CORK METROPOLITAN AREA - DRAFT TRANSPORT STRATEGY 2040 - PUBLIC CONSULTATION DOCUMENT - National Transport Authority

 
CORK METROPOLITAN AREA - DRAFT TRANSPORT STRATEGY 2040 - PUBLIC CONSULTATION DOCUMENT - National Transport Authority
Bonneagar Iompair Eireann
                                                                                               Transport Infrastructure Ireland

                                                                CORK
                                                                METROPOLITAN
                                                                AREA
                                                                DRAFT TRANSPORT STRATEGY 2040 - PUBLIC CONSULTATION DOCUMENT

                                                                                                                                  LRT

Cork City Council   Black Ash Park & Ride   Comhairle Cathairle Chaorcaí
CORK METROPOLITAN AREA - DRAFT TRANSPORT STRATEGY 2040 - PUBLIC CONSULTATION DOCUMENT - National Transport Authority
PUBLIC CONSULTATION
We would like to know you views on the draft Cork Metropolitan Area Transport Strategy and any items of interest or concern.
All comments will be considered and will inform the finalisation of the Cork Metropolitan Area Transport Strategy. The public
consultation will run from 15th May - 28th June 2019.

Full details of the draft Cork Metropolitan                           Submissions                                                            Public Information Events
Area Transport Strategy can be found at                               Submissions are welcomed from the public                               Public Information Events will be held
the following link:                                                   up until 5pm, Friday 28th June 2019, send                              between 3pm - 8pm at the following
www.nationaltransport.ie/public-                                      your submission online, by email or post.                              locations on the following dates:
consultations/current
                                                                                                                                             • Wednesday 5th June
                                                                      Website:                                                                 Imperial Hotel, Cork City
Consultation material will be available                               www.nationaltransport.ie/public-
to view at Cork City Hall and Cork                                    consultations/current                                                  • Thursday 6th June
County Hall for the duration of the                                                                                                            Oriel House Hotel, Ballincollig
consultation period.                                                  Email:                                                                 • Wednesday 12th June
                                                                      corktransport@nationaltransport.ie                                       Radisson Hotel, Little Island
The complete set of CMATS background
reports area as follows:                                              Post:                                                                  • Thursday 13th June
• Baseline Conditions Report;                                         Cork Metropolitian Area Transport Strategy,                              Carrigaline Court Hotel, Carrigaline
• Planning Datasheet Development Report;                              National Transport Authority,                                          • Wednesday 19th June
• Demand Analysis Report;                                             Dún Scéine,                                                              Blarney Castle Hotel, Blarney.
• Transport Modelling Report;                                         Harcourt Lane,
• Transport Options Development Report;                               Dublin 2,
                                                                      D02 WT20.
• Supporting Measures Report;
• Strategic Environmental Assessment
  (SEA); and
• Appropriate Assessment (AA).

Submissions will not be individually responded to but will be summarised in a consultation report which will be published on www.nationaltransport.ie/public-consultations/current
All submissions made on the draft Cork Metropolitan Area Transport Strategy will be reviewed and relevant feedback incorporated into the final Strategy as appropriate. Submissions
from individuals will be reported anonymously and feedback from organisations will be attributed to them.
The NTA is committed to protecting the rights and privacy of individuals in compliance with the General Data Protection Regulation and the Data Protection Acts 1988 to 2018.
By making a submission under this public consultation exercise, you are indicating your acknowledgement of and consent to the above.
CORK METROPOLITAN AREA - DRAFT TRANSPORT STRATEGY 2040 - PUBLIC CONSULTATION DOCUMENT - National Transport Authority
CORK METROPOLITAN AREA | DRAFT TRANSPORT STRATEGY | PUBLIC CONSULTATION DOCUMENT                                 1

INTRODUCTION
                                   The Cork Metropolitan Area Transport                 CMATS represents a coordinated land                     It will inform the development of regional and
Cork already performs              Strategy (CMATS) 2040 (the “Strategy”)               use and transport strategy for the Cork                 local planning, and associated investment
well as a major urban              has been developed by the
                                   National Transport Authority (NTA) in
                                                                                        Metropolitan Area to cover the period up to
                                                                                        2040. The Strategy is considered to be flexible
                                                                                                                                                frameworks, including providing inputs to
                                                                                                                                                the Southern Assembly’s Regional Spatial
centre in Ireland and              collaboration with Transport Infrastructure          with the ability to scale up public transport           and Economic Strategy (RSES), the
the City has positioned            Ireland (TII), Cork City Council and                 capacity and frequencies as necessary along             forthcoming Cork Metropolitan Area
                                   Cork County Council.                                 CMATS agreed transport corridors.                       Strategic Plan (MASP) and the statutory
itself as an emerging                                                                                                                           Development Plans of both Cork City
medium-sized                       The Cork Metropolitan Area (CMA) is in the           The Strategy takes its lead at national level           Council and Cork County Council.
European centre of                 midst of an exciting phase of development.           from the National Planning Framework 2040
                                   The recently-published National Planning             and the National Development Plan 2018-                 CMATS will deliver an integrated transport
growth and innovation.             Framework (NPF) 2040 envisages that                  2027 and builds upon previous transport                 network that addresses the needs of all
Building on this potential         Cork will become the fastest-growing city            studies including Cork City Centre Movement             modes of transport, offering better transport
is critical to further             region in Ireland with a projected 50% to            Strategy, Cork Area Strategic Plan (CASP)               choices, resulting in better overall network
                                   60% increase of its population by 2040.              and the Cork Metropolitan Cycle Network                 performance and providing capacity to
enhancing Ireland’s                                                                     Plan. The Strategy will provide a coherent              meet travel demand and support economic
metropolitan profile.              This projected population and associated             transport planning policy framework and                 growth. To achieve this vision, the guiding
                                   economic growth will result in a significant         implementation plan around which other                  principles upon which CMATS is based is
National Planning Framework 2040   increase in the demand for travel.                   agencies involved in land use planning,                 depicted in the graphic below.
                                   This demand needs to be managed and                  environmental protection, and delivery of
                                   planned for carefully in order to safeguard          other infrastructure such as housing and
                                   and enhance Cork’s attractiveness to live,           water can align their investment priorities.
                                   work, visit and invest in.

                                     Principle                  Principle                Principle                  Principle                  Principle                  Principle

                                     01                         02                       03                         04                         05                         06
                                     To support the future      To prioritise            To provide a high level    To identify and protect    To enhance the public      To increase public
                                     growth of the CMA          sustainable transport    of public transport        key strategic routes for   realm through traffic      transport capacity and
                                     through the provision      and reduce car           connectivity to key        the movement of freight    management and             frequencies where
                                     of an efficient and safe   dependency within        destinations within high   and services including     transport interventions.   needed to achieve the
                                     transport network.         the CMA.                 demand corridors.          the provision of a high                               strategy outcomes.
                                                                                                                    level of freight access
                                                                                                                    to the Port of Cork
CORK METROPOLITAN AREA - DRAFT TRANSPORT STRATEGY 2040 - PUBLIC CONSULTATION DOCUMENT - National Transport Authority
2   CORK METROPOLITAN AREA | DRAFT TRANSPORT STRATEGY | PUBLIC CONSULTATION DOCUMENT

