Climate action starts at home - CLIMATE ACTION RESEARCH REPORT 2018 - Ikea

Climate action starts at home - CLIMATE ACTION RESEARCH REPORT 2018 - Ikea

                                        © In t er I KE A Sys t ems B.V. 20 18
at home
Climate action starts at home - CLIMATE ACTION RESEARCH REPORT 2018 - Ikea
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                                To help us understand how to
                               best inspire and enable millions
                              of IKEA customers to take action
                                on climate change, we turned
                                 to over 14,000 customers in
                              14 countries to ask for their help.

                                                                                        INTRODUCTION 				p.3

                                                                                        EXECUTIVE SUMMARY				p.4

                                                                                        1: ATTITUDES					p.5

                                                                                        2: ACTIONS					p.9

                                                                                        3: ACTIVATION					p.14

                                                                                        4: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER			    p.22

                                                                                        CLIMATE ACTIVATION FRAMEWORK			   p.24
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Why did we do this research?                                                                                How did we do it?

The IKEA vision is to                                        We hope that the research can also                                                                                       Sweden     n=1028

                                                                                                                                                                                      Canada     n=1029
                                                             help other businesses, policymakers,
create a better everyday                                                                                                                                                                 USA     n=1000
                                                             campaigners and media to join us in the
life for the many people. A                                                                                                                                                          Belgium     n=1010
                                                             effort to mobilise greater climate action                                                                                 France    n=1022
better life includes a more                                  among the many people.                                                                                                  Germany     n=1020

sustainable life. If we can                                                                                                                                                                UK    n=1011

                                                                                                                                                                                       Poland    n=1036
inspire and enable as many                                                                                                                                                             Russia    n=1011

people as possible to take                                                                                                                                                              Spain    n=1030

                                                                                                                                                                                     Australia   n=1024
action on climate change,                                                                                                                                                               China    n=1016

we can make a huge                                                                                                                                                                      India    n=1018

                                                                                                                                                                                        Japan    n=1024

positive impact.

                                                                                                             In mid-2017 we, together with the              However, in emerging economies,
To understand how people currently
                                                                                                             independent research firm GlobeScan,           particularly China and India, where online
think and feel about climate change,                                                                         conducted 24 qualitative focus group           access is not as widespread across all
what people are doing to take climate                                                                        discussions with people in six countries       regions, the views of lower income, less
                                                                                                             across the world: China, Germany, India,       educated and rural communities are
action in their daily lives, and how to
                                                                                                             Russia, UK and USA.                            underrepresented.
motivate and enable them to do more,
we went out across the globe to talk                                                                         The insights gained from these focus           This report summarises the findings and
                                                                                                             groups directly informed a large-scale         implications from these two research
with thousands of people.
                                                                                                             online, quantitative survey with a total       phases. Percentages in this study refer
                                                                                                             sample of 14,279 adults (aged 18+) across      to the quantitative survey findings. Data
The insights we’ve learned from                                                                              14 countries. The study was conducted in       from each of the 14 countries is weighted
                                                                                                             November 2017 in the following countries:      equally.
conducting this research will inform                                                                         Australia, Belgium, Canada, China, France,
what we do to inspire and enable IKEA                                                                        Germany, India, Japan, Poland, Russia,
                                                                                                             Spain, Sweden, UK and USA. We aimed to
co-workers and millions of customers to
                                                                                                             achieve a representative sample in each
take positive action for the climate.                                                                        of these countries, with quotas in place for
                                                                                                             gender, age, region and education levels.
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What did we learn?

    Climate change is often                                        But, we have learned that                     People respond to different messages, but four common
    too big, serious, complex                                      there are big opportunities                   ingredients will help to motivate everyone to do more.
    and distant an issue for                                       to empower people to make
    people to engage with.                                         a positive change!
                                                                                                                                                                          PAINT A
                                                                                                                                                                          POSITIVE VISION

                                                                                                                        OPTIMISTS          SUPPORTERS                     PROVE THE
                                                                                                                                                                          PERSONAL BENEFITS
                           Nearly 90% of                             People can’t imagine what
                           people say they are                       a positive future looks like.
                           willing to change                                                                                                                              SHARE
                           their behaviour to                        Spontaneous associations with                                                                        SOLUTIONS
                           help fight climate                        climate change focused on
                                                                     destructive outcomes for people
                           change.                                                                                   DISEMPOWERED            SCEPTICS
                                                                     and the planet.
                                                                                                                                                                          CREATE A
    But they need help to overcome                                                                                                                                        COMMUNITY

    key barriers:                                                                                                Read more on page 18

                Perceptions that governments,
                businesses and other people are
                not doing enough
                Lack of knowledge on actions                         Only 3% of                                                                         Across the world, the more people feel
                and their impact                                     people mention                                                                     they know about climate change, the
                                                                     solutions.                                                                         more likely they are to take action
                Practical barriers such as                                                                                                              now, and the more willing they are to do
                expense and inconvenience                            Read more on page 8                                                                even more in the future.

