New Zealand Economy Profile - Doing Business 2019

 
New Zealand Economy Profile - Doing Business 2019
Doing Business 2019   New Zealand

                                      Economy Profile

                                    New Zealand

                                                        Page 1
New Zealand Economy Profile - Doing Business 2019
Doing Business 2019       New Zealand

                                          Economy Profile of New Zealand

                                             Doing Business 2019 Indicators
                                        (in order of appearance in the document)

Starting a business                 Procedures, time, cost and paid-in minimum capital to start a limited liability company

Dealing with construction permits   Procedures, time and cost to complete all formalities to build a warehouse and the quality
                                    control and safety mechanisms in the construction permitting system

Getting electricity                 Procedures, time and cost to get connected to the electrical grid, and the reliability of the
                                    electricity supply and the transparency of tariffs

Registering property                Procedures, time and cost to transfer a property and the quality of the land administration
                                    system

Getting credit                      Movable collateral laws and credit information systems

Protecting minority investors       Minority shareholders’ rights in related-party transactions and in corporate governance

Paying taxes                        Payments, time, total tax and contribution rate for a firm to comply with all tax regulations as
                                    well as post-filing processes

Trading across borders              Time and cost to export the product of comparative advantage and import auto parts

Enforcing contracts                 Time and cost to resolve a commercial dispute and the quality of judicial processes

Resolving insolvency                Time, cost, outcome and recovery rate for a commercial insolvency and the strength of the
                                    legal framework for insolvency

Labor market regulation             Flexibility in employment regulation and aspects of job quality

                                                                                                                                       Page 2
Doing Business 2019           New Zealand

About Doing Business

The Doing Business project provides objective measures of business regulations and their enforcement across 190 economies and selected
cities at the subnational and regional level.

The Doing Business project, launched in 2002, looks at domestic small and medium-size companies and measures the regulations applying
to them through their life cycle.

Doing Business captures several important dimensions of the regulatory environment as it applies to local firms. It provides quantitative
indicators on regulation for starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit,
protecting minority investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts and resolving insolvency. Doing Business also
measures features of labor market regulation. Although Doing Business does not present rankings of economies on the labor market
regulation indicators or include the topic in the aggregate ease of doing business score or ranking on the ease of doing business, it does
present the data for these indicators.

By gathering and analyzing comprehensive quantitative data to compare business regulation environments across economies and over time,
Doing Business encourages economies to compete towards more efficient regulation; offers measurable benchmarks for reform; and serves
as a resource for academics, journalists, private sector researchers and others interested in the business climate of each economy.

In addition, Doing Business offers detailed subnational reports, which exhaustively cover business regulation and reform in different cities and
regions within a nation. These reports provide data on the ease of doing business, rank each location, and recommend reforms to improve
performance in each of the indicator areas. Selected cities can compare their business regulations with other cities in the economy or region
and with the 190 economies that Doing Business has ranked.

The first Doing Business report, published in 2003, covered 5 indicator sets and 133 economies. This year’s report covers 11 indicator sets
and 190 economies. Most indicator sets refer to a case scenario in the largest business city of each economy, except for 11 economies that
have a population of more than 100 million as of 2013 (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, the
Russian Federation and the United States) where Doing Business also collected data for the second largest business city. The data for these
11 economies are a population-weighted average for the 2 largest business cities. The project has benefited from feedback from
governments, academics, practitioners and reviewers. The initial goal remains: to provide an objective basis for understanding and improving
the regulatory environment for business around the world.

More about Doing Business (PDF, 5MB)

                                                                                                                                                   Page 3
Doing Business 2019               New Zealand

         Ease of Doing Business in                                                                                          DB 2019 Rank
                                               Region                 OECD high income
                                                                                                            190                                            1
              New Zealand
                                               Income Category        High income                                                                      1
                                                                                                                    DB 2019 Ease of doing business score
                                               Population             4,793,900
                                                                                                             0                               100

                                               City Covered           Auckland                                                                    86.59

                                                            DB 2019 Ease of Doing Business Score

                        0                                                                                                            100
                                                                                                                    86.59: New Zealand (Rank: 1)

                                                                                                            80.13: Australia (Rank: 18)

                                                                                                           79.26: Canada (Rank: 22)

                                                                                                          78.91: Ireland (Rank: 23)

                                                                                                          78.90: Germany (Rank: 24)

                                                                                                         77.80: Regional Average (OECD high income)

Note: The ease of doing business score captures the gap of each economy from the best regulatory performance observed on each of the indicators across all economies
in the Doing Business sample since 2005. An economy’s ease of doing business score is reflected on a scale from 0 to 100, where 0 represents the lowest and 100
represents the best performance. The ease of doing business ranking ranges from 1 to 190.

Rankings on Doing Business topics - New Zealand

                  1                                             1                 1            2
         1                      6                                                                            10
                                                                                                                                             21
                                                                                                                                                                  31
         28
                                               45

         55                                                                                                                 60

         82
 Rank

        109

        136

        163

        190

               Starting       Dealing        Getting        Registering      Getting        Protecting     Paying         Trading          Enforcing            Resolving
                  a            with         Electricity      Property        Credit          Minority      Taxes          across           Contracts           Insolvency
               Business     Construction                                                    Investors                     Borders
                              Permits

Ease of Doing Business Score on Doing Business topics - New Zealand

                99.98                                                        100.00
        100                                                   94.89
                                                                                                            91.08
                              86.40                                                                                         84.63
                                             83.98
                                                                                              81.67
        80
                                                                                                                                             71.48               71.81
Score

        60

        40

        20

         0

               Starting       Dealing        Getting        Registering      Getting        Protecting     Paying          Trading         Enforcing            Resolving
                  a            with         Electricity      Property        Credit          Minority      Taxes           across          Contracts           Insolvency
               Business     Construction                                                    Investors                      Borders
                              Permits

                                                                                                                                                                            Page 4
Doing Business 2019           New Zealand

     Starting a Business

This topic measures the number of procedures, time, cost and paid-in minimum capital requirement for a small- to medium-sized limited
liability company to start up and formally operate in each economy’s largest business city.

To make the data comparable across 190 economies, Doing Business uses a standardized business that is 100% domestically owned, has
start-up capital equivalent to 10 times the income per capita, engages in general industrial or commercial activities and employs between 10
and 50 people one month after the commencement of operations, all of whom are domestic nationals. Starting a Business considers two
types of local limited liability companies that are identical in all aspects, except that one company is owned by 5 married women and the
other by 5 married men. The ranking of economies on the ease of starting a business is determined by sorting their scores for starting a
business. These scores are the simple average of the scores for each of the component indicators.

The most recent round of data collection for the project was completed in May 2018. See the methodology for more information.

