Driving test as part of the driving examination

Driving test as part of the driving examination

Regulation 1 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.01/2013 Finnish Transport Safety Agency • PL 320, 00101 Helsinki tel. +358 20 618 500, fax +358 20 618 5095 • Business ID 1031715-9 www.trafi.fi Date of issue: 12/12/2013 Date valid: 13/12/2013 Valid until: Until further notice Statutory basis: Act on the driving licence (Ajokorttilaki) (386/2011), Section 45 and 53 Directive 2006/126/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council This regulation implements Paragraph B of Annex II to directive 2006/126/EC Revision details: Repeals the following regulations Driving test as part of the driving examinationTRAFI/11079/03.04.03.01/2012 Driving test as part of the driving examination: CONTENTS 1 TEST ON DRIVING SKILLS AND DRIVING STYLE .

3 2 ALLOCATION OF TIME . 4 3 EQUIPMENT . 4 4 VEHICLE . 4 5 INITIAL DISCUSSION . 5 5.1 Initial discussion in special manoeuvre test . 5 5.2 Initial discussion before driving in traffic . 5 6 DRIVING . 6 7 FEEDBACK DISCUSSION . 7 7.1 Feedback discussion for passed driving test . 7 7.2 Feedback discussion for failed driving test . 7 7.3 Manoeuvres test decision . 7 8 MARKS . 8 8.1 Preparation and technical check of the vehicle . 8 8.2 Manoeuvres test and task . 8 8.3 OVERALL ASSESSMENT . 8 1. Grading scale . 8 2. Ability to control the vehicle . 8 3. Showing consideration to cyclists and pedestrians .

9 4. Showing consideration to other traffic . 9 5. Anticipation . 9 6. Control of own space . 9 7. Subjects of assessment and basic driving skills . . 10 9 ASSESSMENT OF THE TEST ON DRIVING SKILLS AND DRIVING STYLE . . 11 1. Passed driving test . . 11 2. Failing a driving test . . 11

Regulation 2 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 ANNEXES Liite 1 Minimum duration . 12 Liite 2 Preparation and technical check of the vehicle in categories AM/120, AM/121, A1, A2, A and B . 13 Liite 3 Preparation and technical check of the vehicle in categories B/96, BE, C1, C1E, C, CE, D1, D1E, D and DE . 15 Liite 4 Manoeuvres tasks . 16 Liite 5 Manoeuvres test for categories AM/120, A1, A2 and A . 19 Liite 6 Manoeuvres test for categories T, LT, B/96, BE, C1E, CE, D1E and DE... 34 Liite 7 Basic driving skills in categories AM/121, A1, A2, A and B . 45 Liite 8 Basic driving skills in categories B/96, BE, C1, C1E, C, CE, D1, D1E, D and DE .

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Regulation 3 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 1 TEST ON DRIVING SKILLS AND DRIVING STYLE With this regulation, the Finnish Transport Safety Agency issues more specific regulations to driving examiners on the performance of the driving test that constitutes a part of the driving examination. The driving test ensures that the applicant has achieved the targets defined in the approved curriculum for driving instruction: safety, socially and environmentally friendly driving behav- iour, and the ability to independently and safely apply basic driving skills to various traffic situations. Another objective of the driving test is to make sure that the applicant is able to identify and assess risks, and to evaluate his/her own actions and their impact on the safety of traffic.

Subject to the applicant's consent, may be accompanied by an instructor and, if necessary, interpreter during the driving test. Other persons may accompany the applicant with the driv- ing examiner's approval. Representatives of the authorities tasked with monitoring driving instruction or driving examinations are always entitled to observe driving tests when deemed necessary.

Regulation 4 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 2 ALLOCATION OF TIME The duration of a driving test shall comply with Section 33 of the Government decree on driv- ing licences (423/2011).

The allocation of time must conform to the minimum times specified in Annex 1. 3 EQUIPMENT Drivers taking the category AM/120 driving test on a two- or three-wheel moped are required to wear the following equipment, depending on the vehicle: • A correctly secured helmet approved for use in traffic • Goggles if necessary • The following clothing suitable in operating a moped for increase in safety: o jacket and long trousers o gloves and footwear Motorcyclists taking an A1, A2 or A category driving test are required to wear the following equipment: • A correctly secured helmet approved for use in traffic as well as goggles if necessary • Trousers intended for motorcycling, equipped with protective knee pads or driving trou- sers made of leather • A driving jacket intended for motorcycling equipped with elbow and shoulder protection, or a driving jacket made of leather • Protective driving gloves intended for motorcycling or driving gloves made of leather • Sturdy or specially padded footwear 4 VEHICLE The vehicle used in the test shall comply with the provisions of Section 1 of the Decree of the Ministry of Transport and Communications on vehicles used in driving examinations, the mark- ing of training vehicles, and the requirements for retaking the driving test (547/2011).

The vehicle must be of a normal build, and when arriving at the handling or driving test it must meet the criteria given in the regulations on the build and accessories of vehicles. The driving examiner is entitled to limit the use of on-board vehicle accessories. The vehicle must have passed the periodic inspection.

Regulation 5 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 5 INITIAL DISCUSSION With the initial discussion, the driving examiner creates the preconditions for a successful driving test. The driving examiner must make sure that the applicant knows what is expected of him/her. If the applicant is taking a driving test immediately after the handling test, there is no need to repeat things that have already been dealt with. 5.1 Initial discussion in special manoeuvre test The initial discussion will always cover the following issues: • The objectives and key acceptance criteria of the manoeuvres test • Instructions to be followed during the manoeuvre test o Presentation of the tasks and completion of tasks o Number of attempts allowed 5.2 Initial discussion before driving in traffic The initial discussion will always cover the following issues: • The goals of the test and how these are met; explained in the overall assessment • Instructions to be followed during the driving test o Driving instructions o Possibility to ask questions o Getting lost and driving in the wrong direction o Discussion during the driving test • Making notes during the test • Duration of the test

Regulation 6 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 6 DRIVING Before taking off, the applicant must show that s/he knows how to prepare for safe driving. • Categories AM/120, AM/121, A1, A2, A and B: by complying with the requirements listed in Annex 2. • Categories B/96, BE, C1, C1E, C, CE, D1, D1E, D and DE: by complying with the re- quirements listed in Annex 3. If the preparation and technical check of the vehicle have been carried out in connection with the special manoeuvres test, these do not have to be repeated if the driving in traffic section of the test is initiated immediately after the manoeuvres test.

The driving test consists of driving in traffic and a manoeuvres test or manoeuvres tasks. Categories AM/120 and LT only include a manoeuvres test. Category T only includes a ma- noeuvres test if the driving examiner considers it necessary. The manoeuvres tasks must be performed while driving in traffic, in accordance with Annex 4. Assessment of the manoeuvres tasks forms part of the assessment of driving in traffic. The manoeuvres test is a separate test performed before driving in traffic, and is required for categories AM/120, A1, A2 and A, as specified in Annex 5. The manoeuvres tests for categories T, LT, B/96, BE, C1E, CE, D1E and DE must be performed in accordance with Annex 6.

While driving in traffic, the driving examiner must ensure that: • Driving instructions must be issued in a timely and understandable manner • Driving is as normal, independent and planned as possible, including: o Independent driving tasks o Driving according to traffic signs o Driving according to instructions • The majority of the route must follow roads on which the vehicle category in question is normally driven • The existing traffic environment must be fully utilised • Local knowledge is not a requirement, and getting lost does not constitute an error • The examiner must seek to prevent accidents and damage in all situations, even though the applicant is considered to be the driver during the driving test

Regulation 7 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 7 FEEDBACK DISCUSSION The driving examiner makes the decision to either pass or fail the driving test. The manoeu- vres test must be assessed and a decision given separately. and passed or failed separately. The examiner will always inform the applicant of the decisions at the beginning of each feed- back discussion. The decision is based on the applicant's overall performance. Feedback is based on the overall assessment carried out by the driving examiner and the applicant's assessment of his/her own performance. The driving examiner must make sure the applicant has understood the feedback correctly.

7.1 Feedback discussion for passed driving test When the applicant passes the driving test, the feedback will contain the following issues: • The driving examiner's decision and reasons for it • The applicant's strong and weak points, making use of the self-assessment, overall as- sessment and their consistency with each other • The applicant's ability to improve his/her driving skills, in the form of specific improve- ment targets • Right to drive with a Certificate of passed driving test • The delivery and validity period of the driving licence • The practice phase and advanced phase (category B only) 7.2 Feedback discussion for failed driving test When the applicant fails the driving test, the feedback will contain the following issues: • The driving examiner's decision and reasons for it • The applicant's strong and weak points, making use of the self-assessment, overall as- sessment and their mutual consistency • The amount of additional instruction required (1–5 hours).

The examiner is not required to order additional instruction • Possibility to file a claim for rectification of decision 7.3 Manoeuvres test decision The feedback discussion for a manoeuvres test consists of the following issues: • The driving examiner's decision and reasons for it • The applicant's strong and weak points with regard to handling

Regulation 8 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 8 MARKS All marks for driving tests shall be made on forms E100 and E101 or E102, depending on the driving test category. Marks related to the assessment of driving tests for categories AM/120, AM/121, A1, A2, A and B shall be made on form E101. Marks related to the assessment of categories T, LT, B/96, BE, C1, C1E, C, CE, D1, D1E, D and DE shall be made on form E102. No marks are given for driving in traffic for categories AM/121, B, B/96 and BE. 8.1 Preparation and technical check of the vehicle If the applicant is not capable of preparing the vehicle or performing a technical check, this must be noted on form E101 or E102, depending on the driving test category.

8.2 Manoeuvres test and task If the applicant fails in aspects of a manoeuvres test or task, this must be noted on form E101 or E102, depending on the driving test category.

