Dual-Band Monopole Antenna for RFID Applications - MDPI
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future internet Article Dual-Band Monopole Antenna for RFID Applications Naser Ojaroudi Parchin 1, * , Haleh Jahanbakhsh Basherlou 2 , Raed A. Abd-Alhameed 1 and James M. Noras 1 1 Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, UK; firstname.lastname@example.org (R.A.A.-A.); email@example.com (J.M.N.) 2 Microwave Technology Company, Ardabil 56158-46984, Iran; Hale.Jahanbakhsh@gmail.com * Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel.: +44-7341436156 Received: 30 December 2018; Accepted: 26 January 2019; Published: 30 January 2019 Abstract: Over the past decade, radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology has attracted significant attention and become very popular in different applications, such as identification, management, and monitoring. In this study, a dual-band microstrip-fed monopole antenna has been introduced for RFID applications. The antenna is designed to work at the frequency ranges of 2.2–2.6 GHz and 5.3–6.8 GHz, covering 2.4/5.8 GHz RFID operation bands. The antenna structure is like a modified F-shaped radiator. It is printed on an FR-4 dielectric with an overall size of 38 × 45 × 1.6 mm3 . Fundamental characteristics of the antenna in terms of return loss, Smith Chart, phase, radiation pattern, and antenna gain are investigated and good results are obtained. Simulations have been carried out using computer simulation technology (CST) software. A prototype of the antenna was fabricated and its characteristics were measured. The measured results show good agreement with simulations. The structure of the antenna is planar, simple to design and fabricate, easy to integrate with RF circuit, and suitable for use in RFID systems. Keywords: dual-band antenna; microstrip-fed printed antenna; monopole antenna; RFID; wireless communication 1. Introduction RFID is a recent outstanding technology which uses radio frequency (RF) signals for the identification of objects and has been employed in many applications, such as service industries and moving vehicle identification . In general, RFID is a paste and tag antenna for the purpose of identification and tracking by radio. An RFID system contains three major components: a transponder, a reader, and a computer for data processing. The reader (Interrogator) includes an antenna, which communicates with the TAG . The antenna should be inexpensive, light, simple, and easy to fabricate . Different frequency bands of the electromagnetic spectrum, such as 130 kHz (low-frequency), 13.5 MHz (high-frequency), 900 MHz (ultra-high-frequency), 2.4 GHz, 5.8 GHz, and 24 GHz (microwave frequency) are allocated for RFID applications . Recently, several antenna designs with single, dual, and multi-band characteristics were reported in the literature for RFID applications [5–8]. A closely-spaced loop antenna array with directional radiation patterns is proposed in  to operate at 900 MHz. In , an active RFID tag antenna operating at 2.4 GHz has been introduced for RFID applications. In , a dual-band circularly-polarized antenna is designed for covering both 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz frequency bands. Another design with multi-band function is proposed in , which can cover 0.9/2.4/5.8 GHz RFID frequency bands. In this study, 2.4 GHz and 5.8 GHz are selected as the desired dual operation bands for RFID applications [9–12]. Future Internet 2019, 11, 31; doi:10.3390/fi11020031 www.mdpi.com/journal/futureinternet
Future Internet 2019, 11, 31 2 of 10 Printed monopole antennas are very attractive and suitable for dual-band or multi-band applications owing to their simple structures, compact size, good impedance matching, Future Internet 2019, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 2 of 10 and omnidirectional radiation patterns . Multi-band monopole antennas can be realized by employing parasitic Printed structures, monopole slots,are antennas or slits very in the antenna attractive and configuration or usingor suitable for dual-band various radiating multi-band elements with different shapes . Configuration of the presented design applications