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Editorial - GDMB

Editorial - GDMB

249 5/2015 Editorial Zinc – a metal for the future Zinc in general is mainly known for its prin- cipal field of application – the protection of steel against corrosion.The fact that zinc does not only protect our cars’ surface but also forms an essential ingredient in sun cream and powders in the shape of zinc oxide is still special know-how, just for insiders.The same applies to zinc usage in the form of different alloys or as pure metal as well as zinc sul- phate. Nevertheless, the automotive sector represents one of the most important key factors for the strong increase of the world zinc production within the last ten years and will also lead to an increasing zinc consumption in future.

Nowadays, the zinc price seems to be relatively stable, a fact which is quite unusual in economically unstable times. In comparison to values from fifteen years ago, however, the current zinc price must be considered as elevated but will of course keep being a matter of speculation. The fact that Europe still shows a high share in zinc production in the pri- mary as well as the secondary sector must also be considered very interest- ing and important.While other metal production sites nearly disappeared from the European countries or at least decreased their production rates significantly, some of the world biggest zinc smelters can still be found on the“old continent”.Similar comparisons only apply – in a certain extent – to copper.

What about technology in the zinc sector? Are there changes or do we use the same technologies we had decades ago? Taking into account the primary metallurgy, some significant changes can be observed. The pyro- metallurgical route via the Imperial Smelting process for example, which provides a solution for the parallel recovery of zinc and lead, has almost disappeared due to high energy consumption, safety reasons and other negative aspects. Today the hydrometallurgical way in combination with electrowinning shows a market share of more than 90 %. Within the last decade the direct leaching of sulfidic concentrates has come up with the main aim to avoid the roasting process and hence the sulfuric acid pro- duction.However,somehow this new way stopped or was put on hold.The most recent trend is clearly represented by thinking of the residues that are produced during zinc winning and focus on possibilities to recover the contained valuable metals.

By doing this, big zinc producers try to follow a zero waste concept and meet the requirements of recent and future en- vironmental legislations.

World of Metallurgy – Erzmetall 1912 - 1945 „Metall und Erz“ 1948 - 1968 „Zeitschrift für Erzbergbau und Metallhüttenwesen“ 1969 - 2003 „ERZMETALL“ Volume 68 (2015) Published bimonthly No. 5 · September/October 2015 ISSN 1613-2394 © GDMB Verlag GmbH Publisher: GDMB Verlag GmbH POB 1054 38668 Clausthal-Zellerfeld Germany e-mail: redaktion@gdmb.de Editor-in-Chief: Dipl.-Ing. Jürgen Zuchowski Editorial Staff: Dipl.-Min. Frank-Detlev Liese Ulrich Waschki Printing: Oberharzer Druckerei Fischer & Thielbar GmbH 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld Germany The externally peer-reviewed articles are marked J.

Antrekowitsch Technical drawing of a laboratory-scale anodising plant; p. 301

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250 5/2015 Editorial (continued) Technical Advisory Board: Prof. Dr. mont. Helmut Antrekowitsch Montanuniversität Leoben,Austria Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ihsan Barin Thermochem GmbH, Germany Maurits van Camp UMICORE Research, Belgium Dr.-Ing.André Ditze MetuRec, Germany Dr.Tanja Eckardt Heraeus Holding GmbH, Germany Ass. Prof. Dr. Christian Edtmaier Vienna Univ. of Technology,Austria Prof. Dr. Sc. (Tech.) Olof Forsén Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Finland Prof.Tekn. Dr. Eric Forssberg Luleå Univ. of Technology, Sweden Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr. h.c. Bernd Friedrich RWTH Aachen, Germany Dr. Florian Kongoli Flogen Technologies, Canada/USA Dr.

Günther Leuprecht Aurubis, Germany Dr.Adalbert Lossin Aurubis, Germany Dr. Urban Meurer BERZELIUS Stolberg GmbH, Germany Dipl.-Ing. Norbert L. Piret Piret & Stolberg Partners, Germany Prof. Dr.-Ing. Mohammad Ranjbar University of Kerman, Iran Prof. Dr. Markus Andreas Reuter Outotec, Finland Prof. Dr.-Ing. Georg Rombach Hydro Aluminium Rolled Products GmbH, Germany Dr. Bruno Schwab Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany Prof. Dr.-Ing. Michael Stelter TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany From a first point of view a different picture can be drawn for zinc re- cycling. On this sector no major changes have been achieved over the last years.

Especially in the treatment of steel-mill dust a lot of different process concepts have been developed, however, when looking at today’s status, the same process as before still dominates – the Waelz kiln. Never- theless, even the Waelz process for the zinc recovery from steel mill dust tries to find a new way for more sustainable recycling. On the one side Solvent Extraction has already been implemented at some sites in order to allow a high product quality as well as an independence from primary industry which usually buys the produced oxide, while on the other side methods are constantly being developed to utilize the slag from the pro- cess and recover iron as well as the remaining zinc.

To sum up,zinc shows a broad variety of different usage areas that are con- stantly increasing throughout the different branches. While the automo- tive sector is still strong, cosmetics, food additives and fertilizer additives continuously gain importance.Due to its high impact in different technical fields as well as daily life, zinc stands out with an enormous potential for future application and should allow primary and secondary zinc winning to keep its important role in European metal production. Dr. Jürgen Antrekowitsch Associate Professor, Chair of Nonferrous Metallurgy Head of Christian Doppler Laboratory for Optimization in Heavy Metal Recycling Montanuniversität Leoben Cathode deposit after 24 h electrorefining with the filtrate after Tl removal; p.