    More than 8/10 people acknowledge                                  The countries where the most                                                     Read more on page 13
    humans contribute to climate change.                               people connect human activity             The vast majority of
                                                                       with climate change are                   people are already doing
                                                                       China (96%) and Spain (92%).              things that reduce their
                                                                                                                 climate impact.
                                                                                                                                                                  Use our Climate Activation
                                                                                                                 But they don’t always realise it.                Framework to plan your
                                      2/3 are worried                                                                                                             communication for mobilising

                                                                         96%                  92%
                                      about it.                                                                                                                   more action on climate change
    Read more on page 6                                                                                          Read more on page 10                             (on page 24)
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Figure 1. Perceived knowledge about climate change

                                      5%                                                                    1 . ATTITUDE S
                       Feel they know nothing at all

                                                                                                            How do people
                                                                            Feel they know a lot

                                                                                                            feel about
                                                                                                            climate change?
                                                                        Feel they know a fair amount
                                                                                                            While climate change is widely
                                                                                                                                                         People are worried
                                                                                                            acknowledged, it remains a distant,
        Feel they know a little                                                                             complex issue. Most people recognise
                                                                                                                                                         and concerned for the
                                                                                                            the problem and many are worried             planet and for future
                                                                                                            about it, but they can’t connect with        generations.
                                                                                                            how the issue will affect them personally
                                                                                                            and what they, as individuals, can do
                                                                                                            about it. They also feel they have limited
                                                                                                            knowledge and understanding of the
                                                                                                            science of climate change, highlighting
                                                                                                            the need for clear, accessible education
                                                                                                            to inform and empower.

Question: How much do you know about climate change:
A lot, a fair amount, a little, or not at all?
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                                                                                                                                                                                 “What comes to mind is:
                                                                                                                                                                                 oh my god, what world
                                                                                                                                                                                 are we going to leave our
                                                                                                                                                                                 children ... it is a disaster
                                                                                                                 “It’s the end of the                                            and it will get worse and
Spontaneous reactions to the topic of                         Despite this appreciation of the issue,
                                                                                                                 world due to the                                                worse. Humans are so
climate change are mainly rational and                        levels of reported knowledge of climate                                                                            selfish …”
                                                                                                                 stupidity of humans.”
negative – this is the finding from both                      change are relatively low. Fewer than
                                                                                                                 MALE, AGED 18-24, UK                                            FEMALE, AGED 25-34, FRANCE
qualitative focus groups and from our                         one in ten people across the 14 coun-
online survey. The most frequently men-                       tries studied (9%) say they have a lot of
tioned themes are destructive outcomes                        knowledge.
of climate change such as melting
ice-caps and rising sea levels, changing                      In most countries, people
weather patterns and extreme events
                                                              have heard more about
such as hurricanes. Just 3% of people
                                                              climate change in the last                        Figure 2. Belief about the cause of climate change, by country
across the 14 countries spontaneously
mention solutions such as renewable                           year than they feel they
energy or electric vehicles.                                  know about the subject,                                       Climate change occurs naturally, not affected by human activity

                                                              which suggests that                                           Human activity is one of the causes of climate change

Majorities in every country in the study
                                                              communications have
believe that human activity is one of the                                                                             14%    25%    14%     15%    4%     12%       11%    10%     10%      17%      19%      8%         11%   19%    26%
                                                              been ineffective in making
causes of climate change. The highest
level is in China where 96% of people                         people feel more informed
connect human activity with climate                           and empowered.                                          86%    75%    86%     85%    96%    88%       89%    90%     90%      83%      81%      92%        89%   81%    74%
change. The lowest levels of recogni-
tion, and the most scepticism about this
topic, are found in the USA and Austral-                                                                                          .
























ia – but even here a strong majority of










people (74% and 75%, respectively)

agree that there are human connections
to climate change.
                                                                                                            Question: Which of the following statements about climate change
                                                                                                            do you agree with most?
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                                                                                                                                People generally see climate change as      In the USA, the increasing frequency
                                                                                                                                part of a host of other environmental       and intensity of hurricanes is mentioned
     Figure 3. Level of worry about climate change, by country
                                                                                                                                problems - even if they aren’t directly     by some people as connected with cli-
                                                                                                                                connected. For example, in focus group      mate change, but this has not yet led to
                                                                                                                                discussions in China and India, pollution   a nationwide sense of personal urgency.
                 A fair amount of worry
                                                                                                                                is something that people in cities ex-
                 A lot of worry
                                                                                                                                perience day-to-day. For them, climate      Parents with children aged under 18
                                                                                                                                change seems more personally relevant       are slightly more likely to be concerned
                                                                                                                                because they can see the effects of         about climate change than non-parents
                                                                     31%                                                        pollution.                                  or those with older children (71% of
                                                                                                    43%                                                                     parents with young children worry a lot/
                               44%      37%
                                                                                                                          31%   The proportion of people concerned          fair amount, compared to 64% and 67%
                     30%                                                                                           34%
                                                                                            45%                                 about the issue varies between countries    respectively).
            26%      12%       22%      23%    30%   36%      27%    58%     20%     18%    10%     45%      26%   15%    22%
            66%      42%       66%      60%    86%   84%      68%    89%     57%     65%    55%     88%      69%   48%    53%   and is highest in China, India, France,
                                                                                                                                and Spain where more than eight in ten

























                                                                                                                                people worry about climate change a lot










                                                                                                                                or a fair amount. There is less concern

                                                                                                                                in Australia, Russia, UK and USA –
     Question: How much do you worry about climate change:                                                                      around half worry a lot or a fair amount.
     A lot, a fair amount, a little, or not at all?
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                                                                                                                                       “As we all know,
                                                                                                                                       pollution is increasing
When asked to imagine what the future                         Despite this, people currently find it                                   day by day and thus
will look like if we don’t take action on                     difficult to imagine what a more climate-                                creating global warming
                                                                                                                                       which in turn is raising              “There will be rising sea
climate change, focus group participants                      friendly future looks like.                                                                                    levels and reduced land
                                                                                                                                       the temperature of our
saw an apocalyptic future for the planet,                                                                                              earth.”                               because of the snow and
with drought, deforestation and dying                         This vacuum provides an opportunity to                                                                         ice melting. And multiple,
                                                                                                                                       MALE, AGED 18-24, INDIA               increasing diseases.”
animals. People were quick to highlight                       inspire people and shift their thinking
both the damage to the earth and harm                         towards solutions by creating a vision of                                                                      MALE, AGED 25-34, CHINA

to humans, such as fewer resources and                        a positive future.
flooding affecting people’s homes. On
the other hand, when asked to think of a
future where action is taken on climate
change, many responses focused simply
on things remaining the same, with no                             Figure 4. Spontaneous associations with “climate change and global warming”
adverse effects.

