Biodiversity Field Studies - The Paul F-Brandwein Summer Leadership Institute - Brandwein ...

 
Biodiversity
 Field Studies

    The Paul F-Brandwein
Summer Leadership Institute
Ecology in Action:
Biodiversity Field Studies
The Paul F-Brandwein
Summer Leadership Institute
July 28 - August 6, 2000

                                           Kathleen A. Rapp

                              The Paul F-Brandwein Institute
                                        Unionville, New York
Copyright © 2001 by the Paul F-Brandwein Institute. This volume may not be
reproduced in whole or in part in any form without written permission from the
publisher. Requests for permission should be addressed to the Paul F-Brandwein Institute,
PO Box 13, Unionville, New York 10988. Telephone (845) 856-8230

The Brandwein Summer Leadership Institute program is supported by a grant from the
Toyota USA Foundation, The Brandwein-Morholt Trust and the Pocono Environmental
Education Center.

Designed by Thomas Thornton
Contents

           4    A Paul F-Brandwein Institute Vision of
                Effective Professional Development

           5    Mission Statement
                The Paul F-Brandwein Institute

           6    Paul F-Brandwein (1912-1994)
                Scientist, Teacher, Author,
                Humanitarian, Philosopher,
                Conservationist

           8    The Brandwein Summer Leadership
                Institute Sites

           9    Summer Leadership Institute Overview

           12   The Brandwein Summer Leadership
                Institute

           26   BSLI-2000 Teacher-Participants

           46   Brandwein Summer Leadership
                Institute Resource People

           50   The Paul F-Brandwein Institute
                Board of Directors

           51   The Paul F-Brandwein Institute Staff

           52   The Paul F-Brandwein Institute Fellows

           53   Internet Resources
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                                        A Paul F-Brandwein Institute Vision
                                        of Effective Professional Development
                                            The Brandwein Institute (BI) supports teachers                    learn anything when you are the one who is
                                        who use the environment as a context for                          asking all the questions?” At the Brandwein Summer
                                        instruction and learning through exemplary                        Leadership Institute, teachers initiate research
                                        education programs at the Brandwein Summer                        questions, collect data, interpret data, and present
                                        Leadership Institutes (BSLI). BI is building a                    the results. The facilitators, through their
                                        presence for environmental science education by                   instructional strategies, reflect science as it is
                                        increasing knowledge and stewardship of cultural                  practiced, a legacy of Dr. Paul F-Brandwein.
                                        and natural resources in national parks,                               BI core beliefs regarding professional
                                        conservancies, and land held in trust. Since the                  development embody the following concepts: the
                                        teacher is the key to student success, enhancing                  primary purpose of teaching is to facilitate learning;
                                        teachers’ knowledge of the environment is an                      teachers possess specialized knowledge; and the
                                        important way to help improve student                             practice of teaching is complex. Hence Brandwein
                                        performance. Paul F-Brandwein, a founder of the                   workshops are structured so that inquiry-based
                                        Pocono Environmental Education Center (PEEC),                     learning lies at the heart of what teachers are
                                        noted that teachers, like students, best learn science            provided.
                                        by doing science, by investigating for themselves                     Teachers possess a body of knowledge of
                                        and building on their own understanding. This                     content, the students they teach, the forms of
                                        philosophy was the keystone for the first Toyota                  instruction and assessment strategies used, and the
                                        USA Foundation-sponsored Brandwein Summer                         global context in which they teach. Teachers
                                        Leadership Institute that was convened at PEEC in                 attending summer leadership institutes expect to
                                        July 2000 for 20 outstanding science teachers.                    continue learning throughout their careers and
                                            Attributes of effective methods to engage                     improve their practice by choosing and attending
                                        students in environmental science are authentic                   appropriate professional development learning
                                        science learning, cooperative learning, hands-on                  opportunities. Teaching is a complex practice that
                                        learning and inquiry-based learning. Authentic                    requires planning, acting, observing, assessing, and
                                        science learning involves students by engaging them               reflecting. It requires constant and consistent
                                        in actual, ongoing science research currently being               decision making. Teachers build on their own
                                        conducted. Cooperative learning involves students                 experience and expertise, and through the BSLI,
                                        in group projects and learning activities, whereby                have the opportunity to learn in part from the
                                        they develop the skills necessary to improve the                  collective wisdom and experience of colleagues and
                                        learning of one another. Hands-on learning engages                others. BI affords teachers the opportunities for
                                        students in learning through direct involvement and               collegial reflection.
                                        interaction with materials, rather than by rote                       Beliefs about professional development have
                                        memorization of facts. Students engaged in                        changed over the years. Today’s approach embraces
                                        environmental science experience the process skills               not only the teacher, but also the school and
                                        of observing, measuring, recording, classifying,                  community to which the teacher belongs. Effective
                                        interpreting data, inferring, predicting, investigating,          professional development efforts value teachers
                                        and making models.                                                learning and sharing together. However, it takes
                                            What is unique to the Brandwein Summer                        commitment and involvement of school systems to
                                        Leadership Institute experience is that the teacher-              promote continuous learning by providing teachers
                                        participants, in addition to experiencing the above               the time for in-depth field science investigations,
                                        process skills, discover the joy of analyzing what                collaborative work, and reflection. In short, the
Never doubt that a                      they are investigating. BI’s inquiry-based approach               Brandwein Summer Leadership Institute enables
small group of                          to environmental learning engages teachers in the                 teachers to use the environment to advance inquiry-
thoughtful citizens
can change the
                                        full processes of science. Teachers choose and                    based learning, conduct field investigations and
world. Indeed, it’s                     conduct environmental research projects guided by                 problem solving activities, and apply new
the only thing that                     a mentor and their own inquiry. This concept is                   knowledge–an approach that fosters in-depth
ever has.                               reminiscent of a Phi Delta Kappan cartoon caption                 understanding.
    – Margaret Mead                     in which a student asks his teacher, “How can I
                                                                                                                                        by John (Jack) Padalino

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Mission Statement
   Reflecting the wisdom of                           healthy and healing environment. BI programs
Paul F-Brandwein–author, teacher, scientist,          help all learners develop an understanding of the
publisher, conservationist, and humanitarian–the      symbiotic relationship between humans and the
Paul F-Brandwein Institute educates people to         environment.
recognize their responsibility for sustaining a

About the Paul F-Brandwein Institute
   Established in 1996 as a collaboration             “ecology of achievement,” allowing ideas to form
between the Brandwein-Morholt Trust and the           and be tested through meaningful research and
Pocono Environmental Education Center (PEEC),         fieldwork. BI educational programs integrate the
the Paul F-Brandwein Institute (BI) perpetuates       natural wealth of biodiversity at the Rutgers
the legacy of Paul F-Brandwein through                Creek Wildlife Conservancy (Greenville, New
environmental education. BI programs nurture          York) with scientific investigation, creative
the gifts and talents of all learners at all levels   analysis, and state-of-the-art technological
and foster skills, concepts, and values basic to      research tools. In this way, education and
environmental decision making within a global         conservation of the environment become
context. By bringing together students, educators,    intertwined.
and scientists, education at the BI encourages an