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252 5/2015 Contents Editorial Jürgen Antrekowitsch 249 Contents 252 Categories Economics, Technology and Science 254 Personals 267 Events 269 Articles Ryszard Prajsnar, Józef Czernecki 271 Recovery of Zinc, Lead and Copper from Waste Multi-phase Slags in Oxidation-Reduction Smelting Process in the Pilot TSL Furnace Rückgewinnung von Zink, Blei und Kupfer aus mehrphasiger Abfallschlacke durch den Oxidations-/Reduktions-Schmelz- prozess im TSL-Pilotofen Philipp Stuhlpfarrer, Stefan Luidold, Helmut Antrekowitsch 278 Recycling of Nd2 Fe14 B Magnets Recycling von Nd2 Fe14 B-Magneten Kodai Nishigaki, Satoshi Nakagawara, Kenji Ichiya 286 Operational Improvements at Kosaka Lead Refinery Betriebliche Verbesserungen in der Kosaka-Bleiraffinerie Alistair Burrows,Turarbek Azekenov, Roman Zatayev 293 Lead ISASMELT™ Operations at Ust-Kamenogorsk Der ISASMELT™-Bleischmelzofen in Ust-Kamenogorsk Subscription and Advertising: GDMB Verlag GmbH POB 1054 38668 Clausthal-Zellerfeld Germany Telephone: +49 (0) 53 23 93 72 0 Telefax: +49 (0) 53 23 93 72 37 e-mail: subscription@gdmb.de Subscription Rates 2015 Germany: Euro 250.00 incl.

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Printed and bound in Germany Precipitation result at T = 20 °C; p. 283

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253 5/2015 Contents Carina Maria Schlögl, Helmut Antrekowitsch 299 Anodising of Recycling Aluminium Eloxieren von Recyclingaluminium About the Authors 307 Erection of the lead ISASMELT™ furnace at UKMC; p. 295 9th European Metallurgical Conference – EMC 2017 Having successfully completed the EMC 2015 with almost 500 partici- pants, we are now already starting to call for papers for the EMC 2017, which is to be held June 25 to 28, 2017, in Leipzig, Germany. The GDMB scouted many potential locations for this event and decided on Leipzig as the next venue for the EMC.Leipzig has a long tradition of hosting conferences and trade fairs, and it offers a large variety of inter- esting sights and restaurants as well as plenty of shopping opportunities.

One major highlight will certainly be the Leipzig Zoo, located right next to the congress center. Hotels of all categories can be found within close vicinity.

The Leipzig congress center just reopened after a complete reno- vation, and now provides perfect conditions to the participants and exhibitors. Please send your abstract of approx. 400 words to EMC@GDMB.de Emc 2017 European Metallurgical Conference June 25 - 28 Leipzig, Germany Call for Papers

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World of Metallurgy – ERZMETALL 68 (2015) No. 5 254 Economics,Technology and Science Economics Die deutsche Nichteisen-Metallindus- trie hat die Produktion im vergange- nen Jahr auf über 8 Mio. t gesteigert. Das geht aus der Metallstatistik 2014 hervor. Insgesamt lag die Produk- tion der Branche bei 8,3 Mio.

t (plus 3,3 %). Zuwächse gab es vor allem in der Aluminiumproduktion und beim Guss aus Metallen und Legie- rungen. Die Zahl der Beschäftigten in der Branche sank im Jahr 2014 auf 107 709. Im vergangenen Jahr waren es noch 109 065. Die Zahl der Unter- nehmen blieb stabil und lag bei 657. Aus der neuen Statistik geht zugleich eine Stagnation bei der Bruttowert- schöpfung pro Mitarbeiter hervor. Demnach liegt diese von Jahr 2010 bis 2013 unverändert unterhalb des produzierenden Gewerbes. Dies wird auch in der Bruttowertschöpfung pro geleistete Arbeitsstunde deutlich. (Presse-Information v. 3.8.2015) WVM unterstützt neue Industrie- Allianz für fairen Handel.

Aufgrund der politischen Diskussion über den Marktwirtschaftsstatus China hat sich eine Industrie-Allianz für fairen Han- del gegründet. Sie ist ein Zusammen- schluss von 13 Branchenverbänden, darunter auch die WirtschaftsVerei- nigung Metalle (WVM). „Die Allianz setzt sich für einen fairen Handel auf dem Weltmarkt ein“, erklärt Franzis- ka Erdle, Hauptgeschäftsführerin der WVM. „Es wäre problematisch, wenn die EU China den Marktwirtschafts- status vorzeitig gewähren würde.“ Die momentane Entwicklung zeige, dass in China keine marktwirtschaft- lichen Kriterien eingehalten würden. „China muss sich an die Spielregeln der WTO halten“, fordert Erdle.

„Zu- gleich braucht es weiterhin Handels- schutzinstrumente gegenüber sub- ventionierten chinesischen Waren.“ So würden beispielsweise seit Anfang des Jahres Exportsteuerrabatte auf zehn Kupferprodukte gewährt. Die europäischen Institutionen müssen in diesem Jahr darüber entscheiden, ob und unter welchen Bedingungen sie China den Marktwirtschaftssta- tus verleihen. Seit dem 11. Dezember 2001 ist China offizielles Mitglied der Welthandelsorganisation (WTO).Der Marktwirtschaftsstatus wurde damals jedoch nicht anerkannt, da China unterschiedliche Kriterien nicht erfül- len konnte.Auch heute kommt China den Anforderungen an eine Markt- wirtschaft nicht nach.Ob jetzt die Ent- scheidung zum Marktwirtschaftssta- tus getroffen werden kann und muss, hängt von einer Rechtsfrage ab: Es geht darum, ob die WTO-Beitritts- protokolle einen Automatismus vor- sehen, der China im Dezember 2016 das Recht auf den Status verleiht.Ver- tragsexperten stellen dies seit Jahren in Frage.

Die IndustrieAllianz für fai- ren Handel ist ein Zusammenschluss von 13 Branchenverbänden. In den Branchen sind deutschlandweit mehr als 390 000 Menschen beschäftigt. Im Jahr 2014 haben sie einen Umsatz von mehr als 132 Mrd. ¥ erwirtschaftet. (Presse-Information v. 28.8.2015) Sales of Tampakan, Falcondo and Sipilou. Glencore confirms that it has completed the sale of the Tampakan copper project.Glencore has also sold its stakes in the Falcondo nickel oper- ation and Sipilou nickel project. The assets were inherited from Xstrata fol- lowing the completion of the takeover in May 2013.The total proceeds raised from the sales are approximately USD 290 mill.