8.3 OVERALL ASSESSMENT For all driving test categories, the driving examiner must enter his overall assessment on form E101 or E102. The overall assessment table is not used for categories AM/120, T and LT. The overall assessments provide the basis for feedback. A poor overall assessment (1) will result in the driving test being given a failing grade. 1. Grading scale 5 Excellent, exemplary performance in the area being assessed 4 Good, better than average performance in the area being assessed 3 Satisfactory, average performance in the area being assessed 2 Passable, somewhat weaker than average performance in the area being assessed 1 Poor, clearly insufficient performance in the area being assessed 2.

Ability to control the vehicle The applicant's ability to control the vehicle, demonstrating a good command of the steering devices, ability to drive in a smooth and economical manner with constant control over the vehicle's speed and direction of travel.

• The applicant prepares the vehicle and performs a technical check in an appropriate manner • Appropriate use of the lights • Appropriate use of the gears • Takes the safety of passengers into consideration • Takes the space required by others into account in traffic • Is capable of controlling the vehicle at driving speed • Avoids unnecessary deceleration and stopping • The operation of steering devices does not materially detract from concentrating on traffic • Is in control of the vehicle's direction and the space required by the vehicle

Regulation 9 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 3.

Showing consideration to cyclists and pedestrians The applicant follows traffic signs and lights, demonstrating alertness and consideration with regard to pedestrians and cyclists. The applicant is capable of interaction with cyclists and pedestrians. • Notices and carefully observes the intentions of pedestrians and cyclists at pedestrian crossings and intersections, and also when crossing pedestrian crossings or bicycle lane extensions when turning • Leaves sufficient space for pedestrians and cyclists in head-on and overtaking situations • Indicates yielding to pedestrians and cyclists by adjusting the vehicle's speed, stopping if necessary, and by hand signs in situations that call for them • Is aware of blind spots and takes them into consideration 4.

Showing consideration to other traffic The applicant's command of interaction with other traffic, demonstrating compliance with traffic signs and lights, maintaining sufficient distances and acting in a flexible and considerate manner towards other vehicle traffic.

• Monitoring other vehicle traffic: is aware of events to his/her front, sides and rear. Shows consideration and flexibility in various traffic situations • Follows the rules for yielding • Interprets the signals given by other traffic correctly and gives appropriate signals • Is capable of taking the special characteristics of other traffic into account • Is capable of taking traffic approaching from behind into consideration when decelerat- ing • Maintains a safe distance to other vehicles in all situations • Masters appropriate signalling and action in head-on and overtaking situations • Is able to use the vehicle's lights in an appropriate manner in all situations 5.

Anticipation The applicant is aware of traffic events, identifies potentially dangerous situations and reacts to them in time, thereby avoiding surprises and the need to take rushed action by the appli- cant and others. Driving feels safe and consistent.

• Directs his/her gaze at traffic events as far as visibility allows. • Adjusts the vehicle's speed appropriately • Preparing for a non-delayed start when waiting for his/her turn at junctions or traffic lights • Appropriate turning sign use and choice of lane • Reduces speed to prepare for surprises when visibility is limited • Economical and environmentally friendly driving method 6. Control of own space The applicant is able to concentrate to the driving task in a level-headed, independent and calmly determined manner, also in demanding situations and driving tasks. • Performs all tasks calmly but decisively • Is capable of careful and systematic action in various traffic situations • Is capable of uninterrupted concentration on the driving task and the management of traffic situations • Has a non-stressed and empathic attitude towards other road users • Acts independently and responsibly in traffic • Responsible attitude towards own driving skills • Takes an appropriate attitude towards interaction in traffic and the various messages received in traffic

Regulation 10 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 7. Subjects of assessment and basic driving skills Good performance and any mistakes made during the test shall be entered in form E101 or E102. For categories AM/121, A1, A2, A and B, marks related to basic driving skills are re- quired as specified in Annex 7. For categories B/96, BE, C1, C1E, C, CE, D1, D1E, D and DE, the marks related to basic driving skills are given in accordance with Annex 8. The following marks can be used for basic skills: Good performance (“H”) A performance can be marked as good when the applicant performs better than average.

The good performance marks do not influence the outcome of the driving test, but they provide important feedback for the applicant.

Performance increases the risk of accident (“V”) A traffic violation or a mistake that can be deemed to increase the risk of accidents for the applicant or other road users. Performance does not necessarily cause a dangerous situation. A mistake like this in a driving test does not necessarily result in failure of the test. When the applicant makes one or more mistakes that increase the risk of accident in an area being as- sessed, the examiner will mark the corresponding basic skill with the letter V. Performance constitutes a conflict (“K”) Performance constitutes a conflict when the applicant causes a situation where s/he, another road user, or the driving examiner can only avoid an accident or a dangerous situation by braking, swerving or abruptly accelerating.

A situation also constitutes a conflict if the driving examiner is required to intervene in the applicant's performance in some other way to avoid danger, or if there is a collision. Furthermore, situations will always be marked as conflicts if they are specifically defined as conflicts in connection with basic driving skills in this regulation. A conflict will always result in failure of the test. When the performance area being assessed contains one or more conflicts, the examiner marks K next to each corresponding basic skill.

Regulation 11 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 9 ASSESSMENT OF THE TEST ON DRIVING SKILLS AND DRIVING STYLE The assessment shall be made in compliance with directive 2006/126/EC (Annex II, Paragraph B, subparagraph 9). 1. Passed driving test The applicant will pass the driving test if the examiner feels completely safe during the entire test. The driving examiner must pay special attention to the applicant's ability to show consid- erate and social traffic conduct. The applicant's driving style should reflect this, and the exam- iner shall take it into consideration when forming the overall assessment.

Such responsible conduct in traffic includes adaptable and purposeful (safe) driving, paying attention to road and weather conditions, paying attention to others in traffic and road users otherwise (particu- larly those most vulnerable), and anticipation.

2. Failing a driving test The applicant will fail the test if the applicant's driving mistakes or driving style put the safety of the passengers in the vehicle or of other road users in immediate danger. The test is given a failing grade regardless of whether the driving examiner had to intervene in the driving or not. Deputy Director General Tuomas Routa Special Adviser Sampsa Lindberg DISTRIBUTION The Ministry of Transport and the Economy, Traffic Safety Unit Association of Finnish Driving Schools Association of Finnish Road Traffic Instructors Central Organisation for Traffic Safety in Finland Häme Polytechnic, Vocational Teacher Education College, Driving In- structor Centre Jyväskylä Institute of Adult Education Helsinki City College of Technology Defence Command Finland, Logistics Division MOT testing in the Åland Islands Police College of Finland

Regulation 12 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 Liite 1 Minimum duration The driving test must comply with the category-specific minimum durations specified in the table below. For categories AM/120, T and LT, the total duration of initial and feedback discussions is five (5) minutes. For categories A1, A2 and A, the total duration of the initial and feedback discus- sions is 10 minutes. For category AM/120, the preparation and technical check of the vehicle are included in the manoeuvres test. The time allocated to driving in traffic must be used in full. Category Initial discus- sion Manoeuvres test Driving in traffic Feedback dis- cussion Total dura- tion AM/120 * 10 min - * 15 min A1, A2 and A ** 15 min 25 min ** 50 min AM/121 and B 5 min - 30 min 10 min 45 min T and LT * 10 min - * 15 min B/96 and BE 5 min 15 min 30 min 10 min 60 min C1, C, D1 and D 5 min - 45 min 10 min 60 min C1E, CE, D1E and DE 5 min 15 min 45 min 10 min 75 min *) Initial and feedback discussions 5 minutes in total.

**) Initial and feedback discussions 10 minutes in total.

Regulation 13 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 Liite 2 Preparation and technical check of the vehicle in categories AM/120, AM/121, A1, A2, A and B Before taking off, the applicant must show that s/he knows how to prepare for safe driving by meeting the following criteria: Category AM/120. Two-wheel moped: • Securing the helmet • Adjusting the rear-view mirrors • Functioning of lights In addition to what is listed above, a random check of one of the following will be per- formed: • Functioning and use of control devices • Functioning of reflectors • Condition of tyres • Condition of chains Category AM/120.

Three-wheel moped: • Securing the helmet • Adjusting the rear-view mirrors • Functioning of lights In addition to what is listed above, a random check of one of the following will be per- formed: • Functioning and use of control devices • Functioning of reflectors • Condition of tyres • Condition of chains Category AM/121. Light quadricycle, in a row seating: • Securing the helmet • Adjusting the rear-view mirrors • Functioning of lights In addition to what is listed above, a random check of one of the following will be per- formed: • Functioning and use of control devices • Functioning of reflectors • Condition of tyres • Condition of chains Category AM/121.

Light quadricycle, side by side seating: • Adjusting the seat to obtain a correct driving position • Adjusting the rear-view mirrors • Functioning of lights • Adjusting seat belts, if any • Adjusting head supports, if any In addition to what is listed above, a random check of one of the following will be per- formed: • Functioning and use of control devices • Functioning of reflectors • Condition of tyres

Regulation 14 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 Categories A1, A2 and A: • Adjusting the protective outfit such as gloves, footwear, clothing and helmet • Adjusting the rear-view mirrors • Functioning and use of lights In addition to what is listed above, a random check of one of the following will be per- formed: • Functioning and use of control devices • Functioning of reflectors • Functioning and use of direction indicators • Functioning and use of audible warning device • Condition of tyres • Condition of brakes • Condition of chains • Condition of steering • Functioning of emergency stop switch (if necessary) • Inspecting the oil level Category B: • Adjusting the seat to obtain a correct driving position • Adjusting the rear-view mirrors • Adjusting seat belts • Adjusting head supports, if any • Checking that the doors are closed In addition to what is listed above, a random check of one of the following will be per- formed: • Functioning and use of control devices • Functioning and use of lights • Functioning of reflectors • Functioning and use of direction indicators • Functioning and use of audible warning device • Condition of tyres • Condition of steering • Condition of brakes • The amount of oil and other fluids (such as motor oil, coolant and washer fluid)

Regulation 15 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 Liite 3 Preparation and technical check of the vehicle in categories B/96, BE, C1, C1E, C, CE, D1, D1E, D and DE Before taking off, the applicant must show that s/he knows how to prepare for safe driving by meeting the following criteria: 1. Preparing the vehicle The applicant demonstrates capability to: • Adjust the seat in order to achieve a proper driving posture • Adjust any head supports • Adjust the rear-view mirrors and safety belts 2. Technical check of the vehicle 2.1. Categories B/96 and BE The applicant demonstrates ability to perform the following inspections.