While images of a negative                                            Outcomes (changing weather, melting ice-caps, etc)                                    44%       Rational observations
                                                                                                                                                                      Emotional reactions
future are powerful and                                                             Causes (pollution, CO2 emissions, etc)                   18%
                                                                                                                                                                      Denial and detachment
shocking, people cannot
                                                                                                                        Worry              14%

imagine what a positive
                                                                                            Responsibility / action needed             11%
future would look like.                                                                                                                                           59%
                                                                                                                                                                  make rational
                                                                          Disengaged (don’t know / nothing / no concern)              9%

In focus groups in the USA, there was                                                              Controversial / political          8%

some discomfort in talking about the
                                                                                                           Naturally occurring   3%
topic, due to its political associations.                                                                                                                                          30%
                                                                                                                       Denial    3%                                                emotionally
This tension was not observed in group
discussions in other countries.                                                                                     Solutions    3%                                                               show denial
                                                                                                                                                                                                  or detachment

Overall, most people are aware of
climate change and have some degree                                Question: What comes to your mind when you think about climate change and global warming?
                                                                   Open, unprompted question.
of concern about the issue.
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                                                                                                        2 . AC TIONS

                                                                                                        What are people
                                                                                                        doing about
                                                                                                        climate change?
                                                                                                        The actions that people take in their
                                                                                                                                                    There are many
                                                                                                        daily lives to help address climate
                                                                                                        change vary between individuals, fam-
                                                                                                                                                    inspiring examples
                                                                                                        ilies, communities, regions and coun-       of personal actions
                                                                                                        tries. Recycling and energy saving in the   tackling climate
                                                                                                        home are the top actions reported by        change around the
                                                                                                        people taking part in our survey. Areas
                                                                                                                                                    world and most peo-
                                                                                                        that see less action include advocacy,
                                                                                                        self-sufficiency, diet and buying pre-
                                                                                                                                                    ple are willing to
                                                                                                        loved products.                             make an effort to
                                                                                                                                                    change their personal
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                                                                  Figure 5. Action on climate change, across ten pillars

                                                                                                     RECYCLING   7.2                         Sorting waste and reusing plastic bags

                                                                                     HOME ENERGY SAVING          6.6                      Efficient appliances, using less energy

                                                                                            HOLIDAY TRAVEL       6.0                   Choosing alternatives to flying

                                                                                                  FOOD WASTE     6.0                   Avoiding food waste and single-use bottles
To determine current levels of personal
action on climate change and identify
                                                                                                      SHOPPING   5.4                Buying sustainable products
successes and challenges, we devised
the Climate Change Behaviour Index.
The Index summarises overall action
                                                                                                 DAILY TRAVEL    4.9              Walking, cycling and using public transport instead of driving
levels across 30 different behaviours
(which were generated from people’s
responses in qualitative research), us-                                                                   DIET   3.4     Eating vegetarian foods instead of meat
ing factor analysis, to group these into
ten pillars of action.
                                                                                                     PRE-LOVED   3.3     Choosing second-hand items and clothing

We scored each of these areas out of
10, based on how many people are                                                                     ADVOCACY    3.1    Writing to companies, governments and talking to peers
taking positive action and how often.
The higher the score, the more cli-
mate-friendly people’s behaviour is. In                                                    SELF-SUFFICIENCY      2.9   Growing vegetables, harvesting rainwater

order to reduce potential for bias and
to gain a true reflection of day-to-day
behaviour, we did not mention climate
                                                                  Each of the ten Action Pillars is an average score out of ten based on how often people take different actions;
change at the start of our quantitative                           the higher the score, the more climate-friendly actions people are taking.
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The results reveal significant variations                     Despite these lower levels of action,                          above average Index scores compared                          People aren’t necessarily
between the ten areas of behaviour.                           there are some positive stories of                             to people in other countries but despite
                                                                                                                                                                                          connecting their day-to-
People are currently taking the most                          inspiring behaviour around the world.                          this, German families strongly prefer
                                                                                                                                                                                          day behaviour and habits
action on recycling (Behaviour Index                                                                                         bottled water to tap water. There could
score of 7.2/10) and energy saving in                         The Behaviour Index also reveals inter-                        be learnings from other countries, such                      with the environment or
the home (score of 6.6/10).                                   esting challenges in specific countries.                       as Australia, where people make a more                       climate change.
                                                              For example, Germans typically have                            concerted effort to avoid bottled water.
Recycling is particularly strong
in European countries such as
Belgium, France and Germany where
infrastructure for people to recycle their
                                                                      Figure 6. Behaviour Index Scores
waste has been in place for decades.
Reported recycling rates are lower in
Russia and the USA. Among those who                                                        More climate-friendly behaviour             Less climate-friendly behaviour           Moderate levels of climate-friendly behaviour
don’t sort their waste for recycling, the
main barriers to doing so are living in a



building without recycling facilities and


                                                                                                       ng e





                                                                                                     vi en






                                                                                                   sa e
a lack of recycling collections by local














authorities. 45% of those who don’t                                          India        6.5         6.9        6.2            5.8          6.1         6.0          6.4    2.2            5.3         3.8           55.2
recycle also say they avoid doing so                                         China        6.2         6.8        6.2            5.8          6.4         6.3          4.6    2.1            4.1         3.4           51.8
because they think it’s inconvenient.                                      France         8.4         6.8        6.7            6.1          5.6         4.5          3.3    3.4            3.3         2.7           50.8

