EGovernment in Denmark -

EGovernment in Denmark -
Country Profile

                                        WHAT’S INSIDE
                   Legal Framework
                          Who’s Who
                Services for Citizens
             Services for Businesses

eGovernment in
EGovernment in Denmark -
Visit the e-Government factsheets online on
   Joinup is a collaborative platform created by the European Commission under the Interoperability
   Solutions for Public Administrations (ISA) in Europe Programme. Joinup provides numerous services
   around 3 main functionalities:
   1. An observatory on interoperability, e-government, e-inclusion and e-health
   2. A collaborative platform of open communities
   3. A repository of interoperability solutions

This document is meant to present an overview of the eGoverment status in this country and not to be exhaustive in its
references and analysis. Even though every possible care has been taken by the authors to refer to and use valid data
from authentic sources, the European Commission does not guarantee the accuracy of the included information, nor does
it accept any responsibility for any use thereof.

Cover picture © Fotolia
Content © European Commission
© European Union, 2015
EGovernment in Denmark -
eGovernment in Denmark, January 2015, Edition 17.0

Country Profile ......................................................................................... 1

eGovernment History ............................................................................... 8

eGovernment Strategy ........................................................................... 21

eGovernment Legal Framework ............................................................. 25

eGovernment Actors .............................................................................. 29

eGovernment Who’s Who ....................................................................... 33

eGovernment Infrastructure .................................................................. 35

eGovernment Services for Citizens ......................................................... 40

eGovernment Services for Businesses .................................................... 45
EGovernment in Denmark -
eGovernment in Denmark                                              January 2015

Country Profile
Basic data and indicators

Basic Data

Population (1 000): 5,627.235 inhabitants (2014)
GDP at market prices: 252,939 million Euros (2013)
GDP per inhabitant in PPS (Purchasing Power Standards EU 28 = 100): 125 (2013)
GDP growth rate: -0.5% (2013)
Inflation rate: 0.3% (2014)
Unemployment rate: 7% (2013)
General government gross debt (Percentage of GDP): 45% (2013)
General government deficit/surplus (Percentage of GDP): -0.7 % (2013)
Area: 42,895 km2
Capital city: Copenhagen
Official EU language: Danish
Currency: DKK
Source: Eurostat

EGovernment in Denmark -
eGovernment in Denmark                                                         January 2015

Political Structure

The Kingdom of Denmark is a constitutional parliamentary monarchy.
Legislative power is held by a unicameral parliament (Folketing). The Parliament has 179
members, elected for a four-year term on the basis of universal direct suffrage and under a
system of proportional representation. 135 seats are allocated on a constituency basis in
the 17 multi-member constituencies; the remaining seats are divided nationally and
reallocated to constituencies. Greenland and the Faeroe Islands, home rule territories of the
Danish realm, have two Members of Parliament each. Parliamentary elections are often held
before the completion of the full four-year terms, either because the Government is toppled
in a 'vote of no confidence', or because the Prime Minister calls for an election to improve
the ruling coalition’s parliamentary position.

Executive power is held by the Government, headed by the Prime Minister, who answers to
the Folketing. The Monarch, Queen Margrethe II, appoints the Prime Minister based on
recommendations from the leaders of the political parties.

Following the completion of the 'structural reform' of the local government on 1 January
2007, the local government in Denmark is now composed of 5 regions and 98 municipalities
(against 14 regions and 275 muni1cipalities that existed in the past). As a result of the
reform, tasks have been transferred from the regional level to the municipal level (i.e.
further decentralisation), as well as to the State level (i.e. re-centralisation of certain
tasks). The 98 new municipalities are responsible for handling most tasks related to citizen
service delivery. The 5 new regions are responsible for hospital care and health insurance,
some elements of social affairs, regional development and coordination with business,
tourism, transport and environment.

The Danish Constitution dates from 1849, when the King renounced absolutism. The latest
and most comprehensive amendments to the Constitution date from 1953.

Denmark became a member of the European Union on 1 January 1973.

Head of State: Queen Margrethe II (since January 1972).
Head of Government: Prime Minister Helle Thorning-Schmidt (since 3 October 2011).