owing to their simple structures, compact size, good impedance matching, and consists of a modified F-shaped radiation patch, omnidirectional radiationa rectangular patterns .microstrip Multi-bandfeed-line, monopoleand a ground antennas can beplane. The realized by antenna employing with a planarparasitic structurestructures, is designedslots,on or an slitsFR-4 in the antenna configuration substrate. Its frequencyor using various operation covers radiating elementsbands the frequency from with different 2.2–2.6 GHz and shapesfrom. Configuration 5.3–6.8 GHz. The of antenna the presented design provides consists of a modified omnidirectional radiationF-shaped patterns at radiation patch, a rectangular microstrip both of the desired frequency bands (2.4 and 5.8 GHz). feed-line, and a ground plane. The antenna with a planar structure is designed on an FR-4 substrate. Its frequency operation covers the frequency bands from In contrast to the reported RFID antenna designs [5–12], the presented design exhibits wider 2.2–2.6 GHz and from 5.3–6.8 GHz. The antenna provides omnidirectional radiation patterns at both impedance bandwidth at lower and upper operation bands with higher gain values, especially at the of the desired frequency bands (2.4 and 5.8 GHz). upper band. The antenna In contrast to the operation reported RFID bandwidth antenna is highly[5–12], designs sensitive to small changes the presented in the fabrication design exhibits wider process. impedance bandwidth at lower and upper operation bands with higher gain values, especiallytoatlower There must be very strict guidelines in order to avoid shifting of the resonance the or higher frequencies upper band. The outside antennathe required operation narrow band bandwidth of interest. is highly sensitive This drawback to small changescould be avoided if a in the fabrication wideband process.antenna is designed There must be veryinstead . Theinproposed strict guidelines RFIDshifting order to avoid antennaofprovides moretothan the resonance lower85%or total higher frequencies outside the required narrow band efficiency characteristic at the resonant frequencies (2.4/5.8 GHz). of interest. This drawback could be avoided if a wideband antenna is designed instead . The proposed RFID antenna provides more than 85% total efficiency 2. Antenna Designcharacteristic at the resonant frequencies (2.4/5.8 GHz). and Configuration Configuration 2. Antenna Designof theandantenna is illustrated in Figure 1. It is printed on a low-cost FR-4 dielectric, Configuration whose relative permittivity, loss tangent, and thickness are 4.4, 0.025, and hsub = 1.6 mm, respectively. Configuration of the antenna is illustrated in Figure 1. It is printed on a low-cost FR-4 dielectric, The FR4 dielectric combines good electrical features, price, and availability. Compared with other whose relative permittivity, loss tangent, and thickness are 4.4, 0.025, and hsub = 1.6 mm, respectively. materials, The FR4FR4 material dielectric is sufficiently combines cheap and good electrical available features, price, in the and market and availability. has been Compared widely with other used in antenna designing materials, for frequencies FR4 material is sufficientlyless than cheap and6 available GHz. Moreover, FR-4and in the market material iswidely has been available usedininmore thickness values than other ones, which gives more design flexibility. However, antenna designing for frequencies less than 6 GHz. Moreover, FR-4 material is available in more as the antenna operation frequency thickness values isthan increased, the permittivity other ones, which gives of FR-4design more variesflexibility. and loss in the substrate However, as theincreases antenna . operation Therefore, frequency isfrequency for ultra-high increased, designs, the permittivity of FR-4 it is better varies to use and loss prone materials in the substrate increases to loss, such as Arlon, . Roger, andTherefore, others. for ultra-high frequency designs, it is better to use materials prone to loss, such as Arlon, Roger, and others. Figure 1. (a) Side, (b) top, and (c) bottom views of the antenna. Figure 1. (a) Side, (b) top, and (c) bottom views of the antenna.