(Press Release, August 14, 2015) Aurubis mit sehr gutem Neun-Mo- nats-Ergebnis – hervorragendes Er- gebnis für das Geschäftsjahr 2014/15 erwartet. Der Aurubis-Konzern (Au- rubis) erwirtschaftete in den ersten neun Monaten des Geschäftsjahres 2014/15 ein sehr gutes operatives Er- gebnis vor Steuern (EBT) in Höhe von 261 Mio. ¥ (Vj. 75 Mio . Die opera- tive Rendite auf das eingesetzte Ka- pital, der ROCE (Return on Capital Employed), erreichte hervorragende 18,7 % (Vj.4,2 %).Zu dem sehr guten Ergebnis trugen insbesondere höhere Schmelz- und Raffinierlöhne für die Einsatzmaterialien Kupferkonzent- rate und Altkupfer, weltweit deutlich gestiegene Schwefelsäurepreise, eine höhere Kathodenprämie sowie der starke US-Dollar bei.

Zudem haben wir unsere Anlagen mit hoher Pro- duktionsleistung, einem sehr guten Metallausbringen und einem vorteil- haften Mix der Einsatzmaterialien betrieben. Im operativen Ergebnis ist eine ergebnisbelastende Aufholung des Sondereffekts aus dem 2. Quartal in Höhe von 18 Mio. ¥ enthalten. Die Märkte für unsere Kupferprodukte zeigten sich nach wie vor inhomogen: Während die europäische Nachfrage nach Gießwalzdraht und Strangguss- formaten ungebrochen gut war, zeigte sich der Bedarf an Flachwalzproduk- ten in Europa und den USA gedämpft. Der Umsatz desAurubis-Konzerns lag in den ersten neun Monaten des Ge- schäftsjahres 2014/15 mit 8467 Mio.

¥ durch in Euro höhere Metallpreise über dem Vorjahr (8297 Mio . Das IFRS-Konzernergebnis vor Steuern (EBT) lag bei 245 Mio. ¥ (Vorjahr 21 Mio.¥).Das IFRS-Ergebnis enthält im Gegensatz zum operativen Ergeb- nis u.a.Bewertungseffekte durch Kup- ferpreisschwankungen. Für die Be- urteilung des Geschäftsverlaufs und für die Steuerung des Unternehmens ist für Aurubis daher das operative Ergebnis ausschlaggebend. „Neben einem stabilen Marktumfeld erwar- ten wir vor allem eine hohe operative Leistung in allen Bereichen. Sofern keine außerordentlichen Ereignisse eintreten, dürfte das operative Ergeb- nis des Geschäftsjahres 2014/15 sehr gut werden, möglicherweise wird es sogar das beste Ergebnis der Firmen- geschichte“, so Dr.

Bernd Drouven abschließend. (Nach Presse-Informa- tion v. 13.8.2015) Molycorp to close Mountain Pass fa- cility in October. NorthAmerican rare earths producer Molycorp will close its Mountain Pass rare ­ earth facility in California, on October 20. Moly- corp, which operated Mountain Pass, the largest rare earths mine outside of China (Figure 1), and its processing facility, had on June 25, along with its subsidiaries in North America, filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection to restructure debt of $ 1.7 bn in its US and Canadian operations. Small operators such as Molycorp, which had reported a loss for at least 13 con- secutive quarters in May, were hard­ pressed to squeeze profit from their

Editorial - GDMB

World of Metallurgy – ERZMETALL 68 (2015) No. 5 255 Economics,Technology and Science operations. Rare­ earth pricing had de- clined dramatically over the past four years, being a key factor in the com- pany’s decision to suspend rare­ earth production at Mountain Pass, compa- ny officials said.Molycorp‘s rare earth magnetic materials customers, as well as its rare­ earth­ based water treatment products, would not be impacted. The company planned to continue serving its rare earth oxide customers through its production facilities in Estonia and China. While the company planned to idle machinery and equipment, it would still be maintained to ensure it remained in a safe and stable condi- tion, and that it met government reg- ulatory commitments.

(miningweekly. com,August 26, 2015) Goldcorp and Teck Resources to com- bine Chilean projects to create new mine. Goldcorp and Teck Resources have agreed to form a joint venture (JV) and combine their respective El Morro and Relincho projects in Chile into a single project named Project Corridor. The projects are located ap- proximately 40 km apart in the Huas- co Province in the Atacama region. The Canadian mining companies will equally own the JV. The companies said that the co-development of their Chilean projects will include the con- struction of a conveyor to transport ore from the El Morro site to Relin- cho’s single line mill.The combination is expected to result in reduced envi- ronmental footprint and cost, as well as improved capital efficiency.

An un- developed copper-gold-molybdenum project, Project Corridor enables the optimisation of both resources and will result in a longer mine life of at least 32 years, while providing improved com- munity benefits.The initial capital cost to bring the project into production is targeted to be $ 3.5 bn. The proj- ect’s construction phase is expected to create about 4000 jobs and 1400 jobs once it is operational.In a separate an- nouncement, Goldcorp has signed an agreement to acquire New Gold’s 30 % interest in the El Morro project in a transaction valued at $ 90 mill. (min- ing-technology.com,August 28, 2015) Nevada Copper to start construc- tion of $ 1.04 bn Pumpkin Hollow copper mine project in US.

Nevada Copper is set to construct and oper- ate its $ 1.04 bn, 70,000 t/d Pumpkin Hollow open pit and underground copper mine project (Figure 2) near Yerington, Nevada in the US after re- ceiving the final permit. According to the company,the appeal period for the outstanding revised reclamation per- mit expired on 9 August 2015 with no appeals filed. The permit is effective as of 14 August 2015 and was the final outstanding permit that was needed for construction and operation of the project.Nevada Copper president and CEO Giulio Bonifacio said: “What makes Pumpkin Hollow truly unique, however, is that it is now a fully-per- mitted copper project located in Ne- vada – one of the best mining juris- dictions in the world.” The project is 100%-owned by Nevada Copper and has an estimated reserve of 5.05 bn pounds of copper, 760,585 ounces of gold and 27.6 million ounces of silver.