EGovernment in Denmark -
eGovernment in Denmark                                                                                    January 2015

Information Society Indicators

Generic Indicators

The following graphs present data for the latest Generic Information Society Indicators for
Denmark compared to the EU average. Statistical indicators in this section reflect those of
Eurostat at the time the Edition is being prepared.

      Percentage of households with                                  Percentage of enterprises with
       Internet access in Denmark                                     Internet access in Denmark

  100%                                                                     97      98         99        99         99
                   90         92          93        93           100%
   90%     86
       2010       2011       2012        2013     2014
                                                                      2010       2011       2012       2013       2014

Source :                                                       Source:
c_bde15b_h&lang=en                                             c_ci_in_en2&lang=en

  Percentage of individuals using the internet at least once a week in Denmark

                                 100%                                               92
                                                               89          91
                                   90%     86      87
                                      2010       2011         2012        2013     2014

Source :

EGovernment in Denmark -
eGovernment in Denmark                                                                                     January 2015

    Percentage of households with a                                Percentage of enterprises with a
   broadband connection in Denmark                                broadband connection in Denmark

 90%                          85          87         85                                                  98         99
                   84                                           100%               95         93
 80%                                                              90%     87

 70%                                                              80%
 60%                                                              70%
 20%                                                              20%
 10%                                                              10%
   0%                                                              0%
     2010        2011        2012       2013        2014               2010      2011       2012        2013       2014

Source :                                                       Source:
c_r_broad_h&lang=en                                            c_bde15b_e&lang=en

    Percentage of individuals having                               Percentage of enterprises having
  purchased/ordered online in the last                             received orders online within the
       three months in Denmark                                        previous year in Denmark

 70%                                                 66         30%
                                          65                                                             27
                                                                                             26                     26
                              60                                         25
 60%               57                                           25%               23
 50%                                                            20%

   0%                                                             0%
     2010        2011        2012       2013        2014            2010        2011        2012       2013        2014

Source:                                                        Source :
=1&language=en&pcode=tin00067&plugin=1                         =1&language=en&pcode=tin00111&plugin=1


eGovernment in Denmark                                                                                   January 2015

EGovernment Indicators

The following graphs present data for the latest eGovernment Indicators for Denmark
compared to the EU average. Statistical indicators in this section reflect those of Eurostat at
the time the Edition is being prepared.

   Percentage of individuals using the                          Percentage of individuals using the
   internet for interacting with public                       internet for obtaining information from
         authorities in Denmark                                    public authorities in Denmark

                                                               90%                                     83
 90%                          83         85          84                                     80                     81
                  81                                           80%      76      78
 80%      78
                                                                   2010        2011       2012        2013       2014
     2010        2011       2012        2013       2014

Source:                                                       Source:
c_bde15ei&lang=en                                             c_bde15ei&lang=en


eGovernment in Denmark                                                                                   January 2015

  Percentage of individuals using the                            Percentage of individuals using the
internet for downloading official forms                          internet for sending filled forms to
  from public authorities in Denmark                                public authorities in Denmark

 55%              52          53                                                            69
          51                             50                    70%                                     66         66
                                                     49                         64
 50%                                                                    59
 45%                                                           60%
 40%                                                           50%
 30%                                                           40%
 15%                                                           20%
  0%                                                             0%
     2010        2011       2012        2013       2014            2010        2011       2012       2013        2014

Source:                                                       Source:
c_bde15ei&lang=en                                             c_bde15ei&lang=en


eGovernment in Denmark                                                                     January 2015

EGovernment State of Play

The graph below is the result of the latest eGovernment Benchmark2 study, which monitors
the development of eGovernment in Europe, based on specific indicators. These indicators
are clustered within four main top-level benchmarks:
         User Centricity – indicates to what extent (information about) a service is provided
          online and how this is perceived.
         Transparent Government – indicates to what extent governments are transparent
          regarding: i) their own responsibilities and performance, ii) the process of service
          delivery and iii) personal data involved.
         Cross Border Mobility – indicates to what extent EU citizens can use online
          services in another country.
         Key Enablers – indicates the extent to which 5 technical pre-conditions are
          available online. There are: Electronic Identification (eID), Electronic documents
          (eDocuments), Authentic Sources, Electronic Safe (eSafe), and Single Sign On
These top-level benchmarks are measured using a life-events (e.g. mystery shopping)
approach. The following life-events were used for measuring the eGovernment Benchmark
top-level indicators: Business start-up and early trading operations, losing and Finding a
Job, Studying, Regular business operations, Moving, Owning and driving a car, and Starting
a small claims procedure. The figure below presents the development of eGovernment in
Denmark compared to the EU average score.



eGovernment in Denmark                                                         January 2015

EGovernment History
Main developments and key milestones (in reverse
chronological order)
For the latest developments, see: Joinup news.

