Chapter 4: Air quality - LONDON ENVIRONMENT STRATEGY - Greater London Authority
Page content transcription
If your browser does not render page correctly, please read the page content below
LO N D O N E N V I R O N M E N T S T R AT E G Y 39 AIM INTRODUCTION Two pollutants remain a specific concern. These are particulate matter (PM 10, PM 2.5 These actions reflect the importance of taking immediate action to protect London will have Since the passage of the Clean Air Act over sixty years ago, there has been and black carbon) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). London is failing to meet the public health and of raising awareness amongst Londoners. A City Hall the best air quality huge progress in improving air quality in London. The city now meets legal legal limit for NO 2. Particulate matter is damaging to health at any level and must commissioned report estimated that over 9,000 Londoners died prematurely of any major world limits set by the national Air Quality Regulations 3 for most pollutants. be reduced. from long-term exposure to air pollution in 2010. 4 The Mayor is committed to city by 2050, going There have been historic reductions in the levels of benzene, lead and sulphur Improving London’s air quality requires the following actions: improving air quality as soon as possible, but recognises pollution will still be beyond the legal dioxide pollution, which has greatly improved health and quality of life. • reducing exposure of Londoners unacceptably high for a number of years due to historic policy failure and inaction, requirements This underlines the ability of effective and coordinated action to improve the air to harmful pollution across London – especially at priority locations like which have contributed to the scale of the problem. It is therefore necessary to to protect we breathe if we are bold enough to take strong action. schools – and tackling health inequality reduce exposure (for example at schools) as far as possible and address the human health While the Great Smogs of the 1950s and • achieving legal compliance with UK and EU limits as soon as possible, unacceptable health inequality caused by the unequal exposure to pollution by and minimise 1960s are thankfully a thing of the past, this does not mean the problem has including by mobilising action from the London boroughs, government different groups. inequalities. gone away. There is still much to be done to improve London’s toxic air. and other partners In parallel to reducing exposure, the Mayor will take urgent action to tackle • establishing and achieving new, tighter pollution to achieve legal compliance air quality targets for a cleaner London, with UK and EU limits as soon as possible meeting World Health Organisation and in the most effective manner. (WHO) health-based guidelines by This includes signature measures like 2030 by transitioning to a zero introducing the Ultra Low Emission Zone emission London (ULEZ) and transforming the bus and taxi fleets to be zero emission. This strategy 3 Air Quality Standards Regulations 2010, SI number 2010/1001: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2010/1001/contents/made 4 Walton, H., Dajnak, D., Beevers, S., Williams, M. & Hunt, A. (2015), Understanding the Health Impacts of Air Pollution in London. Accessed from: http://www.kcl.ac.uk/lsm/research/divisions/aes/research/ERG/research-projects/HIAinLondonKingsReport14072015final.pdf or on the website: https://www.london.gov.uk/sites/default/files/hiainlondon_kingsreport_14072015_final.pdf
LO N D O N E N V I R O N M E N T S T R AT E G Y 41 will set out a roadmap to compliance. However, this can only be achieved as quickly as possible if the London boroughs, government and others play their full part. Where available, the Mayor will use statutory powers to ensure this. This strategy also recognises the need to go beyond legal limits, as these reflect political and economic considerations as well as health impacts. These should therefore be treated as a starting rather than an end point. WHO guidelines, meanwhile, were driven solely by the available health evidence and as a result are set much tighter for PM 10 and PM 2.5. Achieving these more ambitious targets would provide many extra health benefits for Londoners. This strategy sets out the timescale, and the changes needed, to achieve these tighter targets. Improving air quality also offers an opportunity to address climate change. In the past policy makers have focused on reducing carbon emissions which has resulted in unintended consequences like encouraging the use of diesel, the promotion of biomass boilers and gas engine combined heat and power systems being installed in areas of poor air quality. Instead in this strategy we are seeking to design integrated policies which deliver multiple benefits.
LO N D O N E N V I R O N M E N T S T R AT E G Y 43 LONDON’S ENVIRONMENT NOW B OX 1 : A I R POLLU TI ON BOX 1: AIR POLLUTION DE FINITIONS (C ONTINUE D) The key evidence to support the Mayor’s DE FI NI TI O NS ambitions for London’s air quality is Pollutants of concern in London summarised below. You can find out more What’s the difference between Particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5): Black carbon: This is a component about the evidence behind the policies emissions and concentrations? Particulate matter (PM) is a complex of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 and and proposals in Appendix 2. London’s air quality is affected by mix of non-gaseous material of smaller). It is formed through the a number of factors. These include varied chemical composition. It is incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, The WHO has published air quality the weather, local geography and categorised by the size of the particle biofuel, and biomass, and is emitted in guidelines, which inform the EU Air emissions sources from both within (for example PM 10 is particles with a both anthropogenic Quality Directive. These standards have and outside London. Air quality is diameter of less than ten micrometres and naturally occurring soot. been transposed into UK legislation. For measured in concentrations, which (µm)). Most PM emissions in London Black carbon also contributes to more details on the legislative and policy are specific levels of a pollutant are caused by road traffic, with climate change. Black carbon warms background see Appendix 4, and for in a given area. Legal limits are exhaust emissions and tyre and the planet by absorbing sunlight and information on the main responsibilities set in relation to concentrations. brake wear being the main sources. heating the atmosphere. of various organisations see Appendix 3. Local emissions from vehicles, Construction sites, with high volumes buildings, construction and other of dust and emissions from machinery Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2): Box 1 provides definitions for some sources contribute significantly to are also major sources of local PM All combustion processes produce commonly used terms. air pollution in London. This is what pollution. Other sources include wood Nitrogen Oxide (NO x). In London, road the Mayor can most directly control burning stoves, accidental fires and transport and heating systems are the and influence. That means we must burning of waste. However, a large main sources of these emissions. NO x understand how these emissions proportion of PM comes from natural is primarily made up of two pollutants are being reduced to understand sources, such as sea salt, forest fires - nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide how effective particular policies and and Saharan dust. In addition, there (NO 2). NO 2 is of most concern due proposals could be. However, are sources outside London caused to its impact on health. However NO there is rarely a direct relationship by human activity. Small particles tend easily converts to NO 2 in the air - so between reducing emissions within to be long-lived in the atmosphere to reduce concentrations of NO 2 it is London and reducing concentrations and can be carried great distances. essential to control emissions of NO x given the other factors at play. This imported PM forms a significant This is why the strategy will refer both proportion of total PM in London. to concentrations and emissions.
