CROP PRODUCTION FOR THE AGRI-FOOD CHAIN - Master FS&T - Piero Fiorino, Elettra Marone - UniTE

 
CROP PRODUCTION FOR THE AGRI-FOOD CHAIN - Master FS&T - Piero Fiorino, Elettra Marone - UniTE
CROP PRODUCTION
                            FOR THE AGRI-FOOD CHAIN

                                   Master FS&T

                              Piero Fiorino, Elettra Marone
                                    Academic Year 2016-2017

Foto by Eleonora Capasso,                                     Teaching notes 2016/2017
CROP PRODUCTION FOR THE AGRI-FOOD CHAIN - Master FS&T - Piero Fiorino, Elettra Marone - UniTE
THE PROBLEM DIMENSION

             QUESTION FOR YOU:

How match cropland is nowadays available for a
single individual survival on the planet?

                                       Teaching notes 2016/2017
CROP PRODUCTION FOR THE AGRI-FOOD CHAIN - Master FS&T - Piero Fiorino, Elettra Marone - UniTE
THE PROBLEM DIMENSION

The land area of the globe is calculated in 15 billion hectares, that corresponds to 2
hectares per inhabitant; because the cultivated area is 40% of the total land, the
production of 8,000 square meters per inhabitant is the “orchard” that actually everyone
currently cultivates for its livelihoods.
It should be noted that despite to the increase in population, until now the per capita
availability of food is rising (FAOSTAT data of twenty years).
With the current techniques and availability, it is possible get the limit of 9 billion
inhabitants, i.e. practically tomorrow.

                                                                          Teaching notes 2016/2017
CROP PRODUCTION FOR THE AGRI-FOOD CHAIN - Master FS&T - Piero Fiorino, Elettra Marone - UniTE
THE PROBLEM DIMENSION

OUR DEMAND FOR VEGETAL PRODUCTS

  Individuate the possible ways to balance
population demand with available resources,
        distribution and techniques

                                   Teaching notes 2016/2017
CROP PRODUCTION FOR THE AGRI-FOOD CHAIN - Master FS&T - Piero Fiorino, Elettra Marone - UniTE
THE PROBLEM DIMENSION

                              To support the increasing population
                              growth (world's population expands) and
                              ensure adequate food resources two
                              complementary strategies (guidelines,
                              modalities) are implemented :
                              1) Intervention for preservation purposes,
                              with waste removal (disposal);
                              2) Development strategy: new products,
                              new technologies, new spaces.
L’Informatore Agrario, 2015                                Teaching notes 2016/2017
CROP PRODUCTION FOR THE AGRI-FOOD CHAIN - Master FS&T - Piero Fiorino, Elettra Marone - UniTE
From: O.Serna-Saldivar, 2010. Cereals Grains. Properties,
Processing, and Nutritional Attributes. CRC Press, USA.     Teaching notes 2016/2017
CROP PRODUCTION FOR THE AGRI-FOOD CHAIN - Master FS&T - Piero Fiorino, Elettra Marone - UniTE
WORLD PRODUCTION (t) OF PLANTS
CULTIVATED AS FOODSTUFF, FAOSTAT, 2010

          7.512.756.612 t/year
            20.582.895 t/day

                                 Teaching notes 2016/2017
TARGETED LEARNING OUTCOMES:
Demonstrate a critical understanding of the principal
 factors controlling safety and quality of commodities
 for agro-food chain.

Demonstrate a comprehensive modeling ability for
 the control, certification, traceability for the agro-
 food chain from the field production to the foodstuff.

Demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of
 extrinsic and intrinsic factors controlling vegetal food
 quality.
                                             Teaching notes 2016/2017
CONTENT