    National Policy                                Some of the core principles of the NPF         Other key national level Policy and            Regional Policy
    CMATS is a Regional Level plan and is          that have informed the development of          Guidelines that CMATS must align               At a regional level, the NPF 2040
    directly informed by National Level (Tier-1)   CMATS are:                                     with include:                                  recommends the development of RSESs
    policies. The most important and recent of     ƒƒ NSO 1 – Compact Growth;                     ƒƒ National Mitigation Plan;                   and MASPs. The RSESs are to ensure better
    these documents are the NPF 2040 and           ƒƒ NSO 2 – Enhanced Regional                   ƒƒ Investing in our Transport Future -         co-ordination in planning and development
    the National Development Plan (NDP)               Accessibility Road Network;                    Strategic                                   policy matters across local authority
    2018-2027.                                                                                                                                   boundaries. As part of the RSES process,
                                                   ƒƒ NSO 3 – Public Transport;                   ƒƒ Investment Framework for Land
                                                                                                                                                 MASPs are required to provide more specific
                                                   ƒƒ NSO 4 – Sustainable Mobility;                  Transport;
    Some of the key transport growth                                                                                                             focus on city and metropolitan issues. The
    enablers relevant to the development of        ƒƒ NSO 5 – A Strong Economy supported          ƒƒ Spatial Planning and National Roads;        draft RSES for the Southern Assembly
    the Strategy include:                             by Enterprise,Innovation and Skills;        ƒƒ Design Manual for Urban Roads               Region was published in December 2018.
    ƒƒ Delivery of large-scale regeneration        ƒƒ NSO 6 – High-Quality International             and Streets;
       projects for the provision of new              Connectivity;                               ƒƒ Smarter Travel - A Sustainable              Local Policy
       employment, housing and supporting          ƒƒ NSO 7 – Enhanced Amenity and                   Future; and                                 The third tier in the planning and policy
       infrastructure in Cork Docklands (City         Heritage;                                   ƒƒ Sustainable Urban Housing: Design           hierarchy is local planning, which involves the
       Docks and Tivoli);                                                                            Standards for New Apartments                planning framework for the implementation
                                                   ƒƒ NSO 8 – Transition to a Low Carbon
    ƒƒ Progressing sustainable development            and Climate Resilient Society; and             Guidelines for Planning Authorities.        of national and regional guidance at the local
       of new greenfield areas for housing on                                                                                                    level. CMATS will inform the future update
                                                   ƒƒ NSO 10 – Access to High-Quality                                                            of Cork City and County Development
       public transport corridors;
                                                      Childcare, Education and Health                                                            Plans and the future development of
    ƒƒ Intensifying development in inner-city         Services.                                                                                  Local Transport Implementation plans/
       and inner suburban areas;
                                                                                                                                                 Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMPs) for
    ƒƒ Development of a new science and                                                                                                          Metropolitan Towns and City Districts.
       innovation park to the west of the city
       accessible by public transport;
    ƒƒ Development of enhanced city-
       wide public transport to incorporate
       proposals for an east-west corridor
       from Mahon, through the City Centre to
       Ballincollig and a north-south corridor                                                                                                                  Strategic Investment
       with a link to the Airport;
                                                         TIER 1                              National Planning                   National Development Plan
                                                         NATIONAL                                                                                               Framework for Land
    ƒƒ M8/N25/N40 Dunkettle Junction                                                         Framework 2040                      (NDP) 2018-2027                Transport
                                                         LEVEL
       upgrade and improved Ringaskiddy Port
       access;                                                                                                                   Cork Metropolitan
                                                         TIER 2                              Southern Assembly                                                  Metropolitan Area
    ƒƒ Enhanced regional connectivity through            REGIONAL                            Regional Spatial &                  Area Transport                 Strategic Plans
       improved average journey times by                 PLANNING                            Economic Strategy (RSES)                                           (MASP)
                                                                                                                                 Strategy (CMATS)
       road; and
    ƒƒ Improved traffic flow around the City,
       which, subject to assessment, could
                                                         TIER 3                              Cork City and Cork County           Local Transport                Local Economic and
       include upgrades of the N40, and/
                                                         LOCAL                               Development Plans                   Implementation Plans           Community Plans
       or alternatives which may include
                                                         PLANNING                            Local Area Plans
       enhanced public transport.

                                                                                                                                 IMPLEMENTATION
CORK METROPOLITAN AREA - DRAFT TRANSPORT STRATEGY 2040 - PUBLIC CONSULTATION DOCUMENT - National Transport Authority
CORK METROPOLITAN AREA - DRAFT TRANSPORT STRATEGY 2040 - PUBLIC CONSULTATION DOCUMENT - National Transport Authority
CMATS Study Area and Road Network

                       N20
                                               WHITECHURCH

                                                                                                      M8

                                                                                                         KNOCKRAHA                            LEAMLARA

                                                                          WHITES CROSS
                                                                                         SALLYBROOK

                             BLARNEY
                                                                                            BROOKLODGE

               TOWER
                                                                                          GLANMIRE

                                                                                                                    GLOUNTHAUNE                            N25        MIDLETON
                                                                                                                                         CARRIGTWOHILL
                                                                                                N8

                                                                                                         LITTLE ISLAND
                                                N22                                                                                                                         BALLYNACORRA
                                                                                                N40

                BALLINCOLLIG

         N22

                                       N40                                               ROCHESTOWN
                                                                                                             PASSAGE WEST

                                                                   FRANKFIELD
                                                                                                                                              BALLYMORE

                                                                                                                                  COBH
                                                                  N27                                           MONKSTOWN

                                                        CORK
                                                        AIRPORT

                                                                  BALLYGARVAN
                                                                                                                                                          WHITEGATE

                                                                                           CARRIGALINE
                                         N71
CORK METROPOLITAN AREA - DRAFT TRANSPORT STRATEGY 2040 - PUBLIC CONSULTATION DOCUMENT - National Transport Authority
CORK METROPOLITAN AREA | DRAFT TRANSPORT STRATEGY | PUBLIC CONSULTATION DOCUMENT                     5

                 EXISTING TRANSPORT CONTEXT
                                                               The Cork Metropolitan Area was previously       Mode Share                                     ƒƒ Supporting the vibrancy, accessibility
                                                               defined by the Cork Area Strategic Plan         The current limitations of the public             and liveability of Cork City Centre and
                                                               (CASP) and includes Cork City, its suburbs      transport provision in the CMA are                Metropolitan centres;
                                                               and the towns and rural areas in the            reflected in the low mode share for public     ƒƒ Ensuring that future development is
                                                               immediate hinterland of the City of Cork as     transport of 5% across the whole day and          located and designed in a fashion that
                                                               a single integrated unit.                       all trip purposes. Only 7% of journeys to         prioritises walking, cycling and public
                                                                                                               work in Cork City are by public transport.        transport and reduces the need to travel
                                                               The CMA covers 820km2 and has a                                                                   by car;
                                                               population of just over 305,000 (CSO            By comparison, walking has a 20% mode          ƒƒ Improving the public transport offering
                                                               2016). This is made up of approximately         share, while the dominant mode is car             through higher frequency services
                                                               126,000 residents within the Cork City          which is used for 74% of trips. Cycling           operating with greater speed, directness
                                                               boundary, with the remaining located            makes up the remainder of trips, with 1%          and journey time reliability;
                                                               within the surrounding metropolitan area.       of all trips made by bike.
                                                                                                                                                              ƒƒ Increasing residential density levels on
                                                               The Study Area encompasses Cork                                                                   the basis of centrality within centres and
                                                                                                               Cork’s transport network is coming under
                                                               Harbour and Port of Cork. The River Lee                                                           public transport accessibility;
                                                                                                               increasing strain and the existing network
                                                               runs directly from the harbour through the      will not support the future transport needs    ƒƒ Accommodating a greater number of
                                                               centre of the metropolitan area splitting       of a growing City and Metropolitan area.          trips more efficiently by maximising
                                                               into two channels which form the centre                                                           connectivity by walking, cycling and
                                                               island of Cork City.                            Cork has a very high mode share for car           public transport to major employment
                                                                                                               and unless the attractiveness of alternative      and education centres;
                                                               There are approximately 820,000 trips           modes of transport are enhanced, CMA           ƒƒ Supplementing the public transport
 41.1%
 Cork City
                                                               originating within the CMA on average
                                                               each weekday (over 24 hours) with the
                                                                                                               will continue to have high levels of car
                                                                                                               dependency, journey delays, congestion
                                                                                                                                                                 network with complementary facilities
                                                                                                                                                                 such as Park and Ride for the benefit
                        Study Area                             morning peak and late afternoon being the       and pollution, which all negatively impact        of people accessing the city from the
                     Population Results                        busiest periods.                                on quality of life.                               surrounding rural areas;
                                                                                                                                                              ƒƒ Prioritising active modes (walking and
                                                               There is a dispersed pattern for journeys
                                                                                                               Key Challenges                                    cycling) to improve health benefits; and
                                                               to work generally within the Metropolitan
                                                               area. The private car tends to be used for      To provide for a better, more efficient and    ƒƒ Reducing the impact of transport on the
                                                 44.9%         radial trips into/out of the City as well as    sustainable transport network, there are
                                                                                                               a number of key challenges that must be
                                                                                                                                                                 environment through targeted measures
                                                                                                                                                                 to limit the negative impact of air and
                          Census 2016            Cork Metro    for trips on orbital routes.
                       Population Distribution   Urban Areas                                                   addressed by CMATS. These include:                noise emissions.
13.9%
County Metro Rural
                                                                                                               ƒƒ Ensuring that the transport network can
                                                                                                                  support the population, employment
Areas/Villages
                                                                                                                  and educational growth as envisaged by
                                                                                                                  the NPF 2040;
CORK METROPOLITAN AREA - DRAFT TRANSPORT STRATEGY 2040 - PUBLIC CONSULTATION DOCUMENT - National Transport Authority
CMATS 2040 Land Use Distribution
                                                   WHITECHURCH

                                                                                                                      SALLYBROOK

                                   BLARNEY
                                                                                                                               BROOKLODGE

        TOWER

                                                                                                                       GLANMIRE
                                                                 BLACKPOOL
                                                                                                                                                       GLOUNTHAUNE
                                                                                                   MAYFIELD                                                                                                    MIDLETON
                                                                                                                                                                                   CARRIGTWOHILL
                                                           KNOCKNAHEENEY

                                                                                          Kent Station

                                                                               CORK CITY                                               LITTLE ISLAND
                                                                                                 DOCKLANDS                                                                                                                BALLY