Future Future Internet Internet 2019, 2019, 11, 11, x31FOR PEER REVIEW 33 of of 10 10 Future Internet 2019, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 3 of 10 The radiation patch of the designed antenna is connected to a rectangular feed-line with Wf The radiation patch of the designed antenna is connected to a rectangular feed-line with Wf widthThe andradiation patch Lf length. Theof the designed width antenna isfeed-line of the microstrip connected to a rectangular is fixed at 3 mm. Onfeed-line withside the other Wf of width the width and Lf length. The width of the microstrip feed-line is fixed at 3 mm. On the other side of the and Lf length. substrate, The width of a conducting the microstrip ground plane offeed-line is fixed Wsub width andat 3Lgnd mm. On theisother length sideThe placed. of the substrate, antenna is substrate, a conducting ground plane of Wsub width and Lgnd length is placed. The antenna is a conducting connected to aground planeconnector 50 Ω SMA of Wsub width and transmission. for signal Lgnd length is Theplaced. The antenna parameter valuesisfor connected to a the antenna connected to a 50 Ω SMA connector for signal transmission. The parameter values for the antenna 50 Ω SMA design connector are listed for signal in Table 1. transmission. The parameter values for the antenna design are listed design are listed in Table 1. in Table 1. Table 1. Parameter values of the antenna design. Table 1. Table 1. Parameter Parameter values values of of the the antenna antenna design. design. Parameter Value (mm) Parameter Value (mm) Parameter Value (mm) Parameter Parameter Value(mm) Value (mm) Parameter Parameter Value Value (mm) Parameter Value (mm) WSub 28 Lsub 40(mm) Parameter hsub Value 1.6 (mm) WW WSub 28 28 L LL sub 40 40 h sub hsub 1.6 Subf 3 f sub 20 W 101.6 W Wf 343 LLf f 20 20 WW 10 Wf 1 W2 4 L 810 WW 1 44 W2 W 4 LL 88 L11 6 L22 3 L3 3 L1L1 66 LL22 33 LL33 33 LL4 4 33 LLgnd gnd 17 17 WW3 3 33 L4 3 Lgnd 17 W3 3 3. Results and Discussions 3. 3. Results Results and and Discussions Discussions The motive behind the presented design is to achieve a dual-band characteristic for use in RFID The The motive motive behind behind the the presented presented design design is is to to achieve achieve aa dual-band dual-band characteristic characteristic for for use use in in RFID RFID applications. This has been achieved by using the presented antenna design with a modified radiation applications. applications. This This has has been been achieved achieved byby using using the the presented presented antenna antenna design design with with aa modified modified radiation radiation patch. Return loss characteristics of the rectangular monopole antenna (Figure 2a), the antenna with patch. patch. Return Return loss losscharacteristics characteristicsof ofthe therectangular rectangularmonopole monopoleantenna antenna(Figure (Figure2a), 2a),the antenna the antenna with a with a Γ-shaped radiating patch (Figure 2b), and the antenna with a modified F-shaped radiator (Figure Γ-shaped a Γ-shaped radiating patch radiating patch(Figure 2b), (Figure and 2b), thethe and antenna with antenna a modified with F-shaped a modified F-shapedradiator (Figure radiator 2c) (Figure 2c) are illustrated compared in Figure 3. are illustrated compared in Figure 3. 2c) are illustrated compared in Figure 3. (a) (b) (c) (a) (b) (c) Figure 2. Different structures of the antenna, (a) rectangular-shaped, (b) Γ-shaped, and (c) F-shaped. the antenna, Figure 2. Different structures of the antenna, (a) (a) rectangular-shaped, (b) Γ-shaped, rectangular-shaped, (b) Γ-shaped, and and (c) (c)F-shaped. F-shaped. Figure 3. The return losses for the structures shown in Figure 2. Figure 3. The return losses for the structures shown in Figure 2. Figure 3. The return losses for the structures shown in Figure 2.