Nevada Copper completed the inte- grated feasibility study for the project in May 2015 and plans to secure fi- nancing to allow for advancement of the project. (mining-technology.com, August 18, 2015) Alba to start construction of reduction line. Aluminium Bahrain (Alba) is to start construction of a sixth reduction line, which is expected to begin pro- duction in early 2019. The expansion will bring Alba’s total production ca- pacity to approximately 1,450,000 t/a. The company recently marked its 10th year of operations of its fifth reduction line. The line expanded Alba’s annu- al aluminium production by adding 307,000 t/a, making it the largest alu- minium smelter in the world outside of Eastern Europe with a total output of 827,000 t/a.To date, line five produces more than 345,000 t/a of liquid metal as compared to its original capacity of 320,000 t/a.

(alcircle.com, September 1, 2015) Malaysia not Australia is now China’s Number 1 bauxite supplier. Malaysia has replaced Australia as China’s top bauxite supplier, taking up 46 % of China’s total bauxite imports in June. SMM’s attributes China’s growing appetite for Malaysian bauxite to its price appeal.Import price of Malaysia bauxite averaged $ 46.19 per tonne in June,16.6 % lower thanAustralian ore and 22.12 % lower than Indian ore. China imported 4.04 mill. t of bauxite in June, up 38.02 % year-on-year. Im- ports in H1 totaled 22.57 mill.t,also up 15.62 % from a year ago,customs data showed.

(alcircle.com, July 28, 2015) Fig. 1: Molycorp’s Moun- tain Pass facility in the Mojave desert Fig. 2: Pumpkin Hollow open pit and un- derground copper project (Picture: Courtesy of Nevada Copper Corp.)

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World of Metallurgy – ERZMETALL 68 (2015) No. 5 256 Economics,Technology and Science India plans a $ 3 bn aluminum smelt- er complex in Iran, now that nuclear negotiations between Tehran and the P5+1 countries have concluded. The idea was mooted in 2014 but India has beencoolingitsheelsfortheremovalof sanctions on Iran to go ahead with the plan. India’s National Aluminium Co. (NALCO) is now seriously considering to implement the project after Iran and the P5+1 finalized their negotiations. The plan includes the construction of a smelter to produce 500,000 t/a of alu- minum and a 1000-MW captive power plant (Figure 3).

India’s coal stock is not sufficient to power its aluminum production and since imports of coal are not viable, the country has to look for reserves and build a plant abroad. Iran is using a mix of sources for power generation,including hydroelectric sta- tions,oil products and natural gas.With a lingering drought having drained dams and oil products polluting the en- vironment, the country is switching to gas-powered electricity. Last year, Iran fed 50 bn m3 of gas into its power plants, up from 36 bn m3 a year before. The country is viewed an ideal destination for aluminum production because of its power generation capacities,given that electricity accounts for 40 % of smelt- ing costs.

Iran itself produces about 340,000 t/a of aluminum and plans to raise it to 1.5 mill. t by 2025 with an investment of about $ 12 bn.Its biggest aluminum manufacturer, the Iranian Aluminum Company (Iralco), is based in the central city of Arak and listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange. Other Indian companies are reportedly scout- ing for business opportunities in Iran. Multinational conglomerate Larsen & Toubro is said to be angling for oil and gas projects while Tata Power is look- ing for power schemes and Adani En- terprises eyeing port investments.India signed an MoU in May for the devel- opment of Chabahar Port in southeast Iran.A commercial accord is still need- ed to implement the pact.

New Delhi says it will use terminals in the port to operate container and multi-purpose cargo ships.Last month,the second En- glish-language Indian daily, the Hindu, said New Delhi had begun “resetting” ties with Tehran to pave its way for en- try into Afghanistan and the Central Asia. (alcircle.com, July 20, 2015) First bauxite shipment leaves Guin- ea Boke for Hongqiao Group. Chi- na Hongqiao Group began its first shipment of 180,000 t of bauxite from the Port of Boke, Guinea, on July 20. China Hongqiao Group, togeth- er with other companies, established Boke Mining Company and started port project at the Port of Boke to develop bauxite in Guinea.They have built two bauxite berths, one heavy cargo berth, as well as loading belts.

The port’s annual capacity is designed to handle 10 mill. t, and is expected to rise to 30 mill. t in coming three years. Annual bauxite shipment to China is scheduled to reach 20 mill. t by 2016. Bauxite in Boke enjoys higher grade than ores from other countries, such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Australia and India. As such, costs for producing alumina with Guinean bauxite are comparatively lower, thus making up for higher freight rates from Africa to China. (alcircle.com,August 11, 2015) Rio Tinto’s modernised Kitimat smelter begins production. Rio Tin- to is preparing its first shipments of metal from its world-class Kitimat al- uminium smelter in Canada follow- ing an extensive modernisation of the facility.

The modernisation of the aluminium smelter will increase pro- duction capacity by 48 % and result in Kitimat becoming one of the lowest cost smelters in the world. Rio Tin- to is now focused on safely ramping up towards its annual production rate of 420,000 t. The modernised smelt- er, which was delivered in line with the revised schedule and budget, is powered exclusively by Rio Tinto’s wholly owned hydro power facility and uses the company’s proprietary AP40 smelting technology which will effectively halve the smelter’s overall emissions.Aluminium chief executive Alf Barrios said “The modernisation of Kitimat will fundamentally trans- form its performance, moving it from the fourth quartile to the first decile of the industry cost curve.At full produc- tion, Kitimat will be one of the most efficient, greenest and lowest-cost smelters in the world.