          Teaching notes 2016/2017
UNIT 1

         Teaching notes 2016/2017
UNIT 1

1.1 Introduction: Crops and human population
1.2 Environmental and climatic factors and distribution
  of the major commodities
1.3 Classification of crops
            1.3.1 Botanical classification
            1.3.2. Classification by edible part of the plant
             1.3.3. Classification for trade commodities:
             crops for food, fiber, livestock feed, fuel and
             other industrial uses.
                                                Teaching notes 2016/2017
UNIT 1
2.1 Extrinsic and intrinsic factors controlling the quality of agro-
  food production.
3.1. Definitions. Agro-food products environmental suitability,
  typical production, designation of origin and quality labels.
3.2 The triangle genotype, environment, agrotechniques.
3.3 The physiological process for quality control: the ripening.
3.3.1 Fruit growth and ripening, ripening and respiration,
  ripening indexes, harvest, postharvest and storage.
3.3.2 Quality requirements for fresh vegetable products,
  traceability.
                                                      Appunti di Lezione 2015/2016
UNIT 2
CROPS FOR FOODSTUFFS
   (COMMODITIES)

                       Teaching notes 2016/2017
UNIT 2: CROPS FOR FOODSTUFFS
             (COMMODITIES)
2.1 Sugar-bearing plants: production and
 distribution of the main species.
2.1.1 Sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum
 L.): botany, ecophysiology, farming and
 industry.
2.1.2 Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. var.
 saccharifera): botany, ecophysiology,
 farming and industry.
                                   Teaching notes 2016/2017
UNIT 2: CROPS FOR FOODSTUFFS
                        (COMMODITIES)

2.2 Amylaceous plants: production and distribution of the
  main species.
  2.2.1 Cereals: characteristics, processing and consumption of
  the main microtermal and macrotermal cereal species
  (wheat, rye, barley, oats, rice, maize, sorghum). Wheat
  (Triticucm spp. L.): botany; ecophysiology: vegetative growth
  and production. Farming, harvesting, and storage. Industry:
  characteristics and quality of various flour and semolina.
  2.2.2 Tubers and Roots: production and distribution of the
  main species.
  Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.): botany, ecophysiology and
  farming. Production for fresh market and for industry.
                                                  Teaching notes 2016/2017
UNIT 2: CROPS FOR FOODSTUFFS
                        (COMMODITIES)

2.3 Oleaginous plants: production and distribution of the
  main species. The oils in the world trade market: origin and
  chemical composition.

2.3.1 Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq): botany, ecophysiology,
  farming and industry.

2.3.2 Olive (Olea europaea europaea europaea Green) botany
  and ecophysiology: origin and distribution. Traditional and
  new farming systems. Oil industry: quantity and quality of
  the products; utilization of the byproducts.

                                                  Teaching notes 2016/2017
UNIT 2: CROPS FOR FOODSTUFFS
                       (COMMODITIES)

2.4. Proteaginous plants: production and distribution of the
  main species.

2.4.1 Soybean (Soia hispida Moench): botany, ecophysiology,
  farming and industry (not included - 2016/17).

                                                Teaching notes 2016/2017
UNIT 2: CROPS FOR FOODSTUFFS
                        (COMMODITIES)

2.5 Beverages plants: production and distribution of the main
  species used to obtain mild stimulant beverages.

 2.5.1 Coffee (Coffea spp.): botany, ecophysiology, and farming.
 Harvesting, preprocessing, storage and industry.

(not included - 2016/17)

                                                  Teaching notes 2016/2017
UNIT 2: CROPS FOR FOODSTUFFS
                        (COMMODITIES)

2.6 Annual or poliennial plants for fresh and processed fruits:
  production and distribution of the main species. Notes on the
  main temperate and tropical fresh fruits production (banana,
  apple and pear).
2.6.1 Grape (Vitis spp.): botany and ecophysiology, ripening of
  fruits, farming and harvesting. Winery (not included -
  2016/17).
2.6.2 Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) botany and
  ecophysiology: models of growth. Farming and harvesting for
  fresh market. Farming and harvesting for processed fruits.
  Fruits processing.