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                                        Paul F-Brandwein (1912-1994)
                                        Scientist                                                         revolutionizing the way science was taught
                                            Born in 1912, Paul F-Brandwein immigrated                     throughout the country. Disappointed with
                                        to the United States from Austria prior to WWII.                  lecture and textbook-based teaching, Paul
                                        Paul’s interest in science began quite early,                     developed classroom materials based on
                                        partially owing to the time he spent in hospitals                 investigation, research, and analysis. His widely
                                        with childhood arthritis. Though the condition                    used grade-specific series, Concepts in Science,
                                        cut short a career in piano, his                                                       pioneered the style of
                                        love for the instrument                                                                hands-on, investigative,
                                        remained strong throughout his                                                         science education that
                                        life. PFB became an assistant at                                                       generations of students have
                                        the Littnauer Pneumonia                                                                come to experience as the
                                        Research Laboratory in New                                                             norm. Even so, Paul
                                        York where he worked while                                                             remained aware of the
                                        completing his bachelor of                                                             limitations inherent in any
                                        science from New York                                                                  textbook. To forward
                                        University. This early start in                                                        innovative education
                                        original research had a great                                                          methods, he joined with
                                        impact on the direction of his                                                         scientists and educators on
                                        studies and philosophy on                                                              the Sputnik science project.
                                        education. By 1940, upon                                                               Additionally he served on
                                        completion of his masters and                                                          the Steering Committee of
                                        doctorate studies at NYU, PFB                                                          the Biological Sciences
                                        was secure in the belief that “the best way to                    Curriculum Study, as chair of its Gifted Student
                                        encourage the young in science was to help                        Committee, and as consultant to the Physical
                                        them early to do original work.”                                  Science Study Committee. Through these
                                                                                                          committees, PFB strengthened the presence of
                                        Teacher                                                           programs designed to interest high school
                                           Paul’s experience as an educator began at                      students in science through “originative” inquiry.
                                        George Washington High School. He moved on,
                                        through the 1940s and into the mid 50s, to serve                  Humanitarian
                                                                                                              Always concerned with and committed to a
                                        as a member and later as chair of the science
                                                                                                          vision of equity in education, PFB strived to
                                        department at Forest Hills High School. Here he
                                                                                                          improve education for the students he believed
                                        piloted a program encouraging students to do
                                                                                                          to be most neglected: the disadvantaged and the
                                        original work in science. It has been suggested
                                                                                                          gifted. He once said, “We do pretty well for the
                                        that more of Paul’s students won the prestigious
                                                                                                          80 percent of the students in the middle. But the
                                        Westinghouse Science Talent Search than those
                                                                                                          10 percent at the top and the bottom: we grind
                                        of any other teacher.
                                                                                                          them under our feet!” Based in his belief of
                                        Author                                                            equal access to opportunity, he promoted self-
                                          An accomplished author, PFB began                               selection by interested students–rather than
                                        publishing science textbooks in 1946,                             assignment based on testing.

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Philosopher
                                                       Evelyn Morholt (1914-1995)
     Lifelong research and experience with
education led Paul to develop the concept of an
“ecology of achievement” whereby “the school-
                                                       E     velyn Morholt was a long-time friend
                                                             of Paul and Mary Brandwein, and a
                                                       former science teacher with PFB at Forest
community ecosystem acts in mutualism with
                                                       Hills High School. Over the course of her
cultural and university ecosystems.” With this
                                                       long career, Evelyn served as editor of The
analogy to the relationship of students,
                                                       Teaching Scientist (Federation of Science
educators, scientists, and the community at large,
                                                       Teachers, New York City), chair of a New
PFB expressed the necessity for integrating
                                                       York City high school science department,
education with life and community. Drawing a
                                                       and acting examiner for the New York
distinction between “schooling” and “education,”
                                                       Board of Education. She wrote nine books,
PFB emphasized the impact of the community
                                                       and the most recent (in 1986, with PFB),
on the school rather than vice versa. Refusing to
                                                       A Sourcebook for the Biological Sciences
allow schools to shoulder the blame for society’s
                                                       (3rd ed.), is still an important resource for
ills, he saw the quality of schools as
                                                       science education.
symptomatic of the state of the community.
“Specific communities get the kind of schools
                                                       Evelyn Morholt bequeathed her home to
their economic and social conditions permit; it is
                                                       the Brandweins in 1994. Her house, which
simplism itself to blame schools for the plight of
                                                       is close by the Brandwein residence,
the community or of society.”
                                                       currently contains the BI offices and
Conservationist                                        herbarium.
   In addition to his involvement with primary
and secondary education in the United States,                    Pennsylvania. This position combined
PFB participated in many roles with graduate                    his interests in education and
and undergraduate institutions throughout                      conservation. The Rutgers Creek Wildlife
the world. He was education director                          Conservancy, established by Paul and his
and later co-director of the                                 wife Mary, has been administered by the
Pinchot Institute for                                       Brandwein-Morholt Trust since Paul’s death
Conservation                                               in 1994. In affiliation with the Pocono
Studies at Grey                                              Environmental Education Center, the
Towers in                                                      Conservancy serves as a site for
Milford,                                                        educational programs and research. The
                                                                 Paul F-Brandwein Institute advances
                                                                 Paul’s intention for the land as a place
                                                                 of learning and discovery for students,
                                                                 teachers, scientists, and those interested
                                                                   in natural systems and the
                                                                    environment.                                                         We cannot solve
                                                                                                                                         the problems that
                                                                                                                                         we have created
                                                                                                                                         with the same
                                                                                                                                         thinking that
                                                                                                                                         created them.
                                                                                                                                                 – Albert Einstein

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                                        The Brandwein Summer Leadership Institute Sites
                                        The Rutgers Creek Wildlife                              million people have visited PEEC since it was
                                        Conservancy                                             established in 1972.
                                        Greenville, New York                                        Its 38-acre campus sits on the escarpment of
                                                                                                the Pocono plateau and within the 67,000-acre
                                            The Paul F-Brandwein Institute is located on
                                                                                                Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area (a
                                        the 77-acre Rutgers Creek Wildlife Conservancy
                                                                                                National Park). Surrounding parklands and
                                        preserve, with its offices in the former
                                                                                                Nature Conservancy lands offer visitors over a
                                        residence of Evelyn Morholt. The Conservancy
                                                                                                quarter million acres for study. PEEC, a nonprofit
                                        land was farmed until the 1960s, and is now
                                                                                                organization, works in partnership with the U.S.
                                        wooded and houses diverse wildlife habitats.
                                                                                                Park Service.
                                        The land is traversed by stone walls marking
                                                                                                                      The Delaware Water Gap
                                        the former fields, and is bisected by Rutgers
                                                                                                                    National Recreation Area
                                        Creek. Active dairy farms and growing
                                                                                                                     offers a distinctive
                                        residential development surround the preserve,
                                                                                                                       combination of natural,
                                        which is located in the rolling, wooded hills
                                                                                                                        cultural, and recreational
                                        near Greenville, New York, close to the New
                                        Jersey and Pennsylvania state lines. It is                                 NY     features providing
                                                                                                                           opportunities for public
                                        used by students, teachers,                           The Rutgers Creek              use and enjoyment in
                                        scientists, and other lifelong                        Wildlife Conservancy
                                                                                              Greenville, New York           an increasingly
                                        learners for environmental
                                                                                                                                   urbanized region.
                                        studies. Two houses sit
                                                                                                                                          Rich in
                                        on the property: the
                                                                                                                                        resources,
                                        former residence of                   Pocono Environmental
                                        Evelyn Morholt and
                                                                             Education Center
                                                                             Dingmans Ferry, Pennsylvania
                                                                                                                        NJ         wildlife, and
                                                                                                                              bounteous forests,
                                        the Brandwein
                                                                                                                           current theories suggest
                                        home, a farmhouse                                               PA                 that humans may have
                                        dating from the mid-
                                                                                                                            inhabited the area as
                                        1850s. In addition to
                                                                                                                        early as 8500 BC.
                                        the BI offices and
                                                                                                                      Approximately 40 miles of
                                        herbarium, the Morholt residence will
                                                                                                the exceptionally unpolluted Delaware River lie
                                        eventually house laboratory, exhibit, and
                                                                                                within the Park’s boundaries. The area’s geologic
                                        classroom facilities.
                                                                                                and natural features form scenic landscapes and
                                                                                                typify landforms and biotic areas of the
                                        Pocono Environmental
                                                                                                Appalachian Mountains. The park encompasses
                                        Education Center
                                                                                                elevations from 500 to 1,500 feet, which contain
                                        Dingmans Ferry, Pennsylvania
                                                                                                diverse habitats for plants, invertebrates,
                                           The Pocono Environmental Education Center            amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, and fish.
                                        (PEEC) is the Western Hemisphere’s largest              The park’s mission is to provide outdoor
                                        residential environmental education center. PEEC        recreation opportunities while conserving its
                                        annually serves more than 22,000 students,              natural, cultural and scenic resources by working
                                        including children, families, teachers, scientists,     cooperatively with surrounding communities and
                                        and other lifelong learners. More than half a           the public.