The driving exam- iner will choose the subjects of inspection randomly for each test: • Inspection of the tyres, steering and brakes • Inspection of the lights, reflectors, and turning and auditory signalling devices • Checking the oil and fluid levels 2.2. Categories C1, C1E, C, CE, D1, D1E, D and DE The applicant demonstrates ability to perform the following inspections. The driving exam- iner will choose the subjects of inspection randomly for each test: • Inspection of the tyres, steering and brakes • Inspection of the lights, reflectors, and turning and auditory signalling devices • State the height of the vehicle being driven • On the basis of the registration certificate, determining the vehicle's: o maximum load o axle mass o total mass

Regulation 16 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 Liite 4 Manoeuvres tasks The driving test includes a vehicle handling skills test, performed using special manoeuvres relevant for traffic safety. All tasks shall be performed in traffic, with the exception of the reversing task for category D. The driving examiner must take the safety of traffic into account when selecting the location for the test. 1. Categories AM/121 and B The driving examiner selects at least two of the following manoeuvres. One of these must be performed using reverse gear. If the driving test is being taken in a vehicle that does not have a reverse gear, reversing manoeuvres may not be assigned.

• Hill start with or without the hand brake • Reversing in a straight line • Parallel or angle parking in the direction of the traffic flow or by reversing, on flat ter- rain or on a slope.

• U-turn in forward and/or reverse gear 2. Categories C1 and C • Reversing in a curve or round a corner • Safe parking for loading/unloading at a loading ramp/dock or similar structure (not a bus stop). After this, the applicant must demonstrate the ability to perform the follow- ing inspections: • Checking the oil and fluid levels • Checking safety aspects related to the vehicle's loading: o the cargo space and its coverings and doors o the loading mechanism and the cab's locking mechanism (if necessary) o the loading method and securing the load • Inspection of the brake booster and power steering systems, lug nuts and mudguards • Inspection of the windshield, windows and windshield wipers • Inspection and use of the instrument panel and its devices, and the recording device re- ferred to in Council Regulation (EEC) No 3821/85 • Checking the air pressure, air tanks and suspension

Regulation 17 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 3. Categories D1 and D • Stopping at a bus stop: • Stopping at a bus stop: • A minimum of two (2) stops at speed limits of ≤60 km/h; and • A minimum of two (2) stops at speed limits of ≥70 km/h; or • Alternatively, four (4) stops at speed limits of ≤60 km/h • Category D1: • Reversing in a curve or round a corner. • After this, the applicant must demonstrate the ability to perform the following inspections: • Checking the oil and fluid levels • Inspection of the brake booster and power steering systems, lug nuts and mud- guards • Inspection of the windshield, windows and windshield wipers • Inspection and use of the instrument panel and its devices, including the recording devices referred to in Council Regulation (EEC) No 3821/85 • Checking the air pressure, air tanks and suspension • Capability to perform actions related to the vehicle's safety: o use of the chassis, doors and emergency exits o monitoring of first-aid, extinguishing and other safety equipment • Category D: • Reversing the vehicle round a corner as specified in the figure below.

In the starting situation, the vehicle is in the departure corridor, entirely outside the intersection. When the manoeuvre has been completed, the vehicle's driveshaft has crossed the gate formed by the narrowing cones. The gate is positioned laterally at the mid- point of the target corridor. The applicant is permitted to open a window, look out or leave the vehicle during the task if necessary. The driving examiner must assess this manoeuvre from outside the vehicle.

• After this, the applicant must demonstrate the ability to perform the following inspections: • Checking the oil and fluid levels • Inspection of the brake booster and power steering systems, lug nuts and mud- guards • Inspection of the windshield, windows and windshield wipers • Checking the air pressure, air tanks and suspension • Capability to perform actions related to the vehicle's safety: o use of the chassis, doors and emergency exits o monitoring of first-aid, extinguishing and other safety equipment • Inspection and use of the instrument panel and its devices, including the recording devices referred to in Council Regulation (EEC) No 3821/85

Regulation 18 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 The width of a departure corridor used for vehicles longer than 12 m is 9 m and that of the target corridor 6 m. Furthermore, if the vehicle is longer than 14.5 m, the corner cone will additionally be moved 1 m as indicated in the figure. Passing the category D manoeuvres task • The applicant safely reverses the vehicle to the indicated target in five (5) minutes • The vehicle remains inside the marked boundaries • The vehicle does not touch a cone min 26 m 10 m 6 m 3.5 m 1 8(9) m

Regulation 19 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 Liite 5 Manoeuvres test for categories AM/120, A1, A2 and A 1.

Category AM/120 two- and three-wheeled mopeds Due to the nature of the manoeuvres test, several applicants can be tested at the same time. 1.1. The area to be used The manoeuvres test should be performed on an appropriate testing ground closed to other traffic. The manoeuvres are performed on a hard surface, preferably on asphalt concrete pavement. The applicant must be allowed to test the skid-resistance of the braking area before starting the manoeuvres test.

1.2. Markings The length and width of the course used for the manoeuvres is measured based on the dis- tances between the central points of the markers used. In difficult conditions, the driving ex- aminer may, at his own discretion, alter the measurements used in the manoeuvres. The manoeuvres are marked with raised markers, not higher than 60 mm and not more than 200 mm in diameter. Marking must be done as shown in the pictures, and no other marking devices may be used. 1.3. Performing the manoeuvres The manoeuvres test for a two-wheel moped consists of three (3) tasks and walking the mo- ped: • Slow driving • Gates • Emergency braking One of the manoeuvres must be started with the engine turned off and the moped parked on its stand.

The applicant must take the moped off the stand and walk it through a U turn. All manoeuvres on a two-wheel moped must be performed in a seated position with the feet on the footrests or other designated foot positions. The applicant must be able to put the two- wheel moped on and take it off its stand and move it by walking alongside. The handling skills test for a three-wheel moped consists of three tasks: • Braking • Slalom • Reversing

Regulation 20 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 1.4. Assessment of manoeuvres and decision-making If the driving examiner considers the applicant's performance to cause danger to him-/herself or others, the examiner must interrupt the manoeuvres test immediately. If the test is inter- rupted, it is always automatically failed. Two attempts are allowed at each manoeuvre. If both attempts fail, the manoeuvres test must also be given a failing grade. As an exception, a third attempt may be allowed if the reason for failure is that the applicant is unable to attain the correct speed to perform the manoeuvre (does not apply to slow driving).

In addition to the above, the manoeuvres test must be given a failing grade if: • The vehicle or the applicant touches the course markers or overshoots the boundary defined for the manoeuvre. • The applicant touches the ground with his/her foot, except for the manoeuvres involv- ing braking. This does not apply to leaving a three-wheel vehicle during the manoeuvre. • The conditions for failing any individual manoeuvre are fulfilled. The decision on the manoeuvres test and the reasons for it are given to the applicant verbally, and written feedback is provided on form E101.

Regulation 21 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 1.5.

Handling test tasks for two-wheeled mopeds AM/120 1.5.1. Slow driving This manoeuvre assesses the applicant's ability to control the vehicle at a low speed. The manoeuvre must be completed using the lowest gear on the vehicle, using its steering devices as necessary. The speed must be such that the applicant must balance the vehicle actively by steering. During the manoeuvre, the driving examiner must pay special attention to steering, handling of the brake and potential clutch, balance, eye direction, and both the position of the motorcy- cle and the position of the feet on the footrests.

The performance is not accepted if the vehicle lurches round uncontrollably. 1.5.2. Gates This manoeuvre assesses the applicant's ability to control the vehicle when cornering. A sufficient distance must be given to the applicant for safe completion of the manoeuvre. If it rains or the surface friction is otherwise reduced, the speed at which the manoeuvre is to be completed must be reduced. The manoeuvre must be performed at an even speed of 30 km/h all the way to the final gate. During the manoeuvre, the driving examiner must pay particular attention to the position of the vehicle, eye direction, balance and steering technique.

The performance is not accepted if the speed is less than 30 km/h or if it varies greatly. 20 m 1 m 17 m 17 m 5 m 6.5 m 5 m 1.5 m 1.5 m

Regulation 22 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 1.5.3. Emergency braking This manoeuvre assesses the applicant's ability to stop the vehicle in a controlled and efficient way. A sufficient distance must be given to the applicant for safe completion of the manoeuvre. If it rains or the surface friction is otherwise reduced, the speed at which the manoeuvre is to be completed must be reduced. From the starting point, the applicant must accelerate to 35 km/h and then stop inside the braking area by using the front and rear brakes.

The vehicle must be stopped in a controlled manner within 9 m on asphalt concrete pavement and within 12 m on gravel. In the manoeu- vre, the distance used for braking is assessed, not the starting point of braking. The marker indicating the end of the braking distance is placed to the side, outside the line of braking. During the manoeuvre, the driving examiner must pay particular attention to the handling of the front and rear brakes, eye direction, driving position and the position of the motorcycle. The performance is not accepted if the speed at the beginning of braking is less than 35 km/h.