                                                  Teaching notes 2016/2017
OTHER USEFUL INFORMATION
ABOUT THE COURSE

                                   Literature
Teaching notes on course guideline, scientific articles for specialized topics.
Cozzani I. (a cura di), 2010. Origine del prodotto di qualità. Dalla pianta al frutto. La
  qualità nutrizionale dell'olio di oliva. Aracne Editrice, Roma.
Gunstone F.D., 2011. Vegetable Oils in Food Technology. Composition, Properties and
  Uses. Second Ed., Wiley-Blackwell.
McMahon M.J., Kofranek A.M., Rubatzky V.E., 2007. Hartmann's Plant Science. Growth,
  Development, and Utilization of Cultivated Plants. An introduction to the physiology
  and handling of fruit, vegetables and ornamentals. 4th Ed., Pearson Prentice Hall.
Sansavini S., Costa G., Gucci R., Inglese P., Ramina A., Xiloyannis C., 2012. Arboricoltura
  generale. Pàtron Editore, Bologna.
Serna-Saldivar S.O., 2010. Cereal Grains. Properties, Processing, and Nutritional
  Attributes. CRC Press, USA.
Wills R., McGlasson B., Graham D., Joyce D., 2007. Postharvest. 5th Ed., CABI.
Wintgens J.N. (Edited by), 2012. Coffee: Growing, Processing, Sustainable Production. A
  Guidebook for Growers, Processors, Traders, and Researchers. Second Revised Edition
  (2015). Wiley-VCH, Singapore.
                                                                        Teaching notes 2016/2017
OTHER USEFUL
INFORMATION ABOUT
THE COURSE

                  Recommended prerequisites
    Basic knowledge of crops morphology, biology and physiology.
   Coworkers
   Proff. Piero Fiorino, Elettra Marone

   Teaching format
   Face-to-face teaching
   Laboratory exercise
   Technical visit to farm/industry
   Monographic seminars

   Attendance at lectures recommended

   Type of assessment
   Final written exam consisting in a multiple choice test and a short report on a
   requested topic.
                                                                      Teaching notes 2016/2017
TAXONOMY

Foto by Eleonora Capasso,
EXPO, Milano, 2015
                                       Teaching notes 2016/2017
CLASSIFICATION OF
  TERRESTRIAL VASCULAR HIGHER PLANTS

                                        Pteridospermophyta

                                        Gingkophyta
Spermatophytes Gimnosperme              Coniferophyta
 * (Fanerogame                          Gnetophyta
or higher plants)
                                        Magnoliophyta (o
                          Angiosperme   Angiospermophyta)

 * A seed-bearing plant

                                                Teaching notes 2016/2017
The most of cultivated plants for food use belongs to the Phylum
(Division or Subdivision) of Angiosperms.

The Wettstein classification, reported in this course, maintains the
split of the Angiosperms in two main classes: Dicotyledons (or
Magnoliopsida or Magnoliatae) and Monocotyledons (or Liliopsida
or Liliatae), defined as Classes (or Subclasses).

The principal distinctive characters were reported in the next slide.

                                                       Teaching notes 2016/2017
The main distinctive characters distinguishing dicot from monocot

       DYCOTILEDONES                        MONOCOTYLEDONES

                                      Stems often form bulbs, rhizomes, or
Stem generally elongated
                                      a “stipite” (palm)

Vascular cambium                      Not found

                                      Leaves not petioled, girdling, and
Peziolated leaves
                                      directly inserted on the stem

Embryo with two cotyledons            Embryo with one cotyledon
Cellular endosperm                    Nuclear endosperm

                                                            Teaching notes 2016/2017
IMPORTANT TRADE DEFINITION

           Genus and species;
             Vitis vinifera
           Variety or cultivar
              Sangiovese
Clone (for the plants vegetatively propagated)
              Chianti 2000

                                       Appunti di Lezione 2015/2016
WHAT IS A SPECIES?
TRY TO GUESS A POSSIBLE DEFINITION

                              Teaching notes 2016/2017
WHAT IS A SPECIES?
          READ A POSSIBLE DEFINITION

“The species is constituted by the
corresponding individuals based on all the
essential characters, interfertile, and
originating descendants with the same
characteristics of their parents” (traslate
from: Gerola, 2006)

Biodiversity; germplasm.
                                       Appunti di Lezione 2015/2016
The definition of cultivar:
  A fundamental basis

                      Teaching notes 2016/2017
WHAT IS A CULTIVAR?
TRY TO GUESS A POSSIBLE DEFINITION

                              Teaching notes 2016/2017
The taxonomic reference unit for
the production (and for the
products certification) is the
CULTIVAR (cultivated variety);
at international level, this term
indicates:
                           Teaching notes 2016/2017
WHAT IS A CULTIVAR?
        READ A POSSIBLE DEFINITION

 “A bulk of cultivated plants, clearly
distinguished by all the characters
(morphological, physiological,
cytological, chemical, or others) that,
when propagated (by gamic or
vegetative way), preserve (safe) their
own distinctive characters”
                                     Teaching notes 2016/2017
In the fruit trees, a cultivated variety has to be
characterized by a defined and constant (by
vegetative propagation) pool of characters
                        (DUS)
DISTINGUIBLE,
          UNIFORM, AND
                                          STABLE,

one of them distinctive, i.e. able to discriminate
between different varieties, even if similar.