 What the indicators measure                              Case study assumptions

Procedures to legally start and formally operate        To make the data comparable across economies, several assumptions about the
a company (number)                                      business and the procedures are used. It is assumed that any required information is
                                                        readily available and that the entrepreneur will pay no bribes.
• Preregistration (for example, name verification or
  reservation, notarization)
                                                        The business:
• Registration in the economy’s largest business        - Is a limited liability company (or its legal equivalent). If there is more than one type
  city
                                                        of limited liability company in the economy, the most common among domestic firms
• Postregistration (for example, social security        is chosen. Information on the most common form is obtained from incorporation
  registration, company seal)                           lawyers or the statistical office.
                                                        - Operates in the economy’s largest business city. For 11 economies the data are
• Obtaining approval from spouse to start a
  business or to leave the home to register the         also collected for the second largest business city.
  company                                               - The entire office space is approximately 929 square meters (10,000 square feet).
                                                        - Is 100% domestically owned and has five owners, none of whom is a legal entity;
• Obtaining any gender specific document for            has a start-up capital of 10 times income per capita and has a turnover of at least
  company registration and operation or national        100 times income per capita.
  identification card
                                                        - Performs general industrial or commercial activities, such as the production or sale
                                                        of goods or services to the public. The business does not perform foreign trade
Time required to complete each procedure
                                                        activities and does not handle products subject to a special tax regime, for example,
(calendar days)
                                                        liquor or tobacco. It does not use heavily polluting production processes.
• Does not include time spent gathering                 - Leases the commercial plant or offices and is not a proprietor of real estate and the
  information                                           amount of the annual lease for the office space is equivalent to the income per
                                                        capita.
• Each procedure starts on a separate day (2
  procedures cannot start on the same day)              - Does not qualify for investment incentives or any special benefits.
                                                        - Has at least 10 and up to 50 employees one month after the commencement of
• Procedures fully completed online are recorded        operations, all of whom are domestic nationals.
  as ½ day                                              - Has a company deed that is 10 pages long.
• Procedure is considered completed once final
  document is received                                  The owners:

• No prior contact with officials                       - Have reached the legal age of majority. If there is no legal age of majority, they are
                                                        assumed to be 30 years old.
Cost required to complete each procedure (% of          - Are sane, competent, in good health and have no criminal record.
income per capita)                                      - Are married and the marriage is monogamous and registered with the authorities.
                                                        - Where the answer differs according to the legal system applicable to the woman or
• Official costs only, no bribes                        man in question (as may be the case in economies where there is legal plurality), the
• No professional fees unless services required by      answer used will be the one that applies to the majority of the population.
  law or commonly used in practice

Paid-in minimum capital (% of income per
capita)

• Funds deposited in a bank or with third party
  before registration or up to 3 months after
  incorporation

                                                                                                                                                     Page 5
Doing Business 2019         New Zealand

Starting a Business - New Zealand

  Standardized Company

 Legal form                                                             Limited Liability Company

 Paid-in minimum capital requirement                                    NZD 0

 City Covered                                                           Auckland

  Indicator                                                     New Zealand             OECD high                Best Regulatory
                                                                                        income                   Performance

 Procedure – Men (number)                                       1                      4.9                      1 (New Zealand)

 Time – Men (days)                                              0.5                    9.3                      0.5 (New Zealand)

 Cost – Men (% of income per capita)                            0.2                    3.1                      0.0 (Slovenia)

 Procedure – Women (number)                                     1                      4.9                      1 (New Zealand)

 Time – Women (days)                                            0.5                    9.3                      0.5 (New Zealand)

 Cost – Women (% of income per capita)                          0.2                    3.1                      0.0 (Slovenia)

 Paid-in min. capital (% of income per capita)                  0.0                    8.6                      0.0 (117 Economies)

 Figure – Starting a Business in New Zealand and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

                                                    DB 2019 Starting a Business Score

       0                                                                                          100

                                                                                              99.98: New Zealand (Rank: 1)

                                                                                             98.23: Canada (Rank: 3)

                                                                                          96.47: Australia (Rank: 7)

                                                                                         95.91: Ireland (Rank: 10)

                                                                                      91.19: Regional Average (OECD high income)

                                                                                83.58: Germany (Rank: 114)

Note: The ranking of economies on the ease of starting a business is determined by sorting their scores for starting a business. These scores
are the simple average of the scores for each of the component indicators.

                                                                                                                                                Page 6
Doing Business 2019   New Zealand

  Figure – Starting a Business in New Zealand – Procedure, Time and Cost

                                               Time (days)          Cost (% of income per capita)
               0.5                                                                                                                     0.25

                                                                                                                                              Cost (% of income per capita)
               0.4                                                                                                                     0.2
 Time (days)

               0.3                                                                                                                     0.15

               0.2                                                                                                                     0.1

               0.1                                                                                                                     0.05

                0                                                                                                                      0
                                                                      1
                                                              Procedures (number)

* This symbol is shown beside procedure numbers that take place simultaneously with the previous procedure.

Note: Online procedures account for 0.5 days in the total time calculation. For economies that have a different procedure list for men and
women, the graph shows the time for women. For more information on methodology, see the Doing Business website
(http://doingbusiness.org/en/methodology ). For details on the procedures reflected here, see the summary below.

                                                                                                                                                                              Page 7
Doing Business 2019           New Zealand

Details – Starting a Business in New Zealand – Procedure, Time and Cost

No.    Procedures                                                                                    Time to Complete     Associated Costs

1     Apply online for registration with the Companies Office (including IRD                         Less than one day    NZD 10 name
      number application and registration for GST)                                                   (online procedure)   reservation + NZD
      Agency : New Zealand Companies Office                                                                               105 company
      To reserve a company name online, entrepreneurs can visit the New Zealand Companies                                 incorporation (without
      Office Web site (www.companies.govt.nz). A new company’s name must be unique and
                                                                                                                          GST)
      can be reserved for up to 20 working days with the Companies Office. To be incorporated
      under the Companies Act 1993, a company must have a name reserved by the Registrar
      of Companies, at least one share, at least one shareholder, at least one director, a
      registered office, and an address for service.

      The applicant(s) can then apply for company registration online by completing forms on
      company details and paying the registration fee. When the application is processed, the
      founder(s) will receive a notification by email along with the appropriate director and
      shareholder consent forms, which are generated by the Companies Office. The applicant
      must then fax the signed director and shareholder consent forms within 20 working days,
      after which the application will expire. The certificate of incorporation will be issued via
      email in a few minutes when the last consent form is accepted.