                                                                                                         BLACKROCK
            BALLINCOLLIG

                                             BISHOPSTOWN

                                                                                                                     DOUGLAS
                                                                                                                                              PASSAGE WEST

                                                                                                                         ROCHESTOWN
                                                                             FRANKFIELD

       LEGEND - KEY INFORMATION
          Rail Corridor

                                                                                                                                                                           COBH
          Existing Train Station                                                                                                                       MONKSTOWN

          Industry/Employment

          Residential                                            CORK
                                                                 AIRPORT

          Port

                                                                                                                                                                     RINGASKIDDY
          Education
                                                                             BALLYGARVAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                   WHITEGATE
          Hospital

                                                                                                                         CARRIGALINE
          Retail

          Culture

ARRY
CORK METROPOLITAN AREA | DRAFT TRANSPORT STRATEGY | PUBLIC CONSULTATION DOCUMENT   7

CMATS 2040 LAND USE
The NPF recognises the role that Cork           To support the compact growth aspiration          ƒƒ The density of future residential and
and the other regional cites must play in       of the NPF 2040, Cork City will become               employment developments such as
providing a counter-weight to Dublin and        the focus for significant regeneration               the Tivoli Docks and existing, centrally
assigned a population growth forecast of        opportunities at brownfield locations.               located and accessible settlements
50-60% to each regional city.                                                                        will be increased. Higher densities
                                                In terms of employment and education,                contribute to a more compact urban
This growth will be translated at a regional,   CMATS prioritises development along its              footprint that brings more people closer
metropolitan and local level through the        identified high capacity public transport            to destinations and public transport
production of the RSES, MASPs and the           corridors.                                           services with easy walking and cycling
forthcoming Development Plans and Local                                                              distance;
Area Plans of both Cork City Council and        Guided by the principles of the NPF, the          ƒƒ Deliver consolidated development in
Cork County Council.                            following strategy development priorities            a manner that can avail of existing
                                                for the distribution of land-use have been           transport infrastructure, nearby
The draft RSES and MASP was open for            identified for the CMA:                              amenities and facilities in the short term
consultation between December 2018 and          ƒƒ Ensure effective integration between              to deliver a critical mass of growth in
March 2019. These provided population              transport and land-use through the                population and employment which can
projections to the horizon year of 2031            delivery of Public Transport Orientated           support the transition and sequencing
for both Cork City and Suburbs (283,669)           Development, which provides higher                of investment to higher capacity public
and the Rest of the Cork Metropolitan              density, a balanced mixed of land uses            transport infrastructure and services;
Area (125,157). In the absence of a                and compact settlements that reduce            ƒƒ Land use policies that minimise the
definitive land use distribution for the CMA,      trip distances and are of a magnitude             requirement to travel longer distances by
assumptions have been made considering             that supports the viability of high               encouraging mixed-use development.
the NPF National Planning Objectives and           capacity public transport;                        This should include ensuring areas are
the statutory development plans of both
                                                ƒƒ The application of this principle in Cork         developed in tandem with the delivery
Cork local authorities.
                                                   will result in a high-intensity, mix of uses      of schools and other amenities to
                                                   being directed to locations at existing           maximise the use of more sustainable
Additionally, the Strategy’s transport
                                                   or planned stations along the suburban            modes of transport; and
measures have been developed to be
                                                   and light rail lines and along the high        ƒƒ Land use policies that support
scalable, flexible and have adequate
                                                   frequency bus corridors;                          the provision and design of new
reserve capacity to allow for any changes
in growth that may arise from the RSES                                                               development in locations, layouts and
and MASP processes to be catered                                                                     at densities which prioritise walking and
for by the proposed strategy network.                                                                cycling and enable the efficient provision
                                                                                                     of public transport services.
WHITECHURCH

         Indicative Public Transport Network

    Blarney / Stoneview

                                                                                                                 SALLYBROOK
                                             Monard

                       BLARNEY
                                                                                                                            BROOKLODGE

TOWER                                                                   Blackpool/
                                                                        Kilbarry
                                                                                                                  GLANMIRE
                                                                                                                                                                                             Carrigtwohill
                                                            BLACKPOOL
                                                                                                                                                       GLOUNTHAUNE
                                                                                              MAYFIELD                                                                   Glounthaune                                                               MIDLETON
                                                                                                                                             Little Island                                CARRIGTWOHILL
                                                      KNOCKNAHEENEY                                               Tivoli   Dunkettle

                                                                                     Kent Station

                                                                           CORK CITY                                                   LITTLE ISLAND
                                                                                            DOCKLANDS                                                                      Fota

                                                                                                    BLACKROCK
   BALLINCOLLIG

                                       BISHOPSTOWN

                                                                                                                DOUGLAS
                                                                                                                                              PASSAGE WEST
                                                                                                                                                                        Carrigaloe
                                                                                                                     ROCHESTOWN
                                                                        FRANKFIELD

         LEGEND - KEY INFORMATION                                                                                                                                      Ballynoe

              Rail Corridor

              East-West Corridor                                                                                                                                           COBH
                                                                                                                                                       MONKSTOWN
              Core Bus Corridors
                                                                                                                                                                   Rushbrooke      Cobh

              Existing Train Station
                                                            CORK
                                                            AIRPORT
              Proposed Train Station

              Industry/Employment                                                                                                                                    RINGASKIDDY

                                                                         BALLYGARVAN
              Residential                                                                                                                                                                                            WHITEGATE

              Port                                                                                                   CARRIGALINE

              Education

              Hospital

              Retail

              Culture                                                                                                                                                                                  All routes and alignments are indicative and subject to
                                                                                                                                                                                                       change through the statutory scheme appraisal process.
CORK METROPOLITAN AREA | DRAFT TRANSPORT STRATEGY | PUBLIC CONSULTATION DOCUMENT   9

STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT & OUTCOMES
Accommodating the scale of projected           Cork Metropolitan Area Transport Strategy Methodology
growth within the CMA will mean
increasing pressure on the existing
transport network. This Strategy has been
developed and assessed in the context of                   Policy & guidance                      Baseline review
the following notional scenarios:
ƒƒ A Business as Usual case that
   incorporates committed investment in
   the road network only;
ƒƒ A second scenario that substantially            Stakeholder engagement                         Agree key challenges
   increases Public Transport Investment;
   and
ƒƒ A third scenario, building on the second,
   that represents the optimal outcome for
   Land-Use and Sustainable Transport             Evaluate against demand                         Develop transport options, alternatives,
   Integration.
                                                   Optimisation of land use                       networks & supporting proposals
The likely outcomes of the third scenario
are that the demand for car travel will
reduce as people live closer to their
workplaces and places of study. Longer
distance trips across the CMA will be
                                                   Stakeholder engagement                         Preferred transport strategy
undertaken, in greater numbers, by public
transport and will be supported by linked
cycling and walking infrastructure. The
business case for continued investment
in public transport infrastructure will be      Public display/consultation                       Draft strategy report
enhanced as patronage continues to grow.

The sustainable transport measures
proposed in CMATS have been developed
in line with Scenario 3, which aligns with
the overarching national, regional and local
policy objectives for sustainable transport
                                                                                                  Final Strategy Report
provision in Ireland.
WALKING

                       63% increase                             250%                                         Additional   24,000
                       in walking trips between
                                                                increase                                     daily car trips potentially
      90m              2011 and 2040
                                                                in footfall on                               transferable to walking
     annual                                                     St. Patrick’s Street
   walking trips

>200km             Estimated €50m                      Enhanced
                                                                                          140km                     69,000
new and upgraded   investment including                Wayfinding                         of Greenways
                                                                                                                    walking trips made in
footpaths          elements of BusConnects             System                                                       the AM peak period

         LRT

Age-Friendly                                                           20 mins of activity a day                     Improved
                                    Safer                              reduces the risk of hearth disease,           accessibility
Town Centres                        Routes to school                   type 2 diabetes and depresssion               to public transport
                                                                       by at least 20%
                                       SCHOOL

                                                                          LRT
CORK METROPOLITAN AREA | DRAFT TRANSPORT STRATEGY | PUBLIC CONSULTATION DOCUMENT   11
CYCLING
                                                              Additional   56,000              13,000
                                                              daily car trips potentially      cycling trips made in the AM peak
                                                              transferable to cycing           period easing congestion

19.5m
  annual
cycling trips

   200km                         150km                              60km                    140km
   Primary                       Secondary                          Inter-Urban             Greenway
   Cycle Network                 Cycle Network                      Cycle Network           Network

            Expansion                            20 mins         of activity a day
            of Bicycle Sharing                   reduces the risk of hearth disease,
            Systems                              type 2 diabetes and some cancers                         Strategy cost estimate
                                                 by at least 20%                                             is approximately

                                                                                                              €230m
                                                                                                              ( +BusConnects
   Enhanced End-of-Trip                                                                                       cycle elements)

   facilities                                    positive impact
                                                 on mental health
                                                                                                                                Cork City Council   Black Ash
WHITECHURCH
                                                                      WHITECHURCH