                                          Teaching notes 2016/2017
WHAT IS A CLONE?
TRY TO GUESS A POSSIBLE DEFINITION

                              Teaching notes 2016/2017
WHAT IS A CLONE?
          READ A POSSIBLE DEFINITION

It is the set of individuals obtained by
vegetative way starting from a unique parent,
and therefore all with the same genotype.
The clones of the same cultivar must be
distinguishable by a minimum of one character.

                                           Teaching notes 2016/2017
Other classification categories

Besides the traditional classification, we can
use other classification systems, linked to
different factors.
For example, all the plants can be
organized by “architecture”, that is growth
model or, by a trade point of view, by edible
parts of the plants or by products typology.
                                    Teaching notes 2016/2017
Parts of plant used as vegetables

From: Tesi, Orticoltura mediterranea sostenibile, Pàtron Editore, Bologna, 2010      Teaching notes 2016/2017
Organi metamorfosati che
possono dare origine a
prodotti per
l’alimentazione

Fabbri A., 2001. Produzioni Vegetali.
Calderini Edagricole           Teaching notes 2016/2017
Fabbri A., 2001. Produzioni Vegetali.
                                        Calderini Edagricole

Fabbri A., 2001. Produzioni Vegetali.
Calderini Edagricole                              Teaching notes 2016/2017
SOME NEW TECHNICAL WORD FOR YOU…

                            Teaching notes 2016/2017
From: Bell A.D., with drawings by Bryan A., 2008. Plant Form. An
illustrated Guide to Flowering Plant Morphology. New Edition,
Timber Press, Portland-London                                      Teaching notes 2016/2017
The classification of the different genus or species used
to produce foods or foodstuff as consumed (trade
classification) can be developed locking to the used
product; this system allows to merge all the higher
plants in arbitrary groups that, at the aim of this
Lessons, are clustered as follows:

                                              Teaching notes 2016/2017
A POSSIBLE CLASSIFICATION OF THE PLANTS SPECIES BASED ON THE
    PRINCIPAL PRODUCT TYPOLOGY IN THE AGRO-FOOD CHAIN

1) Amylaceous plants;
2) Sugar-bearing plants;
3) Oleaginous plants;
4) Proteaginous plants;
5) Poliennial fruit plants, including fruits production for
   processing, fermented (wine grape), separated products (olive
   oil), and/or pate, juices;
6) Annual plants producing fruits or other edible parts; vegetables;
7) Beverages plants.
                                                        Teaching notes 2016/2017
1.2 Crops for foodstuffs
Framework of principal botanical genus and/or species for type of product for food industry.
- Amylaceous plants. Genetic resources, production areas, use and trade. Cereals: technical sheet of
   wheat (caryopsis) (Triticucm spp. L.); technical sheet of potato (tuber) (Solanum tuberosum L.);
   technical sheet of cassava or manioca (root-tuber) (Manihot esculenta Crantz); technical sheet
   of sweet potato (root-tuber) (Ipomea batatas Lam.)
- Sugar-bearing plants. Genetic resources, production areas, use and trade. Technical sheet of sugar
   cane (stem) (Saccharum officinarum L.); technical sheet of sugar beet (root) (Beta vulgaris L.
   var. saccharifera)
- Oleaginous plants. Genetic resources, production areas, use and trade. Technical sheet of oil palm
   (fruit) (Elaeis guineensis Jacq)
- Proteaginous plants. Genetic resources, production areas, use and trade. Technical sheet of
   soybean (seed) (Soia hispida Moench);
- Beverages plants. Genetic resources, production areas, use and trade. Technical sheet of coffee
   (seed) (Coffea spp.);
- Annual or poliennial plants for fresh fruits. Genetic resources, production areas, use and trade.
   Technical sheet of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) (fruit); technical sheet of grapevine
   (fruit) (Vitis spp.).
Content of technical sheets: agrotechniques, use of the product related to genetic origin,
   importance in the diet and for human health.