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Summer Leadership Institute Overview
    The Toyota USA Foundation, with the Paul F-               scientists, educators, and resource specialists
Brandwein Institute, supports the Brandwein                   participate in the BSLI. These individuals present
Summer Leadership Institute (BSLI) program,                   sessions, facilitate ecological fieldwork and
offering environmental fieldwork and workshop                 technology training, and serve as mentors to
experiences to K-12 teachers nationwide. The                  BSLI teachers in the field and after the summer
goal of the BSLI is to develop a cadre of                     institute. Teachers are afforded opportunities for
teacher/scientist mentors who, as lifelong                    informal sharing and collegial reflection during
learners, will share their expertise with teachers            the BSLI. In addition, there is time to explore the
and students                                                                                      cultural and
nationwide.                                                                                       natural features
    Each year, 20                                                                                 of the area,
teachers are                                                                                      including a day
selected from a                                                                                   in New York
pool of                                                                                           City.
recognized                                                                                            At the close
outstanding                                                                                       of each
science teachers.                                                                                 summer’s BSLI,
A committee                 Brandwein Summer Leadership Institute 2000 Teacher Participants       participants are
composed of                                                                                        inducted as
master teachers, field scientists, and members of             Brandwein Fellows, a select group of scientists
the BI advisory board select the institute                    and educators recognized by the Paul F-
participants from the applications received.                  Brandwein Institute. As Brandwein Fellows, they
Various criteria are considered, including their              take on the task of sharing PFB’s philosophy to
experience implementing student fieldwork, their              educate and mentor others to recognize their
interest in environmental education and inquiry-              responsibility for sustaining a healthy and
based teaching, and their desire to share their               healing environment.
knowledge and expertise with other teachers.                      To help them do this, BSLI participants each
                                                              receive $1,200 and are expected to provide at
    The 9-day BSLI concentrates training in                   least three workshops to share what they
four areas:                                                   learned at the BSLI. Additional funding is
    • Implementing long-term ecological                       available over the next two years to continue
      research by students                                    and expand their outreach.
    • Using the latest technology and integrating                 Brandwein fellows remain in contact
      it with field-based inquiry                             throughout the year via an e-mail list service
    • Exploring assessment strategies to measure              where they share resources, experiences, and
      field-based learning                                    ongoing projects. In the spring, the Brandwein
    • Learning to pursue further funding to                   Fellows convene at the NSTA National
      sustain student research                                Convention to share their outreach experience
    The BSLI focuses on activities that provide               and community-based projects. This luncheon
teachers with science content knowledge and                   meeting is held following the Brandwein
help them develop strategies for facilitating                 Lecture, a featured event at the National
student/scientist interactions. A variety of                  Convention.

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                                                                                                                list service for BSLI participants and resource
                                               The BSLI Focus
                                                                                                                people was set up. This forum enables teachers
                                                                                                                to share resources, files, and discussions. After
                                               At the first Brandwein Symposium in 1997, a
                                                                                                                the summer institute, teachers continue posting
                                           forum of scientists and master teachers discussed
                                                                                                                to the forum, sharing resources and developing
                                           and determined priority needs for improved
                                                                                                                new collaborative projects for sharing student-
                                           field-based science education. This symposium
                                                                                                                collected data over the Internet. This online list
                                           included several Toyota TAPESTRY awardees,
                                                                                                                service is an easily-accessible means of
                                           and was the first meeting of Brandwein Fellows.
                                                                                                                continuing the collegial relationships formed
                                           The BSLI is designed to address needs identified
                                                                                                                among participants and resource people during
                                           by the Brandwein Fellows.
                                                                                                                the BSLI.
                                                                                                                    While in the field, BSLI teachers use hand-
                                           Implementing long-term                                               held Global Positioning System (GPS) units
                                           ecological research                                                  within their study quadrats, and transfer these
                                                                                                                data into a Global Information System (GIS)
                                               At the Rutgers Creek Wildlife Conservancy,
                                                                                                                mapping program. In computer labs, teachers
                                           BSLI teachers learn to conduct long-term
                                                                                                                learn to merge field data with databases
                                           ecological research techniques for use with
                                                                                                                containing geological, soil, topographical, and
                                           students. The first BSLI (BSLI-2000) focused on
                                                                                                                other data to create rich “overlays” of their study
                                           terrestrial biodiversity studies using the
                                                                                                                sites.
                                           Smithsonian Institution’s Monitoring and
                                                                                                                     Representatives from companies such as
                                           Assessment of Biodiversity (SI/MAB) protocol for
                                                                                                                PASCO, Inc., demonstrate high tech water quality
                                           establishing and monitoring biodiversity plots.
                                                                                                                testing devices. Teachers use the equipment
                                           The SI/MAB protocol has been implemented by
                                                                                                                themselves, and then learn to graph and analyze
                                           scientists and educators at 62 sites around the
                                                                                                                the data.
                                           world.
                                               In addition to terrestrial studies, BSLI teachers
                                           conduct aquatic studies in Rutgers Creek. Both                       Exploring alternative
                                           low tech and high tech approaches to water                           assessment strategies
                                           quality data collection are used.
                                                                                                                    Increased student test scores is only one
                                                                                                                measure of a program’s success. It is more likely
                                           Integrating field-based inquiry                                      that quality environmental science education
                                           with the latest technology                                           programs will be assessed, in
                                                                                                                part, by measuring increased
                                               Teachers need access to and training in the
                                                                                                                understanding of
                                           latest technology used by scientists in order to
                                                                                                                environmental principles by
                                           share with students authentic science
                                                                                                                the public. BSLI participants
                                           experiences. With this in mind, the BSLI is
                                                                                                                discuss and devise methods to
                                           designed to provide ample opportunities for
                                                                                                                measure the
                                           teachers to use technology and explore ways of
                                                                                                                success of
                                           integrating it successfully into student field
                                                                                                                problem-based,
The job of the                             studies. At the BSLI, teachers work with the
citizen is to keep                                                                                              environmental
                                           latest software for analysis, mapping, displaying
his mouth open.                                                                                                 science field study.
                                           and communicating results.
      – Gunther Gra                                                                                             They create
                                               Prior to the BSLI-2000, a web-based e-mail