      Promoters can apply online for a company IRD (Inland Revenue Department) number
      and register for the GST (Good and Service Tax) at the same time as incorporating a
      company online with the New Zealand Companies Office. The list of the information
      needed when applying for a company IRD number and registering for GST is as follows:
      - Contact details
      - The date the company will begin employing
      - The number of employees and contractors (including the number of employees that will
      have a student loan)
      - IRD number – The IRD number of each Director and all individual shareholders that are
      NZ residents, Main Business Activity, Place of Business and Postal Address, Trading
      Name of the company (if different from the Business Name), Company Contact details, a
      Business Industry Description and Code, and whether or not the Fringe Benefit Tax for
      employees is applicable.
      - GST number – GST accounting method, frequency of filing returns, business activity
      code, details of how you would like refunds to be paid, whether or not the company will
      be making tax exempt supplies, Business Industry Description and Code, and whether or
      not the company will be making imports/exports and ACC uses the business activity code
      to calculate levies for personal injury cover and residual claims (see
      www.businessdescription.co.nz for more information).

      Since July 1st, 2008, it is mandatory to file most documents with the Companies Office
      online. Starting in November 2014, clients now have the ability to pay the incorporation
      prescribed fees using internet banking.

Takes place simultaneously with previous procedure.

                                                                                                                                                   Page 8
Doing Business 2019              New Zealand

     Dealing with Construction Permits

This topic tracks the procedures, time and cost to build a warehouse—including obtaining necessary the licenses and permits, submitting all
required notifications, requesting and receiving all necessary inspections and obtaining utility connections. In addition, the Dealing with
Construction Permits indicator measures the building quality control index, evaluating the quality of building regulations, the strength of
quality control and safety mechanisms, liability and insurance regimes, and professional certification requirements. The most recent round of
data collection was completed in May 2018. See the methodology for more information

 What the indicators measure                              Case study assumptions

Procedures to legally build a warehouse                 To make the data comparable across economies, several assumptions about the
(number)                                                construction company, the warehouse project and the utility connections are used.

• Submitting all relevant documents and obtaining       The construction company (BuildCo):
  all necessary clearances, licenses, permits and
  certificates                                          - Is a limited liability company (or its legal equivalent) and operates in the economy’s
                                                        largest business city. For 11 economies the data are also collected for the second
• Submitting all required notifications and receiving   largest business city.
  all necessary inspections
                                                        - Is 100% domestically and privately owned; has five owners, none of whom is a
• Obtaining utility connections for water and           legal entity. Has a licensed architect and a licensed engineer, both registered with
  sewerage                                              the local association of architects or engineers. BuildCo is not assumed to have any
• Registering and selling the warehouse after its       other employees who are technical or licensed experts, such as geological or
  completion                                            topographical experts.
                                                        - Owns the land on which the warehouse will be built and will sell the warehouse
Time required to complete each procedure                upon its completion.
(calendar days)
                                                        The warehouse:
• Does not include time spent gathering
  information                                           - Will be used for general storage activities, such as storage of books or stationery.
                                                        - Will have two stories, both above ground, with a total constructed area of
• Each procedure starts on a separate day—              approximately 1,300.6 square meters (14,000 square feet). Each floor will be 3
  though procedures that can be fully completed
                                                        meters (9 feet, 10 inches) high and will be located on a land plot of approximately
  online are an exception to this rule
                                                        929 square meters (10,000 square feet) that is 100% owned by BuildCo, and the
• Procedure is considered completed once final          warehouse is valued at 50 times income per capita.
  document is received                                  - Will have complete architectural and technical plans prepared by a licensed
                                                        architect. If preparation of the plans requires such steps as obtaining further
• No prior contact with officials
                                                        documentation or getting prior approvals from external agencies, these are counted
Cost required to complete each procedure (% of          as procedures.
income per capita)                                      - Will take 30 weeks to construct (excluding all delays due to administrative and
                                                        regulatory requirements).
• Official costs only, no bribes
                                                        The water and sewerage connections:
Building quality control index (0-15)
                                                        - Will be 150 meters (492 feet) from the existing water source and sewer tap. If there
• Quality of building regulations (0-2)                 is no water delivery infrastructure in the economy, a borehole will be dug. If there is
• Quality control before construction (0-1)             no sewerage infrastructure, a septic tank in the smallest size available will be
                                                        installed or built.
• Quality control during construction (0-3)             - Will have an average water use of 662 liters (175 gallons) a day and an average
• Quality control after construction (0-3)              wastewater flow of 568 liters (150 gallons) a day. Will have a peak water use of
                                                        1,325 liters (350 gallons) a day and a peak wastewater flow of 1,136 liters (300
• Liability and insurance regimes (0-2)                 gallons) a day.
• Professional certifications (0-4)                     - Will have a constant level of water demand and wastewater flow throughout the
                                                        year; will be 1 inch in diameter for the water connection and 4 inches in diameter for
                                                        the sewerage connection.

                                                                                                                                                   Page 9
Doing Business 2019      New Zealand

Dealing with Construction Permits - New Zealand

       Standardized Warehouse

    Estimated value of warehouse                                            NZD 2,920,902

    City Covered                                                            Auckland

       Indicator                                                  New Zealand               OECD high               Best Regulatory
                                                                                            income                  Performance

    Procedures (number)                                          11                       12.7                      None in 2017/18

    Time (days)                                                  93                       153.1                     None in 2017/18

    Cost (% of warehouse value)                                  2.2                      1.5                       None in 2017/18

    Building quality control index (0-15)                        15.0                     11.5                      15.0 (3 Economies)

  Figure – Dealing with Construction Permits in New Zealand and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

                                                DB 2019 Dealing with Construction Permits Score

                    0                                                                                100

                                                                                     86.40: New Zealand (Rank: 6)

                                                                                   84.59: Australia (Rank: 9)

                                                                              78.16: Germany (Rank: 24)

                                                                             77.49: Ireland (Rank: 28)

                                                                            75.41: Regional Average (OECD high income)

                                                                         72.98: Canada (Rank: 63)

Note: The ranking of economies on the ease of dealing with construction permits is determined by sorting their scores for dealing with
construction permits. These scores are the simple average of the scores for each of the component indicators.

  Figure – Dealing with Construction Permits in New Zealand – Procedure, Time and Cost

                                                 Time (days)           Cost (% of warehouse value)
                                                                                                                                         1.6
               90

               80                                                                                                                        1.4
                                                                                                                                               Cost (% of warehouse value)

               70                                                                                                                        1.2

               60
 Time (days)

                                                                                                                                         1

               50
                                                                                                                                         0.8
               40
                                                                                                                                         0.6
               30
                                                                                                                                         0.4
               20

               10                                                                                                                        0.2

               0                                                                                                                         0
                        1   *2        *3         4         5            6            7           8              9        10       * 11
                                                               Procedures (number)

* This symbol is shown beside procedure numbers that take place simultaneously with the previous procedure.

Note: Online procedures account for 0.5 days in the total time calculation. For economies that have a different procedure list for men and
women, the graph shows the time for women. For more information on methodology, see the Doing Business website
(http://doingbusiness.org/en/methodology ). For details on the procedures reflected here, see the summary below.