                                                                               Appunti di Lezione 2015/2016
WORLD PRODUCTION (t) OF PLANTS
CULTIVATED AS FOODSTUFF FAOSTAT, 2010

          7.512.756.612 t/year
           20.582.895 t/day

                                 Teaching notes 2016/2017
What is the most quantitatively important
    cultivation in the world as food?
           TRY TO GUESS…

                                   Teaching notes 2016/2017
1    Sugar cane           1.682.577.768        canna da zucchero      22 Rapeseed                      61.630.798                  semi di colza
                                                                      23 Coconuts                      59.860.433                  noci di cocco
2    Maize                  817.110.509                       mais    24 Yams                           54.098.112                   yam patata

3    Wheat                  681.915.838                     grano     25 Cucumbers and gherkins        39.320.705            cetrioli e cetriolini

4    Rice, paddy          678.688.289                          riso   26 Groundnuts, with shell        35.520.257           arachidi con guscio
5    Potatoes               329.556.911                     patate
                                                                      27 Eggplants (aubergines)        35.326.379                    melanzane
6    Cassava               240.989.481                     cassava
                                                                           Mangoes, mangosteens,
7    Sugar beet            229.490.296 barbabietola da zucchero       28                               35.035.641    mango, mangostano, guava
                                                                           guavas
8    Soybeans              222.268.904                        soia    29 Plantains                      34.316.133                      platano
                                                                      30 Millet                        32.034.572                        miglio
9    Oil palm fruit        207.327.608      olio da frutti di palma
                                                                      31 Sunflower seed                32.002.190              semi di girasole
10 Barley                   150.271.573                       orzo       Tangerines, mandarins,                           tangerini, mandarini
                                                                      32                               30.587.778
                                                                         clem.                                                       clementine
11   Tomatoes              141.400.629                  pomodori
                                                                      33 Chillies and peppers, green   28.483.822 peperoncini e peperoni verdi
12 Sweet potatoes           107.642.391               patate dolci
                                                                      34 Carrots and turnips           28.028.042               carote e navoni
13   Watermelons           100.687.056                    anguria
                                                                           Other melons
14 Bananas                  95.595.965                     banane     35                               27.726.563 altri meloni (incl. cantalupe)
                                                                           (inc.cantaloupes)
15   Onions, dry             72.313.493                    cipolle    36 Lettuce and chicory           23.733.803              lattuga e cicoria

16 Apples                   71.736.938                       mele     37 Oats                           23.032.118                         avena
                                                                      38 Pears                         21.907.395                           pere
     Cabbages and other
17                           71.342.347   cavoli ed altre brassiche      Pumpkins, squash and
     brassicas                                                        39                                21.201.379   zucche, zucchine e zucche
                                                                         gourds
18 Oranges                  67.601.635                      arance
                                                                      40 Cauliflowers and broccoli     19.845.519          cavolfiori e broccoli
19 Grapes                   66.935.199                         uva
                                                                      41 Beans, dry                    19.723.330                         fagioli
20 Seed cotton              64.002.158             semi di cotone
                                                                      42 Peaches and nectarines        18.579.393            pesche e nettarine
21 Sorghum                  62.098.620                       sorgo    43 Pineapples                    18.448.674                    ananas
                                                                                                               Teaching notes 2016/2017
SUGAR CANE PRODUCTION (%)
                     IN THE MAIN PRODUCERS COUNTRIES

                     USA
                                                               Pakistan
                     1,9%
                                                                3,5%         India       Cina
                               ZONA TEMPERATA
                                                                              20%         8%
                              ZONA SUBTROPICALE                                                               30°
  Messico
ZONA  TROPICALE
   3,4%                                                                      Tropico del    CancroFilippine
                                  Brasile                                                           1,6%
                                   47%
                                                                                                              15°
ZONA                                                                  Tailandia
EQUATORIALE  O
          Colombia                  EQUATORE                             5%                                     0°
INTERTROPICALE
            2,7%
                                                                          Indonesia                           15°
                                                                            1,8%                            ZONA
ZONA TROPICALE                                                                 Tropico   del    Capricorno
                                                                                                         DI ORIGINE