                Cycle Network Map

                                                                                                                                                              SALLYBROOK
                                                                                                                                                              SALLYBROOK

                                           BLARNEY
                                           BLARNEY
                                                                                                                                                                             BROOKLODGE
                                                                                                                                                                             BROOKLODGE
                                 Blarney
                                 Castle

                   TOWER

                                                                                                                                                               GLANMIRE
                                                                                                                                                               GLANMIRE

                                                                                                          Blackpool                                                                                 GLOUNTHAUNE
                                                                                                                                                                                                    GLOUNTHAUNE                                                                MIDLETON
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               MIDLETON
                                                                                                          Shopping
                                                                                                           Centre                                                                                                           CARRIGTWOHILL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            CARRIGTWOHILL

                                                                                                          CORK CITY
                                                                                        Fitzgerald’s
                                                                                            Park
                                                                                                                                                          Blackrock Castle          LITTLE ISLAND
                                                                                                                                                                                    LITTLE ISLAND
                                                                                                                                                                     Mahon
                                                     Cork Institute                                                                                                 Shopping
                                                     of Technology                                                                                                   Centre
                                                                                                  University                                                                                                                                                                     BALLINACURRA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                BALLYNACORRA
                                                                                                 College Cork                 St Finbarrs     Mahon
                                                                      Cork University                                         Hospital      Golf Course
                        BALLINCOLLIG
                        BALLINCOLLIG                                     Hospital

                                                                                                                                                              ROCHESTOWN
                                                                                                                                                              ROCHESTOWN
                                                                                                                                                                                          PASSAGE WEST

                                                                                                                FRANKFIELD
                                                                                                                FRANKFIELD

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    COBH
                                                                                                                                                                                                     MONKSTOWN
                                                                                                                                                                                                     MONKSTOWN

                                                                                              CORK
                                                                                              AIRPORT
                                                                                              AIRPORT

                                                                                                                                                                                                              RINGASKIDDY
                                                                                                                                                                                                              RINGASKIDDY

                                                                                                                      BALLYGARVAN
                                                                                                                      BALLYGARVAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    WHITEGATE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    WHITEGATE

                                                                                                                                                                CARRIGALINE
                                                                                                                                                                CARRIGALINE

                LEGEND - KEY INFORMATION
                   Green Route
                   Primary
h Park & Ride      Secondary
                   Inter-Urban                                                                                                                                                                                                          All routes and alignments are indicative and subject to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        change through the statutory scheme appraisal process.
                                                                                         RIVERSTICK
                                                                                         RIVERSTICK
BUS CONNECTS
BUS PASSENGERS                                                                                 BUS CORRIDOR PERFORMANCE

                                                    Carrying            Carrying

   BUS                                            49,000               85m                         Douglas Corridor                                        Summerhill North
                                                  passengers in       passengers                 AM Peak Bus frequency                                     Corridor AM Peak
                                                   the AM peak        per annum
                                                                                                    3 mins                                                   Bus frequency
                                                       hour
                                                                                                    Patronage                                                  3 mins
                                                                                                      1,700                                                    Patronage
                                                                                                                                                                 2,061

BUS NETWORK & VEHICLES
                                                                  100km
                                                                  of bus lanes and
                                                                                                        220 double  deck bus
                                                                  bus priority measures                     fleet required
                                                                                                                                                                  6 Strategic
                                                                                                                                                                    Park & Ride
 200km            50km            150km
                                                                                                                                                                    sites
 of cross city
    routes       orbital routes   radial routes

                                                                                                                                           Cork City Council   Black Ash Park & Ride   Comhairle Cathairle Chaorcaí

CONNECTING CITY & SUBURB                                                                      4,800                            COST ESTIMATE
                                                                                          passengers interchanging
                       Connecting with Cork Suburban Rail Network                         between Cross City, Radial
                       at Kent Station, with Cork Light Rail and Partk                    and Orbital bus services in
                       and Ride Network and providing interchange                                                                                                      Strategy cost
                                                                                          AM peak hour                                                                  estimate is
                       between radial and orbital bus services                                                                                                         approximately

                                                                                                                                                                      €545m
CITY CENTRE MAP                                                          MA-BL                                                                                             BA-DO                                             T1-CC

                     BusConnects Route Map
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           GL-CC                                                                                             MF-BI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  CATHEDRAL ROAD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FF-FH                                                                                             DCI-TO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           RO-HH

                                                                                                                                                                                             CORK METROPOLITAN AREA | DRAFT TRANSPORT STRATEGY | PUBLIC CONSULTATION DOCUMENT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   MA-HH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               GI-CC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      H     ILL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ER                                           E ROAD                         EC-CC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           SU
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 MM                                      GLANMIR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               MID DLE                                         GL-BC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             AY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ES QU
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     POP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         UAY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ’S Q
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          GAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      HOR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               E
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   RO-HH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     R LE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            RIVE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     AD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     C E NTRE PARK RO          LRT

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                AD                                                     LL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 MA
                                                                                 MA-BL                                                                                                                                                                                                            RN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         RO

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ANG
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              STE                                                  SOUTH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   GL-BC                    WE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           LES
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           EA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LRT                                                              20m
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         MONAH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        GE                                                                                                                    AN’S R    OAD    MA-HH

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ST
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ORGE

                                                                                                                                                                                                              SALLYBROOK                                                                                                                                            ’S

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            SOU
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   QUAY                                                                      VI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               CT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    OR

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                TH Ll
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         IA RO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               AD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               MA-HH

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ROADINK
                                       BLARNEY                             20m                                                                                                                                                   GL-BC      20m                                                                                                                                     D

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            OA
               20m                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             BOREENM

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               R
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ANN A ROAD
                                                                                                                                            20m

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           LAS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        20m                                        MF-BI                                                                                                                                                                                                                       MA-BL

MA-BL                                                                                                                                                                                                                            BROOKLODGE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       OUG
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            D
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       RO A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LOUG H ROAD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                BALLINL

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   TH D
                                                                                                                                            15m                            BA-DO                              GL-CC                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          OUGH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  RO AD

   TOWER

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       DUFF
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DO                                                                 MA-BL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              UG

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               S OU
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    SR

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  POULA
                                                                                                                                                              10m                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      OA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         D
                                                                                                                                                                                               MF-BI
                                                                                                                                                  DH - TO
                                                                                                                                                                                                         GLANMIRE                                                                                                                                                                  PD-CC         BC-GR   CA-CC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   FF-FH         RO-HH    NO                                                BC-GR          RI-CC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            RO-HH
                                                                                                                                                                                     10m                                                                                   DH-TO                 DH-TO                                                                             BA-DO                                                                                    NO

                                                                                                                 20m
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   20m
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 GLOUNTHAUNE
                                                                                                                                                                         10m                       LB-CC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10m                                                                                                                                                               CARRIGTWOHILL
                                                                                                    10m                  RO-HH                        15m                                                                                         10m                                                                                                                                                                                                    EC-CC
                                                                                                           10m
                                                                                                                                                                     30m
                                                                                                  MA-HH                                                                                10m
                                                                                                                              10m
                                                                                                            30m              SEE CITY CENTRE MAP                                                       10m         NO
                                                                                                                                                                                                       20m                                 10m              SOI
                                                                                                                                                                5m                     LRT
                                                                                             NO          HH-CC
                                                               10m
                                                       GL-BC                                                                                                                   10m                                                                 LITTLE ISLAND
                                                                                                                                       10m                                                                         MA-HH
                                                               20m                                                20m
                                                       BC-CC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   MA-BL
                                                                                                                       10m
                                                                                                                                                                               10m
                                                                                                                                                                    4m
         BALLINCOLLIG                           5m                                                                                                                               SOI
                                                        LRT                10m                                                         10m

                                                                              SOI           10m                                                         4m
                                                                                                                                                                                             15m
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    RI-CC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     20m                                                                                                                                                   20m
                                                                                                                                                      20m
                                                                                                   SOO      DH-TO
                                                                                                                                                      15m
                                                                                                                                                                                                              ROCHESTOWN
                                                               MF-BI                MF-BI                   15m               20m
                                                                                                                                                                                        SOO                                                                 PASSAGE WEST
                                                                                                                                                                                                               RO-HH
                                                                                                    20m                10m
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   10m     20m
                                                                                                                                     FRANKFIELD             FF-FH
                                                                                                            PD-CC
                                                                                                                                                                               BA-DO

