DIVERSITY SURVEY - 2016 Bi-Annual Report - April

DIVERSITY SURVEY - 2016 Bi-Annual Report - April

DIVERSITY SURVEY - 2016 Bi-Annual Report - April

D VEY April © DIVERSITY WORKS NZ 2019 VEY April April 2018 New Zealand workplace Diversity Survey 2019

DIVERSITY SURVEY - 2016 Bi-Annual Report - April

NEW ZEALAND DIVERSITY SURVEY 2016 Bi-Annual Report – April Formerly the Equal Employment Opportunities Trust © DIVERSITY WORKS NZ 2019 2 | nz workplace diversity survey 2019 | diversityworksnz.org.nz This report was commissioned by Diversity Works New Zealand. It was produced by Dr Ritu Parna Roy (University of Auckland), Dr Jessica Terruhn (Massey University) and Distinguished Professor Paul Spoonley (Massey University). Contents List of tables and figures 3 Introduction 4 Methodological note 4 Respondent characteristics 5 Diversity issues that are most important to organisations 6 Importance of diversity issues by sector 7 Importance of diversity issues by size of organisation 8 Addressing diversity issues 9 Methods of addressing diversity in the organisation 12 Measuring and evaluating the effectiveness of diversity initiatives 13 Diversity issues under the spotlight 14 Wellbeing/wellness 15 Bullying and harassment 16 Flexibility 17 Temporary, fixed term, and casual contracts 18 Aging 19 Gender representation 20 Ethnicity 22 Literacy, Language and Numeracy (LLN) 24 Bias 25 Concluding Comments 27

DIVERSITY SURVEY - 2016 Bi-Annual Report - April

diversityworksnz.org.nz | nz workplace diversity survey 2019 | 3 D VEY April © DIVERSITY WORKS NZ 2019 List of tables and figures Table 1: Industries organisations operate in 5 Table 2: Importance of diversity issues for organisations 2016 – 2019, percentage and ranking 6 Table 3: Diversity policies and programmes/initiatives 9 Table 4: Trends and ranking of methods of addressing diversity in organisations, 2016-2019 12 Table 5: Methods of measuring and evaluating the effectiveness of diversity initiatives 13 Table 6: Wellbeing/wellness challenges 15 Table 7: Organisational responses to reported incidents of bullying and harassment 16 Table 8: Forms of flexibility in organisations 17 Table 9: Forms of engagement with workers over the age of 55 19 Table 10: Female representation at the governance and leadership/decision-making levels 20 Table 11: Female representation at the governance and leadership/decision-making levels by size of the organisation 21 Table 12: Promotion of gender pay equity in organisations 21 Table 13: Ethnicity as a diversity issue for organisations 22 Table 14: Methods of addressing ethnicity as a diversity issue 23 Table 15: Forms of addressing the Literacy, Language and Numeracy (LLN) needs of a diverse workforce 24 Table 16: Bias as a diversity issue for organisations 25 Table 17: Forms of addressing bias 26 Figure 1: Importance of diversity issues by sector 7 Figure 2: Importance of diversity issues by size of organisation 8 Figure 3: Diversity policies and programmes/initiatives by sector 10 Figure 4: Diversity policies and programmes/initiatives by size of the organisation 11 Figure 5: Percentage of staff on temporary, fixed term or casual contracts 18

DIVERSITY SURVEY - 2016 Bi-Annual Report - April

NEW ZEALAND DIVERSITY SURVEY 2016 Bi-Annual Report – April Formerly the Equal Employment Opportunities Trust © DIVERSITY WORKS NZ 2019 4 | nz workplace diversity survey 2019 | diversityworksnz.org.nz Introduction Diversity, in all its manifestations, is an important part of New Zealand society and the country’s contemporary business environment. The New Zealand Workplace Diversity Survey is an annual record of how New Zealand firms and organisations see and respond to diversity. The survey aims to contribute to public understanding and debate, and seeks to highlight both good practice and what needs further attention.

Such debate is important to make sure that organisations are attuned to diversity amongst their workforce, their clients, and the communities they serve. We may think of this in terms of making the most of the benefits diversity is said to bring, but equally and perhaps more importantly, we need to think of this in terms of the responsibilities organisations have to create and maintain inclusive and non- discriminatory work places.

We’d like to acknowledge that this year’s survey coincides with the callous murder of 50 Muslim people at two Christchurch mosques. More than anything, this act of violence perpetrated in the name of the ideology of white supremacy shows that values of inclusion, equity and justice cannot be taken for granted but require commitment from everyone. What follows is the most recent survey results. Methodological note This March 2019 iteration of the New Zealand Workplace Diversity Survey closely resembles the previous version in order to ensure continuity and comparability of findings. However, we introduced two new questions in this survey to further explore aspects of particular diversity issues.