The rear wheel may skid or lift off the ground during controlled stopping. Acceleration: 35 Braking distance: 9 m on asphalt concrete 12 m on gravel

Regulation 23 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 1.6. Manoeuvres test tasks for three-wheeled mopeds AM/120 1.6.1. Braking This manoeuvre assesses the applicant's ability to avoid an obstacle in a controlled way and to stop the vehicle efficiently. A sufficient distance must be given to the applicant for safe completion of the manoeuvre. If it rains or the surface friction is otherwise reduced, the speed at which the manoeuvre is to be completed must be reduced. The applicant must accelerate the vehicle to a speed of 35 km/h before starting the braking. The motorcycle must be stopped in a controlled manner within 9 m on asphalt concrete pavement and within 12 m on gravel.

There is an obstacle 1 m wide in the middle of the driving line. Towards the end of braking, the driving examiner indicates via the rear-view mirror to which side the applicant must avoid the obstacle. The applicant continues immediately to avoid the obstacle, as indicated in the picture. The applicant avoids the obstacle and returns to the original driving line. The width of the gates is 2 m.

During the manoeuvre, the driving examiner must pay particular attention to braking efficiency and eye direction. The performance is not accepted if the speed at the beginning of braking is less than 35 km/h. 2 m 1 m 2 m 9–12 m 6 m 8 m 5 m 2 m

Regulation 24 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 1.6.2. Slalom This manoeuvre assesses the applicant's ability to control the vehicle when cornering. Four (4) markers are negotiated as shown in the picture, in both directions. The applicant may go back to correct an action in the course of the manoeuvre. The markers are placed eight (8) m apart.

The gates are two (2) m wide. A minimum of three (3) m of space, measured from the mid- dle of the track, must be provided for the slalom manoeuvre. The applicant may decide on which side of the marker to start the manoeuvre.

During the manoeuvre, the driving examiner must pay particular attention to steering technique and eye direction. 8 m 8 m 8 m 2 m 8 m 8 m

Regulation 25 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 1.6.3. Reversing This manoeuvre assesses the applicant's ability to turn the vehicle while reversing. The point of the manoeuvre is to turn the vehicle around facing the opposite direction by using the reverse gear. The applicant may take corrective action forwards and backwards during the ma- noeuvre. If the vehicle has no reverse gear, the reversing manoeuvre will not be assigned.

During the manoeuvre, the driving examiner must pay particular attention to eye direction and steering technique.

4 m 2 m 4 m 3 m 2 m 2 m 2 m 2 m

Regulation 26 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 2. Categories A1, A2 and A This separate manoeuvres test is also part of the driving test when applying for a training licence, and it must be passed before the driving-in-traffic part of the driving test. Due to the nature of the handling skills test, several applicants can be tested at the same time. 2.1. The area to be used The manoeuvres test should be performed on an appropriate testing ground closed to other traffic. The manoeuvres are performed on a hard surface, preferably on asphalt concrete pavement.

The applicant must be allowed to test the skid-resistance of the braking area before starting the handling skills test.

2.2. Markings The length and width of the course used for the manoeuvres is measured based on the dis- tances between the central points of the markers used. Under difficult conditions, the driving examiner may alter the measurements used in the manoeuvres at his own discretion. The manoeuvres are marked with raised markers, not higher than 60 mm and of not more than 200 mm in diameter. Marking must be done as shown in the pictures, and no other mark- ing devices may be used. 2.3. Measuring speed If necessary, the minimum speed required in a manoeuvre can be measured using speed- measuring equipment.

2.4. Performing the manoeuvres The handling skills test consists of six (6) separate manoeuvres: • Slow driving • Slalom • Avoiding an obstacle • Gates • Braking • Emergency braking All manoeuvres must be performed in a seated position with the feet on the footrests. The applicant must be able to put the motorcycle on and take it off its stand and move it by walk- ing alongside. One of the manoeuvres must be started with the engine turned off and the motorcycle parked on its stand. The applicant will take the motorcycle off its stand and walk it through a U turn and to the starting point.

Regulation 27 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 2.5.Assessment of manoeuvres and decision-making If the driving examiner considers the applicant's performance to cause danger to him-/herself or others, the examiner must interrupt the handling skills test immediately.

If the test is inter- rupted, it is always automatically failed. Two attempts are allowed at each manoeuvre. If both attempts fail, the handling skills test must also be failed. As an exception, a third attempt may be allowed if the reason for failure is that the applicant is unable to attain the correct speed to perform the manoeuvre (does not apply to slow driving). To pass a manoeuvre, the applicant may not touch the markers or ground during the manoeu- vre except in the braking manoeuvre, and the motorcycle must not touch the edge of the area. The applicant will be informed of the decision regarding the manoeuvre test before taking the driving-in-traffic part of the test.

Written feedback on a failed handling test is given on form E101.

Regulation 28 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 2.6. Tasks in manoeuvre tests 2.6.1. Slow driving This manoeuvre assesses the applicant's ability to control the motorcycle at a low speed. The applicant must ride in the lowest gear and, by using the necessary controls, at a lower speed than the motorcycle would go when running idle with the clutch released. During the manoeuvre, the driving examiner must pay particular attention to the handling of the clutch in combination with the brake, balance, eye direction and position of the motorcycle as well as the position of the feet on the footrests.

20 m 1 m Start Finish

Regulation 29 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 2.6.2. Slalom This manoeuvre assesses the applicant's ability to turn the motorcycle at a low speed. Four markers are negotiated as shown in the picture. The markers are placed three (3) m apart. The minimum width of the slalom track is five (5) m, or the turning diameter +2 m for categories A2 and A. The driving examiner shall ensure the sufficient width of the track by making a trial run if necessary. The applicant may decide on which side of the marker to start the manoeuvre.

During the manoeuvre, the driving examiner must pay attention to the handling of the brake and potential clutch, balance, eye direction and position of the motorcycle, as well as the posi- tion of the feet on the footrests.

3 The width of the track is five (5) m, but no less than the turning diameter +1 m. 10 m 10 m

Regulation 30 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 2.6.3. Avoiding an obstacle This manoeuvre assesses the applicant's ability to safely avoid an obstacle. From the starting point, the applicant accelerates to 50 km/h. The applicant must be given enough distance to accelerate safely. The applicant avoids the obstacle and returns to the original driving line. The driving examiner decides before the manoeuvre on which side the applicant must pass the obstacle. The width of the gates is 1 m. During the manoeuvre, the driving examiner must pay particular attention to the position of the motorcycle, eye direction, balance, steering technique and technique of changing gears.

The performance is not accepted if the speed at the gate is less than 50 km/h. The applicant must avoid the obstacle without braking.

2 m 1 m 9 m 18 m 0.5 m 1 m 2 2 m

Regulation 31 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 2.6.4. Gates This manoeuvre assesses the applicant's ability to control the motorcycle when cornering. The manoeuvre must be performed in second or third gear at an even speed of 30 km/h all the way to the final gate. When the speed is measured using special speed-measuring equipment, the measurement is only performed at the gate in the middle of the manoeuvre. The applicant must be given enough distance to accelerate safely. The width of the gates is 1.5 m. During the manoeuvre, the driving examiner must pay particular attention to the position of the motorcycle, eye direction, balance, steering technique and technique of changing gears.

The performance is not accepted if the speed is less than 30 km/h or varies greatly. 17 m 17 m 5 m 6.5 m 1.5 m 5 m

Regulation 32 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 2.6.5. Braking This manoeuvre assesses the applicant's ability to avoid an obstacle in a controlled way and to stop the motorcycle efficiently. In this manoeuvre, the applicant must accelerate by using at least second or third gear. The applicant must be given enough distance to accelerate safely. Braking starts at a speed of 40 km/h. If it rains or if skid-resistance is otherwise low, the braking distance must be extended. During braking, the applicant changes into the lowest gear and stops the motorcycle. His/her foot touches the ground to indicate stopping.

The applicant continues immediately to avoid the obstacle, as indicated in the picture. The applicant avoids the obstacle and returns to the origi- nal driving line. The width of the gates is one (1) m.

During the manoeuvre, the driving examiner must pay particular attention to the handling of the front and rear brakes, eye direction and the position of the motorcycle. The performance is not accepted if the speed at the beginning of braking is less than 40 km/h. 0.5 m 1 m Braking distance: 12 m on asphalt concrete 15 m on gravel 1.5 m 7 m 7 m

Regulation 33 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 2.6.6. Emergency braking This manoeuvre assesses the applicant's ability to stop the motorcycle in a controlled and efficient way. From the starting point, the applicant must accelerate to 50 km/h and then stop inside the braking area by using the front and rear brakes.

The applicant must be given enough distance to accelerate safely. The motorcycle must be stopped in a controlled manner within 14 m on asphalt concrete pavement and within 17 m on gravel. In the manoeuvre, the distance used for braking is assessed, not the starting point of braking. If it rains or if skid-resistance is otherwise low, the braking distance must be extended. The marker indicating the end of the braking distance is placed to the side, outside the line of braking. During the manoeuvre, the driving examiner must pay particular attention to the handling of the front and rear brakes, eye direction and the position of the motorcycle.

The performance is not accepted if the speed at the beginning of braking is less than 50 km/h. The rear wheel may skid or lift off the ground during controlled stopping. Acceleration: 50 km/h Braking distance: 14 m on asphalt concrete 17 m on gravel

Regulation 34 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 Liite 6 Manoeuvres test for categories T, LT, B/96, BE, C1E, CE, D1E and DE The tasks included in the manoeuvres test must be performed in succession, in the order spec- ified in this Annex. 1. The area to be used The manoeuvres test should be performed on an appropriate testing ground closed to other traffic. 2. Markings The width and length of the tracks used must be measured between the edges of the cones being used. The performance areas must be clearly marked with a sufficient number of cones. For reversing round corners, the cone at the inner angle of the corner must be clearly distin- guishable from the other cones.