Future Internet 2019, 11, 31 4 of 10 Future Future Internet Internet 2019, 2019, 11, 11, xx FOR FOR PEER PEER REVIEW REVIEW 44 of of 10 10 It is observed that the lower frequency bandwidth (2.2–2.6 GHz) with a resonance at 2.6 GHz is affected by Γ-shaped It is observed that thestructure, and the upper-frequency lower frequency bandwidth (2.2–2.6 bandwidth GHz) with (5.2–6.8 GHz), at a resonance resonating 2.6 GHz is at 5.8 GHz,by affected is Γ-shaped created and improved structure, andby theadding a short rectangular upper-frequency bandwidth strip, whichGHz), (5.2–6.8 modifies the radiation resonating at 5.8 GHz, is created and improved by adding a short rectangular strip, which modifies the radiation patch , patch to the F-shaped structure. The optimized length L resonance is set to resonate around 0.25λ resonance where to Lresonance1 the F-shaped = L3 + The structure. L2 +optimized L + L4 +length (W −LW 3 ) +L resonance resonance andto Lresonate is1 set = L3 +0.25λ resonance2around W2 resonance + Wf /2 resonance + L2 . , where Lλresonance1 resonance1 resonance1 = Land + L + L44 correspond λ22resonance2 33 + L + (W − W33) +L to 11the andfirst and second resonance frequencies Lresonance2 resonance2 = L33 + W22 + Wff/2 + L22. λresonance1 (2.4 GHz resonance1 and λresonance2 and resonance2 5.8 GHz), respectively. correspond to the first and second resonance frequencies (2.4 GHz and 5.8 GHz), respectively. Thevoltage The voltagestanding standingwave waveratio ratio(VSWR) (VSWR)and andSmith-Chart Smith-Chartresultsresultsof ofthe theantenna antennaare arerepresented represented in Figure 4. It is seen that the antenna properly resonates in Figure 4. It is seen that the antenna properly resonates at 2.4 and 5.8 GHz. As shown, it at 2.4 and 5.8 GHz. Asoperates shown, it operates from 2.2 to 2.6 GHz (400 MHz impedance-bandwidth) from 2.2 to 2.6 GHz (400 MHz impedance-bandwidth) and from 5.3 to 6.8 GHz (1500 MHz and from 5.3 to 6.8 GHz (1500 MHz impedance-bandwidth). In impedance-bandwidth). Inaddition, addition,thethereflected reflected phase phase of of the the antenna antenna SS11 andits 11and 11 itsreal realand andimaginary imaginary parts are illustrated in Figure 5, respectively. As seen, the effects of the resonances parts are illustrated in Figure 5, respectively. As seen, the effects of the resonances at 2.4/5.8 GHz at 2.4/5.8 GHzare are evident in the provided evident in the provided results. results. (a) (b) Figure Figure4.4.(a) (a)VSWR VSWRand and(b) (b)Smith-Chart Smith-Chartresult resultof ofthe theantenna. antenna. (a) (b) (a)Phase, Figure5.5.(a) Figure Phase,(b) (b)real realand andimaginary imaginaryparts partsof ofthe theantenna. antenna. Inorder In order to to further further understand understand the the principle principle of of the the dual-band dual-band characteristic, characteristic, simulated simulated surface surface current densities for the resonant frequencies on the radiation patch and the ground current densities for the resonant frequencies on the radiation patch and the ground plane areplane are illustrated in Figure 6.inAs illustrated seen in Figure 6. Figure As seen6a,inatFigure 2.4 GHz, 6a,the current at 2.4 GHz, flow thecontraries on the current flow interior edge contraries on theofinterior the first edge of the first resonator (the main arm of the modified F-shaped radiation patch). At 5.8 GHz, the current flows are highly dominated around the second arm of the radiation patch, as illustrated in Figure 6b. Figure 6c,d show the current distributions in the ground plane of the proposed design at
Future Internet 2019, 11, 31 5 of 10 resonator (the main arm of the modified F-shaped radiation patch). At 5.8 GHz, the current flows are highly dominated around the second arm of the radiation patch, as illustrated in Figure 6b. Figure 6c,d Future Internet 2019, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 5 of 10 show the current distributions in the ground plane of the proposed design at the resonant frequencies: the currenttheflow concentrates resonant frequencies:around the topflow the current edgeconcentrates of the ground plane. around theIn topaddition, it isground edge of the observed thatIn plane. at 5.8 GHz,addition, it is observed that at 5.8 GHz, the direction of current flows changes at the edges of to the direction of current flows changes at the edges of the ground plane in comparison the that at theground first resonance (2.4 GHz).to that at the first resonance (2.4 GHz). plane in comparison Figure 6. Current distributions at (a) 2.4 GHz and (b) 5.8 GHz on the radiation patch, and (c) 2.4 GHz Figure 6. Current distributions at (a) 2.4 GHz and (b) 5.8 GHz on the radiation patch, and (c) 2.4 GHz and (d) 5.8and GHz in the ground plane. (d) 5.8 GHz in the ground plane. Results ofResults varying fundamental