                                                                                                                                                                             Page 10
Doing Business 2019                        New Zealand

Figure – Dealing with Construction Permits in New Zealand and comparator economies – Measure of Quality

                               15.0
              15                                         14.0                     14.0
                                                                                                                                 13.0
                                                                                                                                                  11.5
Index score                                                                                                  9.5
              10

                  5

                  0

                           New Zealand                 Australia                 Canada                  Germany                Ireland      OECD high income

Details – Dealing with Construction Permits in New Zealand – Procedure, Time and Cost

  No.                 Procedures                                                                                      Time to Complete    Associated Costs

1                     Obtain resource consent (planning) from District Council                                        30 days             NZD 4,800
                      Agency : District Council
                      under the current Unitary Plan the warehouse operation is considered a compliant
                      activity. If the warehouse does not comply with zoning regulations, this procedure would
                      take 100 days and cost NZD 15,000.00.

              2       Obtain geo-technical study / soil test                                                          15 days             NZD 3,000
                      Agency : Private firms
                      BuildCo will request a soil test for the structural calculations for the foundation.

                      For the warehouse, as described in the case study, the standard penetration test is what
                      would most likely be done, which is a simplified procedure for this type of study, since
                      the warehouse is not a very complex project. Soil testing helps to determine the
                      properties of the soil, which can vary from place to place. The soil investigation helps to
                      determine the bearing capacity of the land, which in turn helps to determine the load
                      capability, the type and depth of foundation, in order to make sure to select a suitable
                      construction technique.

              3       Obtain works over CCTV approval by Watercare Services                                           7 days              no charge
                      Agency : Watercare Services Ltd.
                      Application for works by Watercare Services can happen at the same time as the
                      application for Resource Consent. Physical connection cannot take place until a Resource
                      Consent is Granted.

4                     Obtain building consent from District Council                                                   30 days             NZD 42,161
                      Agency : Unitary Authority: Auckland Council
                      By law, a Building consent is required for any new structure. The recent certificate of title
                      and the detailed plans showing the site, the foundations, drainage and bracing must be
                      included.
                      Fees for issuing a building consent vary, and there will be some government levies
                      included. The Building Act specifies that applications be processed within 20 working
                      days.

                      The Development and Infrastructure contribution paid to the Auckland City Council does
                      not include any contribution towards water and wastewater. This is done directly by the
                      utility agency.

5                     Receive foundation inspection by a building inspector from the Auckland                         1 day               no charge
                      Council
                      Agency : Unitary Authority: Auckland Council
                      Private certified inspectors were abolished in 2006. Because of the current lack of
                      experienced certifiers at the local government’s district council level, there may be delays
                      in obtaining council inspections.

6                     Receive structural inspection by a building inspector from the Auckland                         1 day               no charge
                      Council
                      Agency : Unitary Authority: Auckland Council
                      A detailed inspection of the timber structure of the building is required before the roof
                      cladding and building wraps are installed.

7                     Receive plumbing inspection by a building inspector from the Auckland                           1 day               no charge
                      Council
                      Agency : Unitary Authority: Auckland Council
                      An inspection of plumbing works in any part of the building is required.

8                     Receive cladding inspection by a building inspector from the Auckland                           1 day               no charge
                      Council
                      Agency : Unitary Authority: Auckland Council
                      An inspection of the building wrap and cavity construction is required before the
                      cladding is installed.

                                                                                                                                                                Page 11
Doing Business 2019            New Zealand

9     Receive fire protection inspection by a building inspector from the                             1 day     no charge
      Auckland Council
      Agency : Unitary Authority: Auckland Council
      An inspection of any installation of a fire-related product is required in order to check for
      compliance with the building consent and the building code.

10    Obtain water and sewerage connection                                                            28 days   NZD 14,817
      Agency : Watercare Services Ltd.
      The request for water and wastewater service connections is processed within 10 days
      after receipt of the application. BuildCo will be provided with a quote to be paid (1 day)
      and the approval to connect to the services is issued within 2 days.

      The water meter is installed by Watercare’s approved contractor within 15 days, as is the
      connection to the sewerage system.

      An Infrastructure growth contribution must be paid for all new building. This fixed rate
      contribution is paid directly to WaterCare.

      Receive final inspection for a code compliance certificate (CCC)                                25 days   no charge
11    Agency : Unitary Authority: Auckland Council
      Within 5 days of the request for a code compliance certificate, there is final inspection is
      conducted to confirm that the building work covered by the approved building consent
      has been completed and that it complies with the consent and the building code. The code
      of compliance certificate itself is delivered within 20 days.

Takes place simultaneously with previous procedure.

                                                                                                                             Page 12
Doing Business 2019         New Zealand

Details – Dealing with Construction Permits in New Zealand – Measure of Quality

                                                                                                      Answer               Score

Building quality control index (0-15)                                                                                      15.0

Quality of building regulations index (0-2)                                                                                2.0

  How accessible are building laws and regulations in your economy? (0-1)                             Available online;    1.0
                                                                                                      Free of charge.

  Which requirements for obtaining a building permit are clearly specified in the building            List of required     1.0
  regulations or on any accessible website, brochure or pamphlet? (0-1)                               documents; Fees
                                                                                                      to be paid;
                                                                                                      Required
                                                                                                      preapprovals.

Quality control before construction index (0-1)                                                                            1.0

  Which third-party entities are required by law to verify that the building plans are in             Licensed             1.0
  compliance with existing building regulations? (0-1)                                                engineer.

Quality control during construction index (0-3)                                                                            3.0

  What types of inspections (if any) are required by law to be carried out during construction?       Inspections at       2.0
  (0-2)                                                                                               various phases;
                                                                                                      Risk-based
                                                                                                      inspections.

  Do legally mandated inspections occur in practice during construction? (0-1)                        Mandatory            1.0
                                                                                                      inspections are
                                                                                                      always done in
                                                                                                      practice.

Quality control after construction index (0-3)                                                                             3.0

  Is there a final inspection required by law to verify that the building was built in accordance     Yes, final           2.0
  with the approved plans and regulations? (0-2)                                                      inspection is
                                                                                                      done by
                                                                                                      government
                                                                                                      agency.

  Do legally mandated final inspections occur in practice? (0-1)                                      Final inspection     1.0
                                                                                                      always occurs in
                                                                                                      practice.

Liability and insurance regimes index (0-2)                                                                                2.0

  Which parties (if any) are held liable by law for structural flaws or problems in the building      Architect or         1.0
  once it is in use (Latent Defect Liability or Decennial Liability)? (0-1)                           engineer;
                                                                                                      Professional in
                                                                                                      charge of the
                                                                                                      supervision;
                                                                                                      Construction
                                                                                                      company; Owner
                                                                                                      or investor.