LO N D O N E N V I R O N M E N T S T R AT E G Y 45 TYPE OF GRAPH: AIR QUALITY Reference Fig 2: Trends in PM10 concentrations in London – 2004 to 2016 London’s pollution concentrations metres of roads, while ‘background sites’ Figure 2: Trends in PM 10 in London – 2004 to 2016 London’s monitoring network offers a are located away from major sources unique opportunity to understand trends of pollution. 40 in London’s air quality. One way to view air quality monitoring data is to group Overall, there has been a gradual monitors based on their location and reduction in NO 2, PM 10 and PM 2.5 30 PM10(μg m3 3) distance from the roadside and look concentrations at background sites in at average concentrations. inner and outer London and at outer London roadside sites. 20 Figure 1, Figure 2 and Figure 3 show the TYPE OF GRAPH: AIR QUALITY average trend over the last decade or so Inner London NO 2 roadside sites have 10 for NO 2, PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations, shown a more variable trend but have respectively, at sites in the London Air seen a steeper decline from 2012. Reference Quality Network (LAQN), grouped by This decline is also reflected in the inner 0 type. Roadside monitors are within five London PM 10 and PM 2.5 roadside sites. 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 Roadside Inner Roadside Outer Background Inner Background Outer Figure xxx: Trends in NO 2 concentrations in London – 2000 to 2016 London London London London Figure 1: Trends in NO 2 in London – 2000 to 2016 Source: GLA (2016), London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI) 2013. 80 Available at: data.london.gov.uk/dataset/london-atmspheric-emissions-inventory-2013 Figure 3: Trends in PM in London – 2006 to 2016 Fig 3: Trends in PM 2.5 concentrations in London – 2004 to 2016 2.5 60 NO 2(μg m3 3) 20 40 PM 2.5(μg m3 3) 15 20 10 0 5 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 Roadside Inner Roadside Outer Background Inner Background Outer London London London London 0 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 Source: GLA (2016), London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI) 2013. Source: the London Air Quality Network and analysis by King’s College London Roadside Inner Roadside Outer Background Inner Background Outer London London London London Accessed from: data.london.gov.uk/dataset/london-atmspheric-emissions-inventory-2013 Source: the London Air Quality Network and analysis by King’s College London Source: GLA (2016), London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI) 2013. Available at: data.london.gov.uk/dataset/london-atmspheric-emissions-inventory-2013
LO N D O N E N V I R O N M E N T S T R AT E G Y TYPE OF GRAPH: AIR QUALITY 47 Reference These reductions are important as they London’s emissions Figure 4:Emissions Fig 4: Emissions trend trend and andcategories main source main source categories– NO x 2008-2013 – NOx 2008-2013 show, overall, that air quality is improving Currently around half of Nitrogen in London. However, the NO 2 EU annual Oxides (NO x) emissions come from 70 mean limit value of 40 μg m 3 is being road transport sources. The other HGVs (Artic) HGVs (Rigid) exceeded in many places and the PM half of emissions come from Non-TfL bus and coach 60 health based guidelines are far from non-road transport sources, including NOx emissions (’000 tonnes) TfL Buses being met. construction, residential and commercial Vans and Minibuses Road Transport buildings, river, aviation, and industrial Diesel Cars 50 50% Petrol Cars emissions (Figure 4). While much of the Taxis public attention remains focused on 40 50% Motorcycles vehicles, a strategy must consider how 51% Industry best to tackle all of these sources. D&C Other Fuels 30 A similar breakdown also applies to Commercial Gas PM 10 emissions (Figure 5). Domestic Gas 20 NRMM Other 50% Other 50% 49% Rail 10 River Aviation - 2008 2010 2013 Source: GLA (2016), London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI) 2013. Source: GLA at: Available (2017), London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI) 2013 update. data.london.gov.uk/dataset/london-atmspheric-emissions-inventory-2013 Total NO x emissions in London fell by 25 per cent over the period 2008 to 2013 (versus a 35 per cent target to 2015 in the previous air quality strategy).
QUALITY L O N D O N E N V I R O N M E N T S T R AT E G Y TYPE OF GRAPH: AIR QUALITY 49 Reference Figure 5:Emissions Fig 5: Emissions trend trend and andcategories main source main source categories – PM 10, 2008-2013 – PM 2008-2013 10 Figure 6: Emissions Fig 6: Emissions trend and trend and main source main source categories categories – PM 2.5, 2008-2013 – PM 2008-2013 2.5 Electric Cars Electric Cars 6.0 HGVs (Artic) 3.5 HGVs (Artic) HGVs (Rigid) HGVs (Rigid) PM10 emissions (’000 tonnes) Non-TfL bus and coach Non-TfL bus and coach 3.0 5.0 TfL Buses TfL Buses PM 2.5 emissions (’000 tonnes) Road Road Vans and Minibuses Transport Vans and Minibuses Transport Diesel Cars Diesel Cars 46% 2.5 Petrol Cars 49% Petrol Cars 4.0 47% Taxis Taxis 50% Motorcycles Motorcycles 2.0 50% 3.0 Resuspension Resuspension 54% Industry 1.5 Industry 2010 2013 D&C Other Fuels D&C Other Fuels 2.0 Commercial Gas Commercial Gas Domestic Gas 1.0 Domestic Gas 54% Construction/ Demolition Dust Other Construction/ Demolition Dust Other 53% 51% 50% 50% NRMM NRMM 1.0 46% Other 0.5 Other Rail Rail River River 0.0 Aviation 0.0 Aviation 2008 2010 2013 2008 2010 2013 Source: GLA (2016), London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI) 2013. Source: GLA (2016), London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI) 2013. Source: GLA at: Available (2017), London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI) 2013 update. data.london.gov.uk/dataset/london-atmspheric-emissions-inventory-2013 Source: GLAat:(2017), Available London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI) 2013 update. data.london.gov.uk/dataset/london-atmspheric-emissions-inventory-2013 Total PM 10 emissions fell by 20 per cent Total PM 2.5 emissions fell by 27 per cent over the period 2008 to 2013 (versus over the period 2008 to 2013 (there was a 31 per cent target to 2015 in the no reduction target in the previous air previous air quality strategy). quality strategy). The source of PM 2.5 emissions in London is similar to that for PM 10 but some sources, such as tyre and break wear are more significant.