3. Location of the driving examiner The driving examiner must assess the handling test from outside the vehicle, from a location from which the examiner can give a stop signal to the applicant if performing the task would incur a risk of damage to the vehicle or vehicle combination or another hazard. 4. Assessment of manoeuvres and decision-making An unlimited number of tries is permitted, and the applicant may leave the vehicle during the manoeuvre if required. If the driving examiner considers the applicant's performance to cause danger to him-/herself or others, the examiner must interrupt the handling skills test immedi- ately.

The handling test must also be interrupted in case of an evident risk of damage to the vehicle. If the handling test is interrupted, it is always automatically given a failing grade. The applicant must be told of the result of the handling test during the feedback discussion. A written decision and feedback on forms E100 and E102 must be provided for the handling test.

Regulation 35 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 5. Categories T and LT The objective of the handling test tasks is for the applicant to demonstrate the ability to con- trol the vehicle combination safely and without risk of property damage. 5.1. Performing the manoeuvres The manoeuvres are performed in the order indicated below. The handling test consists of two tasks: 1. Securing the coupling 2. Reversing into a corner 5.2. Securing the coupling The applicant demonstrates, in a manner chosen by him/her, that the weight of the trailer rests on the towing vehicle's drawbar.

5.3. Reversing round a corner This manoeuvre is performed as indicated in the figure below.

In the starting situation, the combination is entirely outside the intersection, but it does not have to be straight. After the conclusion of the manoeuvre, the nose of the tractor is entirely inside the target corridor. If the tractor is equipped with a front end loader, this must be lifted high enough that it will not touch the cones during the manoeuvre. 5 m 6 m 1 m 1 m

Regulation 36 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 5.4. Passing the manoeuvres test • The applicant performs the tasks mentioned at 5.1. within 10 minutes time • The applicant demonstrates the ability to safely control the vehicle combination during the manoeuvres and avoids overly sharp angles. • The applicant has demonstrated that the weight of the trailer rests on the towing vehi- cle's drawbar. • The actions of the applicant do not put the vehicle combination at risk of damage • The vehicle does not touch a cone • The vehicle combination remains inside the marked boundaries. If the tractor is equipped with a front end loader, it is allowed to cross the boundaries of the area but not to touch a cone

Regulation 37 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 6. Categories B/96 and BE The objective of the manoeuvres test tasks is for the applicant to demonstrate the ability to control the vehicle combination safely and without risk of property damage. 6.1. Performing the manoeuvres The manoeuvres test consists of three tasks: 3. Reversing round a corner 4. Uncoupling the trailer 5. Coupling the trailer to the towing vehicle 6.2. Reversing round a corner This manoeuvre is performed as indicated in the figure below. In the starting situation, the combination is entirely in the starting corridor outside the intersection, but it does not have to be straight.

After the conclusion of the manoeuvre, the combination is entirely in the target corridor. The width of the starting corridor is seven (7) m and that of the target corridor trailer width as added three (3) m.

6.3. Uncoupling the trailer The applicant uncouples the trailer from the towing vehicle. The applicant drives the towing vehicle round a corner, so that the vehicle finishes completely outside the intersection. 6.4. Coupling the trailer to the towing vehicle The applicant reverses the towing vehicle into line with the trailer and couples the trailer to the towing vehicle. 7 m Trailer width + 3 m

Regulation 38 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 6.5. Passing the manoeuvres test • The applicant performs the tasks mentioned at 6.1. within 15 minutes time • The applicant demonstrates the ability to safely control the vehicle combination during the manoeuvres and avoids overly sharp angles.

• The actions of the applicant do not put the vehicle combination at risk of damage • The vehicle does not touch a cone • The vehicle combination remains inside the marked boundaries. • Before uncoupling the trailer, the applicant makes sure that it will remain in place • The applicant couples the trailer safely, without risk of damage to the combination • The applicant checks the brakes, coupling mechanisms and coupling visually as well as by moving the towing vehicle • The applicant checks the functioning of the trailer's lights and electrical connections • The applicant checks the safety aspects of loading: o the cargo space and its coverings o the doors of the vehicle combination and the cab-locking system o the loading method and securing the load

Regulation 39 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 7. Category C1E and D1E vehicle combinations The objective of the manoeuvres test tasks is for the applicant to demonstrate the ability to control the vehicle combination safely and without risk of property damage. 7.1. Performing the manoeuvres The manoeuvres test consists of three tasks: 1. Reversing round a corner 2. Uncoupling the trailer 3. Coupling the trailer to the towing vehicle 7.2. Reversing round a corner Reversing the combination round a corner as specified in the figure below. In the starting situation, the combination is in the starting corridor entirely outside the intersection, but it does not have to be straight.

After the manoeuver, the towing pin of the combination's towing vehicle must be at least at the level of the first narrowing cones in the target corridor. The width of the narrowing gate is the trailer's width + 1 m, and the gate is positioned laterally at the mid-point of the target corridor.

If the distance between the vehicle combination's front- and rearmost axles is greater than nine (9) m, the corner cone is moved one (1) m outwards as shown in the figure. min 22 m 7 m 5 m 7 m Trailer width + 1 m 7 m 1 Moving the corner cone

Regulation 40 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 7.3. Uncoupling the trailer When the reversing manoeuvre has been completed, the applicant parks the combination. The applicant uncouples the trailer. The applicant drives the towing vehicle round a corner, so that the vehicle finishes completely outside the intersection.

7.4. Coupling the trailer to the towing vehicle The applicant reverses the towing vehicle into line with the trailer and couples the trailer to the towing vehicle. 7.5. Passing the manoeuvres test • The applicant performs the tasks mentioned at 7.1. within 15 minutes time • The applicant demonstrates the ability to safely control the vehicle combination during the manoeuvres and avoids overly sharp turning angles.

• The actions of the applicant do not put the vehicle combination at risk of damage • The vehicle combination remains inside the marked boundaries. • The vehicle does not touch a cone • Before uncoupling the trailer, the applicant uses wedges or another reliable method to ensure that the trailer will remain in place after being uncoupled and during coupling • When uncoupling the trailer, the applicant arranges electrical cables, air hoses and any other cables so that they are protected from dirt and will not cause faults in the trailer's equipment after being coupled again • The applicant couples the trailer safely, without risk of damage to the combination • The applicant checks the brakes, coupling mechanisms and coupling visually and by moving the towing vehicle • The applicant checks the functioning of the trailer's lights and electrical connections • The applicant checks the oil and fluid levels • The applicant checks the safety aspects of the vehicle combination's loading: o the cargo space and its coverings and doors o the loading mechanism and the cab's lock (if necessary) o the loading method and securing the load • The applicant inspects the brake booster and power-steering systems, lug nuts and mudguards • The applicant inspects the windshield, windows and windshield wipers • The applicant is familiar with the inspection and use of the instrument panel, including the recording devices referred to in Council Regulation (EEC) No 3821/85 • The applicant checks the air pressure, air tanks and suspension • The applicant is able to perform actions related to the vehicle's safety (only category D1E): o use of the chassis, doors and emergency exits o monitoring of first-aid, extinguishing and other safety equipment ‘

Regulation 41 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 8. Category CE semi-trailer combination The objective of the manoeuvres test tasks is for the applicant to demonstrate the ability to control the vehicle combination safely and without risk of property damage. 8.1. Performing the manoeuvres The manoeuvres test consists of three tasks: 1. Reversing round a corner 2. Uncoupling the trailer 3. Coupling the trailer to the towing vehicle 8.2. Reversing round a corner Reversing the combination round a corner as specified in the figure below. In the starting situation, the combination is in the starting corridor outside the intersection, but it does not have to be straight.

The applicant reverses the combination far enough into the narrowed section to bring the towing vehicle's driveshaft at least to the level of the narrowing gate's first cones. The gate is positioned laterally at the mid-point of the target corridor If the distance between the front axle and drive shaft of the towing vehicle of a category CE semi-trailer combination exceeds 3.65 m, the corner cone is moved as indicated in the figure. min 26 m 14 m 6 m 3.5 m 8 m 1 10 m Moving the corner cone

Regulation 42 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 8.3. Uncoupling the trailer After the reversing manoeuvre, the applicant parks the combination and uncouples the trailer. The applicant drives the towing vehicle round a corner, so that the vehicle finishes completely outside the intersection. 8.4. Coupling the trailer to the towing vehicle The applicant reverses the towing vehicle into line with the trailer and couples the trailer to the towing vehicle. 8.5. Passing the manoeuvres test • The applicant performs the tasks mentioned at 8.1. within 15 minutes time • The applicant demonstrates the ability to safely control the vehicle combination during the manoeuvres and avoids overly sharp turning angles.

• The actions of the applicant do not put the vehicle combination at risk of damage • The vehicle combination remains inside the marked boundaries. • The vehicle does not touch a cone • Before uncoupling the trailer, the applicant uses wedges or another reliable method to ensure that the trailer will remain in place after being uncoupled and during coupling • When uncoupling the trailer, the applicant arranges electrical cables, air hoses and any other cables so that they are protected from dirt and will not cause faults in the trailer's equipment after being coupled again • The applicant couples the trailer safely, without risk of damage to the combination • The applicant checks the brakes, coupling mechanisms and coupling visually and by moving the towing vehicle • The applicant checks the functioning of the trailer's lights and electrical connections • The applicant checks the oil and fluid levels • The applicant checks the safety aspects of the vehicle combination's loading: o the cargo space and its coverings and doors o the loading mechanism and the cab–locking system (if necessary) o the loading method and securing the load • The applicant inspects the brake booster and power steering systems, lug nuts and mudguards • The applicant inspects the windshield, windows and windshield wipers • The applicant is familiar with the inspection and use of the instrument panel, including the recording devices referred to in Council Regulation (EEC) No 3821/85 • The applicant checks the air pressure, air tanks and suspension

Regulation 43 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 Category CE and DE vehicle combinations The objective of the manoeuvres test tasks is for the applicant to demonstrate the ability to control the vehicle combination safely and without risk of property damage. 9.1. Performing the manoeuvres The manoeuvres test consists of three (3) tasks: 1. Reversing round a corner 2. Uncoupling the trailer 3. Coupling the trailer to the towing vehicle 9.2. Reversing round a corner The applicant reverses the combination round a corner as specified in the figure below. In the starting situation, the vehicle combination is completely in the starting corridor outside the intersection, but it need not be straight in the manner shown in the figure.