                               ZONA  SUBTROPICALE                                                             30°
                                 Argentina
                                  2%TEMPERATA
                               ZONA               Sud Africa
                                                    1,4%                                   Australia
                                                                                            2,2%

                                                                                     Teaching notes 2016/2017
MAIZE PRODUCTION (%) IN THE MAIN PRODUCERS COUNTRIES

         USA
        49,3%
                     ZONA TEMPERATA
  Messico           ZONA SUBTROPICALE               Cina               30°
   2,3%                                            24,2%
                                          Tropico del Cancro
ZONA TROPICALE
                                                                       15°
ZONA      ORIGINE
EQUATORIALE O             EQUATORE
                        Brasile                                             0°
INTERTROPICALE           7,5%                                          15°
ZONA TROPICALE                             Tropico del Capricorno

                     ZONA SUBTROPICALE                                 30°

                     ZONA TEMPERATA

                                                 Teaching notes 2016/2017
WHEAT PRODUCTION (%) IN THE MAIN PRODUCERS COUNTRIES

                                                    Federazione
                       Gran                            russa
            Canada    Bretagna
             4,6%                 Germania             10,5%                   Cina
                       2,46%
                                    4,3%                                      19,7%
  USA
 10,3%               Francia         ORIGINE      Pakistan       ZONA TEMPERATA
                      6,63%                        4,1%
                                 Ucraina                       ZONA SUBTROPICALE 30°
ZONA TROPICALE                    3,6%                       Tropico del Cancro
                                               Turchia                                    15°
ZONA                                            3,5%
EQUATORIALE O         EQUATORE                           India                                 0°
INTERTROPICALE                                           13,8%
                                                                        Australia         15°
ZONA TROPICALE                                               Tropico del Capricorno
                                                                          3,7%
                                                                 ZONA SUBTROPICALE 30°
                     Argentina
                       1,3%                                      ZONA TEMPERATA

                                                                    Teaching notes 2016/2017
RICE PRODUCTION (%) IN THE MAIN PRODUCERS COUNTRIES

                 USA
                 1,6%
                                                                           Cina
                         ZONA TEMPERATA        Bangladesh ORIGINE         31,3%
                                                  7,6%
                        ZONA SUBTROPICALE                                    Vietnam          30°
ZONA TROPICALE                                             Tropico del     Cancro
                                                                               6,2%
                                             India                                Filippine   15°
ZONA                                         21,3%                                  2,6%
EQUATORIALE O                 EQUATORE                                                            0°
INTERTROPICALE                                       Myanmar
                                                      5,2%                   Indonesia        15°
ZONA TROPICALE                                                 Tropico del   Capricorno
                                                                               10,3%
                                                           Tailandia
                         ZONABrasile
                              SUBTROPICALE                   5,1%
                                                                                              30°
                               2%
                         ZONA TEMPERATA

                                                                       Teaching notes 2016/2017
CASSAVA PRODUCTION (%) IN THE MAIN PRODUCERS COUNTRIES

                         ZONA TEMPERATA
                        ZONA SUBTROPICALE                         Tailandia               30°
                                       Nigeria
                                                                    16%
ZONA TROPICALE                                 19%           Tropico del Cancro
                         Brasile                                                          15°
ZONA                                   Ghana         Congo               Indonesia
                         11,7%
                                        6,3%          7,8%                 11,4%
EQUATORIALE O ORIGINE              EQUATORE                                                    0°
INTERTROPICALE
                                         Angola                                           15°
                                          6,6%               Tropico del Capricorno
ZONA TROPICALE
                         ZONA SUBTROPICALE                                                30°

                          ZONA TEMPERATA

                                                                    Teaching notes 2016/2017
POTATOES PRODUCTION (%) IN THE MAIN PRODUCERS COUNTRIES

                                                           Federazione
                                                              russa
                                                              11,9%