                                                                                                                                      15m

    LEGEND - BUS ROUTES                                                                                                      RI-AP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         COBH                                    GI-CC
                                                                                                                             KS-AP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   MONKSTOWN
        MA-BL        Mahon - Blarney: 20min                     BA-DO   Ballyvolane - Donnybrook: 10min
                                                                RO-HH                                                                                                                                        15m
        GL-BC        Glanmire - Ballincollig: 20min                     Rochestown - Hollyhill: 10min
                                                                                                                             CORK                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    RI-AP
        BC-CC        Ballincollig - Cork City: 20min            RI-CC   Carrigaline - City Centre: 15min                     AIRPORT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   CA-CC                                                                                                                                                            RI-CC
         LRT         Light Rail Transit: 5min                   CA-CC   Ringaskidddy - Cork City: 20min
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    CA-CC
        MF-BI        Mayfield - Bishopstown: 10min              EC-CC   East Cork - City Centre: 10min
         SOI         Southern Orbital Inner: 10min              HH-CC   Hollyhill - City Centre: 30min                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     20m
        SOO          Southern Orbital Outer: 20min              GL-CC   Glanmire - City Centre: 20min                                                                                  30m
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  RINGASKIDDY
        DH-TO        Dublin Hill - Togher: 15min                MA-HH   Mahon - Hollyill: 10min
        PD-CC        Pouladuff Road - City Centre: 10min        LB-CC   Lotabeg - City Centre: 30min                                  BALLYGARVAN                                                                                                                                                                       15m

        KS-AP        Kent Station - Airport: 15min               NO     Northern Orbital: 10min
        FF-FH        Frankfield - Fairhill: 20min               GI-CC   Great Island - City Centre: 20min
                                                                RI-AP   Ringaskidddy - Airport: 30min
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   CARRIGALINE                                                                                                    All routes and alignments are indicative and subject to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  change through the statutory scheme appraisal process.
CORK METROPOLITAN AREA | DRAFT TRANSPORT STRATEGY | PUBLIC CONSULTATION DOCUMENT                         17

Walking                                          ƒƒ Upgrade walking provision in                  Based on the recommendations within              BusConnects
All journeys begin and end by walking               tandem with BusConnects corridor              the National Cycle Manual a number of            Buses are an extremely efficient mode of
irrespective of other modes used. A range           improvements, light rail stations             different infrastructure types are proposed      transport and will remain the work horse
of high quality, public realm improvements          development and Cycle Network                 at various locations within the network,         of the public transport system in Cork.
have been implemented in recent years               Implementation.                               including:                                       Their flexibility means that routes and
to include pedestrian priority areas, wider                                                       ƒƒ Cycle Lanes: Incorporates a dedicated         frequencies can be adapted to support
footways and improved crossing facilities        The over-arching objective for walking is           space adjacent to the kerb or car             phases of new development or
in Cork City Centre and Ballincollig Town        to ensure that the pedestrian environment           parking and can take the form of              as circumstances dictate.
Centre and resulted in a reasonably high-        is significantly enhanced, more attractive          mandatory or advisory cycle lanes;
quality walking environment and increased        and safer than at present. Walking will be                                                        Buses will provide an increasingly
                                                                                                  ƒƒ Mixed Streets: Suitable in low traffic
footfall and vitality in many of its streets.    an instinctive choice for short trips across                                                      important interchange service between
                                                                                                     environments where the cyclist shares
However, the quality of the pedestrian           the CMA including school trips, leisure                                                           the InterCity, suburban rail and light rail
                                                                                                     the road space with motorists;
environment is inconsistent across the           trips and as part of linked trips with public                                                     stations and the Park and Ride network.
                                                 transport.                                       ƒƒ Cycle Tracks: Cycle tracks are different
CMA with a range of barriers to walking                                                                                                            Enhancing the bus network is consistent
                                                                                                     from cycle lanes in that they are
including street clutter, insufficient                                                                                                             with the National Development Plan
                                                                                                     physically segregated from motorised
footpath widths and crossing pportunities.       Cycling                                                                                           2018-2027 which envisages a significantly
                                                                                                     traffic in some way whether by a barrier
Cork, with its relatively compact city centre    Cycling is a low cost, sustainable and                                                            enhanced BusConnects service for Cork
                                                                                                     or through a level change; and
and reasonably self-sufficient metropolitan      growing mode of transport in the Cork                                                             by 2027. This Strategy envisages that the
towns, has significant potential to enhance                                                       ƒƒ Cycle Trails or Greenways: Roads and          realigned bus network will carry around 45
                                                 Metropolitan Area. The NDP 2018-2027                paths through green areas and parks.
the pedestrian experience.                       commits to the delivery of walking and                                                            million passengers per annum and 32,000
                                                 cycling networks for all of Ireland’s cities.                                                     passengers during the AM peak.
Key outcomes for walking in the                                                                   Other supporting infrastructure measures
Strategy include;                                                                                 to further develop a cycling culture in          An over-arching objective is to prioritise
                                                 Key priorities for development of Cork’s         Cork will include the further roll out of bike
ƒƒ An increase in walking levels for work,       Cycle Network Plan include:                                                                       the early delivery of bus services and
                                                                                                  share schemes including consideration            bus priority. Prioritising bus services over
   education and leisure across the CMA,         ƒƒ Designating a coherent network of             of dockless bikes, shower and changing           general traffic will be critical to the delivery
   particularly for short journeys (less than       east-west and north-south cycle routes        facilities, and a significant uplift in          of an efficient, frequent and reliable bus
   2-3km);                                          across the area which will provide            residential, visitor and workplace cycle         system and forms a major part of the
ƒƒ Addressing the safety issues and                 access to all major trip generators;          parking.                                         overall BusConnects programme.
   barriers that prevent citizens and visitors   ƒƒ The first priority in terms of access will
   from walking more in Cork;                       be employment areas and third level           The objective for cycling is to develop a        The existing bus priority measures through
ƒƒ Supporting a high quality and fully              education followed by schools. These          comprehensive network of safe primary,           Cork City are particularly limited with
   accessible environment for all abilities         priorities have been established to           secondary inter-urban and greenway               14km of bus lanes. The proposed bus
   and ages by continuing to develop a              support proposed modal shift targets.         cycling routes across the CMA. Cork will         priority measures include approximately
   safe, legible and attractive public realm;       Cycle links to new development areas          build upon recent increases in cycling           100km of new bus lanes, representing an
ƒƒ Facilitate walking’s role as part of linked      have also been prioritised;                   levels to significantly increase the number      increase in bus lanes by a factor of 700%.
   trips, particularly with rail and bus                                                          of utility trips including those to school,      The proposed bus lanes align with the
                                                 ƒƒ Providing the highest possible Level of
   journeys;                                                                                      work and as part of linked trips with            proposed Core Bus Network, ensuring
                                                    Service on identified corridors of high
                                                                                                  public transport. Cycling will be prioritised    efficient, reliable and frequent services and
ƒƒ Promote a far higher standard of urban           demand;
                                                                                                  in all new road projects, local traffic          enable interchange with rail and light rail
   design in new developments,and                ƒƒ Identifying and maximising opportunities      management schemes and permeability              stations and Park and Rides facilities.
   in highway design, in a fashion that             for high quality greenways; and               measures and given prominence within
   consistently prioritises pedestrian           ƒƒ Responding to feedback from key               Local Authority structures.
   movement and safety over that of the             stakeholders and the public.
   private car; and
SUBURBAN RAIL
PASSENGERS                                                                                           JOURNEY TIMES AND DISTANCE
                                     Catering for up to

                                       2,500                16m
                                                           passengers
                                       passengers           per annum                                  25 mins                     12mins                   25mins              50mins
                                       per direction                                                  from Midleton to            from Blarney to           from Cobh to       from Midleton /
                                         per hour                                                        Kent Station               Kent Station             Kent Station      Cobh to Mallow

                                                                                                                             62km
                                                                                                                             of suburban rail network between
                                                                                                                             Midleton, Cobh and Mallow

RAIL NETWORK & VEHICLES
                                                                62km suburban                                     10 km                                                     22
      8 new stations                                            rail network                                      of dual track to Midleton.                                new two-car
                                                                                                                                                                            trains required
      plus improvements to Cobh,                                between Midleton, Cobh and Mallow.
      Mallow and Kent Stations.
                                                                                                                  Electrification
                                                                                                                  of suburban rail network.