One of these questions asked whether organisations actively promote gender pay equity. The other question asked how organisations respond to reported incidents of bullying and harassment. Because we asked this question for the first time, we opted for an open-ended question to explore the various ways in which organisations may address bullying and harassment.

DIVERSITY SURVEY - 2016 Bi-Annual Report - April

diversityworksnz.org.nz | nz workplace diversity survey 2019 | 5 D VEY April © DIVERSITY WORKS NZ 2019 Respondent characteristics A total of 368 respondents took part in the March 2019 New Zealand Workplace Diversity Survey. Participating organisations operate in a variety of industries (see Table 1): 35.3 per cent of all respondents operate in ‘Professional, Scientific and Technical Services’ followed by 12 per cent in ‘Other Services’ and 10.6 per cent in ‘Construction’. Of the 368 respondents, 243 (66%) are located in the private sector and 125 (34%) operate in the public sector.

Organisations from all regions of New Zealand are represented in this survey.

By far the largest number of respondents, 161 (43.8%) are located in the Auckland region, followed by 72 (19.6%) in the Wellington region (19.6 %) and 43 in the Southland region (11.7%). Large organisations with up to 200+ employees constitute more than half of all respondents 207 (56.3%), while medium-sized organisations (20-199 employees) and small-sized organisations (0-19 employees) make up 29.6 per cent and 14.1 per cent respectively. Industry Responses % Administrative and support services 4 1.1 Agriculture, forestry and fishing 8 2.2 Arts and recreation services 7 1.9 Construction 39 10.6 Education and training 22 6 Electricity, gas, water and waste services 24 6.5 Financial and insurance services 15 4.1 Health care and social assistance 9 2.4 Information media and telecommunications 15 4.1 Manufacturing 16 4.3 Other services 44 12 Professional, scientific and technical services 130 35.3 Public administration and safety 19 5.2 Rental, hiring and real estate services 1 0.3 Retail trade 3 0.8 Transport, postal and warehousing 7 1.9 Wholesale trade 5 1.4 Total 368 100 Table 1: Industries organisations operate in

DIVERSITY SURVEY - 2016 Bi-Annual Report - April

NEW ZEALAND DIVERSITY SURVEY 2016 Bi-Annual Report – April Formerly the Equal Employment Opportunities Trust © DIVERSITY WORKS NZ 2019 6 | nz workplace diversity survey 2019 | diversityworksnz.org.nz Diversity issues that are most important to organisations A key objective of this survey is to identify the diversity issues that are most important to organisations and to examine trends across time. The detailed findings are presented in Table 2 below. In this survey, organisations identified wellbeing/wellness, gender and bias as the three most important diversity issues (79.6%, 66.8% and 63% respectively).

Three findings are particularly noteworthy. Firstly, we see quite significant increases in the importance accorded to almost all diversity issues compared to previous iterations of the survey. In the April 2018 survey, wellbeing/wellness was the only diversity issue identified as important by more than 50 per cent of respondents. Now, wellbeing/wellness, gender, bias and flexibility are all identified as important by more than half of all respondents. While, for instance, flexibility has dropped from the second to the fourth most important diversity issue, the percentage of respondents regarding it as important has increased from 49 per cent to 58.4 per cent.

Secondly, the importance organisations assigned to gender has increased most significantly. In the previous survey, only slightly more than one third (36.1%) of respondents considered gender to be an important diversity issue, compared to two thirds (66.8%) in this survey, making it the second most important issue after wellbeing/wellness. Thirdly, we note that aging, a diversity issue that regularly featured among the top 3 diversity issues in previous surveys, was only the seventh most important diversity issue. Identified as important by 37 per cent of respondents, it is the only diversity issue which has been afforded less significance than previously (down from 42.9% in April 2018).

diversity issues March 2019 (%) April 2018 (%) April 2017 (%) October 2016 (%) Wellbeing/wellness 79.6 (1) 62.4 (1) 66.9 (1) 62.3 (1) Gender 66.8 (2) 36.1 (5) 45.0 (5) 28.9 (5) Bias 63.0 (3) 42.0 (4) 48.3 (3) 30.1 (4) Flexibility 58.4 (4) 49.0 (2) 54.6 (2) 53.1 (2) Ethnicity 47.3 (5) 33.9 (6) 41.4 (6) 27.0 (7) Bullying 42.1 (6) 31.5 (7) 35.8 (7) 25.6 (8) Aging 37.0 (7) 42.9 (3) 47.0 (4) 43.8 (3) Sexuality 29.6 (8) 12.4 (10) 17.9 (10) 11.0 (10) Employment transition for younger staff 26.1 (9) 26.8 (8) 27.5 (8) 27.6 (6) Disability 24.2 (10) 21.2 (9) 24.2 (9) 16.2 (9) Religion 11.7 (11) 8.5 (11) 12.3 (11) 7.7 (11) Table 2: Importance of diversity issues for organisations 2016 – 2019, percentage and ranking

DIVERSITY SURVEY - 2016 Bi-Annual Report - April

diversityworksnz.org.nz | nz workplace diversity survey 2019 | 7 D VEY April © DIVERSITY WORKS NZ 2019 Importance of diversity issues by sector Following trends from previous surveys, respondents from public sector organisations continued to accord somewhat more importance to the majority of diversity issues than private sector organisations (bias, flexibility, and employment transition for younger staff were the exceptions). As shown in Figure 1, differences in the importance of diversity issues between the public and private sector is most pronounced in the areas of disability, bullying and harassment, aging and sexuality.