LO N D O N E N V I R O N M E N T S T R AT E G Y 51 Concentrations maps and exposure In 2013 roughly 1.9 million people, or Figure 8: 2013 Greater London - Annual - Annual Mean PM10mean PM 10 2013 concentrations concentrations post LAEI 2013 Air quality concentration maps (Figure 23 per cent of the city’s population, ´ Legend 7, Figure 8 and Figure 9) have been were living in areas with average NO 2 PM10 (µg/m3) 97 0 5 10 Kilometres Figure Greater 7: 2013--Annual London Annual mean Mean NO2NO 2 concentrations concentrations 2013 post LAEI 2013 ´ Legend NO2 (µg/m3) 97 27 - 33 > 33 0 5 10 Kilometres 0 5 10 Kilometres Source: GLA (2017), London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI) 2013 Update. Source: GLA (2017), London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI) 2013 Update.
LO N D O N E N V I R O N M E N T S T R AT E G Y 53 Transboundary pollution The EU National Emissions Ceiling Figure 10: Impacts of London’s current air quality The challenge of cleaning London’s air Directive must incorporate tighter is made more difficult because a large emission limits for countries across amount of the pollution sources are not Europe to address transboundary within London. The most recent analysis pollution on a quicker timescale. shows that sources outside London It is also why international action make the largest contribution to the coordinated by the United Nations, estimated death risk from long-term including the Convention on Long- exposure to PM 2.5 in London as a whole. range Transboundary Air Pollution and 9000+ £3.7 This is also responsible for the majority its associated protocols, is needed to of health effects associated with improve air quality in London. short-term exposure. Public health LONDONERS BILLION For example, 75 per cent of the Research has shown air pollution has a die early every year the cost of air pollution cardiovascular hospital admissions big impact on health at all life stages, because of air pollution to London’s economy associated with PM 2.5 result from from development in the womb to the pollution sources outside London, end of life. A baby born in 2010 and including industrial, agricultural exposed to that same level of air quality and transport emissions from other for its entire life would lose around two countries. In addition, external sources years of life expectancy. Mortality is are responsible for just under half of not the only air pollution related health the mortality risk associated with NO 2. 5 effect. In 2010, London air pollution was linked to over 3,000 hospital admissions. Even if all local emissions sources were The economic cost of these health 20% 2x removed, over half the health effects impacts in London is estimated as being linked to London’s air pollution would be up to £3.7bn a year (Figure 10). 6 There is felt. This is why, even as the UK leaves also strong evidence that poor air quality the EU, working closely with European affects children’s lung development, PRIMARY SCHOOLS AS LIKELY TO DIE partners is vital to reduce emissions and emerging evidence that improving are in areas that breach the from lung diseases if you across the continent. air quality can reverse those effects. legall imit for NO 2 (air pollution) live in deprived vs affluent There is also increasing evidence of areas of London the link between exposure to pollution and dementia. 7 Source: King’s Report (2015). 5 Walton, H., Dajnak, D., Beevers, S., Williams, M. & Hunt, A. (2015), Understanding the Health Impacts of Air Pollution in London. Accessed from: http://www.kcl.ac.uk/lsm/research/divisions/aes/research/ERG/research-projects/HIAinLondonKingsReport14072015final.pdf or on the website: https://www.london.gov.uk/sites/default/files/hiainlondon_kingsreport_14072015_final.pdf 6 King’s report 2015 7 https://www.nature.com/tp/journal/v7/n1/abs/tp2016280a.html
LO N D O N E N V I R O N M E N T S T R AT E G Y 55 Social inequality In this strategy, the Mayor seeks to Diesel vehicles, especially Maximising co-benefits between air These health impacts fall design integrated policies that offer cars and vans quality and climate change policies disproportionally on the most vulnerable multiple benefits. These remain the main source of road There is a risk that unintended communities, affecting the poorest, transport pollution. A comprehensive consequences can arise if climate and the youngest, the oldest, those with One example of this is that black carbon approach is required to phase out their air quality policies are developed in pre-existing health conditions and those has a higher global warming potential use. Rather than a return to petrol, isolation, for example, in relation to from minority ethnic groups the most. than CO 2. It is however possible to deliver mode shift to sustainable forms of energy and planning policy. Conversely, Perhaps most worryingly, over 438 quick wins to improve both air quality transport like walking and cycling integrated policy design can bring schools and 364 other educational and prevent climate change. This can wherever possible should be encouraged. benefits for both air quality and climate institutions in London are located in be done by adopting tighter PM 2.5 limits, Any vehicles that remain will need to change, for example, by reducing black areas exceeding safe legal pollution promoting a switch to zero emission transition to zero emission technology. carbon emissions by switching to zero levels. People living in the most deprived vehicles, replacing old, inefficient emission vehicles. areas are, on average, more likely to be boilers, increasing energy efficiency Tackling all sources of pollution exposed to poor air quality than those of buildings, and creating a zero carbon To achieve legal compliance as quickly Further reductions are needed in in less deprived areas. 8 city where energy mainly comes from as possible, all sources of pollution must PM 10 and PM 2.5, particularly from renewable sources. be addressed. That means significantly transboundary pollution, tyre and Tackling air pollution is not, therefore, increasing efforts in relation to non- brake wear and wood burning just about the environment or about A review of the previous strategy, transport sources. This is vital as the Progress in dealing with PM emissions protecting public health. It is also about baseline and other evidence highlights proportion of total emissions from will stall in 2020 once exhaust emissions social justice. There is an urgent need several key issues to be addressed in non-transport sources is expected are significantly reduced. London is to do more to tackle the public health the strategy. to increase over the lifetime of this currently far from achieving WHO health- inequalities associated with air pollution strategy as our efforts on transport based limits for PM 2.5. One of the best in London. Achieving legal compliance start to have an effect. ways to do this would be to reduce as quickly as possible the number of vehicle kilometres by Climate change The last strategy did not reach the Government action supporting a mode shift to walking, Improving air quality also offers expected emission reductions. In part, The government controls some of the cycling and public transport. It will also an opportunity to address climate this was due to the underperformance most powerful policy levers to influence be necessary to address wood burning- change. In the past, policy makers have of Euro engine emissions standards. air quality, including fiscal incentives related emissions, which evidence mainly focused on reducing carbon Targets in this strategy will need to such as vehicle excise duty. It alone suggests are a significant source of dioxide (CO 2) emissions. This has reflect the latest evidence on vehicle can legislate to provide new powers emissions, particularly on some of resulted in unintended consequences, emissions performance. It must set to tackle non-transport emission the most polluted days. like encouraging the use of diesel, out appropriate steps by all levels of sources. Achieving legal compliance and promoting biomass boilers and government to ensure a roadmap to is dependent on further government combined heat and power systems compliance as quickly as possible. action and leadership. installation in areas of poor air quality. 