of varying design design fundamental parameters, W1 , WW parameters, 2 ,1,L, WL2,1L, , LL2 ,1,LL32,, LL43,, Land L Lgndare 4, andgnd areshown shown in Figurein7a–h. Figure 7a,b shows the effects of L and Figure 7a–h. Figure 7a,b shows the effects of L and L 2 on the impedance matching; L2 on the impedance matching; the operation the operation frequency bands ofbands frequency the antenna are not of the antenna areaffected significantly. not affected significantly.InIncontrast, contrast, as shownininFigure as shown Figure 7c,d, 7c,d, the the returnreturn loss characteristic of the loss characteristic ofantenna can can the antenna be tuned at both be tuned of the at both resonant of the resonant frequencies frequenciesfor fordifferent different values of values L1 andofWL11.and Figure W1. 7e,f illustrates Figure the impact 7e,f illustrates of different the impact values of different for Lfor values 3 andL3 and W2Won the 2 on theantenna antenna operation frequency; they have significant impacts on the second resonant operation frequency; they have significant impacts on the second resonant frequency (5.8 GHz) with frequency (5.8 GHz) with very little impact on the first resonant frequency (2.4 GHz). It is observed from Figure 7g,h that the
Future Internet 2019, 11, 31 6 of 10 veryFuture littleInternet impact 2019, on 11,the x FOR PEER first REVIEW frequency (2.4 GHz). It is observed from Figure 7g,h6 that resonant of 10 the isolation and impedance-matching characteristics of the antenna at both resonant frequencies are isolation and impedance-matching characteristics of the antenna at both resonant frequencies are highly depended on values of Lgnd and L4 . Figure 8 illustrates the antenna fundamental radiation highly depended on values of Lgnd and L4. Figure 8 illustrates the antenna fundamental radiation characteristics over the operation bands. As shown, more than 75% radiation and total efficiencies characteristics over the operation bands. As shown, more than 75% radiation and total efficiencies (R.E.(R.E. andand T.E.) have T.E.) havebeenbeenachieved achievedatatthe thefrequency frequency bands. Morethan bands. More than2 2dBi dBi and and 4 dBi 4 dBi maximum maximum gaingain levels are are levels obtained obtained forfor thethe antenna antennaatat2.4 2.4and and5.8 5.8 GHz, respectively. GHz, respectively. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) Figure Figure 7. Return 7. Return lossloss results results forfor differentvalues different valuesof of(a) (a) L, L, (b) (b) L L22,, (c) (c) W W11, ,(d) (d)LL 1, 1(e) L3L , (e) , (f) W2W 3 , (f) , (g) LgndL, gnd , 2 , (g) and and (h) L(h) 4 . L 4.
Future Internet 2019, 11, 31 7 of 10 Future Future Internet Internet 2019, 2019, 11, 11, xx FOR FOR PEER PEER REVIEW REVIEW 77 of of 10 10 Figure 8. Figure The antenna 8. The antenna fundamental fundamental radiation radiation characteristics. characteristics. Top and Top and bottom bottom views views for for the the prototype prototype are are illustrated illustrated inin Figure Figure 9. The antenna 9. The antenna hashas been been ××28 3 constructedon constructed onaalow-cost low-costFR4FR4dielectric dielectricsubstrate substratewith with anan overall overall dimension dimension of of 40 40 × 28 1.6×mm 1.6 3mm 3 . The . The measured measured and simulated and simulated return return loss characteristics loss characteristics of the ofantenna the antenna are represented are represented in Figure in Figure 10. As10. As can be observed, the antenna exhibits good return loss characteristic, covering 2.4/5.8 can be observed, the antenna exhibits good return loss characteristic, covering 2.4/5.8 GHz resonant GHz resonant frequencies, which frequencies, which compared compared with with the the simulated simulated result, result, the the agreement agreement isis acceptable. acceptable. However, However, therethere is a slight discrepancy between them which could be mostly due to possible errors is a slight discrepancy between them which could be mostly due to possible errors in the prototypein the prototype dimensions as dimensions as well well as as the the permittivity permittivity ofof the the high-loss high-loss FR-4 FR-4 substrate. substrate. (a) (b) Figure 9. Figure Fabricated antenna, 9. Fabricated antenna, (a) (a) top top and and (b) (b) bottom bottom views. views.