CONNECTING CITY & SUBURB                                                                             COST ESTIMATE
   Connecting with Cork Light Rail
   Network at Kent Station and the             >3,000
                                               passengers
                                                                              4,000
                                                                              2-way through-
   Cork suburban bus network
                                               interchanging between          running through                                                                                    Strategy cost
                                               Rail, Bus and Luas at          Kent in AM                                                                                          estimate is
                                               Kent Station in AM Peak.       peak hour                                                                                          approximately

                                                                                                                                                                                €274m
Proposed Suburban Rail

                                WHITECHURCH

                                                                   Support Development Intensification

           10 min
           frequency

                                         Support Strategic
                                         Development Zone
       Blarney/Stoneview

                                                                                                     SALLYBROOK
                                   Monard
    BLARNEY                                                                                                                                                                                           Dual track to Midleton
               Support future development.
               Park & Ride to accomodate                                                                                                            10 min                                                        Water Rock
               traffic from N20 on suburban rail                    Blackpool/Kilbarry                                                              frequency   Carrigtwohill Carrigtwohill
                                                                                                         Support future development                                                                                                     Midleton
R                                                                                                        of Tivoli Docks                                           West
                                                   BLACKPOOL                                                                               Glounthaune
                                                                                      MAYFIELD                                                                                                                                 MIDLETON
                                                                            Kent                               Dunkettle
                                       KNOCKNAHEENEY
                                                                            Station                                                                                                  Support Future Development

                                                                                                                           Little Island                 Improve Signal operations
                                                                                                     Tivoli
                                                                                         5 min                                                          Fota
                                                                                         frequency
                                                                                                                     P&R to accomodate traffic
              Key Station Interchange                                                    BLACKROCK
                                                                                                                     from N25 and M8 on
COLLIG        • Through running of suburban services at 10min frequency                                              Suburban Rail
              • New paltform on southern side of station
              • Interchange with Light Rail Transit and core bus services
                    BISHOPSTOWN
              • Improve signal operations                                                                                                               10 min
                                                                                                     DOUGLAS                                            frequency
                                                                                                                           PASSAGE WEST
                                                                                                              Support future development              Carrigaloe
                                                         FRANKFIELD                                           and interchange with local
                                                                                                              bus servicesd
                                                                                                                                                      Ballynoe

                                                                                                                                                                COBH                                    LEGEND - KEY INFORMATION
                                                                                                                              MONKSTOWN                          Cobh
                                           CORK                                                                                                                                                               Existing Train Stations
                                           AIRPORT
                                                                                                                                            Rushbrooke
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Proposed Train Stations

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Rail Corridor

                                                                                                                                                 RINGASKIDDY                                                  Park & Ride Station

                                                                                                                                                                                         WHITEGATE
                                                                                                        CARRIGALINE
LIGHT RAIL
PASSENGERS                                                                                                                     JOURNEY TIMES AND DISTANCE
                                                           11,400             or       4,600
                                                        passengers per               passengers per
                                                      direction per hour at        direction per hour at
    Carrying                                             2 min headway                5 min headway

 46million                                                                                                                           27mins                      20mins                   47mins
   passengers                                                                                                                       from Ballincollig          from Mahon Point           from Ballincollig
    per annum                         AM Peak Hour Passengers                      0        1,000      2,000   3,000   4,000
                                                                                                                                     to St. Patrick’s            to St. Patrick’s            to Mahon
                                                                                                                                         Street                      Street                    Point
                                      Cork Light Rail 2040
                                      Dublin Luas Green Line 2012
                                      Dublin Luas Red Line 2012

BUS NETWORK & VEHICLES
        25 stops                                                                   17km Light                                        27 trams
                                                                                   Rail Network
        along the route.
                                                                                                                                     required for 5 minute frequency
        Similar Light Rail vehicle to Dublin Luas fleet.
                                                                                   between Ballincollig Cork City
                                                                                   Centre, Kent Station, Cork
                                                                                   Docklands and Mahon Point.

                LRT                                                                                                                                                                 LRT

CONNECTING CITY & SUBURB                                                                                                       COST ESTIMATE
   Connecting with Cork Suburban
   Rail Network at Kent Station, with                         >3,200
                                                              passengers interchange
   Cork Light Rail Network and providing                                                                                                                                                           Strategy cost estimate
   interchange between radial and                             to/from Light Rail in am
                                                              peak hour.                                                                                                                              is approximately
   orbital bus services
                                                                                                                                                                                                        €1bn
Indicative Light Rail route alignment
                                                                                          CORK METROPOLITAN AREA | DRAFT TRANSPORT STRATEGY | PUBLIC CONSULTATION DOCUMENT             21

                                          BLARNEY   Proposed Light Rail - Washington Street
                                                                                                                                                                          BROOKLODGE

      TOWER

                                                                                                                                                                       GLANMIRE
                                                                                                    BLACKPOOL                Kent Station Interchange
                                                                                                                             • Interchange with inter-urban and suburban rail
                                                                                                                             • New bridge MAYFIELD
                                                                                                                                           from Kent Station to South Docklands
                                                                               KNOCKNAHEENEY
                                                                                                    Provide access
                                                                                                    to City Centre                  Support Future Development
                                                                                                                         Kent       of Cork Docklands
                                                                                                                         Station

                                                            Support Development and Expansion
                                                            of tertiary education corridor                                                DOCKLANDS
                                                                                                               Patrick
                                                                                                               Street        Docklands                                      Support Future
                                                                                                                                                                            Development
                                                                                                 University
                                                                                          Cork College Cork               BALLINLOUGH
                                                                                          County          GREENMOUNT                       BLACKROCK
                                                                                          Hall
                Ballincollig                                                                              Proposed Light Rail sharing with Greenway
                                                                 Cork                                                                                                  Mahon
                                                              Institute of         Cork                                                                                Point
P&R
                                                       Cork Technology             University
                                                    Science &                      Hospital
                                 Support Future     Innovation BISHOPSTOWN
                                  Development          Park
                                                                                                                                                                  ROCHESTOWN

  Park & Ride
  to accomodate traffic from N22 on Light Rail
                                                                                                          FRANKFIELD

  LEGEND - KEY INFORMATION

      Light Rail Transit (LRT)

      LRT Stop

      Park & Ride Sation

      Train Sation                                                                                  CORK
                                                                                                    AIRPORT
ROADS

       50km                    Dunkettle               M28                  N27                         Cork North                   N40
                         Interchange Upgrade       Cork - Ringaskiddy      Cork Airport                 Ring Road                   Demand
of National Road            completed by                                                                                          Management
    network
                                                       completion       Dedicated public
                                                                                                         2035                      to maintain
 improvements                 2022                      2028            transport corridor
                                                                                                                                    capacity

STOP

          70km                             A new multi-modal
                                                                          HGV                           Regional & Distributor
          of Regional Road                 Northern                       restrictions                  Roads to provide a multi-modal function
          improvements
                                           & Southern                     in Cork City

                                           Distributor
                                           Road

                                                            LRT

                                                            AZZIP
                                                            RETOOCS

         City Centre
                                          Accessibility                 ITS & UTC
         Movement                         improvements in               Intelligent Transport Systems                               Strategy cost
                                                                                                                                     estimate is
         Strategy                         Cork Docks area               & Improvements to Urban
                                                                        Traffic Control
                                                                                                                                    approximately

                                                                                                                                   €1.39bn

                                                                                                                                      Cork City Council   Black Ash Park & Ride   Comhairle Ca
Proposed Road Network 2040
        N20                                                                                            CORK METROPOLITAN AREA | DRAFT TRANSPORT STRATEGY | PUBLIC CONSULTATION DOCUMENT            23

                                     WHITECHURCH

                                                                                                                   M8

                                                     Cork North Ring Road

                                                                                                                     KNOCKRAHA                                        LEAMLARA
                                       MONARD
                                                                                WHITES CROSS
                                                                                                   SALLYBROOK

              BLARNEY
                                                                                                      BROOKLODGE

TOWER
                        Northern Distributor Road                                                                                                                 CARRIGTWOHILL
                                                                                                    GLANMIRE
                                                                                                                                                                                             N25
                                                                                                                                   GLOUNTHAUNE
                                                                            HGV Restrictions

                                                                                                                                                                                     Grade Seperation

                                                                                                                    LITTLE ISLAND
                                                                                                                    Dunkettle Interchange Upgrade
                                                                                                            N40

                                                                    South Docklands
 BALLINCOLLIG                                                       Access Roads

                           N40                                                                         DOUGLAS
                                                                                                                          PASSAGE WEST
                                                                       FRANKFIELD
                                                                                                     ROCHESTOWN
                        Demand Management
                                                                            East-West Link                                                                            BALLYMORE

                                                                             N27 to Cork Airport
                                  Southern Distributor Road                                           M28 Cork - Ringaskiddy
                                                                                                                                                         COBH
                                                                                                                               MONKSTOWN

                                                      CORK
                                                      AIRPORT

                                                                                                                                                    RINGASKIDDY
                                                                   BALLYGARVAN
                                                                                                                                                                                  WHITEGATE

                                                                                                     CARRIGALINE
                               N71
24   CORK METROPOLITAN AREA | DRAFT TRANSPORT STRATEGY | PUBLIC CONSULTATION DOCUMENT