8 King, K. & Healy, S. (2013), Analysing Air Pollution Exposure in London. Accessed from: https://www.london.gov.uk/sites/default/files/ analysing_air_pollution_exposure_in_london_-_technical_report_-_2013.pdf (51 per cent of Lower Layer Super Output Areas (LSOAs) within the most deprived 10 per cent of London have concentrations above the NO 2 EU limit value. This contrasts with 1 per cent above the NO 2 EU limit value in the 10 per cent least deprived areas.)
LO N D O N E N V I R O N M E N T S T R AT E G Y 57 ROLES AND LEGAL DUTIES the Mayor will operate the reformed London Local Air Quality Management The Mayor (LLAQM) framework, which sets out The Mayor has a legal duty to set out clearly the action boroughs should be policies and proposals in this strategy taking (Box 2). to achieve compliance with the legally required air quality standards as quickly The government as possible. The ultimate responsibility for achieving compliance with the legally required The Mayor will act to improve air air quality standards “as quickly as quality, where the Mayor or bodies within possible” lies with the government. the control of the Mayor have relevant The government is required to have an powers or resources. However, the Mayor Air Quality Plan that will achieve this. does not have all the powers needed to improve London’s air quality alone. The government has unique tools This strategy sets out the responsibilities available to it, such as control over fiscal of all the organisations with a role to incentives or the ability to legislate, play in improving London’s air quality, which can accelerate compliance. including the government, London Without a clear national plan to tackle boroughs and the Environment Agency. emissions, especially from vehicles, the air in UK cities will not improve. The Mayor will help the boroughs in exercising their statutory duties to The government needs to give local improve air quality. Where needed, the authorities across the country extra Mayor can use powers of direction to powers to address non-transport require boroughs to take steps to meet pollution sources, to help scrap older air quality objectives. These reserve polluting vehicles, and use fiscal and powers can only be used following other incentives to encourage use of consultation. To support the boroughs clean vehicles.
LO N D O N E N V I R O N M E N T S T R AT E G Y 59 The London boroughs and • targeted measures at pollution public sector hotspots such as vehicle restrictions BOX 2: THE LONDON LOCAL AIR QUALIT Y MANAGE ME NT London’s boroughs have a duty and green infrastructure FR AME WORK (LL AQM) to work towards achieving legal limits. They have an important role to play • supporting installation of infrastructure Local Air Quality Management (LAQM) London’s 32 boroughs and the City in addressing local pollution which to fuel zero emission vehicles is the statutory process by which of London. However, it was agreed is underpinned by the statutory a local authority is required to review with Defra that the relevant LAQM LLAQM framework (Box 2). The statutory powers of the London the air quality within its area. guidance for London should differ There are a number of levers they can boroughs are also important to continue This system aims to determine if air from the rest of the UK in recognition use to help. These include: to discourage antisocial burning of waste quality objectives set within the Air of the particular challenges the and the illegal use of wood-burning Quality Regulations 2000 and the Air capital faces. London now has its own • emissions-based parking charges stoves. Finally, the boroughs have Quality (Amendment) Regulations bespoke statutory policy and technical extensive public health duties and can 2010 are likely to be met in a certain documents. • reducing pollution from new play an important role in mainstreaming area. It also drives improvements The key LLAQM requirements developments through planning air quality into health-related activities. to achieve those objectives. for boroughs are: (especially those not referred to The London system used to be part the Mayor), The public sector has a wider duty of a national framework managed • to continue to monitor and assess to lead by example to reduce emissions by Defra. However, in May 2016 the air pollution in their areas • improving the public realm for and exposure to pollution, particularly Mayor launched a bespoke system for walking and cycling in relation to its vehicle fleets, as well the capital - London Local Air Quality • to ensure an Air Quality Management as to raise awareness. Management (LLAQM). Area (AQMA) is declared and in place for any locations that are This scheme was designed to exceeding air quality objectives encourage close working to help and EU Limit Values address this vital issue. This renewed focus on LAQM in London should help • to ensure that a current and relevant ensure that local authority air quality Air Quality Action Plan is in place for resources are protected, or where all AQMAs. The Action Plan should possible increased. be updated every five years at a minimum, and progress against this The basic statutory framework for should be reported annually local air quality management is via national Air Quality Regulations and • to complete the annual monitoring Part IV of the Environment Act 1995. and Action Plan update reports This remains in place and applies to
LO N D O N E N V I R O N M E N T S T R AT E G Y 61 LONDON WILL HAVE THE BE ST AIR QUALIT Y OF ANY MAJOR WORLD CIT Y BY 2050 Current emissions sources Zero emission London 2050 London Environment Strategy Objectives TRANSPORT NOx E M POWE R PEOPLE Road Transport 51% Strict new emission requirements across London (e.g. ULEZ, zero emission zone) Non-road transport 11% TO RE D UCE THE IR Built Environment 37% E XPOSURE TO Other 1% POOR AIR QUALIT Y M E E T UK AND PM10 Mode shift to walking, cycling & public transport All vehicles zero emission by 2050 E U A IR QUALIT Y Road Transport 50% Non-road transport 3% L IM IT S AS SOON Built Environment AS POS SIBLE & Industry 19% Resuspension 23% SE T & ACHIE V E Other 4% N E W, T IGHTE R AIR QUA L IT Y TARGE T S FO R A CLE ANE R Zero emission bus fleet by 2037 and Reduce emissions from rail, river all taxis zero emission by 2033 and aviation transport LOND ON PM2.5 Road Transport 54% Non-road transport 6% Built Environment & Industry 30% Resuspension 2% Other 8% N O N –T R A N S P O R T Prevent and reduce emissionsfrom Reduce emissions from homes and workplaces, Informing the public with alerts during non-road mobile machinery large scale generators, wood burning and biomass high and very high pollution episodes Source: GLA (2016), London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI) 2013 Update