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instruments to measure field-based learning and       facilitating ecological fieldwork and technology
evaluate alternative assessments and                  training, and serving as mentors to BSLI teachers
performance-based examinations. Participants          in the field and after the summer institute.
find ways to measure not only what students           Teachers take their BSLI training back to their
have learned, but also whether their learning has     schools, where they mentor students and other
had an impact on them, on their society, and/or       teachers in ecological field studies. In addition,
on the environment. Teachers and scientist            teachers are encouraged to contact resources in
review different models and metrics to enable         their community, and bring in scientists and
them to demonstrate effectively the success of        others who can mentor students.
the inquiry approach to field investigations.             To maximize the BSLI’s impact, participants
                                                      are selected from a pool of recognized
                                                      outstanding science teachers including
Exploring funding resources                           Presidential Awardees in Science Teaching, GTE
    Sustainability is a key point for teachers        GIFT Awardees, and Toyota TAPESTRY
attempting to implement long-term ecological          awardees. By drawing from this group, the BSLI
field studies. Many teachers do not know where        includes many teachers who have already
to begin when it comes to locating funding            demonstrated excellence and leadership in their
sources and writing grant proposals. The BSLI         profession. In addition, BSLI participants have
includes sessions to help teachers in this area.      done extensive student field studies, have
The sessions provide grant-writing tips and           demonstrated an interest in the environment and
resources, and advice and perspectives from           eagerness to share their knowledge with
successful grant writers and grant readers. BSLI      colleagues.
participants test their own grant-writing skills by       BSLI participants agree to do a minimum of 3
preparing a proposal for use of their $1,200          workshops to share the fieldwork protocols and
Brandwein outreach grant.                             help other teachers implement similar projects.
                                                      Each Brandwein fellow is expected to reach a
                                                      minimum of 90 additional teachers through post-
The BSLI Impact                                       BSLI training sessions in the coming year.
    There is a reluctance to teach environmental      Venues for these outreach activities include
education in a great many school districts today.     presentations at national and regional NSTA
The leading reason for this resistance is the lack    conventions, state and local teachers meetings,
of teachers prepared to teach scientific principles   and school and district inservice days.
in the context of the environment.1 The BSLI              Over the course of Toyota funding, the BSLI
addresses this need by building a cadre of            will provide training, resources, and mentoring
science teacher leaders who are trained in            for environmental fieldwork to an estimated
environmental field techniques and who then           7,500 teachers nationwide.
mentor numerous teachers and students
throughout the country. This group will grow to
include 60 BSLI-trained teachers during the
three-year period of Toyota funding.
    Paul F-Brandwein said that mentoring was a
                                                         1
                                                           Teaming with Life: Investing in Science to
key ingredient in successful science education.
                                                      Understand and Use America’s Living Capital.
Scientists, educators, and resource specialists       President’s Committee of Advisers on Science and
participate in the BSLI, presenting sessions,         Technology. OSTP. March 1998.

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                                            The Brandwein Summer Leadership Institute
                                        July 28 - August 6, 2000                                            studies, and briefly described the terrestrial
                                                                                                            studies that he planned for the teachers at
                                                                                                            Rutgers Creek.
                                        The Online Discussion Forum
                                                                                                               BI Assistant Director Dan Foord posted links
                                            The inaugural Brandwein Summer Leadership                       to various readings to spur discussion prior to
                                        Institute (BSLI) was held July 28 through August                    the BSLI. Teachers discussed changing
                                        6, 2000. However, the participants, facilitators,                   perspectives on conservation and the
                                        and Brandwein Institute (BI) staff began                            environment after reading a 19th century
                                        communicating regularly several months prior to                     examination of a New York county. Teachers
                                        the Institute via an e-mail list service.                           also read and discussed online documents
                                            The forum was set up on                                                            describing National Park Service
                                        eGroups                                                                                and U.S. Geological Survey
                                        (http://www.egroups.com) in                                                            ecological studies in the
                                        late May 2000, and enabled                                                             Delaware Water Gap National
                                        teachers to share information                                                          Recreation Area (DWGNRA) in
                                        about themselves, their                                                                preparation for their visit to the
                                        locations, and their interests                                                         area.
                                        prior to actually meeting. Said
                                        Allen Bone, a BSLI participant,
                                        “It is almost like we are going                                                        The BSLI-2000
                                        to know everyone before we
                                                                                                                               Friday, July 28, 2000
                                        get together, but maybe that
                                        was the original intention!”                                                                Several BSLI teachers
                                            BI staff used the e-mail                                                            arrived early and spent Friday
                                        forum for general                                                                       exploring the grounds around
                                        communications, informing                                                               PEEC, hiking a variety of trails,
                                        teachers about what to bring to                                                         experiencing oak-hickory
                                        the BSLI, where to meet at the                                                          forests, pine plantations, and
                                        airport, and other logistical details.                              hemlock groves, as well as viewing scenic vistas
                                            In addition, the eGroups list service enabled                   and tumbling waterfalls.
                                        the BI staff and facilitators to assess teacher                        Some early arrivers were treated to a private
                                        needs and experience in areas such as                               tour of Grey Towers, the Pinchot family mansion
                                        technology use and grant writing. Teachers                          and National Historic Landmark, located near
                                        shared their experience with CBLs, various                          Milford, Pennsylvania, just up the road from
                                        probeware, and kits for water quality studies,                      PEEC. Aside from enjoying the beauty of the
                                        and voiced where they wanted more training.                         chateau-like mansion, teachers learned about the
                                        They also discussed their familiarity with grant                    work and legacy of the Pinchot family, including
                                        writing, which helped facilitators tailor the grant-                James Pinchot, who endowed the Yale School of
                                        writing sessions to teacher interests.                              Forestry, and Gifford Pinchot, an early
                                            Via this list service, BSLI fieldwork facilitator               conservationist, friend of Theodore Roosevelt,
                                        Dan Bisaccio introduced himself to the teachers,                    and first Chief Forester for the U.S. Forest
                                        explained his background in student biodiversity                    Service.