                                                                           Poland         7.7         6.8        6.8            4.6          5.5         5.1          3.0    4.1            3.5         3.5           50.7

Action to save energy in the home                                            Spain        7.7         7.4        5.4            5.6          5.7         5.2          3.4    2.8            4.0         2.1           49.5

                                                                         Germany          8.7         6.8        6.1            5.4          5.4         4.8          3.3    2.8            3.0         2.9           49.4
includes turning off lights when leaving
                                                                           Canada         7.5         6.7        5.7            6.7          5.2         4.0          3.0    4.4            2.9         2.6           48.8
rooms and seeking out energy-efficient
                                                                          Belgium         8.6         6.7        6.1            5.5          5.0         4.6          3.0    3.2            2.6         3.4           48.6
light bulbs (e.g. LEDs) and appliances
                                                                          Sweden          7.2         6.0        4.9            7.1          5.4         5.2          3.7    3.4            2.6         2.4           47.8
such as fridges and ovens. Nearly nine
                                                                                UK        8.3         6.4        4.7            6.1          4.9         5.0          3.2    3.8            2.6         2.5           47.4
in ten people say they mostly or always                                  Australia        6.9         6.6        4.9            6.8          5.0         3.9          3.0    3.9            2.4         3.2           46.7

turn off lights when they leave a room.                                     Japan         7.3         5.7        7.4            6.2          4.6         5.3          3.1    2.9            2.1         2.0           46.7
                                                                           Russia         5.0         6.5        6.5            6.1          5.0         5.8          2.5    2.1            2.6         4.0           46.0
People are generally taking less action in                                    USA         5.3         6.5        6.3            5.9          4.9         3.1          2.8    4.4            2.7         2.4           44.4

four areas: diet; pre-loved products;
self-sufficiency; and advocacy.
                                                                      The higher the score, the more climate-friendly actions people are taking.
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How people are acting on climate change around the world

         AUSTRALIA                                                     FRANCE                                                 POLAND                                                   UK
Australian consumers have a relatively low climate            The French have the highest Index score in Europe       Polish consumers have one of the most positive           The UK has the lowest behaviour score in Europe.
change Behaviour Index (compared to other                     and the West. This is primarily driven by high levels   climate change behaviour index scores overall. They      British consumers typically fall short on a climate-
countries). This is due to low scores on diet, daily          of recycling, avoiding holiday flights and taking       score better than average on recycling, repairing        friendly diet, self-sufficiency and advocacy, and are
travel, holiday travel, and advocacy. Australians are         household actions such as insulation in the home,       appliances, buying second-hand items, self-              more likely to take flights when going on holiday.
more active than other countries on avoiding bottled          turning lights off, washing at low temperatures, and    sufficiency, and avoiding flying. The weak spot in       Recycling is a strength, with one of the highest
water by using their own refillable bottles.                  buying energy-efficient appliances.                     Poland is food waste, with many people admitting to      scores globally.
                                                                                                                      throwing away leftovers, as well as a preference for
                                                                                                                      bottled water.

         BELGIUM                                                       GERMANY                                                RUSSIA                                                   USA
Belgium has one of the highest levels of recycling            Germany’s high scores for recycling bring it above      Russia has a below-average Index score, falling          The USA has a relatively low Index score (less
of the countries surveyed and also scores well on             the global average for climate behaviour. They          behind on diet, recycling, and second-hand               climate-friendly behaviour than average) due to
household energy saving and avoiding holiday                  also score well on household energy saving by           purchases. However, Russian consumers lead the           lower than average scores across almost all the
flights. Compared to elsewhere in Europe, Belgians            avoiding heating their homes when not necessary         way on self-sufficiency, with many families growing      pillars, particularly diet and recycling. Areas of
fall short on shopping, with one of the lowest scores         and choosing energy-efficient appliances. However,      their own vegetables at home, and score fairly well      more positive action in the USA (compared to other
for actively seeking out sustainable brands.                  Germans score lower than average on avoiding            on daily travel by walking, cycling, and using public    countries) include purchasing second-hand items
                                                              bottled water – a big challenge – and choosing          transport. They also prefer to repair appliances         and avoiding flying when taking vacations.
                                                              second-hand products.                                   before buying something new.

         CANADA                                                        INDIA                                                  SPAIN

Canadian climate change behaviour reflects the                India has a relatively high Index score (more           Spanish consumers are particularly strong on
average of all countries in the survey (with an Index         climate-friendly behaviour than average) due to an      household energy saving and are conscious of
score equal to the global average). Canadians score           often-vegetarian diet, good scores on household         choosing efficient appliances, turning lights off, and
highly on avoiding food waste and slightly better             energy saving and daily travel, and a preference for    avoiding long showers. They are also more inclined
than average on recycling and buying second-hand.             environmentally responsible brands and products         to discuss the climate change agenda with friends
They have lower scores on daily transport, self-              when shopping. This contrasts with lower levels of      and family, with the highest advocacy score of all
sufficiency, diet, and advocacy                               recycling compared to most other countries.             European countries.