LO N D O N E N V I R O N M E N T S T R AT E G Y 63 Objectives, policies and proposals “Protecting public OBJECTIVE 4.1 SUPPORT LONDON AND ITS COMMUNITIES, PARTICULARLY Policy 4.1.1 Make sure that London and its communities, particularly the visit. The current air quality information system will be improved so that it targets health is at the THE MOST VULNERABLE AND THOSE IN PRIORITY LOCATIONS, TO HELP most vulnerable and those in priority locations, are empowered to reduce these organisations and provides tailored advice. This will ensure that decision- heart of the EMPOWER PEOPLE TO REDUCE THEIR EXPOSURE TO POOR AIR QUALITY their exposure to poor air quality makers have information on current pollution levels and upcoming episodes, Mayor’s efforts Proposal 4.1.1a The Mayor will provide as well as evidence-based advice on Protecting public health is at the heart better information about air quality, how to respond. to improve of the Mayor’s efforts to improve air especially during high and very high quality. It requires reducing exposure, pollution episodes, and use emergency London-wide episodes of high pollution air quality.” including by raising awareness of the measures where appropriate happen a few times each year. Very high impacts of pollution and when air quality pollution episodes are even more rare – Human health is affected by poor air is particularly poor. The Mayor’s long- occurring only every few years. On such quality. This is particularly true for term aim is to ensure concentrations are occasions, it is important that Londoners vulnerable people like children, older reduced to levels that are both safe and are kept fully informed and can respond people and those with pre-existing compliant. However, it is recognised that accordingly to minimise health impacts. health conditions. until further measures like the ULEZ are The Mayor will continue to provide real put in place there will remain times where time alerts during high or very high air Timely air pollution information gives pollution can be very poor due to historic pollution episodes by broadcasting vulnerable people a chance to act to policy failure and inaction that have information on bus shelters, Tube protect themselves, for example by contributed to the scale of the problem. stations and on roadside signs. There reducing their exposure, or simply by carrying their medication. will be a particular focus on reducing The Mayor wants to ensure that Schools, hospitals, GP surgeries, and unnecessary private car use and other Londoners have access to the right care homes are places where those activities that contribute to pollution information and, if appropriate, most vulnerable to the health impacts (Figure 11). emergency action is taken to minimise of air pollution episodes spend time and public exposure. This objective also seeks to address the health inequality Figure 11: Air pollution forecast announcement caused by the unequal exposure to pollution by different groups.
LO N D O N E N V I R O N M E N T S T R AT E G Y 65 The Mayor will work with government Proposal 4.1.1b The Mayor will aim The Mayor will actively encourage In addition, a requirement to consider to ensure that London has the powers to do more to protect London’s London boroughs to use the funding the overall suitability of a site (and its needed to implement emergency schoolchildren by reducing their available to them through TfL for Local design layout) for the proposed end use measures such as short-term road exposure to poor air quality at school Implementation Plans to improve air in terms of exposure to pollution will be closures or vehicle restrictions, and on their journey to and from school quality and reduce exposure, especially considered in the new London Plan. where appropriate, during high around schools and on journeys to and Reducing the exposure of schoolchildren Policy 4.1.2 Improve the understanding pollution episodes. from school. To support this, City Hall will to pollution is a priority because younger of air quality health impacts to better implement a schools audit programme children are among the most vulnerable target policies and action to identify steps London boroughs can to its health impacts. Eight and nine- take to reduce exposure. year-olds living in cities with high levels Proposal 4.1.2a The Mayor will of fumes from diesel cars have up to ten produce and maintain the London Proposal 4.1.1c Through the London per cent less lung capacity than normal. 9 Atmospheric Emissions Inventory Plan the Mayor will consider policies More must be done to reduce exposure (LAEI) to better understand pollution that mean new developments are at schools wherever possible, and also sources in London suitable for use and for their particular at colleges, universities, and other location, taking into account local To tackle air pollution effectively, it is educational establishments. air quality necessary to understand its sources. The Mayor will produce and maintain Through the new London Plan, the Mayor the LAEI. This will help us understand will consider policies that seek to reduce the key emissions sources and how exposure to existing poor air quality they contribute to poor air quality, both through design or mitigation strategies. now and projected into the future. It will These are vital where new development be used to calculate health impacts, will be used by large numbers of people exposure and health inequalities. who are particularly vulnerable to poor air quality, like children or older people. 9 https://www.kcl.ac.uk/lsm/research/divisions/aes/research/ERG/research-projects/EXHALE.aspx
LO N D O N E N V I R O N M E N T S T R AT E G Y 67 Proposal 4.1.2b The Mayor will work with boroughs to safeguard the existing air quality monitoring network and enhance it by exploiting new technologies and approaches such as personal and localised monitoring Through the LLAQM framework, boroughs are required to monitor and report on local air quality. The GLA, TfL, and London boroughs fund and maintain one of the most extensive automatic monitoring networks of any world city. This is supplemented with additional monitoring. It is one of the ways in which local authorities play a crucial role in helping to understand and address air pollution. Their high quality monitoring data helps us to understand the long- term trends in air pollution. It is used to validate the comprehensive pollution modelling provided by the Mayor through the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI). The Mayor will continue to oversee this monitoring network and will ensure sites crucial for understanding long-term trends or measuring the impact of local measures are not removed or moved. The Mayor will use statutory powers to