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    BSLI participant arrivals were staggered            look for bats and listen to frogs on the beautiful
throughout the day and into the evening on              late summer evening.
Friday. Teachers welcomed one another as vans
arrived from the airport, and helped each other         Saturday, July 29, 2000
settle into the cabins at PEEC. BSLI participants            A group of about 10 BSLI
put names with faces during informal socializing        teachers awoke early to join
on the cabin porches.                                   PEEC naturalist Wendy Potter
    Upon their arrival, teachers received a             for an early morning bird
Brandwein Institute tote bag containing a               walk on woodland trails.
number of items. Teachers were given a copy of          The group heard and saw
“Into the Field,” a book about field journaling,        ovenbirds, pine warblers, eastern phoebes and
along with a sketch diary for journaling. The           blue jays–a treat, especially for the Westerners in
reference texts “Terrestrial Ecoregions of North        the group.
America’ and “Aquatic Ecoregions of North                    After breakfast, the BSLI program began with
America,” were provided. In addition, teachers          an introductory session by Dan Bisaccio. Dan
received a LaMotte Low Cost Green water                 talked about his Toyota TAPESTRY-funded
quality monitoring kit, and a PEEC water bottle.        HabitatNet project, designed for students to
    Friday evening, the BSLI group convened at          collect data, conduct research, and have an
PEEC’s main building for a welcoming reception.         impact on an important global issue: biological
There, the BSLI teachers mixed with the                 diversity. Dan explained how the TAPESTRY
multigenerational (grandparent/grandchild)              grant led to many opportunities and ultimately
Elderhostel group also at PEEC for the week.            changed his teaching. Based on his reputation
Both groups were welcomed by Jack Padalino,             for student field studies, the Smithsonian
president of PEEC. Afterward, Pat Lynch from            Institution contacted him to use their SI/MAB
the National Park Service welcomed everyone to          (Smithsonian Institution’s Monitoring and
the DWGNRA, and spoke about the importance              Assessment of Biodiversity) protocol for
of the park and conservation in the area. Pat           biodiversity field studies. Dan explained that the
quoted a statistic that shocked many of the BSLI        SI/MAB protocol would be the basis for the
teachers: 60 million people currently live within       terrestrial fieldwork they would do over the next
a six-hour drive                                        few days at Rutgers Creek.
of the park, and                                             After Dan’s session, each BSLI participant
by 2020, that                                           described their personal work with student field
number is                                               studies, often using PowerPoint presentations
expected to                                             and slides. A few used posters, which were
double.                                                 displayed in the PEEC classroom for viewing by
Preserving park                                         all.
woodlands and                                                                                                                                  In any moment of
                                                             Lunch at the PEEC dining hall provided an                                         decision the best
recreation areas BI President, Jack Padalino welcomes   opportunity for teachers to digest the                                                 thing you can do is
for this growing          BSLI 2000 Participants                                                                                               the right thing, the
                                                        information they were learning about each other.                                       next best thing is
population is a                                         Many noted how invigorating it is to hear what                                         the wrong thing,
priority and continuing challenge for the NPS.                                                                                                 and the worst
                                                        other teachers do.                                                                     thing you can do
    Following the reception, everyone enjoyed                After lunch, teachers viewed a brief video                                        is nothing.
the outdoor barbecue catered by the PEEC                about Paul F-Brandwein and the Brandwein                                                – Theodore Roosevelt
dining hall. After dinner, a small group of             Institute, which provided some background on
teachers hiked to the ponds on PEEC grounds to

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                                        the Rutgers Creek land. The video explained                         teachers need to market themselves effectively,
                                        Paul and his wife Mary’s vision for the Rutgers                     explaining in detail how they are prepared to
                                        Creek Wildlife Conservancy, which was                               complete the proposed project and including
                                        verbalized in a trust and assures that the land be                  relevant press clippings and resumes of project
                                        available for the perpetual benefit of the general                  staff and resource people. She advised teachers
                                        populace.                                                           to follow proposal guidelines explicitly, avoid
                                            Teacher                                                         jargon, highlight the uniqueness and creativity of
                                        presentations                                                       their ideas, and limit themselves to realistic plans
                                        finished up in the                                                  with a concrete end product. In addition, Marily
                                        early afternoon,                                                    provided handouts and a long list of Internet
                                        and everyone                                                        resources for teacher grants.
                                        took a brief break                                                      Jack Padalino and Steve Case contributed
                                        before traveling                                                    their viewpoints to the grant-writing session.
                                        in vans for a field                                                 Jack shared his experience as a Toyota
                                        trip to                Teachers sort and classify benthic           TAPESTRY judge for the past 10 years. Steve
                                                                     macroinvertebrates
                                        Raymondskill                                                        Case provided insight as a National Science
                                        Falls, reportedly the highest falls in                              Foundation grant reviewer. He told teachers that
                                        Pennsylvania. After hiking back from                                he wants to see passion for a program in the
                                        Raymondskill Falls, a brief drive brought the                       grants he reads. He reiterated Marily’s advice to
                                        group to Silver Thread Falls and the scenic                         avoid jargon, define terms, and he added that for
                                        Dingman’s Falls. Teachers enjoyed the beauty of                     NSF, collaborations and in-kind support are very
                                        the waterfalls, and observed with interest the                      important, since they are crucial to a project’s
                                        nearby rocks, lichens, mosses, and flowering                        sustainability.
                                        plants, including native rhododendron.                                  After the grants session, the BSLI group
                                            Saturday evening, the BSLI group crossed the                    gathered for a bus ride to the Rutgers Creek
                                        Delaware River at Dingmans Ferry, and enjoyed                       Wildlife Conservancy (RCWC) near Greenville,
                                        a lovely dinner at the Walpack Inn, in Walpack                      New York.
                                        Center, New Jersey. The dining room features a                          Once there, botanist Bill Olson explained his
                                        wall-sized picture window with a view of the                        work developing the RCWC Herbarium. Bill
                                        rolling countryside and a herd of white tail deer                   described collecting and recording the locations
                                        that approach within several yards of the                           of plants, and demonstrated the process for
                                        restaurant to feed.                                                 identifying, pressing, and mounting specimens
                                                                                                            for the Herbarium, and entering data about them
                                        Sunday, July 30, 2000                                               into a computer database.
                                            After breakfast, the BSLI reconvened in the                     The Herbarium currently
                                        PEEC classroom for Marily DeWall’s presentation,                    contains 810 sheets,
                                        “Proposal Development and Grants for                                representing 302 species
                                        Teachers.” Marily shared her experience writing                     of vascular
                                        grants and working with judging panels for the                      plants found
                                        Toyota TAPESTRY program. She provided                               in the RCWC.
                                        teachers with practical hints on how to get                         Bill explained
                                        started, how to develop an idea into a project                      that the point
                                        plan, how to identify potential funders, and to                     of the
                                        write a formal proposal. Marily suggested that                      Herbarium

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collection is to record the plants that are in the      what made that organism’s habitat unique.
RCWC now as a baseline, so that long-term                    Teachers returned to PEEC for dinner, and
changes can be studied. In the future, it will be       then Jan Rethorst from the Pike County Raptor
possible to examine changes in                                                         Center presented
species occurrence within the                                                          an evening session
Conservancy, and look at how varying                                                   about raptors. She
ecological conditions                                                                  brought several
affect a species’ growth                                                               live birds,
and habit. Bill                                                                        including various
demonstrated how he                                                                    owls and a Bald
uses the U.S. Geological                             BI Chairwoman, Mary Brandwein     Eagle, and spoke
Survey mapping software                              (left), Teachers debrief after a about bird
                                                     morning field session (above)
MapTech to record the                                                                 rehabilitation and
location of each plant                                                                conservation issues.
collected in the RCWC,
and the North Carolina                                Monday, July 31, 2000
Botanical Garden’s database of plant names and            On Monday morning, Dan Bisaccio talked
taxonomies to record the scientific name of each      more about his experience with student
specimen.                                             fieldwork in tropical ecology, their use of the
    The Herbarium session was followed by an          SI/MAB protocol and contribution to the
outdoor luncheon hosted by Mary Brandwein in          Smithsonian’s BioMon database. He explained
her beautiful garden. Mary was a very gracious        how the BSLI teachers would use the SI/MAB
hostess, welcoming the BSLI participants for a        protocol in the field and described the
tour of her home and telling stories about many       procedure for tagging and mapping trees within
of her interesting collections. Mary provided         their 20 meter by 20 meter study quadrat. In the
copies of two books by Paul F-Brandwein, as           field, they would record the location and other
gifts to the teachers. These were “The Gifted         information about each tree, and later transfer
Student as Future Scientist” and “Gifted Young in     these data and map them using the Interactive
Science–Potential Through Performance.”               Habitat program developed by Joe Russo. Dan
    After lunch, the teachers received an             explained that in the Mid-Atlantic region, they
introduction to journalizing in the field. An         would typically find 30-40 trees per quadrat.
example was given of sketching a dragonfly,               The BSLI teachers then bused to RCWC and
beginning very rough, and as the observer grows       hiked out to the woods. At the first of four pre-
more skilled, progressing in stages to a very         established study quadrats, everyone gathered as
detailed drawing. After the introductory exercise,    Dan helped the first group of teachers begin the
the teachers took their field notebooks and           process of mapping trees. Then, the teachers
hiked to Rutgers Creek where they spent about         divided into groups, and hiked to the other
an hour thinking about field journalizing and         study quadrats to begin recording data. Teachers
  applying what they had read in “Into the            used portable GPS units to locate trees within
   Field.” They used all their senses to              the quadrats, densitometers to measure canopy
   experience their surroundings and recorded         density, and a Wildlife Pro 35mm camera with
these observations in their journal. They were        motion detector to photograph passing wildlife
     asked to select an organism and examine it       each night (several portraits of white tail deer
    in the field, writing in their journals about     resulted).