“Positioned in British Columbia on the west coast of Canada, Kitimat is well placed to serve rapidly growing demand for alu- minium in the Asia-Pacific region and to serve the North American market.” (Press Release, July 7, 2015) Odisha Mining Corporation to fast track bauxite mining to rescue Vedan- ta refinery. In its bid to rescue Vedan- ta’s alumina refinery at Lanjigarh, the Odisha government has put its min- ing PSU Odisha Mining Corporation (OMC) on the job to start mining from Karlapat mines at the earliest. Timelines have been set to achieve different critical milestones to com- mence bauxite mining from Karlapat which has 153 mill.

t of proven reserve and 54 mill. t probable reserve. OMC aims to start mining activity from the mine from December 2016. “OMC has already applied for mining lease (ML) on 1800 hectares over Karlapat. The PSU has also set a mining plan of extracting 5 mill. t/a of bauxite. The mining plan would soon be sent to the Indian Bureau of Mines (IBM) for approval,“ said a senior government official.The Centre,in March this year, had decided to allocate the Karlapat deposits to the state run miner follow- ing a request from the state govern- ment to reserve the mines in favour of the PSU. The state government had sought reservation of the bauxite mines for 30 years, arguing that it will ensure fair and equitable distribution of the raw material.

Besides, the gov- ernment felt such an arrangement will help accrue more economic returns for the state by way of royalty, taxes and dividend, thereby providing more funds for developmental activities. OMC producing bauxite from Kar- lapat would also perk up raw material prospects for Vedanta whose Lan- jigarh refinery is headed for closure mainly due to high sourcing cost of bauxite. The PSU has an agreement with the Vedanta Group for supplying 150 mill. t of bauxite for the Lanjigarh Fig. 3: Computer graphics of the planned alu- minum smelter complex in Iran

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World of Metallurgy – ERZMETALL 68 (2015) No. 5 257 Economics,Technology and Science refinery. To offer immediate relief to the refinery, the state government had also decided to approach aluminium producers like National Aluminium Company (Nalco) and Aditya Birla Group promoted Hindcalco Industries to arrange interim bauxite supplies. To run the refinery at full capacity of one million tonne, Vedanta needs 3 to 3.5 mill.t of good quality bauxite every year. Vedanta has invested INR 4500 crore* on the refinery. Running the refinery on externally sourced baux- ite had turned out to be economically unviable forVedanta.The refinery was bleeding losses of INR three crore ev- ery day as logistics cost accounted for 35 % of total sourcing cost of baux- ite.

Alumina production cost from the Lanjigarh refinery stood at $ 340 to 350 a tonne compared to the average glob- al market price of $ 290 to 300. (*crore = 10 million,1 US$ ≈ 65 INR) (alcircle. com, September 3, 2015) Hydro enters into new long-term pow- er contract for Neuss aluminium plant in Germany. Norwegian aluminium company Norsk Hydro ASA’s fully owned subsidiary, Hydro Aluminium Rolled Products GmbH , has secured a power contract with Axpo Trading AG, a Switzerland-based energy com- pany with captive power production and international trading activity, to- taling 0,9 TWh (100 MW) annually in the eight year period from 2018 to 2025.

The new power contract will replace parts of an existing combination of internal and external power arrange- ments entered into in 2012, supplying Hydro Neuss primary aluminium plant with a total of 2.2 TWh (250 MW) an- nually in the period from 2013 to 2017. In the period from 2018 to 2020, the remaining 1.3 TWh (150 MW) of the expiring power sourcing arrangement will be replaced by an internal power contract supplied by Hydro.Hydro Ne- uss primary aluminium plant is 100 % owned by Hydro and located in West- ern Germany, close to Düsseldorf. It is currently running at two-thirds of its total 235 000 t annual capacity, deliv- ering sheet ingot and recycled liquid metal to the next-door Alnunorf hot rolling mill.

The Neuss primary smelt- er is currently undertaking a 50,000 t capacity expansion of used beverage can (UBC) recycling capacity, contrib- uting to lower metal cost and Hydro’s 2020 carbon neutrality target. (Press Release, July 10, 2015) Outotectodelivertwoaluminacalcina- tion plants to Emirates GlobalAlumin- ium. Outotec has agreed with Emirates Global Aluminium (EGA) on the de- sign and delivery of two alumina calcin- ers to the alumina refinery that EGA plans to construct in Al Taweelah,Abu Dhabi. The contract, valued at over EUR 80 million, has been booked in Outotec’s second quarter order intake.

(Press Release, July 9, 2015) Oyak to acquire alumina supplier Almatis. Almatis, a leading global supplier of premium alumina, has an- nounced that its shareholders, includ- ing majority owner Dubai Interna- tional Capital (DIC), have signed an agreement to sell the Group to Oyak, Turkey’s largest private pension fund. Completion of the transaction is con- ditional upon receipt of all relevant regulatory approvals. With more than 100 years of alumina expertise, Al- matis is a world leader in the devel- opment, manufacture and supply of premium alumina and alumina-based products. As a fully integrated, global alumina producer, Almatis serves its customers with 1150 employees from 16 strategically located sales, research and manufacturing sites.

Almatis’ products are used in a wide variety of industries including iron and steel, cement, non-ferrous metal, ceramic, automotive, polishing and electronics. Previously part of Alcoa, since 2007 Almatis has been majority owned by DIC. (alcircle.com, July 15, 2015) Novelis bearbeitet erste Alumini- umcoils auf neuer Produktionslinie. Novelis hat im Juli die ersten kalt- gewalzten Aluminiumcoils auf der neuen Produktionslinie für Automo- bilbleche erfolgreich bearbeitet. Nach 15 Monaten Bauzeit erreicht das Unternehmen damit einen wichtigen Meilenstein auf demWeg zurWarmin- betriebnahme der neuen Fertigungs- linie, welche speziell für Kunden aus der Automobilbranche errichtet wur- de (Abbildung 4).

Bereits Mitte Juni begann Novelis, die einzelnen Pro- zessschritte im Aluminiumwerk in Nachterstedt zu testen und den Qua- lifizierungsprozess mit den Kunden einzuleiten. Der offizielle Start der Produktion ist für Ende Oktober vor- gesehen. Mit der Investition von rund 62 Mio. ¥ reagiert das Unternehmen auf den stetig steigenden Bedarf der Automobilhersteller an Aluminium- blech für den Karosserie-Leichtbau. Novelis rechnet damit, dass die Nach- frage der europäischen Automobil- industrie in den nächsten Jahren um durchschnittlich 30 % wachsen wird. Durch die neue Fertigungslinie erhöht Novelis seine Produktionskapazität von Aluminiumblech für die Auto- mobilindustrie in Europa auf jährlich 350 000 t.