The applicant re- verses the combination far enough into the narrowed section of the target corridor to bring the trailer entirely within the narrow section. The narrow section is positioned laterally at the mid- point of the target corridor. If a category CE trailer combination is more than 20 m long, the corner cone is moved as indicated in the figure.

A track with the dimensions specified in the figure is used for category CE vehicle combinations no more than 22 m in length. For category CE combinations more than 22 m long and all category DE vehicle combinations, the width of the starting corridor is 11 m and that of the target corridor 8.5 m. min 35 m 17 m 7 m 3.5 m 10 m 1 10 m Moving the corner cone

Regulation 44 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 9.3. Uncoupling the trailer After the reversing manoeuvre, the applicant parks the combination and uncouples the trailer. The applicant drives the towing vehicle round a corner, so that the vehicle finishes completely outside the intersection.

9.4. Coupling the trailer to the towing vehicle The applicant reverses the towing vehicle into line with the trailer and couples the trailer to the towing vehicle. 9.5. Passing the manoeuvres test • The applicant performs the tasks mentioned at 9.1. within 15 minutes time • The applicant demonstrates the ability to safely control the vehicle combination during the manoeuvres and avoids overly sharp turning angles.

• The actions of the applicant do not put the vehicle combination at risk of damage • The vehicle combination remains inside the marked boundaries. • The vehicle does not touch a cone • Before uncoupling the trailer, the applicant uses wedges or another reliable method to ensure that the trailer will remain in place after being uncoupled and during coupling • When uncoupling the trailer, the applicant arranges electrical cables, air hoses and any other cables so that they are protected from dirt and will not cause faults in the trailer's equipment after being coupled again • The applicant couples the trailer safely, without risk of damage to the combination • The applicant checks the brakes, coupling mechanisms and coupling visually as well as by moving the towing vehicle • The applicant checks the functioning of the trailer's lights and electrical connections • The applicant checks the oil and fluid levels • The applicant checks the safety aspects of the vehicle combination's loading: • the cargo space and its coverings and doors • the loading mechanism and the cab–locking system (if necessary) • the loading method and securing the load • The applicant inspects the brake booster and power steering systems, lug nuts and mudguards • The applicant inspects the windshield, windows and windshield wipers • The applicant is familiar with the inspection and use of the instrument panel, including the recording devices referred to in Council Regulation (EEC) No 3821/85 • The applicant checks the air pressure, air tanks and suspension • The applicant is able to perform actions related to the vehicle's safety (only category DE): o use of the chassis, doors and emergency exits o monitoring of first-aid, extinguishing and other safety equipment

Regulation 45 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 Liite 7 Basic driving skills in categories AM/121, A1, A2, A and B 1. Observation A Observation means actively looking for certain things in the environment and making a mental note of them. Mistakes in observation increase the risk of accidents. Dangerous situations and conflicts are often caused by lack of observation. The applicant must demonstrate good obser- vation skills outside as well as inside the vehicle and in all directions. Observation skills can be assessed based on the applicant's eye focus as well as the use of mirrors. Examples of mistakes: • The applicant fails to look sufficiently far ahead, making it difficult to anticipate situa- tions.

• The applicant fails to look back when reducing speed. • The applicant fails to notice steamed up windows in the rain. • The applicant fails to check rear traffic when setting off from the side of the road. The applicant fails to turn his/her head when checking the so-called blind spot. • The applicant fails to leave enough room for changing lanes or overtaking (The rear- view mirror should be used to check that vehicles driving behind are not about to change lanes at the same time. The wing mirror should be used to check that the lane is free. The applicant must turn his/her head to check the blind spot.

None of these checks should interfere with forward observation.) • The applicant fails to observe priority rules at intersections and junctions or is not pre- pared for the possible failure of other road users to observe these rules (The applicant must pay attention to all the vehicles at a junction and be able to see sufficiently far down the intersecting road. Adequate vision is particularly important when crossing a railway line.) • When turning, the applicant fails to turn his/her head to check for any traffic on a crossing / cycling path.

Situations related to observation that will always be marked as a conflict: • Changing lanes without observing other traffic. • The applicant fails to give way in a situation arising from an observation failure where the driving examiner must intervene in the applicant's driving to avoid danger, or the driver of the vehicle with priority must give up his/her priority. • The applicant fails to notice a visual obstruction when approaching a junction or a simi- lar situation, and the driving examiner must intervene in the driving. • The applicant fails to notice a bus leaving a bus stop in an area where the speed limit is no more than 60 km/h, and the driving examiner must intervene in order to avoid dan- ger and damage.

Regulation 46 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 2. Assessment B Observation is followed by assessment, and successful assessment is always built on adequate observation. Correct assessment usually results in situations where there is no reason to panic. An error of assessment occurs when the applicant has made correct observations but then misinterprets the traffic situation. In most cases, the applicant tries to correct his/her perfor- mance with a hasty solution. Any changes in the applicant's emotional state also need to be assessed, since they can increase the risk of accidents. Examples of mistakes: • The applicant ignores priority rules.

• The applicant is unable to estimate safe distances to other road users. • When changing lanes, the applicant's own lane or the lane s/he is trying to move into is not sufficiently clear.

• When turning, the applicant incorrectly estimates the time required for the turn. When turning, the applicant causes damage or danger to themselves or to other road users. Situations related to assessment that will always be marked as a conflict: • The applicant must give way, observes an approaching vehicle but incorrectly estimates its speed and distance. If allowed to proceed, the action would lead to a dangerous sit- uation, or the driver of the vehicle with priority would have to give up his/her priority, necessitating intervention by the driving examiner.

• The applicant makes correct forward, side and rear observations when moving from an acceleration lane to a normal one.

However, s/he fails to correctly estimate the speed difference between their vehicle and another vehicle approaching from behind in the parallel lane. Changing lanes would be dangerous, so the driving examiner must pre- vent it. • The applicant starts to overtake but incorrectly assesses the situation; for example, an oncoming vehicle is too close or visibility is insufficient. Overtaking would be dangerous, so the driving examiner must prevent it.

• The applicant incorrectly estimates his/her speed or distance at traffic lights when the light is changing. It is prohibited to enter a traffic light controlled junction after the light has turned amber if possible to stop without braking hard or causing danger to others. The driving examiner must intervene in the driving. • When changing lanes, the applicant incorrectly estimates the speed of the vehicle ap- proaching from behind. The driving examiner considers it dangerous to change lanes and intervenes.

Regulation 47 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 3.

Speed control C Driving speed must be adapted to suit the relevant regulations, traffic conditions, surrounding traffic, weather conditions, and skills of the driver. In practice, this means that the applicant should drive at a speed that allows him/her to make adequate observations of other traffic and control his/her vehicle. The applicant must also leave enough margin to cope with danger caused by other road users' mistakes or unexpected situations. In built-up areas, the highest permitted speed is often too high for a situational speed (pedestrians, poor visibility at junc- tions, parked vehicles etc.) Slight fluctuation in speed control is acceptable; it will be taken into account when assessing the control of the vehicle.

However, the applicant should try to comply with the rhythm of the rest of the traffic. Examples of mistakes: • The applicant is unable to join the traffic flow smoothly and disturbs other road users when entering a road. The driving examiner must assess whether this mistake is due to lack of observation or assessment, or inadequate acceleration. Inadequate acceleration is classified as a mistake in speed control.

• Inconsistent driving speed, unnecessary braking, reducing speed too late. • The applicant fails to reduce speed when meeting oncoming traffic, even when there is little space. • Slight speeding (5-10 km/h) if the applicant ends up too close to the vehicle in front or if speeding is continuous. • Driving too slowly usually indicates that the applicant feels uncertain about controlling the vehicle and the traffic situation. By driving too slowly, the applicant tends to com- pensate for deficiencies in driving skills. If driving slowly is linked to other mistakes, such as repeatedly obstructing other traffic, it can be considered a mistake.

• Overtaking bicycles and pedestrians without reducing speed. The driving examiner con- siders the speed too high (this often happens in situations where it is difficult to take evasive action due to other traffic, a narrow passage or other obstacles, or if the people being overtaken are elderly or children.) • When approaching a junction, the applicant fails to adjust speed to the visibility. The applicant fails to reduce speed in a calm, anticipating and predictable manner. • When crossing a railway, the applicant either enters the level crossing at too high a speed or fails to cross it quickly enough.

• When starting to overtake, the applicant fails to accelerate sufficiently, thus taking too long to attain the required speed difference (Overtaking is permitted when the speed of the vehicle in front is substantially below the highest permitted speed and the appropri- ate situational speed. If the speed difference between the overtaking vehicle and the vehicle being overtaken is not already sufficient, acceleration must be performed quick- ly and in an appropriate gear.) Situations related to speed control that will always be marked as a conflict: • Speeding by more than 10 km/h. Because of the weight assigned to speeding, this is marked as a conflict in a driving test regardless of the situation.

• The applicant's situational speed is too high when approaching a junction. Considering the weather, visibility and the speed of other approaching vehicles, it would be impossi- ble to stop or to give way to other road users, so the driving examiner must intervene in the driving.

• The applicant approaches a curve, an encounter in a narrow street, a traffic signal or similar situation at such a high speed that the driving examiner must intervene in the driving to prevent danger or damage. • When reversing, the applicant allows the situational speed to become so high that the driving examiner must intervene to prevent the applicant from losing control of the ve- hicle or to avoid a collision.