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                                            The Terrestrial Studies
                                            HabitatNet: A Global Biodiversity Project                    Conservancy while offering selected teachers the
                                            Field Report #1: Rutgers Creek Nature                        opportunity to learn established field research
                                            Conservancy, Greenville, New York USA –                      protocols. Several research questions were posed
                                            September 2000                                               that comprised issues related to the integrity of
                                            Submitted by: Dan Bisaccio, HabitatNet Project               biological diversity found within those plant
                                            Director                                                     communities over time. Those questions consisted
                                                                                                         of viewing long-term biodiversity measurements as
                                            Abstract:                                                    they relate to: urbanization, introduction of exotic
                                                                                                         species, natural vs. anthropogenic disturbance,
                                                Twenty (20) outstanding educators from across
                                                                                                         and global climate change.
                                            the country were selected to participate in the first
                                                                                                             Using the Smithsonian Institution’s Monitoring
                                            Paul F-Brandwein Summer Leadership Institute
                                                                                                         and Assessment of Biodiversity (SI/MAB)
                                            (BSLI) during late July/early August 2000. As part
                                                                                                         protocols, four (4) initial quadrats were surveyed
                                            of the institute, the teachers were trained in the
                                                                                                         during this institute. During the weekend of 15
                                            Smithsonian Institution’s
                                                                                                                               May 2000, David Foord and
                                            Monitoring and Assessment
                                                                                                                               myself walked the Rutgers
                                            of Biodiversity (SI/MAB)
                                                                                                                                Creek Conservancy property
                                            protocols while conducting
                                                                                                                               and chose the sites based on
                                            primary biological diversity
                                                                                                                                differences in plant
                                            research at the Rutgers Creek
                                                                                                                                communities found within the
                                            Nature Conservancy.
                                                                                                                               higher terrain and lower
                                                Four (4) SI/MAB quadrats
                                                                                                                               riparian communities. A high
                                            were surveyed. Two quadrats
                                                                                                                                terrain and riparian site were
                                            were upland mixed                     BSLI Participant Anne Tweed measures          chosen on each side of
                                            deciduous forest habitats,                       a tree’s diameter
                                                                                                                               Rutgers Creek. Each site,
                                            while the other two were riparian habitats. An
                                                                                                         measuring twenty (20) meters by twenty (20)
                                            upland and riparian quadrat from each side of
                                                                                                         meters was surveyed and marked. The site was
                                            Rutgers Creek was surveyed. The intent was to
                                                                                                         named Rutgers Creek 2000 (RC00) using SI/MAB
                                            establish a SI/MAB Biodiversity Plot, known as
                                                                                                         protocols for naming sites.
                                            RC00 (Rutgers Creek, year 2000), as well as gain
                                                                                                             Subsequently, Joe Russo (ZedX, Inc.) was
                                            some insight about the plant communities found
                                                                                                         developing a web-based analysis program that
                                            within the conservancy. Additionally, several target
                                                                                                         would enable the teacher/researchers to input
                                            questions for further research were articulated.
                                                                                                         their plant community data into a database that
                                            Those questions concern:
                                                                                                         would support on-going analysis and hypothesis-
                                               a. biodiversity with regard to encroaching
                                                                                                         testing using an ortho-digital map of the field site.
                                                   urban sprawl,
                                                                                                             The teacher/researchers were assigned
Those who                                      b. biodiversity with regard to the introduction
                                                                                                         quadrats and began the SI/MAB research during
contemplate the                                    of exotic species,
beauty of the earth                                                                                      the week of 31 July–1 August 2000. Quadrat 1
                                               c. biodiversity with regard to natural
find resources of                                                                                        (riparian) and Quadrat 29 (high terrain) are
strength that will                                 disturbance, and
                                                                                                         located on the north side of Rutgers Creek, while
endure as long as                              d. biodiversity with regard to global climate
                                                                                                         Quadrat 17 (riparian) and Quadrat 28 are located
life lasts. There is                               change.
symbolic as well as                                                                                      on the south side of Rutgers Creek. Facilitators
actual beauty in                                                                                         and consultants rotated and worked with each
the migration of                            Discussion:                                                  quadrat team during the survey period.
birds, the ebb and
                                                The focus of the biodiversity assessment for                 Trees measuring a minimum of 10 cm.
flow of tides, the
folded bud ready                            this first Brandwein Summer Leadership Institute             diameter at breast height (DBH), defined at 1.3
for spring.                                 (BSLI) was to begin a systematic analysis of the             meters above ground, were surveyed. DBH, status,
     – Rachel Carson                        plant communities found within the Rutgers Creek                                                         continues

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 The Terrestrial Studies (Continued)
 and identification of the species were measured         and long-term) will allow us to more fully
 by quadrat teams and compiled. Overall DBH              understand and appreciate the wisdom of Aldo
 averages, tree species density, and tree species        Leopold in the following notes from A Round
 frequency were calculated for these four (4)            River Journal:
 quadrats. Tree acronyms were defined by using                “If the land mechanism as a whole is good,
 SI/MAB definition (the first 3 letters of the Genus     then every part is good, whether we understand it
 followed by the first 3 letters of the species).        or not. If the biota, in the course of eons, has
     Overall, fifteen (15) tree species and a total of   built something we like but do not understand,
 seventy-eight (78) individuals were identified in       then who but a fool would discard seemingly
 the four (4) quadrats.                                  useless parts? To keep every cog and wheel is the
                                                         first precaution of intelligent tinkering.”
                                                              In addition to the basic research and
 Concluding Remarks:                                     investigations afforded by this project, a primary
     Certainly, this report is just a beginning. Much    affective hope is to reacquaint students and
 more fieldwork needs to be done as well as the          teachers with nature so that we may all better
 interpretation of the present and future data. Basic    understand our fundamental role and
 taxonomic work complemented with continuing             responsibility in safeguarding global biodiversity.
 investigations of species interactions (both short