         CHINA                                                         JAPAN                                                  SWEDEN
Chinese consumers have one of the highest scores              Japan has the lowest levels of behaviour on             Sweden has a Behaviour Index score similar to the
globally for climate-friendly behaviour. This is due to       household energy saving such as choosing energy         global average. Swedes are comparatively good
actively seeking out safe, certified and sustainable          efficient light bulbs, keeping the home insulated,      at avoiding food waste and recycling but they fall
brands and avoiding products that are bad for                 and repairing broken appliances. Shopping is            slightly behind on household energy saving – they
the environment, as well as good scores on daily              another area of below-average action, with most         take longer showers and are less likely to turn lights
transport, and a vegetarian diet, among others.               consumers not seeking out sustainable products.         off – and holiday flying.
However, levels of recycling are low compared to              However, the Japanese are the strongest performer
elsewhere.                                                    on avoiding holiday flights.
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Most people are willing to make a change for the climate

Survey participants were also asked if                        more willing they are to do
they would be willing to take more ac-                                                                                                           “I’m a vegetarian, I use organic
                                                              even more in the future.                                                           products and I sort my waste.
tion to combat climate change.
                                                                                                                                                 Everyone does because your
                                                              People’s willingness to change behav-                                              neighbours make sure you do it!”
Nearly 90 % of people                                         iour in principle highlights a significant                                         FEMALE, AGED 24-34, GERMANY
across the fourteen coun-                                     opportunity to shift the many people to-

tries say they would be                                       wards more climate-friendly daily lives.
                                                              Unlocking this desire and translating it
willing to make an effort to
                                                              into action is key for policymakers and
improve.                                                      sustainable businesses keen to create
                                                              change.                                      Figure 7. Willingness to make changes to behaviour
This figure is highest in China where
98% of respondents are willing to take
more action themselves, followed by
Spain (95%), France (92%), Germany
                                                                        “The energy chart on
and India (both 90%). Even in Austral-                                  products is good. It                                                                       13%
                                                                                                               Make a strong effort to improve
ia and the USA, where climate change                                    influenced me when                                                                                     22%
                                                                                                               Make an effort to improve
scepticism runs higher than elsewhere,                                  I bought a fridge. I
                                                                                                               Stay the same
                                                                        spent more money
more than three quarters of people are
                                                                        to have a B rating
willing to make changes (76% and 80%                                    instead of C as I
respectively).                                                          assumed it would cost
                                                                        me less to run.”

Across the world, the more                                              FEMALE, AGED 24-34, UK

people feel they know
about climate change, the
more likely they are to                                                                                    Question: Would you be willing to make any future changes to your
                                                                                                           behaviour to help reduce climate change?
take action now, and the
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                                                                                                             3 . AC TIVATI O N

                                                                                                             What encourages
                                                                                                             people to act on
                                                                                                             climate change?
                                                                                                             Identifying barriers and motivators helps
                                                                                                                                                         People are taking
                                                                                                             us understand how to convert people’s
                                                                                                             intentions into action.
                                                                                                                                                         some action to
                                                                                                                                                         address climate
                                                                                                             We have developed a segmentation to         change – but they
                                                                                                             enable us to engage different groups        would do more if they
                                                                                                             of people with different beliefs and
                                                                                                                                                         knew what to do,
                                                                                                             motivations in the most effective way.
                                                                                                                                                         had the support they
                                                                                                                                                         need and saw the
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The most common barriers to action

  PERCEPTIONS THAT GOVERN-                                   where people described feeling that their                   LACK OF KNOWLEDGE ON                     PRACTICAL BARRIERS SUCH AS
MENTS, COMPANIES AND OTHER                                   own actions are rendered futile when                      ACTIONS AND THEIR IMPACT                 EXPENSE AND INCONVENIENCE
                                                             other people (both locally and around
                                                                                                                       Not knowing what or how to take action   Another significant barrier is the
A belief that governments and                                the world) are not making any effort to
                                                                                                                       is another significant barrier. Women    perception of high costs associated with
businesses are not pulling their weight                      improve.
                                                                                                                       are more likely to mention this than     environmentally friendly behaviour.
when it comes to climate change
                                                                                                                       men (48% of females rank this as a       Challenging this often-incorrect
prevents people from doing more
                                                                                                                       top three barrier, compared to 35% of    perception is key to unlocking more
themselves. A lack of support from
                                                                                                                       males). At the same time, many people    action on climate change. In focus
government is the single biggest barrier
                                                                 “Tell the other guy to do it                          feel disempowered because they think     group discussions, perceptions of
that people report. Many people also                             first, then I’ll do it; no one                        their individual actions won’t make a    inconvenience were also frequently
believe that other individuals are not                           wants to be the first”
                                                                                                                       difference.                              mentioned as a hurdle. It needs to be
doing their part to help tackle climate
                                                                 MALE, AGED 35-55, USA                                                                          as easy as possible for people to make
change. This came up frequently in our
survey and focus group discussions

   Figure 8. Barriers preventing
   individual action on climate

   Question: What is preventing you
   from doing more to help reduce
   climate change?
                                                                  56%                44%                34%                     41%            26%               40%             22%
                                                                  Not enough         Not enough         Other people            Don’t know     My action         Expensive       Inconvenient
                                                                  government         support from       aren’t doing            what to do     won’t make a
                                                                  support            business           their bit                              difference
   Three barriers selected per respondent;
   barriers selected by fewer than 20% of
   respondents not shown here
                                                                Perceptions of other actors not doing enough                  Disempowerment                    Perceived inconvenience and expense
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The main motivators to encourage people to do more and adopt new habits