Recent News

December 2014

The Danish joint public digitisation strategy (2011-2015) involves a gradual transition to
mandatory digital self-service and communication. Mandatory digital self-service is being
introduced in four sets of solutions up to 2015. On 1 December 2014 the third set of digital
services became mandatory and Danish citizens now have to use digital self-service when
applying for pensions, housing benefits, or for a legal separation, just to mention a few

November 2014

On Saturday, 1 November, Denmark took a historic step as the first country in the world to
make it compulsory to receive digitally letters, notices and messages from public
authorities, e.g.    vehicle-inspection   notifications, pension  notifications,  hospital
appointments, letters from the municipality, etc.
Digital Post makes it easier for individuals to manage letters and notifications from the
authorities while at the same time saving the public sector one billion DKK a year in paper
and postage. People who are unable to use the Digital Post solutions can be exempted and
will continue to receive letters from the public authorities by ordinary mail.

May 2014

The contract on the development and operation of the Data Hub for 'Basic Data’ was
awarded to KMD. The purpose of the Data Hub is to provide access for public authorities
and private companies to updated basic data on companies, properties, persons, addresses
and maps. The Data Hub will replace a number of local public distribution solutions and
ensure that authorities and companies have easy and safe access to basic data in a single
system instead of many different systems and interfaces.

July 2014

A mobile version of NemID (national eID and digital signature) was launched providing new
opportunities for citizens to use public digital services from their smartphones and tablets.
Following the launch of the new version of NemID, public digital solutions will gradually be
made more and more mobile-friendly. On the citizen portal alone there are up to 2000
different self-service solutions which will be adjusted, where relevant, to ensure a good
experience on mobile devices. Also banks and private services such as gaming sites which

eGovernment in Denmark                                                         January 2015

already have their own mobile solutions will gradually migrate to the new version of
4.18 million Citizens (of 5.65 million citizens in total as of 1st October 2014) have a NemID
public eID and digital signature.

February 2014

In early 2014, the Agency for Digitisation took the initial steps to develop the next
generation of the public eID and digital signature (NemID) and the analytical work will
continue throughout 2014. In November 2017, the present contract on NemID will expire
and, in accordance with the EU Directive on the coordination of procedures for the award of
public works contracts, the task must be put out to competitive tender in a new EU
procurement procedure. Before the current contract expires, the Agency for Digitisation
must ensure that the next generation of NemID is ready.
In addition to addressing the needs of citizens, enterprises and public authorities, the new
solution will fall under the scope of the upcoming EU regulation on eID and trust services.
This new regulation requires self-service solutions of all EU Member States to accept eID for
identification, and thus new Danish solutions must also be able to accept foreign eID.
According to the plan, the decision-making basis for the next generation of NemID is to be
in place by the beginning of 2015, after which the more detailed work on the requirements
specification and subsequent EU procurement procedure can begin.

January 2014

The IT Programme Model for central government is to contribute to professionalising the
work on governmental programmes by making available a well-tested framework based on
the international standard, MSP (Managing Successful Programmes). On the basis of
experience and demand, the Danish Agency for Digitisation developed a programme model
and process framework which is mandatory for programmes with IT costs exceeding DKK
60 million where the IT share at the same time constitutes a significant element of the
The programme model sets out to 1) make available a common programme management
and programme leadership model for governmental programmes based on best practice, 2)
professionalise governmental programme leadership and management through mandatory
programme model requirements, including obligations with respect to the application of
phases and the development of programme leadership documents, 3) ensure concept
clarification including guidelines for choosing between a project, a programme or a
portfolio, and 4) make available experience and good practice from Danish and foreign
programmes for the government sector – both to disseminate experience in an immature
area and to avoid any parallel development of methods in various government institutions.