Regulation 48 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 4. Interaction D Interaction is defined as communication between road users and consideration of the special characteristics of each road user group, including logical and timely use of signalling, speed control and choice of lane and driving line when approaching a junction, hand signals to clarify the order of priority, and signalling with headlights and indicators when overtaking.

Sound signals should only be used to notify others of an existing danger or to prevent a dan- gerous situation, e.g. to warn a vehicle approaching from a side road or a cyclist on the road. Furthermore, the applicant must be able to observe and understand the signals given by other road users.

Examples of mistakes: • Signalling with an indicator too late or not at all when taking off from the side of the road, when turning at a junction, or before stopping. • When leaving a driveway or a car park to join traffic, the applicant does not indicate compliance with his/her obligation to give way. • Inconsistent speed when driving in traffic. • The applicant fails to take the slow speed or the space requirements of heavy goods/passenger traffic into consideration. • The applicant fails to take the unexpected behaviour of children in traffic into account. • Sudden, unnecessary braking when approaching a junction.

By reducing speed gradual- ly and in good time, road users indicate the acknowledgement of their obligation to give way, thus avoiding misunderstandings.

• The applicant does not indicate his/her obligation to give way to pedestrians at pedes- trian crossings or to cyclists by reducing speed gradually and in good time. Especially in situations where two or more parallel lanes intersect with a pedestrian crossing or cy- cling path, it is important to adjust speed correctly to inform the people approaching from behind in the parallel lane. In such a situation, it is considered a mistake for the applicant to indicate that other road users can cross the road if the applicant has not first checked the traffic in the parallel lane.

Situations related to interaction that will always be entered as a conflict: • The applicant brakes hard and unnecessarily at repeater lights, and the driving examin- er must prevent the vehicle from stopping to avoid a rear-end collision.

• The applicant does not indicate his/her obligation to give way by reducing speed, and the situation causes danger to the extent that the driving examiner must intervene in the driving. • Negligence towards special pedestrian groups (e.g. children, the disabled and the elder- ly.)

Regulation 49 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 5. Correct position of the vehicle E The correct position of the vehicle is assessed on the basis of its driving line and the distance maintained to other road users. The choice of driving line and use of the road can best be assessed in the following situations: choosing a lane, driving in the flow of traffic, getting in a lane, turning, leaving a junction, approaching another road user and overtaking/being over- taken. Examples of mistakes: • When approaching another road user in a narrow passage with limited visibility, the ap- plicant fails to keep as far right as possible without compromising safety.

• Continuous, unnecessary driving in the left-hand lane. • When approaching a junction, the applicant fails to get in lane in good time, in a deci- sive manner or in accordance with traffic regulations.

• The applicant leaves a junction without following their chosen driving line, in a manner that is against traffic regulations. For example, when turning left, the applicant leaves the junction carelessly by getting into the lane of traffic turning right at the same time. • Stopping unnecessarily at a pedestrian crossing/cycle path. • • Parking a vehicle too far from the curb or outside the parking space so that other traf- fic must go round it (less serious deficiencies are taken into account when assessing vehicle control.) • Uncertainty in maintaining the driving line. • The applicant does not maintain a safe distance to other road users.

• The applicant keeps changing lanes unnecessarily. Situations related to the position of the vehicle that will always be marked as a con- flict: • The applicant turns left from the right-hand lane or right from the left-hand lane in a street where there are at least two parallel lanes in the same direction, in a place where there is no traffic sign indicating a compulsory turn ahead.

• When turning or for some other reason, the applicant ends up in the lane for oncoming traffic, forcing the driving examiner to intervene in order to avoid damage or danger. • The applicant uses a bus lane for some purpose other than preparing for a turn, and obstructs other traffic. • The applicant drives too close to the vehicle in front (e.g. less than one (1) second apart) or too close to parked vehicles, forcing the driving examiner to intervene. • When turning at a junction where there are two parallel lanes turning in the same direc- tion, marked with traffic signs indicating the compulsory direction ahead, the applicant leaves the junction in the wrong lane without noticing.

• When reversing, the driving examiner must intervene in the applicant's performance to prevent a collision. • The applicant is too close when overtaking a cyclist or pedestrian, and the driving ex- aminer must intervene in the driving.

Regulation 50 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 6. Complying with traffic control F Complying with traffic control here means obeying traffic controllers and complying with traffic control devices and traffic regulations. Traffic regulations usually make it easy to determine the order of priority at an intersection or a junction.

The applicant must show confidence in situations involving a standard order of priority. Giving up one's priority is not considered a fault if it serves a purpose. Examples of mistakes: • The applicant waits unnecessarily for a separate green light for turning. • Parking or stopping obstructs or endangers other traffic users. • The applicant's actions do not indicate that the applicant is allowing cyclists and moped drivers in traffic or people on crossings the rights pertaining to them on the grounds of priority rules, especially when turning or when the obligation to give way to people on a cycling path has been clearly indicated.

It is never a mistake to give way to cyclists and pedestrians, even when they should give way.

• The applicant interprets priority rules incorrectly, but the situation does not cause dan- ger to anyone. Situations relate to complying with traffic control that will always be marked as a conflict and where the driving examiner must, if possible, intervene in the applicant’s performance: • The applicant incorrectly interprets priority rules, and the situation causes danger to someone. • The applicant drives past a car stopped at a pedestrian crossing without stopping. • Driving against a red light.

• The applicant ignores a STOP sign. • The applicant drives against the compulsory direction of traffic.

• The applicant fails to comply with a No entry for vehicular traffic sign. • The applicant fails to comply with a No vehicles sign. • The applicant ignores a Give way to oncoming vehicles sign. • The applicant passes a Keep left or a Keep right sign on the wrong side. • The applicant ignores a police officer's command to stop. • The applicant fails to comply with a No motor vehicles sign. • The applicant ignores a No left turn or a No right turn sign.

Regulation 51 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 Liite 8 Basic driving skills in categories B/96, BE, C1, C1E, C, CE, D1, D1E, D and DE 1. Observation Observation means actively looking for certain things in the environment and making a mental note of them. An experienced driver is better at observing essential things than an inexperi- enced one. Mistakes in observation increase the risk of accidents. Dangerous situations and conflicts are often caused by lack of observation. The applicant must demonstrate good obser- vation skills outside as well as inside the vehicle and in all directions.

Observation skills can be assessed as based on the applicant's eye focus as well as the use of mirrors. Examples of mistakes: • The applicant fails to look sufficiently far ahead, making it difficult to anticipate situa- tions.

• The applicant fails to observe rear traffic when decelerating. • The applicant fails to observe rear traffic when setting off from a bus stop or the side of the road. • The applicant fails to leave enough room for changing lanes or overtaking. • The applicant fails to observe priority rules at intersections and junctions, or is not pre- pared for the possible failure of other road users to observe these rules (the applicant must pay attention to all vehicles at a junction and look with sufficient distance down the intersecting road. Careful observation is particularly important when crossing rail- ways.) • The applicant fails to observe traffic on a pedestrian crossing or bicycle path when turn- ing.

• The applicant fails to take account of the vehicle's dimensions when turning (e.g. rear overhang or straightening of the trailer.) • In categories D1 and D, the applicant repeatedly neglects to observe the bus stop from the right-hand mirror (the final check when leaving the stop.) Situations related to observation that will always be marked as a conflict: • Changing lanes without observing other traffic. • The applicant fails to give way in a situation arising from an observation failure where the driving examiner must intervene in the applicant's driving to avoid danger, or the driver of the vehicle with priority must give up his/her priority.

• The applicant fails to notice a visual obstruction when approaching a junction or a simi- lar situation, and the driving examiner must intervene in the driving. • The applicant fails to notice a bus leaving a bus stop in an area where the speed limit is no more than 60 km/h, and the driving examiner must intervene in order to avoid dan- ger and damage.

Regulation 52 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 2. Assessment Observation is followed by assessment, and successful assessment is always built on adequate observation. Correct assessment usually results in situations where there is no reason to panic. An error of assessment occurs when the applicant has made correct observations but misinter- preted the traffic situation. In most cases, the applicant tries to correct his/her performance with a hasty solution. Any changes in the applicant's emotional state also need to be assessed, as these can increase the risk of accidents.

Examples of mistakes: • The applicant ignores priority rules.

• The applicant is unable to estimate safe distances to other road users. • When changing lanes, the applicant's own lane or the lane s/he is trying to move into is not sufficiently clear. • The applicant miscalculates the time required for turning. When turning, the applicant causes damage or danger to themselves or to other road users. • The applicant miscalculates the vehicle's space requirement when turning, leading to an unreasonably slow turn or the need to reverse.

• The applicant repeatedly misses his/her turn in the order of priority due to poor as- sessment of the situation. Situations related to assessment that will always be marked as a conflict: • The applicant must give way, observes an approaching vehicle but incorrectly estimates its speed and distance. If allowed to proceed, the action would lead to a dangerous sit- uation, or the driver of the vehicle with priority would have to give up their priority, ne- cessitating intervention by the driving examiner.

• The applicant makes correct forward, side and rear observations when moving from an acceleration lane to a normal one.

However, s/he fails to correctly estimate the speed difference between their vehicle and another vehicle approaching from behind in the parallel lane. Changing lanes would be dangerous, so the driving examiner must pre- vent it. • The applicant starts to overtake but incorrectly assesses the situation; for example, an oncoming vehicle is too close, or visibility is insufficient. Overtaking would be danger- ous, so the driving examiner must prevent it.

• The applicant incorrectly estimates his/her speed or distance at traffic lights when the light is changing. It is prohibited to enter a traffic light controlled junction after the light has turned amber if possible to stop without braking hard or causing danger to others. The driving examiner must intervene in the driving. • When changing lanes, the applicant incorrectly estimates the speed of the vehicle ap- proaching from behind. The driving examiner considers it dangerous to change lanes and intervenes.