                                      Germania
            USA                         4,4%
            7,5%                                 Ucraina
                         ZONA TEMPERATA           7,5%                       Cina
                                                                            28,1%
                        ZONA SUBTROPICALE                                                      30°
ZONA TROPICALE                                                 Tropico del Cancro
                                                                                               15°
ZONA
EQUATORIALE O                 EQUATORE                      India                                   0°
                                                            13,2%
INTERTROPICALE
                                                                                               15°
ZONA TROPICALEORIGINE                                           Tropico del Capricorno

                         ZONA SUBTROPICALE                                                     30°

                         ZONA TEMPERATA

                                                                         Teaching notes 2016/2017
PRODUZIONI DI BANANE (%) NEI PRINCIPALI PAESI PRODUTTORI

                                                                                        Cina
                                                                                       10,5%
                                                        Egitto             Tailandia
                                                                                                   Vietnam
                        CostaricaZONA TEMPERATA         1,3%                 1,8%
                                                                                                     1,8%
     Messico              2,7%
                               ZONA SUBTROPICALE
                                            Camerun                                                          30°
      2,6%                        Colombia                 Kenia
   ZONA TROPICALE                             1,2%                            Tropico del Cancro
                                    2,3%                    1%
                                                                                                              15°
                                                                                                        Filippine
   ZONA                                                                            ORIGINE               10,5%
         Guatemala                                                 India
   EQUATORIALE
           2,95% O                   EQUATORE                      31,3%                                          0°
   INTERTROPICALE
                                       Brasile                                                         15°
                     Ecuador                                          Bangladesh
                                        7,9%
   ZONA TROPICALE     8,9%                                               1%Tropico  del Capricorno
                                                                                 Indonesia
                                                                                                 Papua
                                                                                              Nuova Guinea
                                                                                   7,3%
                               ZONA SUBTROPICALE      Tanzania                                    1,4% 30°
                                                        3,7%
                               ZONA TEMPERATA