  Which parties (if any) are required by law to obtain an insurance policy to cover possible          No party is          1.0
  structural flaws or problems in the building once it is in use (Latent Defect Liability Insurance   required by law
  or Decennial Insurance)? (0-1)                                                                      to obtain
                                                                                                      insurance ;
                                                                                                      Insurance is
                                                                                                      commonly taken
                                                                                                      in practice.

Professional certifications index (0-4)                                                                                    4.0

  What are the qualification requirements for the professional responsible for verifying that the     Minimum number       2.0
  architectural plans or drawings are in compliance with existing building regulations? (0-2)         of years of
                                                                                                      experience;
                                                                                                      University degree
                                                                                                      in architecture or
                                                                                                      engineering;
                                                                                                      Being a
                                                                                                      registered
                                                                                                      architect or
                                                                                                      engineer.

                                                                                                                                   Page 13
Doing Business 2019        New Zealand

 What are the qualification requirements for the professional who supervises the construction   Minimum number      2.0
 on the ground? (0-2)                                                                           of years of
                                                                                                experience;
                                                                                                University degree
                                                                                                in engineering,
                                                                                                construction or
                                                                                                construction
                                                                                                management;
                                                                                                Being a
                                                                                                registered
                                                                                                architect or
                                                                                                engineer;
                                                                                                Passing a
                                                                                                certification
                                                                                                exam.

                                                                                                                          Page 14
Doing Business 2019              New Zealand

     Getting Electricity

This topic measures the procedures, time and cost required for a business to obtain a permanent electricity connection for a newly
constructed warehouse. Additionally, the reliability of supply and transparency of tariffs index measures reliability of supply, transparency of
tariffs and the price of electricity. The most recent round of data collection for the project was completed in May 2018. See the methodology
for more information.

 What the indicators measure                                Case study assumptions

Procedures to obtain an electricity connection             To make the data comparable across economies, several assumptions about the
(number)                                                   warehouse, the electricity connection and the monthly consumption are used.

• Submitting all relevant documents and obtaining          The warehouse:
  all necessary clearances and permits
                                                           - Is owned by a local entrepreneur and is used for storage of goods.
• Completing all required notifications and                - Is located in the economy’s largest business city. For 11 economies the data are
  receiving all necessary inspections
                                                           also collected for the second largest business city.
• Obtaining external installation works and possibly       - Is located in an area where similar warehouses are typically located and is in an
  purchasing material for these works                      area with no physical constraints. For example, the property is not near a railway.
                                                           - Is a new construction and is being connected to electricity for the first time.
• Concluding any necessary supply contract and
  obtaining final supply                                   - Has two stories with a total surface area of approximately 1,300.6 square meters
                                                           (14,000 square feet). The plot of land on which it is built is 929 square meters
Time required to complete each procedure                   (10,000 square feet).
(calendar days)
                                                           The electricity connection:
• Is at least 1 calendar day
                                                           - Is a permanent one with a three-phase, four-wire Y connection with a subscribed
• Each procedure starts on a separate day                  capacity of 140-kilo-volt-ampere (kVA) with a power factor of 1, when 1 kVA = 1
• Does not include time spent gathering                    kilowatt (kW).
  information                                              - Has a length of 150 meters. The connection is to either the low- or medium-voltage
                                                           distribution network and is either overhead or underground, whichever is more
• Reflects the time spent in practice, with little         common in the area where the warehouse is located and requires works that involve
  follow-up and no prior contact with officials
                                                           the crossing of a 10-meter road (such as by excavation or overhead lines) but are all
Cost required to complete each procedure (% of             carried out on public land. There is no crossing of other owners’ private property
income per capita)                                         because the warehouse has access to a road.
                                                           - Does not require work to install the internal wiring of the warehouse. This has
• Official costs only, no bribes                           already been completed up to and including the customer’s service panel or
• Value added tax excluded                                 switchboard and the meter base.

The reliability of supply and transparency of              The monthly consumption:
tariffs index (0-8)
                                                           - It is assumed that the warehouse operates 30 days a month from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00
• Duration and frequency of power outages (0–3)            p.m. (8 hours a day), with equipment utilized at 80% of capacity on average and that
• Tools to monitor power outages (0–1)                     there are no electricity cuts (assumed for simplicity reasons) and the monthly energy
                                                           consumption is 26,880 kilowatt-hours (kWh); hourly consumption is 112 kWh.
• Tools to restore power supply (0–1)                      - If multiple electricity suppliers exist, the warehouse is served by the cheapest
• Regulatory monitoring of utilities’ performance          supplier.
  (0–1)                                                    - Tariffs effective in January of the current year are used for calculation of the price of
                                                           electricity for the warehouse. Although January has 31 days, for calculation
• Financial deterrents limiting outages (0–1)              purposes only 30 days are used.
• Transparency and accessibility of tariffs (0–1)
Price of electricity (cents per kilowatt-hour)*

• Price based on monthly bill for commercial
  warehouse in case study

*Note: Doing Business measures the price of
electricity, but it is not included in the ease of doing
business score nor the ranking on the ease of
getting electricity.

                                                                                                                                                         Page 15
Doing Business 2019           New Zealand

Getting Electricity - New Zealand

  Standardized Connection

 Price of electricity (US cents per kWh)                                  11.5

 Name of utility                                                          Vector Limited

 City Covered                                                             Auckland

  Indicator                                                       New Zealand               OECD high               Best Regulatory
                                                                                            income                  Performance

 Procedures (number)                                              5                        4.5                     3 (25 Economies)

 Time (days)                                                      58                       77.2                    18 (3 Economies)

 Cost (% of income per capita)                                    68                       64.2                    0.0 (3 Economies)

 Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index (0-8)     7                        7.5                     8.0 (27 Economies)

 Figure – Getting Electricity in New Zealand and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

                                                        DB 2019 Getting Electricity Score

        0                                                                                             100

                                                                                                 98.79: Germany (Rank: 5)

                                                                                   85.47: Regional Average (OECD high income)

                                                                                  84.24: Ireland (Rank: 43)

                                                                                  83.98: New Zealand (Rank: 45)

                                                                                 82.31: Australia (Rank: 52)

                                                                 63.78: Canada (Rank: 121)

Note: The ranking of economies on the ease of getting electricity is determined by sorting their scores for getting electricity. These scores are
the simple average of the scores for all the component indicators except the price of electricity.

                                                                                                                                                    Page 16
Doing Business 2019          New Zealand

  Figure – Getting Electricity in New Zealand – Procedure, Time and Cost

                                                       Time (days)            Cost (% of income per capita)
                                                                                                                                        80

                   50                                                                                                                   70

                                                                                                                                             Cost (% of income per capita)
                                                                                                                                        60
                   40
 Time (days)

                                                                                                                                        50

                   30                                                                                                                   40

                                                                                                                                        30
                   20

                                                                                                                                        20
                   10
                                                                                                                                        10

                   0                                                                                                                    0
                                1                 *2                            3                        4                5
                                                                       Procedures (number)

* This symbol is shown beside procedure numbers that take place simultaneously with the previous procedure.