Davon trägt das Werk in Nachterstedt mit seiner Produktion rund um die Uhr künftig 240 000 t bei. (Nach Presse-Information v. 7.8.2015) SGL Carbon will umbauen und zu- kaufen. Der angeschlagene Spezial- grafithersteller SGL Carbon stellt sein Kerngeschäft ins Schaufenster. Der größte Geschäftsbereich Grafitelek- troden für die Stahlproduktion und Kathoden für dieAluminiumschmelze solle spätestens bis Ende 2016 inner- halb des Unternehmens rechtlich ver- selbstständigt werden,teilte SGL Car- bon mit.Die beiden anderen größeren Sparten sollen auch durch Zukäufe gestärkt werden. „Mit der neuen Auf- stellung können wir unsere Aktivitä- ten zielgenauer ausrichten und öffnen Abb.

4: Die neue Automo- bil-Fertigungslinie in Nachterstedt

Editorial - GDMB

World of Metallurgy – ERZMETALL 68 (2015) No. 5 258 Economics,Technology and Science uns zudem für neue strategische Op- tionen“, erklärte Firmenchef Jürgen Köhler. Das Geschäft mit Grafitelek- troden für die Stahlindustrie ist we- gen des hohen Preisdrucks durch die chinesische Konkurrenz schwieriger geworden. Im vergangenen Jahr war der Gewinn der Sparte, die 44 % zum Gesamtumsatz von 1,3 Mrd. ¥ bei- steuerte, deutlich eingebrochen. (HB v. 8.7.2015) Wolf Minerals to open metal mine in UK. Australia-based Wolf Minerals is set to open its metal extraction facility, the Hemerdon Mine in Devon, UK.

Wolf expects to sell the first tungsten from the Hemerdon pit in September, with the mine having taken around seven years to develop. Wolf Minerals managing director Russell Clark told Proactive Investors in an interview that the company is set to become a lead- er in tungsten mining. The Hemerdon mine is estimated to have 35.7 mill. t of reserves, and expected to create 200 jobsoncefullyoperational.Atleastone lorry-load of tungsten is expected from the mine on a daily basis and would be delivered by road and rail to processors located in the US and Austria. In or- der to obtain planning consent for the mine, the company said it worked with regional councils and the UK Environ- ment Agency.

The mine is considered a potential major new source of global tungsten supply, and is set to produce around 3.5 % of world demand in 2016. After acquiring the Hemerdon proj- ect in December 2007, Wolf Minerals conducted extensive exploration pro- grammes and completed a successful definitive feasibility study in 2011.The project is being developed as a low cost, large-scale open-pit tungsten and tin mining operation. (mining-technology. com, July 6, 2015) MKM investiert in Drahtproduktion. Die Mansfelder Kupfer und Messing GmbH (MKM), Hettstedt, hat eine neue Produktionsanlage für Gießdraht in Betrieb genommen (Abbildung 5).

Mit dieser Investition erhöht MKM die Wertschöpfungstiefe, schafft zusätzli- che Flexibilität und erweitert die Ka- pazität für Spezialprodukte um rund 6000 t/a. Durch die neue Produktions- anlage wird das Unternehmen künftig den Gießdraht für Spezialanwendun- gen wie etwa sauerstofffreien,hochleit- fähigen Kupferdraht mit einem Kup- feranteil von mehr als 99,95 % selbst herstellen.„Den Gießdraht formen wir unmittelbar bei MKM in einem kon- tinuierlichen Prozess in Spezialprofile für die Elektro- und Automobilindus- trie sowie die Telekommunikation und können so eine ausgezeichnete Quali- tät garantieren“, so Produktionsleiter Patrick Leidenroth.

Die Investition mit einem Volumen von 1,2 Mio. ¥ ist Teil eines umfassenden Innovations- programms von MKM, für das insge- samt rund 40 Mio. ¥ vorgesehen sind. „Diese Anlage ist Teil eines auf drei Jahre angelegten großen Investitions- programms in neue Technologien, um unser Produktportfolio gezielt auszu- bauen und unseren Kunden neue An- wendungen in Top-Qualität anbieten zu können“, betont Roland Harings, Vorsitzender der Geschäftsführung von MKM. (Presse-Information v. 28.8.2015) H.C. Starck erhält Zertifizierung für die Verarbeitung von konfliktfreien Wolfram-Rohstoffen. H.C. Starck, einer der führenden Hersteller von Technologie-Metallen und techni- scher Keramik, hat die Zertifizierung für die Verarbeitung von sogenannten „konfliktfreien“ Wolfram-Rohstoffen erhalten.Die entsprechende Überprü- fung erfolgte durch eine unabhängige Zertifizierungsgesellschaft im Auf- trag der Conflict Free Smelter Inita- tive (CFSi), einem Zusammenschluss der Electronics Industry Citizenship Coalition (EICC) und die Global e- Sustainability Initiative (GeSI).

Für seine Tantal-Verarbeitung hat H.C. Starck seit 2010 bereits mehrfach die entsprechende Zertifizierung für die Verarbeitung von konfliktfreien Roh- stoffen erhalten. Tantal und Wolfram werden neben Zinn und Gold in dem 2010 verabschiedeten US-amerikani- schen „Dodd-Frank Wall Street Re- form and Consumer Protection Act“ als sogenannte „Konfliktmineralien“ definiert. „Da H.C. Starck keine Wolf- ram-Rohstoffe aus Konfliktregionen verarbeitet, sind wir zu diesem Audit nicht verpflichtet. Dennoch haben wir unsere Wolfram-Verarbeitung dem CFSi-Audit freiwillig unterzogen, da die Beschaffung undVerarbeitung von Rohstoffen aus konfliktfreien Quellen die Basis unserer Rohstoffstrategie ist“, erklärte Dr.