   CONSUMER BENEFITS                                             ENABLERS                                       POSITIVE VISION

“What’s in it for me?”                                       Advice, easy solutions,                          A clear link between personal
                                                             infrastructure and examples                      actions and helping the planet
People want practical solutions that                                                                          and/or the next generation

save them money, benefit their health                        Many people are also eager for clear

and the health of their family, and                          information on what to do and how                People would feel more motivated if they

make their daily lives easier and more                       they can help; this would also help              could connect their actions with helping

convenient.                                                  to overcome the barrier of lack of               the planet or the next generation.
                                                             information. Examples of what other              People want to feel that they are doing
                                                             individuals, companies and governments           their bit for a positive future. In focus
                                                             are doing, and the support and                   group discussions, people were keen
                                                             infrastructure available, would also help        to understand the link between their
                                                             to create a sense of collective action           own personal actions and the potential
                                                             and togetherness. This in turn would             positive impacts – bringing this to life
                                                             help overcome the barrier of feeling that        for people will empower them.
                                                             others are not doing enough.

                                                                                                                                                           Figure 9. Motivators that would
                                   37%                                                                                                                     encourage more individual
                                                                         34%                                         40%                                   action on climate change
          41%                      Good for
                                                                                                                     Helping the
          Saving money             health
                                                                         Clear information       18%                 planet                 Helping next
                                                                         on what to do
                                                                                                 Technology                                 generation     Question wording: What would
                                                                                                                                                           encourage you to take more
                                                                                                                                                           action to help reduce climate
                                           15%                                                                              20%
                                                                                     10%                                                                   change? Three motivators
                   34%                     Saving
                                           time                                      Friends/
                                                                                                                            Protecting my      11%         selected per respondent.
                                                                                                                            country for
                   Making things                                                     family taking                          long term          Helping
                   easy to do                                                        action                                                    community

                                                                                                                                                           Three motivators selected per respondent;
                                                                                                                                                           motivators selected by fewer than 20% of
                                                                                                                                                           respondents not shown here
                  Consumer benefits                                                    Enablers                              Positive vision
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People react to different triggers

Across the barriers and motivators, dif-                       BELIEF IN THE CONNECTION
ferent people react to different triggers.                   BETWEEN CLIMATE CHANGE AND
                                                             HUMAN ACTIVITY
                                                                                                                                                      “I sometimes have the
                                                                                                             “It’s got to be a global
For example, some people focus on                                                                                                                     feeling, ‘I’m in it alone’.
                                                                                                             thing and from global
inconvenience as a barrier while for oth-                    Acceptance of human causes of climate                                                    You face a majority who
                                                                                                             companies; what we’re
                                                                                                                                                      aren’t doing anything
ers the problem is the perceived cost of                     change.                                         doing is tiny compared to
                                                                                                                                                      and you won’t win
climate-friendly solutions. Some people                                                                      what’s going on in China.”
                                                                                                                                                      against them.”
feel empowered to take action but need                         FEELING OF PERSONAL                           MALE, AGED 35-55, USA
                                                                                                                                                      FEMALE, AGED 35-55, GERMANY
reminders and advice while others are                        EMPOWERMENT AND GENERAL
more despairing and need to see evi-
dence of mass action.                                        Feeling personally empowered that
                                                             individual action can make a difference
We have identified four segments (pre-                       to tackle climate change and believing                          “I’m worried because we all try to
sented on the next page) representing                        that it’s not too late.                                         do our little bit but I don’t know
                                                                                                                             whether that’s enough.”
broad groups of consumers with dif-
ferent attitudes and beliefs on climate                        WHERE THEY LOOK FOR                                           FEMALE, AGED 35-55, UK

change. These segments enable us to                          SOLUTIONS
explore the relationship between atti-
                                                             The kinds of solutions that people
tudes, beliefs, barriers and motivators
                                                             believe are needed to fight climate
for different groups and use this to de-
                                                             change. For example, convenient
velop frameworks for effective engage-
                                                             energy-efficient solutions, new
ment that unlocks greater action.
                                                             technology and innovation, versus more
                                                             systemic change, led by governments
Some of the main attitudinal differences
                                                             and businesses, less consumption and
between the four segments are:
                                                             more recycling.
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People across the world can be grouped into four segments

OPTIMISTS                                                    SUPPORTERS                                      DISEMPOWERED                                SCEPTICAL

Optimists feel that they can have a                          Supporters realise that we all need to          Disempowered consumers often have           Sceptical consumers tend to believe that
positive impact themselves in the                            do our bit to consume less, reuse and           first-hand experience of high levels        climate change is not affected by human
fight against climate change and are                         recycle, and are willing to make changes        of pollution and make connections           activity, that it is naturally occurring
characterised by this sense of personal                      to their own consumption habits. In             between the pollution they see every        or a hoax, invented by politicians or
empowerment. Despite this, they do                           practice they find it difficult to do this      day, a changing climate, and health         companies. Despite this scepticism,
not want to take action at the expense                       and feel less personally empowered              impacts. Potential health impacts are       this relatively small group still see
of their current lifestyles – they are                       than the Optimists, despite taking              their biggest concern. They believe it      the benefits of some climate action,
unsure about consuming less personally                       similar levels of action. They particularly     is already too late to stop the harmful     primarily driven by saving money. For
and believe they are already doing their                     look to government to provide more              impacts of climate change and do not        example, they see the practical benefits
bit. However, they are interested in                         infrastructure, as well as business.            feel empowered to change. They are          of activities such as recycling, reuse and
how they can save energy and look to                         The Supporters have the biggest gap             reluctant to consume less in practice,      repair.
technology and innovation to provide                         of all the segments between perceived           likely because they do not see the
solutions. Perceptions of inconvenience                      knowledge and concern – they are                benefit of doing so. They do not believe
can prevent them from living up to their                     worried but they do not feel they know          other people are doing their bit and they
ideals – they crave easy solutions.                          enough about climate change or what to          don’t want to compromise on their own
                                                             do about it.                                    quality of life.
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Understanding these segments can help
tailor communication and engagement
                                                                     Figure 10. Consumer segments
on climate action (whether private
sector, third sector or government

