the principles of how a real paddle boat works, as they watch the spinning paddle boards doing the job of oars and pushing against the water. They’ll also find out about kinetic energy – the wound-up rubber bands have potential energy which is converted into kinetic energy as they unwind and make the paddles move. The activity will also make them aware of the history of seafaring – in the early days, steamboats used the power of steam to turn the paddles. More information The Royal Navy works around the world preventing conflict, providing security at sea, and offering humanitarian assistance to those who need it the most. The Royal Navy’s time spent on or around the sea means it’s the perfect sponsor for the Time on the Water Staged Activity Badge. To find out more visit: scouts.org.uk/royalnavy. Make a mini paddle boat and watch as kinetic energy powers it along Build a paddle boat Suitable for Beavers and Cubs You will need (per boat) ■ shallow plastic container ■ elastic bands x 4 ■ pencils x 2 ■ thick cardboard ■ scissors Instructions 1 Divide your section into pairs. Each team of two needs enough materials to make one mini paddle boat. 2 Working together, the first step is for each group to wrap two of the elastic bands around the plastic container and place two pencils onto the sides, using the elastic bands. 3 Ask the teams to take two more elastic bands and stretch them over the ends of both pencils. This will fix them together and balance them out.

25 4 Next, ask the teams to cut the cardboard into four hexagonal shapes, small enough to fit in the space between the two pencils. Ask them to cut a slit in the middle of each shape, stopping halfway down. 5 Show the young people how to make a rotating paddle by slotting the two hexagonal shapes together. Fit the paddles to the elastic bands and twist to wind them up. Fit a paddle to each end for balance. Keeping hold of the twisted rubber bands, place the boat on some water and let go. 6 Test the paddle boats out on still waters, such as a pond at your local park or in a swimming pool. For guidance on managing activities near the water, visit: scouts.org.uk/watersafety.

26 Build a hamster run Hamsters need plenty of exercise so keep them healthy by engineering an exciting run out of recyclable materials Don’t forget! Keep the hamster’s drinking bottle filled up with water, they need to stay hydrated while they are active. Fact 5 Hamsters also use this subterranean area to keep their food in. Fact 1 Hamsters that live in the wild like to dig burrows, which become a set of tunnels. Fact 4 Similarly, you may have noticed domestic hamsters like to store their food under the bedding in their cage. Fact 2 They choose this underground system as their living space. Fact 3 Another food store is their cheeks, which they use as pouches to keep food as they move back to their colony, so they can eat it later.

Suitable for Beavers and Cubs Time needed 45 minutes Badge Pets at Home partners the Beaver Animal Friend and Cub Animal Carer Activity Badges Partner Outcomes Making a hamster run will give the young people the opportunity to work as a team. They will put into practice basic building skills and gain an understanding of how a hamster run structure works. They’ll learn how to problem-solve, how to refine the build and devise ways to improve it as they go along. It will also give them the chance to think about the benefits small animals such as hamsters gain from exercise and to think about the animal’s needs as they design and build the run. Taking it further To take practical steps towards the Beaver Animal Friend and Cub Animal Carer Activity Badges, your young people could consider taking care of an animal for two months by giving it the correct foods, learning to recognise common traits as well as grooming, cleaning and exercising the animal. More information For more activity ideas and to download Activity Badge resources, visit: scouts.org.uk/petsathome. You will need ■ recyclable materials, e.g. cardboard tubes, egg cartons, cardboard boxes, yoghurt containers ■ masking tape ■ marbles ■ scissors ■ duct tape Instructions 1 To prepare for this activity, ask your section to bring in recyclable materials from home such as empty egg cartons, clean yoghurt pots, cardboard tubes, etc.

2 Pool all of the materials the group has collected and discuss which ones will be useful for the marble run. 3 Prepare your area. Depending on the meeting hut’s facilities, you can either build the hamster run against Kyan says: ‘I liked making the hamster run. It was fun to work on as a team and make something to help a little animal.’ Wogglebox 27 H amsters love to run and climb, so why not build them an elaborate hamster run? Working out the best way to build a structure that will give these small animals the exercise they need requires basic engineering skills, including analysis and refinement during the build. Encourage your section to build a run using a variety of supports and structures, with slopes at varying and constant angles. Part of the design process requires the young people to test and make adjustments as they go along, to decide which elements are working and where there is room for improvement. The run will also be suitable for gerbils and mice, so they’ll benefit from a run too. If you don’t have a small pet, you can always use the structure as a marble run! a wall by taping the pieces to the surface, or to a large piece of board. If you use the floor you will need to use some of the recyclable materials to rest the run on so it has different levels. 4 Before you begin building each section of the run, encourage the young people to have a quick discussion about what will work, which pieces to use and where to stick them. Talk about how they can cut the recyclables to customise them for the run.