Note: Online procedures account for 0.5 days in the total time calculation. For economies that have a different procedure list for men and
women, the graph shows the time for women. For more information on methodology, see the Doing Business website
(http://doingbusiness.org/en/methodology ). For details on the procedures reflected here, see the summary below.

  Figure – Getting Electricity in New Zealand and comparator economies – Measure of Quality

                                                                                              8                 8
                   8                                                                                                            7.5
                            7                7
                   7
                                                                       6
                   6
     Index score

                   5
                   4
                   3
                   2
                   1
                   0

                        New Zealand       Australia                  Canada                Germany            Ireland     OECD high income

                                                                                                                                                                             Page 17
Doing Business 2019             New Zealand

Details – Getting Electricity in New Zealand – Procedure, Time and Cost

No.     Procedures                                                                                    Time to Complete   Associated Costs

1       Request new connection account from distribution utility (Vector) and                         21 calendar days   NZD 0
        receive site visit
        Agency : Vector Electricity Network
        Vector is the lines company servicing the greater Auckland Region. Vector installs and
        maintains the reticulation network which is generally located within the public domain
        and carries out the works necessary to connect customers. Vector charges the customer
        monthly line charges according to published rates. These are recovered by the customer's
        chosen retailer through the retailer's invoice.

        Once Vector receive a new commercial connection request it is logged into its customer
        management database and issued to the service provider for an indicative price to be
        provided. This indicative price is a desktop estimate and is provided within 1 week from
        the enquiry. Upon receiving an indicative price if the customer then wishes to proceed
        they will pay a 'design fee' and Vector will complete a detailed design and price for their
        connection project

    2   Submit connection application to retailer and sign supply contract                            6 calendar days    NZD 240
        Agency : Mercury Energy
        Application can be submitted via faxed form or via telephone with the business center.
        The business team then runs a credit check on the customer. Depending on the credit
        check, the retailer will decide whether the customer has to provide a bond or not. This
        supply contract can be received either online or by mail (as per customer’s instructions).
        It can be signed, scanned and sent back or mailed back. The customer has a choice of
        some 8 retailers such as Mercury Energy or Contact Energy.

3       Receive and pay estimate from Vector and obtain external works                                28 calendar days   NZD 39,500
        Agency : Vector Electricity Network
        Contract is emailed and posted to the customer. The contract is then signed and returned
        to Vector who approve with the contribution received from the customer as requested in
        the contract. The project is then issued to the Service provider responsible to complete
        the onsite work. All approvals and resource consents are requested by the Service
        Provider who schedules the work dependent on the expected date of these consents being
        issued. This work is then coordinated and completed by the Service provider in
        coordination with the customer. The customer dictates the dates for the work to be
        completed. The utility also obtains a specific Resource Consent application for crossing a
        road (from Auckland Council).

4       Submit certificate of compliance to retailer and request meter installation                   8 calendar days    NZD 0
        Agency : Electrician
        Electrician must issue a Certificate of Compliance (CoC) to customer and retailer when
        doing any fixed wiring work, including fitting new power points. CoC's are not issued for
        maintenance work, such as replacing sockets and light fittings or repairing appliances.
        The CoC indicates that the work done is electrically safe and has been carried out in
        accordance with New Zealand’s electrical safety standards and codes. It also shows they
        have tested their work once completed. A CoC guarantees that the work has been
        completed by a licensed electrician; meets safety standards set by law, and has been
        tested. The retailer has private meter distribution contractors who do the installation

5       Request and receive final inspection and turn-on of electricity supply                        1 calendar day     NZD 0
        Agency : Vector Electricity Network
        The customer, electrician or retailer requests livening of the supply. Vector will then
        inspect the COC before livening the supply through to the customer fuse pillar on the
        boundary. The inspector will then liven the customer premises when the installation is
        complete, including the meter installation.

Takes place simultaneously with previous procedure.

                                                                                                                                            Page 18
Doing Business 2019           New Zealand

 Details – Getting Electricity in New Zealand – Measure of Quality

                                                                                                                           Answer

 Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index (0-8)                                                              7

 Total duration and frequency of outages per customer a year (0-3)                                                         2

    System average interruption duration index (SAIDI)                                                                     2.9

    System average interruption frequency index (SAIFI)                                                                    1.9

    What is the minimum outage time (in minutes) that the utility considers for the calculation of SAIDI/SAIFI             1.0

 Mechanisms for monitoring outages (0-1)                                                                                   1

    Does the distribution utility use automated tools to monitor outages?                                                  Yes

 Mechanisms for restoring service (0-1)                                                                                    1

    Does the distribution utility use automated tools to restore service?                                                  Yes

 Regulatory monitoring (0-1)                                                                                               1

    Does a regulator—that is, an entity separate from the utility—monitor the utility’s performance on reliability of      Yes
    supply?

 Financial deterrents aimed at limiting outages (0-1)                                                                      1

    Does the utility either pay compensation to customers or face fines by the regulator (or both) if outages              Yes
    exceed a certain cap?

 Communication of tariffs and tariff changes (0-1)                                                                         1

    Are effective tariffs available online?                                                                                Yes

    Link to the website, if available online                                                                               The retail market is
                                                                                                                           competitive in New
                                                                                                                           Zealand, with many
                                                                                                                           players involved.
                                                                                                                           Each retailer
                                                                                                                           provides its own
                                                                                                                           tariffs, available
                                                                                                                           online or upon
                                                                                                                           request on their
                                                                                                                           respective website.
                                                                                                                           Vector Limited
                                                                                                                           (transmission
                                                                                                                           network) provides its
                                                                                                                           tariffs online at
                                                                                                                           http://vector.co.nz/ele
                                                                                                                           ctricity/business-
                                                                                                                           pricing

    Are customers notified of a change in tariff ahead of the billing cycle?                                               Yes

Note:

If the duration and frequency of outages is 100 or less, the economy is eligible to score on the Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff
index.

If the duration and frequency of outages is not available, or is over 100, the economy is not eligible to score on the index.

If the minimum outage time considered for SAIDI/SAIFI is over 5 minutes, the economy is not eligible to score on the index.

                                                                                                                                                     Page 19
Doing Business 2019           New Zealand

     Registering Property

This topic examines the steps, time and cost involved in registering property, assuming a standardized case of an entrepreneur who wants to
purchase land and a building that is already registered and free of title dispute. In addition, the topic also measures the quality of the land
administration system in each economy. The quality of land administration index has five dimensions: reliability of infrastructure, transparency
of information, geographic coverage, land dispute resolution, and equal access to property rights. The most recent round of data collection for
the project was completed in May 2018. See the methodology for more information.

 What the indicators measure                               Case study assumptions

Procedures to legally transfer title on                  To make the data comparable across economies, several assumptions about the
immovable property (number)                              parties to the transaction, the property and the procedures are used.