LO N D O N E N V I R O N M E N T S T R AT E G Y 69 do this, as well as working with boroughs to enhance monitoring networks where OBJECTIVE 4.2 ACHIEVE LEGAL COMPLIANCE WITH UK AND EU LIMITS Road traffic is often the biggest cause of poor air quality in places where “T he Mayor is possible. Particular areas of focus are increasing the number of long-term NO 2 AS SOON AS POSSIBLE, INCLUDING BY MOBILISING ACTION FROM LONDON people live and work. Diesel is the most significant source of NO x emissions, committed to diffusion tube monitoring, especially in air quality focus areas. Another is BOROUGHS, GOVERNMENT AND OTHER PARTNERS which contribute to illegal levels of NO 2. The reason for this is partly because policies that identifying opportunities for additional PM 2.5, black carbon and ultra fine particle Alongside reducing exposure, the Mayor of the under-performance of some Euro Standards for diesel vehicles support phasing out fossil fuels, will take urgent action to tackle pollution monitoring. The Mayor will work with over time (see Box 3). There are major to achieve legal compliance with UK and boroughs and others to encourage discrepancies between official emission especially diesel, EU limits as quickly and effectively as innovation in monitoring. measurements and real-world vehicle possible. However, legal compliance can performance in urban environments. and encourage only be achieved if the London boroughs, It is getting easier for people and groups There are also issues with the sheer government and others also play their to buy personal and relatively low-cost number of vehicles on London’s take up of zero full role and take ambitious action. monitoring systems. These can be roads, which causes congestion and valuable tools, but knowing how best exacerbates pollution. The introduction This objective addresses existing to use and locate the monitors is vital if the results are to provide meaningful emissions from transport as well as of ‘real-world’ testing into the ‘Euro 6’ European vehicle-type approval process emission vehicles emissions from non-transport sources. information. It is also important to understand the limitations of monitoring It sets out what both the Mayor and will mean that, on average, new vehicles are far less polluting than previous in London. others need to do to achieve legal equipment and how best to interpret models. This is particularly so for compliance as quickly as possible. and publish results. The Mayor will offer heavier transport like lorries. However, the main responsibility for guidance and advice on how air quality ensuring that compliance is achieved is monitored in London, and help people The Mayor is committed to policies rests with government. They can use understand what type of equipment that support phasing out fossil fuels, unique tools, such as control over is available. especially diesel, and encourage take fiscal incentives, which can up of zero emission vehicles in London. accelerate compliance. The Mayor will also establish a The Mayor will encourage a shift to more process for accrediting monitors sustainable travel like walking, cycling or for different purposes. public transport throughout London too.
LO N D O N E N V I R O N M E N T S T R AT E G Y 71 This also contributes to the Mayor’s wider ambitions including: B OX 3 : WHY PRI O RI TI SE used test beating software on their Unfortunately, similar on-road THE PHASI NG O U T OF diesel vehicles, whilst others may be verification introduced for cars and • all taxis and private hire vehicles to DI E SE L V E HI CLE S ? taking steps to ‘bend the rules’. vans, known as ‘real driving emissions’ be zero emission capable by 2033 is yet to be seen. The introduction of Diesel vehicles are the single A landmark study by the International real driving emissions has potential • all TfL buses to be zero emission biggest cause of NO x emissions. Council for Clean Transportation to create parity between petrol and by 2037 Any strategy to improve air demonstrated that technologies exist diesel vehicles. However, it has quality must consider how to to reduce emissions from vehicles been plagued by delays and for • all newly registered road vehicles address these. but they are not being employed many this is seen as too little too driven in London to be zero emission consistently by manufacturers. Rapid dieselisation of the fleet was late, with legislation not taking full by 2040 Although EU legislation lowered NO x caused by previous government effect until 2021. Even then, overly permitted emissions for diesel cars policy which incentivised low CO 2 generous conformity factors • London’s entire transport system to by 85 per cent between 2000 (Euro 3) emitting vehicles through the have been introduced to allow be zero emission by 2050 and 2014 (Euro 6), average on-road vehicle excise duty and company for error margins. emission levels only decreased about car tax regimes. These powerful 40 per cent over the same period. This means some of the newest trucks These efforts are supported by the wider levers encouraged manufacturers on the road are expected to have policy framework in the draft Mayor’s In general, diesel vehicles emit more to invest in the development of emissions of NO x and PM better than Transport Strategy which promotes NO x than petrol equivalents and the diesel technology – an attractive some family cars. The introduction further mode shift, tackles congestion capital still has a legacy fleet of older solution for consumers, which has of independent testing, such as the and encourages freight consolidation. diesel vehicles capable of emitting historically delivered better fuel Mayor’s Cleaner Vehicle Checker, This section should be read alongside high levels of PM emissions (prior to economy and improved durability will help to alleviate this issue by the draft Mayor’s Transport Strategy. the EU mandating diesel particulate when compared to petrol. creating transparency and improving filters from 2011). It is therefore The section also looks at non- However, it is widely acknowledged consumer confidence. unsurprising that diesel cars are road transport sources, including that the real world emissions currently the highest contributor In all, the Mayor strongly believes that construction, buildings, the river and performance of diesel vehicles to road transport NO x and PM 2.5 government must deliver effective aviation, before setting out the action did not match that achieved in emissions in London. national incentives exclusively under that needs to be taken by others – laboratory tests. This problem is their control (such as taxation and especially government – to achieve in part a failure in the legislation to The latest emissions standard for scrappage) to discourage diesel while full compliance as quickly as possible. make the type-approval emissions heavy duty engines (Euro VI), which these vehicles remain more polluting. test rigorous enough and a poor includes on-highway verification, Longer-term, the Mayor is committed response by regulators who were has started to alleviate these to policies that support phasing out aware of the issue for some time. shortcomings. For example, TfL has all fossil fuels and accelerating the seen a 90 per cent reduction in NO x This has also been compounded uptake of zero emission vehicles emissions between Euro V and Euro by the revelations that at least one in London to deliver further VI buses. manufacturer has deliberately improvements in air quality.