     Suburban Rail                                  Following detailed analysis of projected        Parking                                            Public Transport Interchange
     The rail network provides direct and           travel demand within the CMA, this              The NPF 2040 has set out that, in general,         and Integration
     reliable access to Cork City Centre            Strategy proposes that the East-West            there will be no car parking requirement for       The National Development Plan aims
     from a significant portion of its east and     Transit Corridor is best served through         new development in or near the centres             to deliver a Public transport network
     northern Metropolitan Cork catchment           the provision of a new Light Rail Transit       of the five cities, including Cork, and a          that will provide high-quality passenger
     area. This Strategy proposes to maximise       (LRT) tram system. This analysis marks          significantly reduced requirement in the           interchange points, which facilitate
     opportunities offered by the existing          a departure from previous proposals for         inner suburbs. There will also be a general        convenient transfer between efficient and
     suburban rail network to support the travel    a lower capacity Bus Rapid transport            reduction in on-street parking levels in city      integrated public transport services.
     needs across the CMA. Maximising the           (BRT) system to reflect the more ambitious      and town centres over the lifetime of the
     potential of the rail corridor will support    growth targets of the NPF and the               Strategy to accommodate a wide range of            Modern transport infrastructure must be
     better integration of land use planning and    requirement to future-proof such a route        sustainable transport measures including           accompanied by an efficient, integrated
     public transport.                              up to and beyond, the 2040 horizon year.        bus priority, laybys, safer crossing facilities,   and appropriate network of transport
                                                                                                    seating, contra-flow cycle lanes, bicycle          services. Focusing specifically on public
     A key element of this Strategy will be to      The provision of LRT system will be a focal     share schemes and cycle parking.                   transport, that network needs to:
     enable through services at Kent Station.       point to enable the growth of population,
                                                    employment health and educational uses                                                             ƒƒ Provide appropriate coverage of the
     This will increase connectivity between the                                                    Cork has a high proportion of motorised               region;
     Mallow - Cork lines and the Midleton/          as envisaged by the NPF 2040. The LRT           trips that originate outside the city centre
     Cobh - Cork lines without the need to          system will unlock strategic development        and other strategic employment areas that          ƒƒ Increase opportunities to transfer
     change platforms at Kent Station.              opportunity sites and windfall sites in its     contribute to local congestion, noise and             between modes and services;
                                                    catchment areas.                                air pollution. The Strategy seeks to reduce        ƒƒ Provide fast and convenient access to
     The availability of an existing passing                                                        this through the provision of Park and                major travel destinations throughout the
     platform at Kent Station means that this       The route shown is indicative only, further     Rides. Park and Rides are the provision               region;
     objective can be achieved relatively quickly   feasibility work is required to examine         of high capacity, car parking facilities at        ƒƒ Be easily understood to both local and
     within the short term. Future-proofing the     alternatives to this high level indicative      designated public transport interchanges              visiting passengers;
     ability of Kent Station and its environs       route. During the early years of the            to provide onward access to the City
                                                    Strategy, it is intended identify and                                                              ƒƒ Deliver reliable and predictable journey
     to support significantly enhanced multi-                                                       Centre and other key destinations via high            times;
     modal accessibility will also be a key         protect an alignment for the scheme,            frequency public transport, walking or
     consideration.                                 allowing development consolidation along        cycling. Park and Rides as a component             ƒƒ Charge simple, affordable fares which
                                                    the corridor.                                   of the CMATS is a means of increasing the             enable transfers between services
     The Strategy rail proposals include the                                                        accessibility of the transport network to a           without unnecessary penalty;
     development of 8 new rail stations,            The over-arching objective of the LRT           population that might not otherwise have           ƒƒ Provide easy-to-use cashless payment
     the creater of a suburban network              is to enable the Cork Metropolitan Area         access by walking, cycling or bus transfer.           systems, where feasible;
     between Midleton, cobh and Mallow, the         to consolidate land-use and transport
                                                                                                                                                       ƒƒ Be accompanied by comprehensive
     electification of the suburban rail network    along a high frequency, high-capacity           The strategic park and rides will be                  information, both during and prior to the
     and the provision of new rail fleet.           public transport corridor. The early            complemented by a number of smaller,                  journey; and
                                                    finalisation of the preferred route will        local parking facilities known as ‘mobility
                                                    provide greater certainty for future planning                                                      ƒƒ Provide comfortable and convenient
     Light Rail                                                                                     hubs (points)’. Mobility Hubs will contribute
                                                                                                                                                          journeys to the maximum amount of
                                                    and development to pursue the higher            to significantly lower car parking standards
     The development of an east-west mass           densities required to meet NPF 2040                                                                   people.
     transit, rapid transport corridor has                                                          than at present, will be served by public
                                                    population and employment targets for           transport, walking and cycling routes and
     been a long-term objective for the CMA         Cork and the planned expansion of third
     articulated by the joint Cork Area Strategic                                                   will provide a wider range of functions
                                                    level educational institutions.                 including waste collection points and
     Plan (CASP) and a number of statutory
     development plans and local area plans of                                                      consolidated delivery points.
     both local authorities.
Roads                                         The Strategy will seek to deliver on         This includes a new east-west link on the            Over-arching objectives for the
The Cork Metropolitan Area has an             strategic development priorities for the     northern side of Cork City in the short-             management of freight movement include:
extensive network of national, regional and   distribution of a more compact settlement    medium term required to facilitate orbital           ƒƒ Re-directing the through movement of
local roads and streets. The road network     pattern based on ensuring effective          bus and active travel movements and to                  freight from densely populated areas
includes not only the carriageway itself      integration between transport and            reduce travel through the city centre                   and unsuitable local roads to the
but other highway infrastructure including    land-use through the delivery of Public      and N40 South Ring Road by HGVs and                     strategic road network;
bridges, the Jack Lynch Tunnel, footpaths,    Transport Orientated Development. This       private vehicles.
                                                                                                                                                ƒƒ Examining the feasibility of consolidation
signposting, markings, traffic signals and    will provide a sustainable economic,
                                                                                                                                                   centres and break-bulk facilities outside
sophisticated traffic management systems.     environmental and social case for reliable   Freight, Delivery and Servicing                         of the national road network in the
The street network, particularly within       public transport, permeable, high quality    To meet NPF 2040 projections for Cork,                  medium term, to facilitate smaller
Cork’s urban areas, are public spaces         safe walking and cycling routes and          construction of new homes, offices, social              vehicles delivering to the City Centre;
in their own right, providing a focus for     a people-centred public realm. This          infrastructure and places of education will
                                              represents a marked departure from                                                                ƒƒ Requiring area-based construction,
economic, social and cultural activity.                                                    require more movement of HGVs and lorries.
                                              previous forms of transport planning over                                                            and delivery and servicing plans as
                                                                                           Ireland is an export-led economy, and that
                                              recent decades, where the provision of                                                               part of new development with a view to
The first priority for road investment in                                                  is reflected in increased demand for the
                                              new road capacity for the private car was                                                            consolidating deliveries where practical;
the Strategy will be to maintain, renew,                                                   development of improved access routes to
manage and operate the existing road          paramount.                                   the Port of Cork- particularly considering           ƒƒ Re-timing freight trips to out-of-hours
infrastructure in a more efficient manner.                                                 Brexit. While presenting challenges in terms            wherever practicable; and
Other priorities reflect a need to provide    CMATS proposes a limited number of new       of increased trips, safety, congestion, air and      ƒƒ Ensuring that delivery, servicing and
multi-modal travel particularly on new        road-based projects required to facilitate   noise pollution, the clustering of activities           waste management trips are made as
roads within urban areas, increasing the      the sustainable movement of people,          allied to an improvement in the strategic               green and quiet as possible through
liveability and place-making functions of     goods and services, and to complement        transport infrastructure offers the possibility of      the use of zero or low emission vehicles
the urban street network and manage the       public transport, walking, cycling and       innovative approaches to mitigate impact of             where appropriate.
network to discourage through traffic in      traffic management objectives.               freight activity in Cork.
built up areas.
26   CORK METROPOLITAN AREA | DRAFT TRANSPORT STRATEGY | PUBLIC CONSULTATION DOCUMENT