More than 30 per cent of public-sector respondents reported disability as an important diversity issue compared to only 19.8 per cent of respondents from the private sector. Similarly, there is gap of almost 10 per cent between the public and private sector respondents in terms of reporting bullying and harassment as a diversity issue (48.8% and 37.7% respectively). Notably, in the April 2018 survey, there was a gap of 20 per cent between public and private sector for ethnicity as a diversity issue, but by March 2019 that had shrunk below 10 per cent.

Figure 1: Importance of diversity issues by sector 33.7 63.4 38.7 19.8 28.4 44.9 59.7 66.7 9.1 26.7 79.8 43.2 62.4 48.8 32.8 21.6 52 56 67.2 16.8 35.2 79.2 0 20 40 60 80 100 Aging Bias Bullying and harassment Disability 'Employment transition for younger staff Ethnicity Flexibility Gender Religion Sexuality Wellbeing Percentage IMPORTANCE OF DIVERSITY ISSUES BY SECTOR Public Private

NEW ZEALAND DIVERSITY SURVEY 2016 Bi-Annual Report – April Formerly the Equal Employment Opportunities Trust © DIVERSITY WORKS NZ 2019 8 | nz workplace diversity survey 2019 | diversityworksnz.org.nz Importance of diversity issues by size of organisation Differences in the importance of diversity issues to organisations also become more pronounced when we consider their size (Figure 2).

Respondents from large organisations regarded almost all diversity issues as more important than medium-sized and small organisations, with employment transition for younger staff and wellbeing/wellness the only exceptions. Whilst wellbeing/wellness is the most important diversity issue irrespective of an organisation’s size, gender is now the second most important issue for large organisations. For medium-sized and small organisations, flexibility and bias are now the second most important diversity issues respectively.

Differences between small, medium-sized and large organisation are more noticeable for gender, bias, wellbeing and sexuality. Almost three quarters of respondents from large organisations identified bias as an important diversity issue while less than half of all respondents from medium-sized and small organisations did so. However, we also need to note that the importance of bias as a diversity issue for small organisations has jumped from 24.7 per cent in April 2018 to 48 per cent in March 2019. Figure 2: Importance of diversity issues by size of organisation 41.1 74.9 44.9 27.1 23.7 49.8 63.8 78.3 12.1 39.1 80.7 35.8 47.7 41.3 20.2 32.1 48.6 57.8 55 13.8 16.5 87.2 23.1 48.1 32.7 21.2 23.1 34.6 38.5 46.2 5.8 19.2 59.6 0 20 40 60 80 100 Aging Bias Bullying and harassment Disability 'Employment transiCon for younger staff Ethnicity Flexibility Gender JReligion Sexuality Wellbeing Percentage IMPORTANCE OF DIVERSITY ISSUES BY SIZE OF ORGANISATION Small Medium Large

diversityworksnz.org.nz | nz workplace diversity survey 2019 | 9 D VEY April © DIVERSITY WORKS NZ 2019 Addressing diversity issues Respondents were asked to indicate whether their organisation had a formal policy, a programme or initiative, or neither of these, in place for each of the diversity issues we surveyed. As shown in Table 3, the three diversity issues for which participating organisations are most likely to have either a formal policy or a programme or initiative in place are bullying and harassment (84.4%) wellbeing/wellness (83.3%) and flexibility (77%). Aging remains the diversity issue for which organisations have the least formal structures in place.

Just over one quarter (27.3%) of all respondents stated that they had either a formal policy or programme/ initiative in place for aging.

Diversity issue Responses Formal policy or programme/initiative % Neither policy nor programme/Initiative % Don’t know % Bullying 365 84.4 10.4 5.2 Wellbeing/wellness 365 83.3 11 5.7 Flexibility 360 77.0 16.9 6.1 Gender 363 62.3 28.9 8.8 Ethnicity 358 50.6 36.9 12.5 Bias 347 50.6 37.3 12.1 Disability 357 46.5 34.7 18.8 Sexuality 360 45.5 43.1 11.4 Employment transition for younger staff 352 36.7 41.2 22.1 Religion 353 32.0 48.2 19.8 Aging 293 27.3 59.7 13 Table 3: Diversity policies and programmes/initiatives As illustrated in Figure 3 on page 10, both public and private-sector organisations are most likely to have either formal policies and/or programmes or initiatives in place for bullying and harassment, wellbeing/wellness, and flexibility.