LO N D O N E N V I R O N M E N T S T R AT E G Y 73 Policy 4.2.1 Reduce emissions from periods of high pollution, but every active and healthy lifestyle. In addition, A more sustainable approach to London’s road transport network by day. Dependence on cars also has it creates a more attractive city in which transport in inner and outer London phasing out fossil fuelled vehicles, negative health, congestion, business to live, visit and do business. It is also an will require a big increase in the prioritising action on diesel, and and community impacts. As part of the effective way of tackling emissions as number of journeys made by bus. enabling Londoners to switch to Healthy Streets Approach, the Mayor it helps to address those from tyre and Good bus services are fundamental more sustainable forms of transport wants to encourage people to walk, brake wear as well as from exhausts. to making people less reliant on cars cycle and use public transport instead. That means reducing the number of and supporting London’s sustainable Proposal 4.2.1a The Mayor will promote kilometres driven will have a greater growth. However, it is essential that and prioritise more sustainable travel In order to keep London moving, impact overall on PM 10 and PM 2.5. these journeys are delivered by a clean in London including walking, cycling improve air quality and reduce carbon, bus fleet. This is part of the Mayor’s and public transport, as part of the Londoners’ dependency on cars must Proposal 4.2.1b The Mayor, through commitment to lead by example. Healthy Streets Approach be reduced. Analysis suggests that TfL, will clean up the bus fleet by Figure 12 sets out the action to be taken It is now clear that much of the poor three quarters of journeys now made by phasing out fossil fuels, prioritising to clean up the bus fleet. air quality in London is linked to car could be done on foot, by bicycle action on diesel, and switching to zero private car use. This is not only during or by public transport. Such a shift also emission technologies encourages Londoners to lead a more
LO N D O N E N V I R O N M E N T S T R AT E G Y 75 ““FAectorbi ll TfL buses factodis.will In line with the draft Mayor’s Transport Figure 12: Cleaning the TfL bus fleet Strategy, TfL buses will be expected to meet the Apestra Euro vocul vivilVI meet the following requirements: NOW 2020 2025 2030 2035 2037 dieselsestandard ventid etrest atus • all new double-deck buses will be hybrid, electric or hydrogen from 2018 Bus procurement Retrofit of existing TfL will buy only TfL will buy only for NO andntique PM reis double electric or electric or tem, ponsuli x • all double-deck buses in central decks to Euro VI hydrogen single hydrogen double nem by 2020” me ad C. Decupio London will be Euro VI and hybrid standards decks decks by 2019 TfL will buy only electric ratuam potio, sentiur • all TfL buses meet the Euro VI diesel or hydrogen double decks standard for NO x and PM by 2020 bitati sturniu qui sum Bus fleet in All single decks All TfL buses central electric or • all new single-deck buses will be electric or postia nuncepoenam.” zero emission from 2020 London hydrogen hydrogen Eexeris molores recto optas • the whole bus fleet will be fully zero All double 80% of Et eic to bercia cuptas a aut emission by 2037 at the latest. decks double This means making the most of Euro VI decks London’s world-leading reputation for and hybrid electric or hydrogen the take up of electric and hydrogen technology in the bus fleet Bus 50% of 90% of All single fleet in single single decks As these improvements are delivered the inner decks decks electric or cleanest buses will be prioritised along and electric or electric or hydrogen outer the most polluting routes using Low London hydrogen hydrogen Emission Bus Zones. All double More than 60% of 20% of decks meet 85% of double double Euro VI double decks decks standard as decks hybrid; 40% hybrid; 80% a minimum hybrid, electric or electric or electric or hydrogen hydrogen hydrogen
LO N D O N E N V I R O N M E N T S T R AT E G Y 77 Proposal 4.2.1c The Mayor, through The Mayor will also require all new The Mayor, through TfL, will keep Road user charging schemes will include TfL, will reduce emissions in the taxi private hire vehicles to meet continually under review existing and planned (subject to the development of detailed and private hire fleet by phasing out improving minimum emission standards road user charging schemes, including proposals and consultation) introducing fossil fuels, prioritising action on as set out in the draft Mayor’s Transport the Congestion Charge, Low Emission the central London ULEZ standards and diesel, and switching to zero Strategy. When combined, this will Zone, ULEZ and the Silvertown Tunnel charges in 2019. There will also be an emission technologies achieve an entirely zero emission schemes, to ensure they prove effective Emissions Surcharge on the Congestion capable taxi and private-hire fleet by in furthering or delivering the policies Charge from October 2017 until the For too long, the taxi trade has been 2033 at the latest. and proposals of the draft Mayor’s introduction of the ULEZ. 10 restricted to diesel vehicles. The Mayor Transport Strategy. wants the capital’s taxi fleet to be the Proposal 4.2.1d The Mayor aims to The Mayor proposes (subject to the greenest in the world. To phase out reduce emissions from private and The Mayor will also consider the development of detailed proposals diesel, all newly licensed taxis will be commercial vehicles by phasing out development of the next generation of and consultation) that the ULEZ is required to be zero emission capable and restricting the use of fossil fuels, road user charging systems. These could expanded to Inner London by 2021 for from 2018. prioritising action on diesel replace schemes such as the Congestion light vehicles (cars, vans, minibuses and Charge, Low Emission Zone and ULEZ. motorbikes), covering an area up to the The recent sharp increase in private hire The Mayor will further accelerate More sophisticated road user charging North / South Circular. It is also proposed vehicles means they must take a lead the uptake of cleaner vehicles in London and/or workplace parking levy schemes that by 2020 the ULEZ is expanded and accelerate the uptake of Ultra Low by bringing forward and expanding could be used to contribute to achieving London-wide for heavy vehicles, which Emission Vehicles (ULEVs). However, the ULEZ. the policies and proposals in the draft will result in only an estimated one per policies affecting the taxi and private Mayor’s Transport Strategy, including cent of road length in Outer London hire vehicles industries must take into The Mayor alone does not have the mode share, road danger reduction, remaining in exceedance of the NO 2 limit consideration the costs and operating legal power to ban diesel vehicles (or environmental objectives, reducing values in 2025: primarily on the North models of each industry. The Mayor will any other vehicles) across London. The congestion on the road network, and Circular and around Heathrow (which is encourage and quicken the take up of Mayor can, however, apply charges supporting efficient traffic movement. a matter for national policy). zero emission capable taxis by working to vehicles on a number of grounds, In doing so, the Mayor will consider the with the trade to create an action plan. including addressing congestion and appropriate technology for any future The Mayor will provide a mixture of emissions. Charging has been shown schemes, and the potential for a future financial incentives, infrastructure and to be very effective at influencing scheme that reflects distance, time, regulation (including maintaining a taxi behaviour. This includes promoting a emissions, road danger and other age limit, currently set at 15 years). The shift to more sustainable modes of travel factors in an integrated way. aim is to achieve a minimum of 9,000 via the Congestion Charge and reducing such vehicles in the fleet by 2020. the number of polluting vehicles in London via the Low Emission Zone. 10 There are slightly different arrangements for residents of the central London area, who will remain subject to the T-charge while the ULEZ resident sunset period is in effect.