                                                                               Believe that it is not too late and
Optimists are most inspired by easy,                                           that individuals can help to stop
convenient, tech-enabled solutions.                                            climate change
Supporters need more information on
what to do and how. Disempowered
people need to see the connection
between personal action and positive
outcomes. Sceptics will be most                                                                                                 35%
enthused by saving money.
                                                                               Belief and empowerment

All four segments will respond positively
to infrastructure, support and examples
of activities that others are taking,
whether governments, businesses or
other individuals.
Using stories and examples                                                     Believe it is too late, individuals
                                                                               cannot help and/or that climate
to inspire a sense of                                                          change is not human-caused

being “in it together” will                                                                                          Behaviour change                Solutions       Innovation
help trigger change for
                                                                                                                                                                 Look to technology,
everyone.                                                                                                            Believe we need systemic
                                                                                                                     change and government support               energy efficiency for
                                                                                                                     to consume less, recycle more               convenient solutions
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                                  “I don’t want to turn off the air conditioning
                                  because I would be the only one that would
                                  have to bear the hot temperature while my
                                  neighbours are all staying in the comfortable                                      “It’s all about convenience. It takes effort to
                                  coolness.”                                                                         recycle, to grow your own vegetables. When it
                                                                                                                     becomes difficult, people don’t do it.”
                                  MALE, AGED 25-34, CHINA
                                                                                                                     MALE, AGED 35-55, UK

     Figure 11. Proportions of each segment by country                                                                Figure 12. Demographic profiles of each segment

                                                                                                                      OPTIMISTS                                                       SUPPORTERS
                     Optimists           Supporters                Disempowered                    Sceptics
                                                                                                                      Female                          Male                            Female                                 Male

                                                                                                                                     49%                       50%                                   55%                                  44%
    Sweden         47%                                         36%                                       10%   8%
                                                                                                                      Baby Boomers (55+)       Gen X (35-54)    Millennials (18-34)   Baby Boomers (55+) Gen X (35-54)              Millennials (18-34)
      Japan        46%                                         35%                                  11%        8%
                                                                                                                                38%                    34%             27%                     33%                     35%                  32%
   Germany         44%                                       27%                        20%                    8%
                                                                                                                      Parents of under 18s Grandparents                               Parents of under 18s   Grandparents
    Belgium        35%                                35%                              23%                     8%
                                                                                                                               31%              25%                                            31%             20%
      Spain        34%                               44%                                           16%         5%

     Canada        35%                                41%                                     11%              12%

         UK        33%                            41%                                        15%               11%
                                                                                                                      DISEMPOWERED                                                    SCEPTICS
     France        33%                            39%                                   19%                    9%     Female                            Male                          Female                    Male

   Australia       33%                            39%                                   12%                    16%                    52%                       47%                             37%                                 61%

        USA        31%                           33%                             18%                           18%    Baby Boomers (55+)      Gen X (35-54)    Millennials (18-34)    Baby Boomers (55+)        Gen X (35-54)             Millennials (18-34)

      China        33%                            30%                            31%                           5%              34%                    36%             31%                       37%                     36%                     27%

       India       32%                            25%                      33%                                 11%    Parents of under 18s   Grandparents                             Parents of under 18s   Grandparents

      Poland       29%                         24%                   35%                                       12%             32%             21%                                              33%              25%

      Russia       17%             28%                       43%                                               12%
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   Figure 13. Proportions of each segment by country

                                                                                              CLUSTER 1: GERMANY, JAPAN, SWEDEN

                                                                                              Higher than average proportion of Optimists

                                                                    CLUSTER 2: CANADA, FRANCE, SPAIN, UK

                                                                    Higher than average proportion of Supporters

                                                                                                                                            CLUSTER 3: CHINA, INDIA, POLAND, RUSSIA

                                                                                                                                            Higher than average proportion of Disempowered

                                                                                                                              CLUSTER 4: AUSTRALIA, USA

                                                                                                                              High proportion of Supporters and higher
                                                                                                                              than average proportion of Sceptics
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                                                                                                                              4 . BR INGING IT A L L TO G E TH E R

                                                                                                                              How should we
                                                                                                                              engage people
                                                                                                                              to act on climate
                                                                                                                              We conducted this research to learn how
                                                                                                                                                                        Sharing what we
                                                                                                                              we could engage more of our customers
                                                                                                                              to act on climate change at home. But,
                                                                                                                                                                        have learned will help
                                                                                                                              we hope that what we have learned is      all of us to make a
                                                                                                                              useful to many others who are trying to   huge positive impact.
                                                                                                                              inspire people to do something about
                                                                                                                              climate change.