Public-sector organisations continue to be more likely to have formal policies and/or programmes and initiatives in place for all diversity issues that were surveyed.

NEW ZEALAND DIVERSITY SURVEY 2016 Bi-Annual Report – April Formerly the Equal Employment Opportunities Trust © DIVERSITY WORKS NZ 2019 10 | nz workplace diversity survey 2019 | diversityworksnz.org.nz Notably, there is a gap of nearly 17 per cent between the public and private sector in terms of formal policies and programmes or initiatives related to disability. We also see a difference of nearly 10 per cent between the public and private sector for policies pertaining to flexibility, ethnicity and sexuality.

However, the gap between private and public sector is now less pronounced than it was in April 2018.

Figure 3: Diversity policies and programmes/initiatives by sector Employment transition for younger staff

diversityworksnz.org.nz | nz workplace diversity survey 2019 | 11 D VEY April © DIVERSITY WORKS NZ 2019 Again, an organisation’s size is a strong indicator of whether they have implemented policies, programmes and/or initiatives to address the surveyed diversity issues (see Figure 4). For example, 8 out of the 11 given diversity issues are addressed with policies or programmes by more than 60 per cent of respondents from large organisations. Only 3 issues (bullying and harassment, wellbeing/wellness and flexibility) are addressed by more than 60 per cent of medium-sized organisations while disability is the only issue that is addressed by more than 60 per cent (71.2%) of small organisations.

It is perhaps noteworthy that disability is also the only diversity issue for which small organisations were more likely to have formal policies and/ or programmes or initiatives in place than both large and medium-sized organisations. Figure 4: Diversity policies and programmes/initiatives by size of the organisation

NEW ZEALAND DIVERSITY SURVEY 2016 Bi-Annual Report – April Formerly the Equal Employment Opportunities Trust © DIVERSITY WORKS NZ 2019 12 | nz workplace diversity survey 2019 | diversityworksnz.org.nz Methods of addressing diversity in the organisation Respondents were asked to reflect on how their organisation addresses the surveyed diversity issues by selecting from multiple response options. As shown in Table 4 below, the most commonly reported methods for addressing diversity in the organisation are ‘Consideration of diversity in relevant HR policies’ (67.7%), followed by ‘Top management commitment to and involvement in diversity issues’ (66.8%) and ‘Communication and promotion of diversity to internal stakeholders’ (47.3%).

Since 2018, there has been a percentage increase in the number of organisations that address diversity through these methods and since 2016 there has been a more substantial increase across each of the aforementioned methods. There is also a significant increase (18%) of organisations that have a ‘diversity strategy or plan’ compared to the April 2018 survey.

Methods of addressing diversity March 2019 (%) April 2018 (%) April 2017 (%) October 2016 (%) Consideration of diversity in relevant HR policies 67.7 (1) 51.2 (2) 59.6 (1) 36.0 (2) Top management commitment to and involvement in diversity issues 66.8 (2) 53.0 (1) 54.0 (2) 37.3 (1) Communication and promotion of diversity to internal stakeholders 47.3 (3) 28.8 (3) 31.8 (3) 20.8 (3) Diversity strategy or plan 46.2 (4) 28.8 (3) 31.8 (3) 19.8 (4) Diversity council, committee, team or taskforce 38.5 (5) 19.0 (6) 22.8 (8) 9.9 (11) Diversity support networks 35.1 (6) 21.5 (4) 25.8 (4) 13.6 (7) Diversity education and training for people managers 34.8 (7) 17.1 (8) 24.8 (5) 13.9 (6) Monitoring and reporting diversity performance 31.8 (8) 20.5 (5) 23.5 (7) 12.7 (8) Communication about diversity-related issues to external stakeholders 29.6 (9) 15.1 (10) 16.9 (10) 9.8 (12) Diversity education and training for existing employees 29.6(9) 16.3 (9) 24.5 (6) 14.6 (5) System or mechanisms for reporting diversity-related concerns 28.8 (10) 18.3 (7) 18.9 (9) 12.1 (9) Diversity education and training for new employees 18.5 (11) 12.2 (11) 16.2 (11) 11.6 (10) Other 13 (12) 15.1 (10) 13.6 (12) 5.2 (14) Diversity-related employment benefits 12.5 (13) 5.8 (12) 9.6 (13) 6.5 (13) Diversity-related managerial incentives 7.6 (14) 5.8 (13) 4.6 (14) 3.6 (15) Table 4: Trends and ranking of methods of addressing diversity in organisations, 2016-2019

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