                                           Supporting Measures                             Implementation                                Strategy Outcomes
                                           A key principle for CMATS is to reduce          The overall cost of the Strategy is           The Cork Metropolitan Area Transport
                                           dependency on the private car within the        approximately €3.5 billion (2018 prices),     Strategy 2040 (CMATS) will result in
                                           CMA while increasing the attractiveness of      and its delivery will be subject to the       several positive social, economic and
                                           sustainable transport options. Another          availability of funding. It is acknowledged   environmental outcomes. It will deliver an
                                           fundamental principle of the Strategy           that each of the major elements of CMATS      accessible, integrated transport network
                                           is to support the future growth of the          will require an individual appraisal based    that enables the sustainable growth of
                                           CMA through the provision of an efficient       on its own merits, in terms of feasibility,   the Cork Metropolitan Area as a dynamic,
                                           transport network. Supporting measures          design, planning, approval and funding.       connected, and internationally competitive
                                           have an important role to play in providing                                                   European city region as envisaged by the
                                           a future transport network that matches up      A phased implementation plan has been         National Planning Framework 2040.
                                           to these principles. The full benefits of the   developed that incrementally builds the
                                           significant investment that will be delivered   transport infrastructure, services and        The Strategy is heavily predicated on
                                           under CMATS cannot be achieved                  investment over time to align with the        sustainable transport investment and
                                           through the provision of infrastructure         continued growth of the CMA.                  provision. The Light Rail Transit system
                                           alone and must be combined with the             CMATS however is intended to be               is envisaged to serve 32% of the CMA’s
                                           implementation of measures that support         scalable, flexible and future-proofed         population and 60% of its jobs by 2040.
                                           best use of that infrastructure.                enough to meet changes in population and      The suburban rail network will serve
                                                                                           employment growth. Any changes in the         almost 20% of its population and 30% of
                                           The Strategy’s supporting measures will be      proposed land use distribution however,       its jobs.
                                           essential to the creation of physical, social   must be consistent with the principle
                                           and cultural environments where walking,        of Public Transit Oriented Development        BusConnects is the work-horse of
                                           cycling and public transport are attractive,    (PTOD) CMATS is a live document, subject      the public transport system covering
                                           practical and logical alternatives to the       to periodic review (every 5 years).           CMA wide coverage and carrying 85m
                                           private car. It will take a wide range                                                        passengers per annum.
                                           of supportive initiatives to:                   The challenge of implementation will now
                                           ƒƒ Create communities that support              be addressed by the Cork City Council         The combined network will provide
                                              sustainable transport;                       and Cork County Council, working in           seamless interchange between bus, rail,
                                                                                           conjunction with the National Transport       light rail, Park and Ride services. Walking
                                           ƒƒ Improve public awareness and educate
                                                                                           Authority, Transport Infrastructure Ireland   and cycling will play a significant role for
                                              users on available options to help them
                                                                                           and other key stakeholders, to deliver on     shorter trips through the delivery of an
                                              make the best choices;
                                                                                           the necessary land use consolidation,         enhanced metropolitan cycling network
                                           ƒƒ Prioritise sustainable transportation        securing capital investment under the         and vastly improved public realm and
                                              options; and                                 National Development Plan, and the            strategic walking network.
                                           ƒƒ Improve end to end trip facilities and       implementation of CMATS’ transport
                                              integration.                                 infrastructure, supporting measures and       Overall it is considered that the Strategy
                                                                                           demand management measures, to                will enable the Cork Metropolitan Area to
                                           Other measures include the implementation       enable the full benefits of CMATS to          grow in a successful, sustainable manner,
                                           of Local Transport Plans, urban design          be achieved.                                  delivering an efficient, effective transport
                                           and place-making schemes, behavioural                                                         system to underpin its ambitious growth
                                           change programmes, and embracing                                                              targets and increase the attractiveness of
                                           technology for sustainable transport.                                                         the CMA as a region to live, work, visit,
                                                                                                                                         play and invest in.
CORK METROPOLITAN AREA | DRAFT TRANSPORT STRATEGY | PUBLIC CONSULTATION DOCUMENT   27

                                                                                                       SHORT TERM                MEDIUM TERM                LONG TERM
A phased implementation         Timeframe                                                                 2026                      2031                      2040

plan has been developed         Cork Suburban Rail Network

that incrementally builds       Through Running at Kent Station
                                Increase service frequency to 3tph from Midleton and Cobh
the transport infrastructure,   Kent Station Platform Improvements

services and investment         Bypass loops at new stations on line north of Kent Station
                                Mallow platform improvements
over time to align with the     Cobh platform improvements
continued growth of the CMA.    New Rail Stations (as required by land use development)
                                Dual Track to Midleton
                                Increase service frequency to 6tph from Midleton and Cobh
                                Electification
                                Purchase of Rolling Stock
                                Light Rail
                                Route Alignement Reservationand Interim Bus route
                                Interim Bus Service O&M
                                Planning and Design of LRT
                                Construction and Implementation of LRT
                                Bus
                                Bus Network Implementation
                                Park & Ride
                                New Park & Ride Sites
                                Cycling
                                Primary Network
                                Secondary Network
                                Feeder Network
                                Inter Urban
                                Greenways
                                Walking
                                Footpaths and Walking Provision
                                Road Network
                                North & Southern Distributor Roads Appraisal
                                Delivery of both NDR & SDR
                                Apprasial of Northern Ring Road (NRR)
                                Delivery of NRR
                                Dunkettle Interchange
                                M28 Cork to Ringaskiddy Motorway
                                M20 Cork to Limerick
                                Delivery of Cork Distributor Roads
                                N27
                                N40 Demand Management
                                Docklands and Tivoli Road Network and Bridges
                                Regional Roads
                                Operation and Maintanance
                                Parking Management
                                Integration & ITS
STRATEGY OUTCOMES
FUTURE GROWTH                             DAILY DEMAND FOR TRAVEL                                            AM PEAK MODE SHARE 2011 - 2040
                                          1.2m

                                           1m
    290k                476k
  population           population         800k                               830k           1.3m                          66% 2011                                                   21% 2011   10% 2011           1% 2011
                         2040                                                 2011             2040                      49.3% 2040                                                  21% 2040   25.7% 2040         4% 2040
    2011                                  600k

                                          400k
          BRT                             200k
                                                                                                          Cork City Council   Black Ash Park & Ride   Comhairle Cathairle Chaorcaí

                                             0
                                                 2011      2040

ACCESSIBILITY AND SOCIAL INCLUSION
            Suburban Rail Catchment                           Light Rail Catchment                           Social Inclusion:

            19%                 30%                               32%             60%                        up to 10.9%
            of population       of jobs                           of population   of jobs                    increase in PT mode share
                                                                                                             for disadvantaged and very
                                                                                                             disadvantaged areas

                 BRT

SAFETY & ENVIRONMENTAL                                                                                ECONOMY & COST ESTIMATE
Over a 30 year strategy period                                                                                                Present Value of Costs: €2.3bn
                                                                                                                              Present Value of Benefits: €5.7bn
       Reduction in                       Reduction in                  Reduction in
                                                                                                                              Net Present Value: €3.7bn
       15  fatal
           casualties                     68  serious
                                              casualties                1,700     slight
                                                                                  casualties                                  Benefit to Cost Ratio: 2.48                                                    Total Strategy
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Cost Estimate
                                                                                                                                                                                                             €3.5bn
Environmental:
46,000
tonnes pa reduction in
vehicular emissions
CORK METROPOLITAN AREA | DRAFT TRANSPORT STRATEGY | PUBLIC CONSULTATION DOCUMENT              29

List of Acronyms
AA            Appropriate Assessment                                              HGV     Heavy Goods Vehicle
AV            Automated Vehicle                                                   ITS     Intelligent Transport System
BSS           Bicycle Sharing Scheme                                              MaaS    Mobility as a Service
CASP          Cork Area Strategic Plan                                            MASP    Metropolitan Area Strategic Plan
CCMS          City Centre Movement Strategy                                       NPO     National Policy Objective
CIT           Cork Institute of Technology                                        NSO     National Strategic Outcome
CLC           Construction Logistics Centre                                       NTA     National Transport Authority
CMA           Cork Metropolitan Area                                              PAG     Project Appraisal Guidelines
CMATS         Cork Metropolitan Area Transport Strategy (the Strategy)            PT      Public Transport
CNDR          Cork Northern Distributor Road                                      PTOD    Public Transport Oriented Development
CNRR          Cork North Ring Road                                                RSES    Regional Spatial and Economic Strategy
CSIP          Cork Science and Innovation Park                                    RTPI    Real Time Passenger Information
CSO           Central Statistics Office                                           SEA     Strategic Environmental Assessment
CUH           Cork University Hospital                                            SFILT   Strategic Framework for Investment in Landside Transport
DMURS         Design Manual for Urban Roads and Streets                           SWRM    South West Regional Model
DTTaS         Department for Transport, Tourism and Sport                         TII     Transport Infrastructure Ireland
EU            European Union                                                      UCC     University College Cork
EV            Electric Vehicle                                                    UEA     Urban Expansion Area
EVCP          Electric Vehicle Chargign Poin

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
National Transport Authority:                     Transport Infrastructure Ireland:              Systra:
Hugh Creegan                                      Paul Moran                                     Ian Byrne
Owen Shinkwin                                     Tara Spain                                     Jack Sheehan
Roy O’Connor                                      Eoin Gillard                                   Paul Hussey
                                                                                                 Sinead Canny
Cork City Council:                                Jacobs:                                        Allanah Murphy
Gerry O’Beirne                                    John Paul FitzGerald                           Benjamin Loreille
Ann Bogan                                         Kevin Burke                                    Joshua Noon
Edith Roberts                                     Sarah Cooper
Elizabeth Kidney                                  David Siddle                                   Dolphin 3D Photomontages:
                                                  Jennifer Egan                                  Philip Watkin
Cork County Council:                              Ciara Murphy
Peter O’Donoghue                                  Richard Eastman                                Chetwynd Viaduct Photograph
Michael W. Lynch                                                                                 © David Moloney, used with kind permission.
Padraig Moore

                                                                                                                                                           Date of publication: May 2019
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