LO N D O N E N V I R O N M E N T S T R AT E G Y 79 The expansion of the ULEZ for light The Mayor will also work with boroughs Figure 13: ULEZ proposals to be consulted on vehicles to Outer London would affect to explore borough-level restrictions ULEZ PROPOSALS an additional 1.7 million households. on fossil-fuelled vehicles, prioritising Furthermore, there is no appropriate diesel vehicles (for example diesel Central London ULEZ in 2019 boundary road for a wider zone that surcharges on resident parking permits), (all non-compliant vehicles) incorporates the north circular other and initiatives to incentivise ultra low than the greater London boundry. emission vehicles. It is likely that targeted local measures £12.50* per day such as local road closures, vehicle The Mayor will take steps to develop a restrictions or other interventions Cleaner Vehicle Checker that will help £100* per day could be equally effective and as likely members of the public understand the to bring this remaining one per cent of emissions impact of their diesel cars road length into compliance, and in a and vans. The government should also quicker timeframe. The Mayor will keep introduce a complementary national the situation under review and consider car labelling scheme to raise awareness what measures will be most effective and about the differential pollution emissions likely to secure equivalent compliance on from vehicles at the time of purchase London-wide ULEZ in 2020 those Outer London roads in the shortest (including for second hand vehicles). (all non-compliant heavy vehicles) time possible. Up to £100* per day Inner London ULEZ in 2021 (all non-compliant vehicles) Up to £12.50* per day Up to £100* per day ULEZ standards: Petrol – Euro 4; Diesel – Euro 6/Vl; Motorcycle and L-Cat – Euro 3 ULEZ standards: petrol – Euro 4; Diesel – Euro 6/VI; Motorcycle and L-Cat – Euro 3 *ULEZ charge levels are indicative only and refer to the current scheme proposals * ULEZ charge levels are indicative only to refer to the current scheme proposals.
LO N D O N E N V I R O N M E N T S T R AT E G Y 81 ““FLectorbi ondon’s freight factodis. Proposal 4.2.1e The Mayor aims The Mayor will take steps to develop a This can be achieved by: to reduce emissions from freight Cleaner Vehicle Checker to help fleet accounts Apestra forvivil vocul over through encouraging a switch to lower emission vehicles, adopting operators understand the emissions of their diesel cars and vans, and will • stimulating the supply, and increasing the take up, of low emission ten per ventid se cent etrest of atus smarter practices and reducing freight movements through better use of work with industry to set out a clear plan to phase out fossil fuels. This commercial vehicles through regulatory, procurement and tem,PM 2.5 emissions ponsuli ntique reis consolidated trips is vital, especially amongst heavier specialist vehicles, which are often pricing incentives and mearound Almost all of London’s freight is carried nem ad C. Decupio by road, using diesel vehicles. This more challenging to switch to cleaner • making the most efficient use of vehicles by developing a strategic alternatives. The plan will help better a fifth potio, of traffic activity accounts for over ten per cent ratuam sentiur of PM 2.5 emissions 11 and around a fifth understand alternative fuels, and how consolidation and distribution network to protect industrial land and reduce they can be used to bridge the transition in the capital.” of traffic in the capital. 12 In the morning bitati sturniu qui sum peak, freight traffic is around a third of towards zero emission technologies. the impact of freight and servicing trips on London’s streets (Box 5 describes a the total traffic in central London. postia nuncepoenam.” The Mayor has set a number of targets to cut emissions and reduce the amount of low emission freight pilot) London’s freight movement is also • examining other ways in which freight freight movement in central London. This Eexeris molores recto optas growing in an inefficient way. Many includes reducing construction traffic can be delivered and moved around. deliveries of non-time critical goods For example, using cargo bikes and Et eic to bercia cuptas a aut by five per cent by 2020, and reducing are unnecessarily made at congested motorbikes for shorter, smaller the number of freight trips during the times of the day. Lorries and vans are deliveries in central London and town morning peak by ten per often less than half full. It is estimated centres, and making better use of river cent by 2026. as many as two in every three delivery and rail services. slots are missed. 13 This means repeat trips, which cause even more congestion and emissions. The Mayor will work with London Councils on possible changes to the London Lorry Control Scheme, which controls the movement of heavy goods vehicles at night and at weekends, so that the scheme can reduce emissions of air quality pollutants and CO 2, as well as minimising noise and encouraging safer vehicle design. 11 Transport statistics Great Britain 2013 12 NO x emissions in Greater London LAEI 2010 13 Online Shopping Report conducted by ICM on behalf of the GLA in August 2015
You can also read
NEXT SLIDES ... Cancel