Future Internet 2019, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 8 of 10 Future Internet Future Internet 2019, 11, x31FOR PEER REVIEW 2019, 11, 88of of10 10 Figure 10. Measured and simulated return losses of the antenna. Figure 10. Measured and simulated return losses of the antenna. Figure The simulated and 10. Measured measured andradiation 2D-polar simulatedpatterns return losses of antenna of the the antenna. for H-plane and E-plane at 2.4Theandsimulated 5.8 GHzand aremeasured illustrated2D-polar radiation in Figure 11; thepatterns antenna of provides the antenna for H-plane and omnidirectional E-plane radiation at 2.4 and The 5.8 GHz simulated are andillustrated measured in Figure 2D-polar 11; the antenna radiation provides patterns of theomnidirectional antenna for radiation H-plane patterns in the H-plane, while 8-shaped radiation patterns in E-plane have been achieved for different and patterns E-plane in 2.4 at the H-plane, resonant whileare andfrequencies. 5.8 GHz 8-shaped The radiation illustrated patterns in Figure simulation and 11;inthe E-plane measurement have antenna been of achieved provides results for different theomnidirectional antenna resonant radiation gain versus its frequencies. patterns in The the simulation H-plane, while and measurement 8-shaped results radiation of the patterns antenna in E-plane gain haveversus been its operation achieved operation frequency are plotted in Figure 12; the antenna provides sufficient gain levels with more forfrequency different are plotted resonant than atin2.6Figure 2 dB frequencies. GHz and12; Thethe antenna dB at 5.8provides 3.5simulation sufficient gain and measurement GHz. levelsof results with themore than gain antenna 2 dB at 2.6 GHz versus its and 3.5 dB at 5.8 GHz. operation frequency are plotted in Figure 12; the antenna provides sufficient gain levels with more than 2 dB at 2.6 GHz and 3.5 dB at 5.8 GHz. Figure 11. Simulated and measured 2D-polar radiation patterns. Figure 11. Simulated and measured 2D-polar radiation patterns. Figure 11. Simulated and measured 2D-polar radiation patterns.
Future Internet 2019, 11, 31 9 of 10 Future Internet 2019, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 9 of 10 Figure 12. Measured and simulated gain results of the antenna. Figure 12. Measured and simulated gain results of the antenna. 4. Conclusions 4. Conclusions A design of dual-band antenna covering 2.4/5.8 GHz has been presented for RFID applications. A design To achieve theofdual-band dual-bandfunction, antenna covering 2.4/5.8 a monopole GHz has antenna withbeen presented a radiation for RFID patch applications. similar to F shape To achieve the dual-band function, a monopole antenna with a radiation patch similar was designed and its properties were investigated. The impedance-bandwidth of the antenna to F shapespans was designed andGHz from 2.2–2.6 its properties were and 5.3–6.8 investigated. GHz, providingThe impedance-bandwidth broad bandwidth and goodofradiation the antenna spans from characteristics. 2.2–2.6 The antenna provides omnidirectional radiation patterns with appropriate gain values at both ofThe GHz and 5.3–6.8 GHz, providing broad bandwidth and good radiation characteristics. the antenna operationprovides bands. Theomnidirectional radiation antenna is simple patterns and might be awith appropriate suitable candidategain values for use at both in RFID of the systems. operation bands. The antenna is simple and might be a suitable candidate for use in RFID systems. Author Contributions: Conceptualization, N.O.P. and H.J.B.; methodology, N.O.P. and H.J.B.; software, N.O.P. and H.J.B.; Author validation, N.O.P., Contributions: H.J.B., and R.A.A.-A.; Conceptualization, N.O.P. and formal analysis, H.J.B.; N.O.P., H.J.B., methodology, N.O.P. and andR.A.A.-A.; investigation, H.J.B.; software, N.O.P. N.O.P., H.J.B., and R.A.A.-A.; resources, N.O.P., H.J.B., and R.A.A.-A.; data curation, N.O.P., H.J.B., and R.A.A.-A.; and H.J.B.; validation, N.O.P., H.J.B., and R.A.A.-A.; formal analysis, N.O.P., H.J.B., and R.A.A.-A.; writing—original draft preparation, N.O.P., H.J.B., and J.M.N.; writing—review and editing, N.O.P., H.J.B., investigation, N.O.P., H.J.B., R.A.A.-A., andand R.A.A.-A.; J.M.N.; resources, visualization, N.O.P., N.O.P., H.J.B., H.J.B., and R.A.A.-A.; R.A.A.-A., data curation, N.O.P., H.J.B., and R.A.A.