         Summaries of the four (4) quadrats follow:
         Quadrat 1 – Riparian               GPS 41 20’ 37” N, 74 35’ 71” W
         Canopy Density: 80%                Ground Cover: 15% detritus, 75% herbaceous, 10% open
         Tree Species: 6                    Total Individuals: 24
         Quadrat 17 – Riparian              GPS 41 20’ 30” N, 74 35’ 81” W
         Canopy Density: 75%                Ground Cover: 35% detritus, 40% herbaceous, 25% open
         Tree Species: 7                    Total Individuals: 15
         Quadrat 28 – High Terrain          GPS 41 20’ 28” N, 74 35’ 70” W
         Canopy Density: 100%               Ground Cover: 55% detritus, 45% herbaceous, 5% open
         Tree Species: 7                    Total Individuals: 20
         Quadrat 29 – High Terrain          GPS 41 20’ 31” N, 74 35’ 57” W
         Canopy Density: 93%                Ground Cover: 35% detritus, 40% herbaceous, 25% open
         Tree Species: 9                    Total Individuals: 19

   A number of experts joined the teachers in            is wonderful.”
the field. Naturalist John Serrao, herpetologist Ed         Following a picnic lunch at RCWC, half of the
McGowan, mycologist Dorothy Smullen, and                 teachers returned to the study quadrats, while
Dan Bisaccio consulted with the teachers and             the others hiked to another location along
helped them identify fungi, amphibians, reptiles,        Rutgers Creek for water quality studies.
insects, and mammals. Both direct sightings and          Representatives from PASCO demonstrated
indirect evidence (such as tracks and scat) were         probes and sensors for measuring dissolved
recorded by the BSLI teachers. Said BSLI                 oxygen, pH, turbidity, flow, and other water
participant Lura Hegg, “The opportunity to get           parameters. In addition, Kelly Nolan, from the
out in the field with such knowledgeable people          Hudson Basin River Watch, showed teachers

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                                            The Aquatic Studies
                                               The BSLI teachers experienced both high and                    based in schools. Teams are often partnered with
                                            low-tech approaches to water quality testing at                   local private interests, nonprofit organizations and
                                            Rutgers Creek. Kelly Nolan, of the Hudson Basin                   government agencies.
                                            River Watch (HBRW), led teachers in the low-tech
                                            version. HBRW is an association of students,                          The HBRW provides recommended protocols
                                            teachers, citizen volunteers, environmental                       for collecting standardized water quality data
                                            organizations, and water resource agencies whose                  within a framework of three tiers of environmental
                                            mission is to improve the water quality of the                    monitoring that include introductory investigations,
                                            Hudson River and its tributaries through                          preliminary assessment, and rigorous assessment.
                                            education, community involvement, and

                                                      Chemical Data Report Sheet
                                                      School/Group: Brandwein Institute            Stream: Rutgers Creek, Orange County, NY
                                                      Date(s) Sampled: 7/31/00     Site#: 1
                                                      Today’s weather conditions: cloudy           Water temp: 19°C
                                                      In the past 24 hours, there was: heavy rain
                                                      Flow (indicate fast reading here and calculated reading below): medium
                                                                                                Replicates
                                                                                               1        2     Average               Method Used

                                                      Water pH                                 7.5      7.5    7.5          Pocket pal
                                                      Alkalinity (mg/)                         60       55     57.5         LaMotte micro-burette
                                                      Chloride (mg/l)                          ––       ––     ––
                                                      Turbidity                                15       15     15 JTU       LaMotte Turbidity Column JTU
                                                      Conductivity                             228      225    229          meter
                                                      Other: ________ Add Units
                                                      Nitrate-Nitrogen as N - OR               0        1      0.5          Cadmium reduction: color
                                                      - Nitrate-Nitrogen as NO3                                             comparitor
                                                      Nitrate-Nitrogen: report as                                           other: Standard curve? No
                                                      NO3 (to convert N to NO 3,
                                                      take the N result and
                                                      multiply by 3
                                                      Ortho-Phosphate as PO4                   0        0      0            Ascorbic Acid Reduction: color
                                                      –OR-Ortho-Phosphate as P                                              comparitor
                                                      Ortho-Phosphate: report as                                            Standard Curve? No
                                                      P (to convert PO4 to P,
                                                      take the PO4 result and
                                                      divide by 3)
                                                      Dissolved Oxygen (mg/l)                  8.6      8.2    8.4          Winkler with micro-burette
                                                      – OR- Dissolved Oxygen
                                                                                                               90% SAT
                                                      (% Saturation)

                                            stewardship. The HBRW has developed a                                 Kelly led the BSLI teachers in preliminary
                                            comprehensive system for training volunteers,                     assessments at two Rutgers Creek sites. The
                                            including school children, in how to identify water               studies focused on macroinvertebrates and
                                            quality problems; to monitor the physical,                        chemical tests. The results of these analyses are
                                            biological, and chemical characteristics of waters;               available online at:
                                            and to use the information in river restoration and               http://home.att.net/~volunteerstreammonitoring/
                                            protection efforts. The HBRW is a coordinated
                                            network of autonomous teams, with over 100
                                                                                                                                                       continues

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 The Aquatic Studies           (Continued)

 Macroinvertebrates                                     Chemical parameters
     Using the HBRW protocol, BSLI teachers                 Using simple equipment and procedures, the
 collected river bottom samples from two fast and       teachers measured water pH, alkalinity, chloride,
 two slow areas in a riffle, screened out debris to     turbidity, conductivity, nitrate, ortho-phosphate,
 dislodge the                                           and dissolved oxygen. The preceding chart
 organisms, and                                         summarizes chemical data collected at one Rutgers
 then took their                                        Creek site.
 time collecting                                            In addition to the HBRW protocols, BSLI
 the assortment                                         participants were exposed to high tech water
 of critters using                                      quality data collection and analysis tools: PASCO
 forceps, and                                           scientific’s ScienceWorkshop 500 Data Acquisition
 sorting them in                                        Interface. Using the remote data collection
 ice cube trays                                         capacity of this interface, the teachers collected
 for analysis.                                          environmental data in the field (independent of a
     With the help of HBRW sorting sheets, teachers     computer connection). Data collected included
 identified the organisms within families, and using    temperature, pH, flow rate, dissolved oxygen,
 HBRW worksheets, the teachers recorded their           depth vs. temperature profiles, light intensity and
 findings for analysis. HBRW provides metrics for       barometric pressure. Field-collected data was then
 analyzing the macroinvertebrate data. BSLI             returned to the laboratory, downloaded onto a
 teachers did three analyses. First they looked at                               computer and displayed in
 the number of identifiable species of mayfly,                                   graphic and tabular form
 stonefly, and caddisfly larvae. Then they arrived at                            for data analysis.
 a “biotic value” for each group of organisms, by
 multiplying the number of individuals (for each of
 11 types of organisms found) by an assigned
 biotic index. Finally, they compared the number
 of various organisms to a model of expected
 findings for a pristine stream, and calculated the
 variation. The macroinvertebrate analyses                                            BSLI teachers collect
 indicated excellent water quality at one site on                                     specimens (top) and
 Rutgers Creek, and good water quality at a site                                      perform chemical analysis
 adjacent to Minisink Highway.                                                        at Rutgers Creek (left)

how to conduct water quality studies using low          characteristics of various types of clouds, and
tech, inexpensive kits and macroinvertebrate            illustrated his presentation with slides. Mike
counts.                                                 talked about ground fog, valley fog, stratus,
    This group later returned to the Morholt            cirrus, and cumulus clouds, and various types of
home to download and graph data collected               storm clouds.
with the PASCO probes. They returned to the                 Later, naturalist John Serrao brought out the
quadrat studies, while the second group of              herps of the Pocono Plateau. John discussed the
teachers went to Rutgers Creek for hydrology            habitats and natural history of each species as he
studies.                                                walked around the PEEC classroom giving each
    After dinner at PEEC, the first evening             BSLI teacher an up-close view of the various
presenter was meteorologist Mike Mogil,                 snakes, frogs, toads, and lizards. He talked about
                                                                                                                                            Find your place
president of How The Weather Works. Mike                each species in detail, telling of the gray tree                                    on the planet, dig
shared his fantastic web site                           frog, which changes color to match tree trunks,                                     in, and take
                                                                                                                                            responsibility from
(http://www.weatherworks.com/), with its many           the green frog which sounds like banjo strings,                                     there.
links to meteorological data. He described the          and the wood frog, which sounds like quacking                                                – Gary Snyder