                                                                                       Teaching notes 2016/2017
44 Olives             18.241.809                  olive         Grapefruit (inc.                              pompelmo (incl.
                                                           66                             4.496.868
45 Rye                17.856.568                segale          pomelos)                                                Pomeli)
                                                           67   Cocoa beans               4.223.603              semi di cacao
46 Garlic             16.593.073                  aglio    68   Strawberries               4.132.352                     fragole
47 Triticale          15.040.432              triticale         Broad beans, horse                     fave grandi, fave cavalli,
                                                           69                             4.096.682
48 Spinach            14.958.727               spinaci          beans, dry                                              asciutti
                                                           70   Tea                       3.885.302                          Tea
49 Lemons and limes   13.949.600         limoni e lime     71   Apricots                   3.831.823                 albicocche
                                                           72   Persimmons                3.807.843                        cachi
                                   Colocasia esculenta
50 Taro (cocoyam)     11.660.577                                Cashew nuts, with
                                             (Araceae)     73                             3.763.492      anacardi (con guscio)
                                                                shell
51 Plums and sloes    10.679.206    prugne e prugnole
                                                                Onions (inc. shallots),                 cipolle (scalogni incl.)
52 Peas, dry          10.379.890         piselli secchi    74                             3.698.474
                                                                green                                                     verde
53 Natural rubber     10.280.887     gomma naturale        75   Lentils                    3.595.177                 lenticchie
54 Papayas            10.213.069               papaya      76   Avocados                   3.585.156                   avocado
                                                                Mushrooms and
55 Chick peas          9.774.082                   ceci    77                             3.577.632             funghi e tartufi
                                                                truffles
56 Maize, green        9.511.742          mais, verde      78   Sesame seed                3.511.042       semi di sesamo
57 Peas, green        9.168.666           piselli, verdi                                             cajanus cajan o piselli
                                                           79   Pigeon peas               3.499.918
58 Coffee, green       8.261.487           caffè verde                                                         dell'Angola
                                                              Chillies and peppers,                 peperoncini e peperoni
59 Asparagus          7.289.903              asparago      80                             2.959.283
                                                              dry                                                    secchi
60 Dates              7.226.947                 datteri    81 Jute                        2.833.672                    juta
     Tobacco,                           tabacco senza      82   Almonds, with shell        2.311.682      mandorle con guscio
61                     6.911.395
     unmanufactured                       manifattura                                          Teaching notes 2016/2017
62 Beans, green        6.814.403         fagioli, verdi    83   Walnuts, with shell        2.236.231           noci, con guscio
63 Okra                6.779.215        gombo o okra       84   Linseed                   2.206.288                semi di lino
                                    piselli da foraggio    85   Cherries                   2.150.107                    ciliegie
64 Cow peas, dry      5.689.562
                                             (granella)                                         Appunti di Lezione 2015/2016
                                                           86   String beans              2.044.363                   fagiolini
65 Mixed grain        4.796.590               granaglie    87   Cashewapple                1.851.005          anacardio pomo
88    Ginger                    1.618.627                      zenzero     115   Pepper (Piper spp.)             414.075              pepe (Piper spp.)
89    Castor oil seed            1.499.111        semi di olio di ricino                                                      ossicocco (mirtillo rosso
                                                                           116   Cranberries                     409.523
90    Artichokes               1.494.262                       Carciofi                                                                   americano)
91    Chestnuts                1.418.280                     castagne      117   Sisal                          406.738          sisal (agave sisalana)
92    Buckwheat                1.416.848               grano saraceno      118   Yautia (cocoyam)               403.473              Yautia (cocoyam)
                                                                           119   Other Bastfibres               355.387           Altre fibre liberiane
93    Sour cherries            1.358.326                     amarene
                                                                           120   Blueberries                    306.383                         Mirtilli
94    Kiwi fruit               1.285.553                         Kiwi
                                                                           121   Kapokseed in Shell              274.104       Semi di kapok in guscio
95    Figs                     1.184.884                         fichi
                                                                           122   Ramie                           252.323          ramie (fibra tessile)
96    Coir                      1.111.270        fibra di noce di cocco
                                                                           123   Kolanuts                        215.237                   noce di cola
97    Lupins                    934.225                          lupini
                                                                           124   Canary seed                     196.150                      scagliola
98    Arecanuts                 895.496         areca o palma di betel     125   Carobs                         180.249                        Carrube
99    Maté                       811.453                           maté    126   Hops                            151.850                       Luppolo
                                                                           127   Cinnamon (canella)             147.069                        cannella
100 Karite Nuts (Sheanuts)      805.874                  noci di karite
                                                                           128   Gooseberries                   120.996                      Uva spina
101   Vetches                   789.538                           vecce    129   Cloves                          110.239            chiodi di garofano
                                                                           130   Kapok Fibre                    104.804                 Fibre di kapok
102 Hazelnuts, with shell       773.828           nocciole, con guscio
                                                                                                                             fibra di Manila (canapa di
                                                                           131   Manila Fibre (Abaca)             97.162
103 Melonseed                   757.803                        melone                                                                           Manila)
104 Mustard seed                661.326                 semi di senape     132   Poppy seed                       96.333              semi di papavero
105   Safflower seed             653.791              semi di cartamo      133   Bambara beans                    83.325               fagioli bambara
106   Chicory roots             632.323               Radici di cicoria    134   Brazil nuts, with shell          78.315 Noci del Brasile, con guscio
107   Currants                   631.108                         Ribes                                                 Appunti di Lezione 2015/2016
                                                                                 Nutmeg, mace and                               noce moscata, macis e
108   Pistachios                572.946                      pistacchi     135                                    74.215
                                                                                 cardamoms                                                 cardamono
109 Quinces                     497.237                       Cotogne                                      Teaching notes 2016/2017
                                                                           136   Peppermint                       72.335                Menta piperita
110   Flax fibre and tow        491.296          lino da fibra e stoppa
                                                                           137   Hemp Tow Waste                  69.735             Canapa Tow rifiuti
111   Fonio                     487.695                            fonio   138   Quinoa                          68.964                        Quinoa
112   Raspberries               483.620                       Lamponi      139   Hempseed                         56.523               Seme di canapa
113   Tung Nuts                  481.553           tung nuts (vernici)     140   Gums Natural                     23.555              Gomme naturali
      Anise, badian, fennel,                 anice, badiana, finocchio,    141   Pyrethrum,Dried                  13.405                Piretro, secchi
114                             425.068
      corian.                                               coriandolo     142   Vanilla                           9.065                      Vaniglia
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