• Preregistration procedures (for example,               The parties (buyer and seller):
  checking for liens, notarizing sales agreement,
  paying property transfer taxes)                        - Are limited liability companies (or the legal equivalent).
                                                         - Are located in the periurban area of the economy’s largest business city. For 11
• Registration procedures in the economy's largest       economies the data are also collected for the second largest business city.
  business city.
                                                         - Are 100% domestically and privately owned.
• Postregistration procedures (for example, filling      - Have 50 employees each, all of whom are nationals.
  title with municipality)                               - Perform general commercial activities.

Time required to complete each procedure                 The property (fully owned by the seller):
(calendar days)
                                                         - Has a value of 50 times income per capita, which equals the sale price.
• Does not include time spent gathering                  - Is fully owned by the seller.
  information                                            - Has no mortgages attached and has been under the same ownership for the past
• Each procedure starts on a separate day -              10 years.
  though procedures that can be fully completed          - Is registered in the land registry or cadastre, or both, and is free of title disputes.
  online are an exception to this rule                   - Is located in a periurban commercial zone, and no rezoning is required.
                                                         - Consists of land and a building. The land area is 557.4 square meters (6,000
• Procedure is considered completed once final           square feet). A two-story warehouse of 929 square meters (10,000 square feet) is
  document is received
                                                         located on the land. The warehouse is 10 years old, is in good condition, has no
• No prior contact with officials                        heating system and complies with all safety standards, building codes and legal
                                                         requirements. The property, consisting of land and building, will be transferred in its
Cost required to complete each procedure (% of           entirety.
property value)                                          - Will not be subject to renovations or additional construction following the purchase.
• Official costs only (such as administrative fees,      - Has no trees, natural water sources, natural reserves or historical monuments of
  duties and taxes).                                     any kind.
                                                         - Will not be used for special purposes, and no special permits, such as for
• Value Added Tax, Capital Gains Tax and illicit         residential use, industrial plants, waste storage or certain types of agricultural
  payments are excluded                                  activities, are required.
                                                         - Has no occupants, and no other party holds a legal interest in it.
Quality of land administration index (0-30)

• Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8)
• Transparency of information index (0–6)
• Geographic coverage index (0–8)
• Land dispute resolution index (0–8)
• Equal access to property rights index (-2–0)

                                                                                                                                                     Page 20
Doing Business 2019      New Zealand

Registering Property - New Zealand

       Indicator                                                       New Zealand               OECD high            Best Regulatory
                                                                                                 income               Performance

    Procedures (number)                                               2                         4.7                   1 (4 Economies)

    Time (days)                                                       1                         20.1                  1 (New Zealand)

    Cost (% of property value)                                        0.1                       4.2                   0.0 (Saudi Arabia)

    Quality of the land administration index (0-30)                   26.5                      23.0                  None in 2017/18

  Figure – Registering Property in New Zealand and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

                                                         DB 2019 Registering Property Score

                     0                                                                                       100

                                                                                                  94.89: New Zealand (Rank: 1)

                                                                                    79.31: Canada (Rank: 34)

                                                                                  77.17: Regional Average (OECD high income)

                                                                               74.09: Australia (Rank: 50)

                                                                            69.63: Ireland (Rank: 64)

                                                                       65.70: Germany (Rank: 78)

Note: The ranking of economies on the ease of registering property is determined by sorting their scores for registering property. These
scores are the simple average of the scores for each of the component indicators.

  Figure – Registering Property in New Zealand – Procedure, Time and Cost

                                                      Time (days)            Cost (% of property value)
                1                                                                                                                          0.06

                                                                                                                                           0.05

                                                                                                                                                  Cost (% of property value)
               0.8

                                                                                                                                           0.04
 Time (days)

               0.6

                                                                                                                                           0.03

               0.4
                                                                                                                                           0.02

               0.2
                                                                                                                                           0.01

                0                                                                                                                          0
                                         1                                                                     2
                                                                    Procedures (number)

* This symbol is shown beside procedure numbers that take place simultaneously with the previous procedure.

Note: Online procedures account for 0.5 days in the total time calculation. For economies that have a different procedure list for men and
women, the graph shows the time for women. For more information on methodology, see the Doing Business website
(http://doingbusiness.org/en/methodology ). For details on the procedures reflected here, see the summary below.

                                                                                                                                                                               Page 21
Doing Business 2019                      New Zealand

Figure – Registering Property in New Zealand and comparator economies – Measure of Quality

              30
                             26.5
              25                                                                                                                                        23.0
                                                                                 21.5                       22.0                 21.0
Index score                                            20.0
              20

              15

              10

              5

              0

                        New Zealand                  Australia                 Canada                    Germany                Ireland        OECD high income

Details – Registering Property in New Zealand – Procedure, Time and Cost

  No.              Procedures                                                                                          Time to Complete     Associated Costs

1                  Obtain a Land Information Memorandum                                                                Less than one day,   NZD 338.26;
                   Agency : Auckland Council                                                                           online               (Auckland Council fee
                   The Land Information Memorandum (LIM) is not a legal requirement for registration, but                                   from NZD 289
                   it is an essential contractual requirement in practice. The LIM provides information on                                  (standard service) to
                   the legality of the building, building permits, restrictions on land use, rates, special
                                                                                                                                            NZD 389 (urgent
                   characteristics of the land, drainage, etc. LIMs are issued by local authorities. LIMs are
                                                                                                                                            service). Both prices
                   either issued within a day if ordered online through urgent procedure, or might be issued
                                                                                                                                            include the General
                   and sent in 10 days if the standard procedure is selected.
                                                                                                                                            Service Tax of 15%,
                   Most conveyancing is done by lawyers, but there is still an option for legal entities to                                 which is removed
                   register transfers though a (i) licensed conveyor or (ii) themselves.                                                    from the total cost
                                                                                                                                            calculation.)

2                  Register title through Land Information New Zealand                                                 Less than one day,   NZD 1,580; (NZD 80
                   Agency : Land Information New Zealand                                                               online               registration fee per
                   The Land Information New Zealand (LINZ) platform is an online property registration                                      transfer (for online
                   system. Confirmation is usually returned online within minutes. LINZ currently operates                                  registration) plus NZD
                   a dual system:
                                                                                                                                            1,500 for
                   - An online land title registration system.
                                                                                                                                            conveyancer fee.)
                   - A paper based registration system (via LINZ processing centers).