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                                        ducks. He showed                                                    The teachers returned to PEEC for dinner,
                                        teachers leopard and                                            and the evening program began with Steve Case,
                                        pickerel frogs, as well                                         who talked about the benefits of learning
                                        as an American toad,                                            science while engaged in authentic, meaningful
                                        and a bullfrog, among                                           work. Beyond training data collectors, Steve
                                        many others. Snakes                                             believes that fieldwork holds many possibilities
                                        were the hit of the                                             and can help students become analytical
                                        evening, as John                                                thinkers.
                                        displayed everything                                                He described long-term student ecological
                                        from a worm snake                                               research he’s been involved in, including student
                                        (which aptly looks very much like a worm), to a                 stream monitoring, and a study of
                                        black racer, a milk snake, and a timber                         tardigrades–tiny organisms that live on moss and
                                        rattlesnake, which had molted earlier in the day.               lichens, and are an environmental indicator. He
                                                                                                        pointed out his web site (http://kancrn.org)
                                        Tuesday, August 1, 2000                                         which contains links to various resources for
                                           After breakfast, the BSLI group again bused                  teachers and student research projects.
                                        to RCWC to complete their mapping of the study                      Steve provided BSLI teachers with additional
                                        quadrats. They were joined by field consultants                 advice on finding funds for student projects. He
                                        Steve Case, Tom Formichello, Otto Heck, Ed                      encouraged them to be leaders, to publicize the
                                        McGowan, Mike Mogil, Kelly Nolan, John                          results of their students’ research, write articles,
                                        Poliero, and Mike Trimble. While mapping the                    do presentations, and generally share their
                                        quadrats, the BSLI teachers also practiced                      experiences with colleagues in an effort to
                                        observing, writing, and sketching in their field                encourage more teachers to involve students in
                                        journals. They observed the forest structure,                   real science.
                                        looking for light gaps, comparing the density of                    After Steve, ecologist Otto Heck shared his
                                        the understory to the canopy, and sketched                      passion for owls. He talked about how the
                                        vertical tree profiles.                                         changing environment and habitat loss have
                                           After lunch, the teachers went to the National               impacted owl populations and ranges. Otto
                                        Park Service Peirce House for Tim Smith’s                       shared many facts about owls during his slide
                                        session about Geographical Information Systems                  presentation. For example, most owls are
                                        (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS). Tim                 nocturnal and have very keen vision and
                                        explained the basic fundamentals of GIS and                     hearing. Owls can hear a beetle 100 meters
                                        discussed specific types of software available,                 away, and a mouse from a 1⁄2-mile distance. He
                                        such as ArcView by ESRI, Inc. He provided                       described their habits, their prey
                                        teachers with a sense of how they can use the                   (rodents and birds),
                                        tool of GPS to collect data for input into a GIS.               and their diverse
                                        Tim also presented an overview of various GPS                   habitats. Otto showed
                                        receivers that are available, discussing their                  slides of various
                                        applications, capabilities and costs. He covered                species including
                                        everything from “recreational”-grade GPS                        burrowing owls in
                                        equipment that measures within a 5-10 meter                     prairies, snowy
                                        range, to the very precise geodetic, survey-grade               owls, screech
                                        receivers, which are capable of measuring                       owls, and hawk
                                        movement of the earth’s crust.                                  owls.

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T   H E   P   A U L   F-B   R A N D W E I N   S   U M M E R   L   E A D E R S H I P   I   N S T I T U T E

Wednesday, August 2, 2000                              conservation. Their projects integrate scientific
                                                       research and training with community outreach.
    After breakfast, the BSLI teachers were off to
                                                       Through exhibitions, symposia, workshops, and
the computer lab for GIS training. Along the
                                                       publications, they help to inform the public
way, they stopped for a tour of the Bear
                                                       about biodiversity issues.
Mountain Park Trailside Museums and Wildlife
                                                           The Biodiversity Hall is the Museum’s “public
Center near Harriman, New York. The museum
                                                       face” for research and outreach on biodiversity.
has exhibits on native animals, reptiles, geology,
                                                       The exhibition is designed to appeal to a broad
nature study, and local history, and the zoo is a
                                                       audience and is organized around four major
refuge for rescued wildlife.
                                                       questions:
    The computer lab, at the Orange County
                                                       • What is biodiversity?
Board of Cooperative Educational Services
                                                       • Why is it important?
(BOCES), provided PCs for groups of BSLI
                                                       • What are the threats to biodiversity?
teachers to work with the Interactive Habitat
                                                       • What can we do about biodiversity loss?
software developed by Joe Russo and Mike
                                                           Meg showed slides to illustrate these questions
Anderson. Joe and Mike demonstrated
                                                       and the CBC’s work in the field, including
Interactive Habitat and described
                                                                      examples from around the world.
how it made GIS technology
                                                                       The Center’s field projects focus
relevant to student fieldwork and
                                                                       on areas where resources are often
the teachers’ fieldwork at Rutgers
                                                                      lacking. For example, they are
Creek, by incorporating maps
                                                                       working in Vietnam and Bolivia to
from the Orange County Water
                                                                       help governmental and non-
Authority and aerial photographs
                                                                      governmental organizations apply
of the site.
                                                       information about biodiversity to make
    Teachers separated into the four groups that
                                                       conservation decisions.
had done fieldwork in each of the RCWC study
                                                           Meg passed out copies of the CBC’s
quadrats, and gathered at computer terminals to
                                                       consumer guides, and had materials describing
input the data they had collected and explore
                                                       various symposia and outreach projects available
the possibilities for its analysis using the highly
                                                       for the BSLI teachers to browse through.
detailed Interactive Habitat software.
                                                           After Meg, Jay Holmes, from the AMNH
                                                       Department of Education described the
Thursday, August 3, 2000
                                                       educational programs offered by the museum,
    The BSLI group got an early start for New          which include all age groups from pre-school to
York City and the American Museum of Natural           adult, and a variety of formats such as lectures,
History (AMNH). There, Meg Domroese,                   after-school courses, teacher guides and
Outreach Program Manager for the AMNH                  workshops, and science mentorships.
Center for Biodiversity and Conservation (CBC)             Jay focused on programs he is involved in,
talked to the teachers about the research and          including the after-school program, ecology club,
education that the center conducts around the          and YouthCaN, which culminates in an
world.                                                 international environmental conference for
    Meg explained that the CBC was established         youths and presented by youths. Jay also shared
in 1993 and is part of the museum’s growing            a variety of handouts including instructional
effort to increase understanding of biodiversity       materials, information on student essay contests,
and promote participation in biodiversity              and magazines.

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