Andreas Meier, Vor- sitzender der Geschäftsführung von H.C. Starck. „Wir sind stolz auf die Zertifizierung unserer Rohstoffbe- schaffung, denn sie ist ein Gütesiegel für unsere Nachhaltigkeitsbestrebun- gen.“ Von der CFSi beauftragte unab- hängigeAuditoren haben im Mai 2015 an den wolframverarbeitenden Stand- orten von H.C. Starck in Deutschland und Vietnam detailliert überprüft, ob diese den hohen Anforderungen der beiden Organisationen an die Ver- arbeitung konfliktfreier Rohstoffe entsprechen. Neben Primärrohstof- fen aus geprüften Minen stützt H.C. Starck seine Rohstoffversorgung in steigendem Umfang auch auf die Ver- arbeitung von Sekundärmaterialien.

„Das Recycling von Technologie-Me- tallen ist eine unserer Kernkompeten- zen. Mit innovativen Methoden ver- arbeiten wir wachsende Mengen an Produktionsrückständen, Schlacken, Schrotten und anderen Sekundärma- terialien zu qualitativ hochwertigen, hochleistungsfähigen Metallpulvern“, so Dr. Meier weiter. „Damit schaffen wir Versorgungssicherheit und redu- zieren die Abhängigkeit von weltweit schwankenden Rohstoffpreisen“. (Nach Presse-Information v. 6.7.2015) Outotec strengthens its portfolio of gold processing technologies by ac- quiring Biomin. Outotec has agreed to acquire the majority of the shares in Biomin SouthAfrica Pty.Ltd.and cer- tain assets from Biomin Technologies S.A.

in Switzerland. With this acquisi- tion Outotec gets the full intellectu- Abb. 5: MKM-Produktionsanlage für Gießdraht

Editorial - GDMB

World of Metallurgy – ERZMETALL 68 (2015) No. 5 259 Economics,Technology and Science al property and marketing rights of BIOX® bioleaching technology, which is a proven method for the treatment of refractory gold ores. Biomin’s BIOX® technology complements Outotec’s portfolio of gold process- ing technologies. Gold ore bodies are becoming more complex to treat and consist of refractory ores as the less refractory gold ores become depleted. Roughly 20 % of the world’s current gold projects and a third of upcoming projects are based on refractory ore that needs to be pre-treated before the leaching process.There are three main pre-treatment methods for refractory gold ores; pressure oxidation, roast- ing, and bioleaching.

BIOX® is proven technology for bioleaching and its an- nual business volume has been some millions of euros. (Press Release, July 31, 2015) Newmont sells stake in Valcambi gold refinery in Switzerland. Newmont Mining Corporation announced it has closed the sale of its equity stake in the Valcambi gold refinery in Switzer- land to a subsidiary of Rajesh Exports Ltd (REL) for total net proceeds of US$ 119 mill. Newmont will continue its existing refining relationships with Valcambi under the new ownership structure.TheValcambi refinery began operations in 1961 in Balerna, Swit- zerland, and Newmont first acquired its equity interest in 2004 from Credit Suisse.

Valcambi has grown to be one of the world’s largest gold and silver refineries, with a significant manufac- turing business. REL, a leading gold jewelry manufacturer and one of the largest direct gold consumers in the world, has been a longstanding cus- tomer of Valcambi. (Business Wire, July 27, 2015) Greece suspends operations at two Eldorado Gold’s mines in Halkidiki. Greece’s Ministry of Energy has is- sued a notification to Eldorado Gold’s subsidiary Hellas Gold to suspend technical studies related to the compa- ny’s Skouries and Olympias projects in Halkidiki (Figure 6). Greece has ordered the suspension on the $ 1 bn project saying that the company has violated the contract terms.

Greece’s Energy Minister Panos Skourletis was quoted by Reuters as saying: “We are recalling our approval of the technical studies, which will result in the halting of operations at Skouries and part of operations in Olympiada.The compa- ny has violated some terms.” Skour- letis however said that the operations at the mines could resume if the com- pany complies with the contract terms. The suspension order has come fol- lowing completion of pilot scale test work on the Olympias Phase III flash smelting process. The ministry con- tends that the test work should have been done at site in Halkidiki instead it was completed at Outotec’s metal- lurgical and smelting facility in Fin- land.

According to Eldorado, the test work is a part of the technical studies pertaining to both the projects. Eldo- rado said it will take legal action once a review of the ministry’s decision is completed. Eldorado Gold chief ex- ecutive officer Paul Wright said: “We are most disappointed and perplexed by this entirely inappropriate decision of the Ministry of Energy, which puts 5000 direct and indirect jobs in Greece at risk, including the jobs of 2000 Greek employees and contractors of Hellas Gold. “We have received nu- merous favorable decisions of the Council of State – Greece’s Supreme Court on administrative and environ- mental matters – over the course of the last three years, which confirm the legality of our activities in Halkidiki.

Halkidiki operations and projects are expected to continue as normal, how- ever, Hellas Gold may have to sus- pend all its mining and development activities in the region following the ministry’s decision. (mining-technolo- gy.com,August 20, 2015) ThyssenKrupp Metallurgical Products has concluded an offtake agreement for refractory graphite with Kibaran Resources Limited. The raw materi- als trading experts from the Materials Services business area will purchase 20,000 t/a of graphite for a period of ten years for the European, Russian and Korean markets.This corresponds to around 50 % of the planned annual graphite output from Kibaran’s pro- posed mine, in the Epanko Graphite Project located in Tanzania, East Af- rica.With the conclusion of the agree- ment, ThyssenKrupp Metallurgical Products has also secured the option of a five-year extension.

The Epanko Graphite Project is expected to be in operation in early 2017. A mining li- cense has already been obtained from the Government of Tanzania. Kiba- ran Resources Limited specializes in graphite exploration in the miner- al-rich regions of Tanzania. In the Ep- anko region, the Australian company hassecuredanextremelypromisingsite offering significant graphite deposits and good development opportunities, with transport infrastructure already in place. The East African country of Tanzania is also well-disposed toward the mining industry and aims to devel- op this economic sector.Graphite is an important component in lithium iron batteries used in smartphones, tablets and electric vehicles.