- and J.M.N. A.; writing—original draft preparation, N.O.P., H.J.B., and J.M.N.; writing—review and editing, N.O.P., H.J.B., Funding: This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation R.A.A.-A., and J.M.N.; program under visualization, grant agreement N.O.P., H.J.B., R.A.A.-A., H2020-MSCA-ITN-2016 and J.M.N. SECRET-722424. Funding: This projectAuthors Acknowledgments: has received funding wish to from express theirthe European thanks to theUnion’s supportHorizon 2020 provided by research and innovation the innovation program program under under grant grant agreement agreement H2020-MSCA-ITN-2016 H2020-MSCA-ITN-2016 SECRET-722424. SECRET-722424. The authors Conflicts of Interest:Authors Acknowledgments: wishdeclare no conflict to express of interest. their thanks to the support provided by the innovation program under grant agreement H2020-MSCA-ITN-2016 SECRET-722424. References Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. 1. Finkenzeller, K. RFID Handbook: Radio-Frequency Identification Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd ed.; Wiley: References New York, NY, USA, 2004. 2. Chawla, V.; Ha, D.S. An overview of passive RFID. IEEE Commun. Mag. 2007, 45, 11–17. [CrossRef] 1. Finkenzeller, K. RFID Handbook: Radio-Frequency Identification Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd ed.; Wiley: 3. 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Compact single feed dual-mode antenna for active RFID tag 5. Zeng, Y.; Chen, Z.N.; Qing, X.; Jin, J.-M. A directional, closely spaced zero-phase-shift-line loop array for application. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 2015, 63, 5190–5194. [CrossRef] UHF near-field RFID reader antennas. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 2018, 66, 5639–5642. 7. Liu, Q.; Shen, J.; Yin, J.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y. Compact 0.92/2.45-GH dual-band directional circularly polarized 6. Chang, L.; Wang, H.; Zhang, Z.; Li, Y.; Feng, Z. Compact single feed dual-mode antenna for active RFID microstrip antenna for handheld RFID reader applications. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 2015, 63, 3849–3856. tag application. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 2015, 63, 5190–5194. [CrossRef] 7. Liu, Q.; Shen, J.; Yin, J.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y. Compact 0.92/2.45-GH dual-band directional circularly polarized 8. Wang, B.; Wang, W. A miniature tri-band RFID reader antenna with high gain for portable devices. Int. 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Future Internet 2019, 11, 31 10 of 10 9. Ojaroudi, N. Design of microstrip antenna for 2.4/5.8 GHz RFID applications. In Proceedings of the German Microwave Conference, Aachen, Germany, 10–12 March 2014. 10. Ojaroudi, M.; Ojaroudi, N. Compact H-ring antenna with dual-band operation for wireless sensors and RFID tag systems in ISM frequency bands. Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 2013, 55, 697–700. [CrossRef] 11. Ojaroudi, M.; Ojaroudi, N. Dual-band coplanar waveguide-fed monopole antenna for 2.4/5.8 GHz radiofrequency identification applications. Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 2012, 54, 2426–2429. [CrossRef] 12. Panda, J.R.; Kshetrimayum, R.S. A printed 2.4 GHz/5.8 GHz dualband monopole antenna for WLAN and RFID applications with a protruding stub in the ground plane. In Proceedings of the 2011 National Conference on Communications (NCC), Bengaluru, India, 28–30 January 2011; pp. 1–5. 13. Kumar, A.; Deegwal, J.K.; Sharma, M.M. Design of multi-polarised quad-band planar antenna with parasitic multistubs for multiband wireless communication. IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 2018, 12, 718–726. [CrossRef] 14. Ojaroudi, N.; Ojaroudi, M. A novel design of triple-band monopole antenna for multi-input multi-output communication. Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 2013, 55, 1258–1262. [CrossRef] 15. Yang, W.; Zhou, J.; Yu, Z.; Li, L. Single-fed low profile broadband circularly polarized stack.patch antenna. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 2014, 62, 5406–5410. [CrossRef] 16. Khan, A.; Nemar, R. Analysis of five different dielectric substrateson microstrip patch antenna. Int. J. Comput. Appl. 2012, 18, 6–12. © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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