5 Start to build the run, and keep testing it with a marble to check it is working. Make sure the different sections are big enough so that a hamster will have no difficulty in running around inside it. If it’s not working, you can remove the tape and re-stick it. Build sections up and down – the more sections the better. Repeat this process of discussion, building and testing all the way through until the run is complete. Leader Amy Keogh: ‘I thought this was a great idea as the resources needed are free every-day items. The activity sparked conversations about animals and their wild habitats, recycling and finding new ways to use things we normally throw away. They learned that working together can lead to making better things than we can on our own.’

28 Make a piston engine Learn about the principles of converting pressure into movement using tin cans Build it! Download the step-by- step instructions at: fundraising.scouts.org.uk/ the-british-army

Time needed 90 minutes Badge The Army partners the Scout Mechanic Activity Badge Partner Outcomes With this activity, Scouts will learn the basic principles of the piston engine, a system which converts heat energy into mechanical energy. The heat from the candle powers the tin can pistons, which then convert pressure into a rotating motion, turning the crankshank, connecting rod and the disc. More information The Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers (REME) maintain and manufacture equipment to keep the British Army aircraft, tanks and weapons in working order. For more information visit: fundraising.scouts.org.uk/ the-british-army.

29 T this activity will help young people learn the basic principles of how a Stirling piston engine works, by converting heat energy into mechanical energy. The heat from the candle increases the local temperature of the air in the bottom of the can. This causes the air to expand and lift the wire wool displacer. The air then travels into the balloon where it is cooled by the surrounding air. This subsequent cooling contracts the air and causes it to travel back to the bottom of the can, ready for the next cycle. The Stirling engine operates under the ‘ideal gas law’, where increases in air temperature result in increased pressure when in a limited space. The engine has been used for power generation, refrigeration and on submarines. It is often chosen due to its quietness. Young people will enjoy getting to grips with the principles of how it works and seeing it in action. Suitable for Scouts

30 If you want to build a fire in the forest but need to protect nearby trees, try this fixed camp structure Build a fixed fire Suitable for Scouts, Explorers and Network Felix Immler For more camping activities, take a look at The Swiss Army Knife Book: 63 Outdoor Projects by Felix Immler and search for him on YouTube.

31 You will need ■ Victorinox Swiss Army Knife ■ mallet ■ flat stones ■ dead wood – branches and posts ■ fire bucket Instructions 1 Before starting, make sure you have permission to build the fixed fire, as it is a permanent structure. Then, go to scouts.org.uk/victorinox to read the Victorinox Knife Safety resources and create a risk assessment. You should also consider an appropriate level of ratio and supervision for the group. 2 Encourage the group to collect clay or flat stones and use them to cover the floor of the fireplace. This will help prevent burn marks on the forest floor and stop underground roots from catching fire. Time needed 60 minutes Badge Victorinox partners the Scout Survival Skills Activity Badge Partner @victorinox Victorinox Visit scouts.org.uk/victorinox Outcomes The young people will learn how to build a fireplace with a structure that protects the forest area. Scorches to the forest floor are prevented and the surrounding trees are protected from sparks or excess heat. The ‘wall’ of the structure reflects light and heat away from nearby trees and back into the campfire area, which also makes the fire more efficient. More information For more information or to download the resource packs, visit: scouts.org.uk/victorinox. 3 Ask the young people to arrange a border of stones around where the fireplace is going to be. 4 Suggest they collect dead wood from the forest floor and then use it to build a wall behind the fireplace using the ‘making a bed’ stacking technique (see step 5, below).

5 For the ‘making a bed’ stacking technique, take posts with a diameter of 3cm and sharpen one end. With a mallet, knock two posts into the ground, about 5cm apart. Do the same with two more posts opposite, around 80cm away. Bind the post pairs at the top and build up a wall of branches between the posts. 6 Next, the young people will need to dig up clods of clay. They can do this using a wooden mallet and digging stick. This will help to form the ‘walls’. 7 Using a flat rock and a little water, ask them to knead the clay.

8 Show the group how to take a handful of clay and, swinging an arm back, fling it against the dead wood wall, making sure the clay sticks between the branches. At this stage they are constructing the reflector wall. 9 Encourage the young people to add clay to the back wall. Leave the clay to dry. You could speed up the drying process by lighting a small fire. (Step 3) (Step 4) (Step 5) (Step 8) (Step 9)

32 Training for Discover how NASA uses water to prepare its astronauts for outer space Deep end Each dive lasts six hours and needs a team of 350 people, including engineers, medics, tailors, etc n air conditioning n six hours of oxygen n gold coloured visor n a drink dispenser n camera n radio n light n waste removal system (massive nappies) space The suit is fitted with:

Treading water, the young people should be spread out in the pool. As the leader, you should stand at the poolside and shout out instructions, calling out actions such as, ‘Simon says float on your back’ and ‘Simon says duck under water’. Whenever you call out an action without saying ‘Simon says’, the young person who carries out the action is eliminated. The last person standing – or swimming – is the winner. 33 Time needed 60 minutes Badge Swimming Teachers’ Association partners the Swimmer Staged Activity Badge Partner Outcomes These activities will help your young people feel confident about swimming above and below the water line in an indoor pool. Time spent playing games and working in teams will boost young people’s confidence. The expertise they’ll need to perform each task will test their coordination, dexterity and agility and will hone the skills they’ll need to work towards their badge. Taking it further Suggest that your young people attempt these games whilst wearing shirts and shorts so they can experience – to a limited extent – what it would be like wearing a space suit. They could also attempt to tread water holding one hand behind their backs, which is what an astronaut would have to do when operating a tool to fix the space station. More information The Swimming Teachers’ Association (STA) is the world’s largest swimming teaching and lifesaving organisation that delivers high-quality training in swimming teaching, life-saving, first aid and leisure management. It is committed to preserving human life through the promotion of swimming, life-saving and survival techniques. To find out more, visit: scouts.org.uk/STA.

Gather a selection of toys and objects, some that float and some that sink, and throw them into the deep end of the pool, letting the heaviest sink to the bottom. Have two lots of objects in each half of the pool. Divide the group into two or three teams and challenge each team to take it in turns to dive in and bring the objects to the surface. The first team that retrieves all their objects in the fastest time wins. Ask the young people to forms groups of three or four, then each group should get into the pool and form a circle. The group will duck under water and one person will hum their favourite tune. Above the water, the group will try to guess the tune. They get three tries at guessing the correct song and then it’s someone else’s turn. Suitable for Beavers, Cubs and Scouts Safety first ● Make sure each young person is able to confidently swim 200m on their own and can tread water for at least 60 seconds.

● Ensure there are enough adult volunteers to supervise the activities. ● Check that there is a lifeguard present. Visit scouts.org.uk/a-z for more advice on swimming safety. HMMMM! E ver wondered how NASA trains astronauts for space walks? The answer is, by sending them to a specialised swimming pool in the most expensive suit on the planet. The Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory in Texas is bigger than nine Olympic-sized pools and has a life-sized replica of part of the International Space Station at the bottom. Here, astronauts experience conditions that mimic weightlessness by wearing a $12m suit, specially pressurised and able to cope with the extreme temperatures of space. Maintaining the space station is one of the most dangerous jobs in the universe. Underwater, the astronauts can get used to moving around and staying tethered, so they don’t float off into space. Scout Ambassador and European Space Agency astronaut, Tim Peake Activity 2 Underwater humming Activity 1 Scavenger hunt Activity 3 Simon says ‘Scouting was the first step of a journey that led me to becoming an astronaut’

34 Support the ultimate challenge Finish Start Rob and Poldy have embarked on the Arch2Arctic challenge to raise £100,000 for the Scouts, which will go towards ensuring more young people can learn skills for life. They are currently over halfway to reaching their target. The two adventurers set off in June and after running from London to Dover, they are swimming the channel to France and cycling through Europe to northern Norway, before rowing more than 700 miles to the Svalbard islands in the Arctic Ocean. For more information about the challenge visit: arch2arctic.com/ Two men are currently on the adventure of a lifetime to support Scouting – donate at uk.virginmoneygiving.com/ arch2arctic Rob McArthur and Poldy van Lynden

35 Beavers Cubs Scouts Staged activity badges Additional sponsors Our partners Merlin scouts.org.uk/merlin BEAR Nibbles Beaver My Adventure Challenge Award scouts.org.uk/ bearnibbles Gruffalo Explorers Beaver My Outdoors Challenge Award scouts. org.uk/gruffalo explorers CrossCountry Cub Personal Safety Activity Badge scouts.org.uk/ crosscountry Halfords Cub Cyclist Activity Badge scouts.org. uk/halfords Northern Powergrid Cub Home Safety Activity Badge scouts.org.uk/ northernpowergrid Army Scout Mechanic Activity Badge scouts.org.uk/ the-british-army IET Scout Electronics Activity Badge scouts.org.uk/ iet RAF Scout Air Researcher Activity Badge scouts.org.uk/ raf UK Space Agency Scout Astronautics Activity Badge scouts.org.uk/ ukspaceagency Victorinox Scout Survival Skills Activity Badge scouts. org.uk/ victorinox GO Outdoors Nights Away and Hikes Away Staged Activity Badges scouts.org.uk/ gooutdoors Heathrow Air Activities Staged Activity Badge scouts.org.uk/ heathrow Raspberry Pi Digital Maker Staged Activity Badge scouts. org.uk/raspberrypi Royal Navy Time on the Water Staged Activity Badge scouts.org.uk/ royalnavy STA Swimmer Staged Activity Badge scouts.org.uk/sta RAC Cub Road Safety Activity Badge scouts.org.uk/rac Rolls-Royce Cub Scientist Activity Badge scouts.org.uk/ rollsroyce Beavers and Cubs Pets at Home Beaver Animal Friend and Cub Animal Carer Activity Badges scouts.org.uk/petsathome Jaffa Beaver Health and Fitness Activity Badge and the Cub Our Skills Challenge Award fundraising.scouts.org.uk/jaffa KidZania scouts.org.uk/kidzania

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