Graphite is also well-suited to high-temperature appli- cations, in particular the manufacture of refractory compounds and bricks. (Press Release,August 24, 2015) ZOLLERN übernimmt die Treib- acherAuermet d.o.o.in Ravne,Slowe- nien. Mit Wirkung zum 1.August 2015 übernimmt die ZOLLERN-Unter- nehmensgruppe 100 % der Anteile an der Treibacher Auermet d.o.o. von der TreibacherAG.Das Unternehmen mit Sitz in Ravne, Slowenien, ist spezia- lisiert auf das Schmelzen von Vaku- umlegierungen, insbesondere auf Ni- ckel- und Kobaltbasis.Die letztjährige Produktionsmenge betrug circa 800 t. ZOLLERN ist mit seiner Herstellung von Feingussteilen ein bedeutender Abnehmer dieser Legierungen.

Mit der Integration in den ZOLLERN- Konzern ist beabsichtigt, das eigene Kreislaufmaterial zu einem gewissen Anteil selbst zurückzuschmelzen und darüber hinaus die Materialentwick- lung auch eigenständig durchführen zu können. Über den Kaufpreis ist Stillschweigen vereinbart. (Presse-In- formation v. 24.8.2015) Fig. 6: Olympias site 2013 (Photo: courtesy of Eldorado Gold Corp.)

World of Metallurgy – ERZMETALL 68 (2015) No. 5 260 Economics,Technology and Science Through thick and thin – the melting furnace for structural components. More and more structural parts are now being manufactured using the die-casting process, and this is chang- ing the demands made on aluminium foundries: on the one hand, it leads to considerably larger, flatter returns. On the other hand, however, compa- nies are increasingly faced with small- sized, extremely thin-walled returns. The new “StrikoMelter BigStruc” from StrikoWestofen (Gummers- bach) is designed to meet precisely these high demands.

The wider range of geometries which have to be re- melted in the foundry as a result of the casting of structural parts has led to new, complicated furnace solutions being offered in the market.These of- ten push up the investment costs still further and, in addition to natural gas, consume considerable amounts of ex- pensive electric energy – for example for the electromagnetic agitation of the holding bath and for the hot gas fans designed to melt the material in huge holding baths. StrikoWestofen has added the BigStruc model to the globally tried-and-tested StrikoMelt- er series of furnaces by means of a number of simple new developments.

BigStruc allows the optimum melt- ing of bulky cast parts as well as ex- tremely thin-walled or small-sized returns. Although the return materi- al is very demanding, BigStruc guar- antees minimum metal loss and the well-known low energy consumption of the StrikoMelter series (Figure 1). While still in the shaft, the cast parts are preheated without direct exposure to the flames and rapidly melted at the foot of the shaft. The hot metal then flows directly from the melting bridge into the holding bath, where it is heated to the desired temperature. As a result of the continuous melting process, temperature fluctuations do not occur in the holding bath.

Liquid metal for supplying the foundry is also available at all times. “The spe- cial feature of our BigStruc is its high energy efficiency, even at a low bulk density in the shaft,” explains quali- fied engineer Rudolf Hillen, product developer and StrikoMelter expert at StrikoWestofen. “In contrast to nor- mal StrikoMelter systems, BigStruc is able to handle returns with a size of up to 2.5 m2 .”Here the height of the shaft remains unchanged in comparison with standard StrikoMelter systems. To be able to guarantee high energy efficiency even at a low bulk densi- ty and void volume in the shaft, Stri- koWestofen is now using its new hot gas baffle for normal melting opera- tion too.This has often proven its prac- tical worth in StrikoMelter systems as it speeds up the melting-free process before the furnace is cleaned.The baf- fle keeps the shaft of BigStruc closed after filling and ensures that the heat is used in an optimum way for preheat- ing – regardless of the void volume in the shaft.

The preheating and melting of the charge material take place while the shaft is closed. To ensure that the shaft is filled optimally at all times, StrikoWestofen has integrated a new three-dimensional laser monitoring system. This constantly checks the filling level in the shaft when closed and during filling in order to guaran- tee that the hot gas baffle closes au- tomatically. To keep the metal loss as low as possible, StrikoWestofen uses further new developments designed to minimize the free oxygen present in the furnace atmosphere: near-stoi- chiometric combustion and self-seal- ing lift swing doors.

Combustion with minimum excess air prevents corun- dum formation and ensures low oxidi- zation losses and a high material yield. Of course, BigStruc can also process all material and returns already oc- curring in the foundries of today. This makes BigStruc the most versatile sys- tem in the StrikoMelter series. (Press Release,August 8, 2015) Achenbach OPTIMILL® – Rolling mills for 32 t coils in China. A few years ago, Shandong Weiqiao Pio- neering Group (China) made the strategic decision to further advance its presence in the aluminum industry by investing in a new state-of-the-art aluminum flat rolling plant.The stated goal is to also rank among the lead- ing Chinese rolling plants in the alu- minum industry and to be in demand worldwide as a supplier of premium rolled products.

To achieve this goal as quickly as possible, it was neces- sary to commission the best rolling mill plant manufacturers to supply the mechanical equipment. To start with, the decision by Weiqiao to rely on Achenbach technology for both foil rolling and strip rolling is wise from the perspective of the customer. This is a success for Achenbach because a reference plant attracting a great of attention is currently being built in Weihai with a large 2300 mm-wide rolling mill and 1850 mm-wide thin strip rolling mill. Both rolling mills have come on line to the satisfaction of the customer and are in the optimi- zation phase (Figure 2).Together,they will represent the core of production for litho sheets.

Both rolling mills are automated with the OPTIROLL® i3 system and equipped with state-of- the-art OPTIPURE® systems. These include SUPERSTACK® II systems for rolling oil micro-filtration and a large AIRPURE® system for exhaust air purification because environmen- tal protection is very important to Shandong Weiqiao.

Fig. 1: The new “BigStruc” swallows just ab- out everything, making it the most ver- satile system in the StrikoMelter series (Image: StrikoWestofen) Technology

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