                   It is possible to register manually through one of the Land Titles Offices. In this case, it
                   would take 10 working days and cost NZD 176 (plus NZD 20 counter fee per
                   instrument). Conveyancers and or lawyer's fees, if used, would be approximately NZD
                   1,500. There is a cost to the vendor, which involves selling a property through a real
                   estate agent, which would cost up to 4% of the purchase price. A person could privately
                   advertise the sale of their property. The lawyer/conveyancer is required to certify that
                   documents are correct and in order for registration . The documentation shall include:

                   The documentation shall include:
                   - Personal identification
                   - Written authority for the conveyancer/lawyer to register the property electronically
                   - Signed transfer of property
                   -Tax Statement from the buyer and the seller: After the Land Transfer Amendment Act of
                   2015, both parties of the transaction have to submit a Tax Statement which contains
                   details of the title being transferred, the buyer or seller, if the land has a home on it, if the
                   parties are New Zealand Citizens (or local companies), visa holders, whether any
                   exemption applies (the main one being where the property is a person’s main home) and
                   confirmation as to whether the person/entity is tax resident anywhere else in the world.
                   The Tax Statement must include the IRD (tax) number

 Takes place simultaneously with previous procedure.

                                                                                                                                                                     Page 22
Doing Business 2019          New Zealand

Details – Registering Property in New Zealand – Measure of Quality

                                                                                                    Answer               Score

Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8)                                                                                8.0

  What is the institution in charge of immovable property registration?                             Land Information
                                                                                                    New Zealand

  In what format are the majority of title or deed records kept in the largest business city—in a   Computer/Fully       2.0
  paper format or in a computerized format (scanned or fully digital)?                              digital

  Is there an electronic database for checking for encumbrances (liens, mortgages, restrictions     Yes                  1.0
  and the like)?

  Institution in charge of the plans showing legal boundaries in the largest business city:         Land Information
                                                                                                    New Zealand

  In what format are the majority of maps of land plots kept in the largest business city—in a      Computer/Fully       2.0
  paper format or in a computerized format (scanned or fully digital)?                              digital

  Is there an electronic database for recording boundaries, checking plans and providing            Yes                  1.0
  cadastral information (geographic information system)?

  Is the information recorded by the immovable property registration agency and the cadastral       Single database      1.0
  or mapping agency kept in a single database, in different but linked databases or in separate
  databases?

  Do the immovable property registration agency and cadastral or mapping agency use the             Yes                  1.0
  same identification number for properties?

Transparency of information index (0–6)                                                                                  4.5

  Who is able to obtain information on land ownership at the agency in charge of immovable          Anyone who           1.0
  property registration in the largest business city?                                               pays the official
                                                                                                    fee

  Is the list of documents that are required to complete any type of property transaction made      Yes, online          0.5
  publicly available–and if so, how?

  Link for online access:                                                                           http://www.linz.go
                                                                                                    vt.nz/land/land-
                                                                                                    registration/prepa
                                                                                                    re-and-submit-
                                                                                                    your-dealing

  Is the applicable fee schedule for any property transaction at the agency in charge of            Yes, online          0.5
  immovable property registration in the largest business city made publicly available–and if
  so, how?

  Link for online access:                                                                           http://www.linz.go
                                                                                                    vt.nz/about-
                                                                                                    linz/fees/survey-
                                                                                                    and-title-fees

  Does the agency in charge of immovable property registration commit to delivering a legally       Yes, online          0.5
  binding document that proves property ownership within a specific time frame–and if so, how
  does it communicate the service standard?

  Link for online access:                                                                           http://www.linz.go
                                                                                                    vt.nz/land/land-
                                                                                                    registration

  Is there a specific and separate mechanism for filing complaints about a problem that             No                   0.0
  occurred at the agency in charge of immovable property registration?

  Contact information:

  Are there publicly available official statistics tracking the number of transactions at the       Yes                  0.5
  immovable property registration agency?

  Number of property transfers in the largest business city in 2017:                                48234 in total

  Who is able to consult maps of land plots in the largest business city?                           Anyone who           0.5
                                                                                                    pays the official
                                                                                                    fee

                                                                                                                                 Page 23
Doing Business 2019           New Zealand

  Is the applicable fee schedule for accessing maps of land plots made publicly available—         Yes, online          0.5
  and if so, how?

  Link for online access:                                                                          http://www.linz.go
                                                                                                   vt.nz/land/land-
                                                                                                   records/types-
                                                                                                   land-records

  Does the cadastral or mapping agency commit to delivering an updated map within a                Yes, online          0.5
  specific time frame—and if so, how does it communicate the service standard?

  Link for online access:                                                                          http://www.linz.go
                                                                                                   vt.nz/land/landonl
                                                                                                   ine

  Is there a specific and separate mechanism for filing complaints about a problem that            No                   0.0
  occurred at the cadastral or mapping agency?

  Contact information:

Geographic coverage index (0–8)                                                                                         8.0

  Are all privately held land plots in the economy formally registered at the immovable property   Yes                  2.0
  registry?

  Are all privately held land plots in the largest business city formally registered at the        Yes                  2.0
  immovable property registry?

  Are all privately held land plots in the economy mapped?                                         Yes                  2.0

  Are all privately held land plots in the largest business city mapped?                           Yes                  2.0

Land dispute resolution index (0–8)                                                                                     6.0

  Does the law require that all property sale transactions be registered at the immovable          Yes                  1.5
  property registry to make them opposable to third parties?

  Is the system of immovable property registration subject to a state or private guarantee?        Yes                  0.5

  Is there a specific compensation mechanism to cover for losses incurred by parties who           No                   0.0
  engaged in good faith in a property transaction based on erroneous information certified by
  the immovable property registry?

  Does the legal system require a control of legality of the documents necessary for a property    Yes                  0.5
  transaction (e.g., checking the compliance of contracts with requirements of the law)?

  If yes, who is responsible for checking the legality of the documents?                           Registrar;
                                                                                                   Lawyer;

  Does the legal system require verification of the identity of the parties to a property          Yes                  0.5
  transaction?

  If yes, who is responsible for verifying the identity of the parties?                            Lawyer;

  Is there a national database to verify the accuracy of identity documents?                       Yes                  1.0

  For a standard land dispute between two local businesses over tenure rights of a property        High Court
  worth 50 times gross national income (GNI) per capita and located in the largest business
  city, what court would be in charge of the case in the first instance?

  How long does it take on average to obtain a decision from the first-instance court for such a   Between 1 and 2      2.0
  case (without appeal)?                                                                           years

  Are there any statistics on the number of land disputes in the first instance?                   No                   0.0

  Number of land disputes in the largest business city in 2017:                                    The Courts of
                                                                                                   New Zealand
                                                                                                   publishes
                                                                                                   statistics about
                                                                                                   cases but they do
                                                                                                   not differentiate
                                                                                                   property cases
                                                                                                   from other types

Equal access to property rights index (-2–0)                                                                            0.0

  Do unmarried men and unmarried women have equal ownership rights to property?                    Yes

                                                                                                                              Page 24
Doing Business 2019      New Zealand

 Do married men and married women have equal ownership rights to property?   Yes   0.0

                                                                                         Page 25
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