                                                                                                                              We have created a Climate Action
                                                                                                                              Framework, which can be can be used
                                                                                                                              to guide effective campaigns and
                                                                                                                              communications that aim to encourage
                                                                                                                              consumers to take more action on
                                                                                                                              climate in their daily lives.
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How we can encourage and inspire people to take climate action

   WHO ARE YOU TALKING TO?                                                                                                        WHAT CONTENT ARE YOU SHARING?

Define the audience, including country and consumer segments                                                                  Needs to include benefits, vision and enablers, tailored to the target segment

                    Optimists need                                      Disempowered need                                                Paint a positive vision
                    easy, convenient                                    both of these, and a                                             The more people know about climate change, the more they
                    solutions                                           demonstration of the positive
                                                                                                                                         act, but in order to empower people we need to balance the
                                                                        impacts they can have
                                                                                                                                         negative facts about climate impact with a positive vision of a
                                                                                                                                         climate-friendly future.
                    Supporters need
                    more information                                    Sceptics are motivated
                    and advice on                                       by saving money
                                                                                                                                         Prove the personal benefits
                    what to do
                                                                                                                                         As well as a positive vision for the planet and society, people
                                                                                                                                         need to see personal and emotional benefits for themselves as

Creating a sense of community and togetherness will help to inspire action
                                                                                                                                         Share solutions
                                                                                                                                         Sharing tips and information about specific personal actions
                                                                                                                                         and support on offer from business and governments will give
           Emphasise community,                      Use stories of real people
            participation, sharing                    and examples of what                                                               people confidence that they can make a meaningful impact.
                                                         others are doing

       Include trusted voices from                                                                                                       Create a community
        community and partners                         Locally tailored but with
                                                       global stories and impact                                                         People need to feel part of a community or movement, seeing what
                                                                                                                                         other individuals, governments and businesses are doing, learning
                                                                                                                                         from each other and inspiring them to do their small part.
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Climate Activation Framework

To inspire and enable people to
take more personal action on
climate change the approach
should be based on the attitudes,
barriers and motivators of each
target group.
                                                 THE MANY PEOPLE                                  OPTIMISTS                              SUPPORTERS                           DISEMPOWERED                    SCEPTICS

                                          Educate on actions that
                                          tackle climate change and the
                                          difference they make                                                                                                          Educate on the positive
                                                                                        Emphasise a positive vision               Emphasise a positive vision                                        Educate on human cause of
                                                                                                                                                                        climate impact of specific
                                                                                        for next generation                       for the planet                                                     climate change
                                          Share a positive vision of a                                                                                                  actions
           PAINT A                        climate-friendly future for the
       POSITIVE VISION                    planet and next generation

                                          Convey co-benefits:

                                          Money savings
                                                                                                                                  Communicate all three                 Focus on health              Focus on money and time
                                                                                        Focus more on convenience
                                          Health benefits                                                                         benefits                                                           saving
         PROVE THE
     PERSONAL BENEFITS                    Convenience

                                          Enable action through or with:

                                          Examples of government and
                                          business support available
                                                                                        Focus on easy, technology                 Focus on government/
                                                                                                                                                                        Leverage all three of the    Focus on easy, technology
                                                                                        solutions                                 business support; provide
                                          Advice and provision of easy                                                                                                  enablers                     solutions
                                                                                                                                  clear advice on actions
                                          solutions and actions
          SOLUTIONS                       Technology solutions

                                          Emphasise community, participation, sharing

                                          Use stories of real people and examples of what others are doing                                                                                           Difficult to mobilise on
                                                                                                                              A feeling of community should help to engage three of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                     climate change
                                                                                                                              segments who all believe others are not doing enough
                                          Locally tailor communications but with global stories and impact
           CREATE A
          COMMUNITY                       Include trusted voices from community and partners
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Climate action starts at home!

Based on our research, we have                                                                                                    WE WANT TO EMPOWER PEOPLE
identified a few principles when it comes
                                                                                                                              Whenever we talk about climate action,
to engaging consumers on climate
                                                                                                                              we’ll be specific about what people can
action. We invite others to join us and
                                                                                                                              do and how this is good for them and
share successes and failures along the
                                                                                                                              their family.
way so that we can learn from each
other and work together to create the                             LED for the many!
                                                                                                                                                                                 Clear ideas for
change that is needed.                                                                                                                                                           reducing food waste!

                                                                 WE CELEBRATE AND NEVER UN-                                                                                EVERYBODY CAN HAVE A
                                                               DERESTIMATE THE SMALL ACTIONS                                                                             POSITIVE IMPACT

                                                               We believe climate action starts at home                                                                  We will find ways to make the impact
                                                               and every one of us can make a positive                                                                   tangible, so people can be confident in
                                        Skip the car!
                                                               difference.                                                                                               the value of their contribution.

                                                                                                                                              Induction hob to go!

  WE BELIEVE A BETTER LIFE CAN                                                                                                    COLLECTIVE ACTION MATTERS
ALSO BE A CLIMATE FRIENDLY LIFE                                                                                                                                                                         Grow your
                                                                                                                                                                                                        own at home!
                                                                                                                              Climate change requires urgent action
We are committed to helping people see
                                                                                                                              from all corners of society, including
a positive future where taking climate                                                                 Long live the
                                                                                                       Veggie ball!           governments, business and individuals.
action enables them to have the life
                                                                                                                              To inspire more action, we need to share
they want while also protecting the
                                                                                                                              these stories of how all our combined
planet and future generations.
                                                                                                                              actions can add up to create a big
                                                                                                                              positive impact.
© In ter IKEA Sys t ems B.V. 2 0 1 8
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