• When turning, the applicant turns the vehicle at the wrong time, so that the vehicle or trailer would catch a traffic sign, light or other obstacle, and the driving examiner must intervene in order to prevent this.

Regulation 53 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 3. Speed control Driving speed must be adapted to suit the relevant regulations, traffic conditions, surrounding traffic, weather conditions, the vehicle's load, and the skills of the driver. In practice, this means that the applicant should drive at a speed that allows him/her to observe other traffic and control his/her vehicle. The applicant must also leave enough margin to cope with danger caused by other road users' mistakes or unexpected situations. In built-up areas, the highest permitted speed is often too high for a situational speed (pedestrians, poor visibility at junc- tions, parked vehicles etc.) Slight fluctuation in speed control is acceptable; it will be taken into account when assessing the control of the vehicle.

The applicant must drive without hin- dering or obstructing other traffic.

Examples of mistakes: • The applicant is unable to join the traffic flow smoothly and disturbs other road users when • entering a road. The driving examiner must assess whether this mistake is due to lack of observation or assessment, or inadequate acceleration. Inadequate acceleration is classified as a mistake in speed control. • Inconsistent driving speed, unnecessary braking and reducing speed too late. For ex- ample, when approaching an intersection or traffic lights, the applicant moves his/her foot directly from the gas to the brake and does not anticipate the situation by taking his/her foot off the gas in time.

This shall also be taken into consideration in the as- sessment of driving economy.

• The applicant fails to reduce speed when meeting oncoming traffic or entering a nar- rower stretch of road, even when there is little space. • Slight speeding (0–5 km/h) if the applicant ends up too close to the vehicle in front or if speeding is continuous. • Driving too slowly usually indicates that the applicant feels uncertain about controlling the vehicle and the traffic situation. If driving slowly is linked to other mistakes, such as hindering or obstructing other traffic, it can be considered a mistake. • Overtaking bicycles and pedestrians without reducing speed. The driving examiner con- siders the speed too high (this often happens in situations where it is difficult to take evasive action due to other traffic, a narrow passage or other obstacles, or if the people being overtaken are elderly or children.) • When approaching a junction, the applicant fails to adjust speed to the visibility.

The applicant fails to reduce speed in a calm, anticipating and predictable manner. • When crossing a railway, the applicant either enters the level crossing at too high a speed or fails to cross it quickly enough.

• When starting to overtake, the applicant fails to accelerate sufficiently, thus taking too long to attain the required speed difference. • In categories D and D1, the applicant's situational speed is too great when entering a bus stop, requiring him/her to brake hard, causing passenger comfort to suffer. Situations related to speed control that will always be marked as a conflict: • Speeding repeatedly by 5–10 km/h. Due to the appropriate weighting of the issue, speeding by more than 10 km/h is always marked as a conflict in the driving test, re- gardless of the nature of the situation.

• The applicant's situational speed is too high when approaching a junction.

Considering the weather, visibility and the speed of other approaching vehicles, it would be impossi- ble to stop or to give way to other road users, so the driving examiner must intervene in the driving.

Regulation 54 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 • The applicant approaches a curve, an encounter in a narrow street, a traffic signal or similar situation at such a high speed that the driving examiner must intervene in the driving to prevent danger or damage. • When reversing, the applicant allows the situational speed to become so high that the driving examiner must intervene to prevent the applicant from losing control of the ve- hicle or to avoid a collision. • In categories D1 and D, the applicant's situational speed is too great when entering the bus stop, requiring him/her to brake so hard that the safety of passengers is compro- mised.

Regulation 55 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 4. Interaction Interaction is defined as communication between road users and consideration of the special characteristics of each road user group, including logical and timely use of signalling, speed control and choice of lane and driving line when approaching a junction, hand signals to clarify the order of priority, and signalling with headlights and indicators when overtaking. Sound signals should only be used to notify others of an existing danger or to prevent a dan- gerous situation, e.g. to warn a vehicle approaching from a side road or a cyclist on the road.

Furthermore, the applicant must be able to observe and understand the signals given by other road users.

Examples of mistakes: • Signalling with an indicator too late or not at all when taking off from the side of the road, changing lanes, turning at a junction, or before stopping at the side of the road or at a bus stop. • When leaving a driveway or a car park to join traffic, the applicant does not indicate compliance with his/her obligation to give way. • Inconsistent speed when driving in traffic. • The applicant fails to take the slow speed or space requirements of heavy goods/passenger traffic into consideration.

• The applicant fails to take the unexpected behaviour of children in traffic into account.

• Sudden, unnecessary braking when approaching a junction. By reducing speed gradual- ly and in good time, road users indicate the acknowledgement of their obligation to give way, thus avoiding misunderstandings. • The applicant does not indicate his/her obligation to give way to pedestrians at pedes- trian crossings or to cyclists by reducing speed gradually and in good time. Especially in situations where two or more parallel lanes intersect with a pedestrian crossing or cy- cling path, it is important to adjust speed correctly to inform the people approaching from behind in the parallel lane.

In such a situation, it is considered a mistake for the applicant to indicate that other road users can cross the road if the applicant has not first checked the traffic in the parallel lane.

Situations related to interaction that will always be entered as a conflict: • The applicant brakes hard and unnecessarily at repeater lights, and the driving examin- er must prevent the vehicle from stopping to avoid a rear-end collision. • The applicant does not indicate his/her obligation to give way by reducing speed, and the situation causes such danger that the driving examiner must intervene in the driv- ing. • Negligence towards special pedestrian groups (e.g. children, the disabled and the elder- ly.)

Regulation 56 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 5.

Vehicle position The correct position of the vehicle is assessed on the basis of its driving line and the distance maintained to other road users. The choice of driving line and use of the road can best be assessed in the following situations: choosing a lane, driving in the flow of traffic, driving in bends, driving on small narrow roads, getting in lane, turning, leaving a junction, approaching another road user and overtaking or being overtaken. Examples of mistakes: • When approaching another road user in a narrow passage with limited visibility, the ap- plicant fails to keep as far right as possible without compromising safety.

• Continuous, unnecessary driving in the left-hand lane. • When approaching a junction, the applicant fails to get in lane in good time, in a deci- sive manner or in accordance with traffic regulations.

• The applicant leaves a junction without following their chosen driving line, in a manner that is against traffic regulations. For example, when turning left, the applicant leaves the junction carelessly by getting into the lane of oncoming traffic turning right at the same time. • Stopping unnecessarily at a pedestrian crossing/cycle path. • Parking a vehicle too far from the curb or outside the parking space so that other traffic must go round it (less serious deficiencies are taken into account when assessing vehi- cle control.) • Uncertainty in maintaining the driving line. • The applicant does not maintain a safe distance to other road users.

• The applicant keeps changing lanes unnecessarily. Situations related to the position of the vehicle that will always be marked as a con- flict: • The applicant turns left from the right-hand lane or right from the left-hand lane in a street where there are at least two parallel lanes in the same direction, in a place where there is no traffic sign indicating a compulsory turn ahead.

• When turning or for some other reason, the applicant ends up in the lane for oncoming traffic, forcing the driving examiner to intervene in order to avoid damage or danger. • The applicant uses a bus lane for some purpose other than preparing for a turn, and obstructs other traffic. • The applicant drives too close to the vehicle in front (e.g. less than one (1) second apart) or too close to parked vehicles, forcing the driving examiner to intervene. • When turning at a junction where there are two parallel lanes turning in the same direc- tion, marked with traffic signs indicating the compulsory direction ahead, the applicant leaves the junction in the wrong lane without noticing.

• When reversing, the driving examiner must intervene in the applicant's performance to prevent a collision. • The applicant is too close when overtaking a cyclist or pedestrian, and the driving ex- aminer must intervene in the driving. • Repeated and unnecessary driving on two lanes.

Regulation 57 (57) TRAFI/2829/03.04.03.00/2013 6. Obeying traffic control Complying with traffic control here means obeying traffic controllers and complying with traffic control devices and traffic regulations. Traffic regulations usually make it easy to determine the order of priority at an intersection or a junction.

The applicant must show confidence in situations involving a standard order of priority. Giving up one's priority is not considered a fault if it serves a purpose. Examples of mistakes: • The applicant waits unnecessarily for a separate green light for turning. • Parking or stopping obstructs or endangers other traffic users. • The applicant's actions do not indicate that the applicant is allowing cyclists and moped drivers in traffic or people on crossings the rights pertaining to them on the grounds of priority rules, especially when turning or when the obligation to give way to people on a cycling path has been clearly indicated.

It is never a mistake to give way to cyclists and pedestrians, even when they should give way.

• The applicant interprets priority rules incorrectly, but the situation does not cause dan- ger to anyone. Situations relate to complying with traffic control that will always be marked as a conflict and where the driving examiner must, if possible, intervene in the applicant’s performance: • The applicant incorrectly interprets priority rules, and the situation causes danger to someone. • The applicant drives past a car or tram stopped at a pedestrian crossing without stop- ping. • Driving against a red light. • The applicant ignores a STOP sign. • The applicant drives against the compulsory direction of traffic.

• Driving against a sign prohibiting entry by a certain weight, height or type of vehicle. • The applicant fails to comply with a No entry for vehicular traffic sign. • The applicant fails to comply with a No vehicles sign. • The applicant ignores a Give way to oncoming vehicles sign. • The applicant passes a Keep left or Keep right sign on the wrong side. • The applicant ignores a police officer's command to stop. • The applicant fails to comply with a No motor vehicles sign. • The applicant ignores a No left turn or a No right turn sign. • In categories D1 and D, the applicant leaves a bus stop in an area with a speed limit of more than 60 km/h without yielding to traffic approaching from behind, causing a dan- gerous situation.