December 2013

The second of four planned “sets” of digital self-service solutions became mandatory for
citizens to use as from December 2013. This set of services include, among others,
choosing a physician, application for free admission to day care and after-school care,
reporting of rat infestation, application for a passport, and declaration of fatherhood. The
plan is that the third of the four planned “sets” of digital self-service solutions to become
mandatory will become mandatory in late 2014 and the fourth set in 2015.

eGovernment in Denmark                                                       January 2015

November 2013

 As part of the implementation of the joint eGovernment Strategy 2011-15 (central
   government, regional government and local government), the Danish Parliament
   adopted the Act on Public Digital Post in June 2012. The act states that citizens and
   businesses must have a digital letter box for receiving digital letters from the public
   authorities. For businesses act was put into effect on 1st November 2013. The act gives
   authorities the right to send digital-only messages, letters, documents, etc. to
   businesses’ digital letter box, rather than sending paper-based letters by traditional
   post, and it states that digital messages transmitted through the solution have equal
   status and effect as paper-based letters, messages, documents, etc. For citizens the Act
   on Public Digital Post will be put into effect on 1 November 2014.
 On 12 November 2013 in Copenhagen approximately 170 citizens, businesses, civil
   society organisations, and public authorities and institutions spent a day working
   together across traditional boundaries and divides. The aim was to foster debate and to
   find new ways to improve Denmark's welfare system, democracy, and innovative power.
   Open Gov Camp was a "non-conference", the programme completely devoid of
   traditional presentations and panel debates, but filled with workshops, labs and
   discussion groups covering a broad range of topics and issues within the field of open
   government. The camp was hosted by the Agency for Digitisation, which is responsible
   for the overall coordination of Open Government activities in Denmark. However, all
   workshops and activities at the camp were organised and facilitated by the participating
   public authorities, civil society organisations, citizens, and businesses. The camp was
   one of the commitments in the new Danish action plan for Open Government.
 As part of Denmark’s participation in the international initiative Open Government
   Partnership (OGP), a second national action plan for open government was published in
   late 2013. The action plan comprises four themes, all rooted in the 2011 government
   platform:   Local Democracy and Participation; Full Digital Communication - and
   Inclusion; New Forms of Collaboration and Involvement; and Open Data - Innovation,
   Transparency, and Efficiency.

September 2013

The Danish government, Local Government Denmark and Danish Regions have jointly
launched a common public sector "Strategy for Digital Welfare 2013-2020". More
information on the Strategy can be found in the eGovernment Strategy section.

August 2013

 The IT Project Model for central government contributes to better, more uniform
   planning, management and implementation of central government IT projects. The
   model is embedded in the Ministry of Finance budget guidelines ('Budgetvejledning')
   and must be applied to all IT projects in central government. The IT project model is a
   tool to be used by the project manager. It is meant to support day-to-day management
   of the project as well as contribute to ensuring that the IT project is successfully
   implemented. The model is generic and must be adjusted to the size and context of the
   individual project so as to meet the specific management needs of the individual
 The Central Government Business Case Model is an integral part of both the Central
   Government IT Project Model and the Central Government Programme Model (which has

eGovernment in Denmark                                                         January 2015

   been launched subsequently). The business case helps answer the question "Is the
   project a good investment?" A business case is a calculation of the overall financial and
   non-financial consequences of a potential investment in a project or a programme. It is
   based on an analysis and statement of the change desired and how to achieve it. The
   objective of the business case is to clarify and calculate costs and gains as well as to
   estimate the financial consequences of potential risks. On this basis, a solid foundation
   can be established for assessing the justification of the project or the programme. The
   Central Government Business Case Model describes the present situation and two future
   situations: one in which the project or the programme is implemented (scenario 1) and
   one in which it is not implemented (scenario 0). With the business case, the gains of the
   project or the programme are calculated by comparing these situations.

June 2013

Halfway through the eGovernment strategy 2011-2015, which consists of 72 specific
initiatives, 21 initiatives had been successfully implemented. The initiatives have ensured
increased accessibility and reuse of data, and further digitisation of the Danish health
sector just to name a few. The eGovernment strategy 2011-2015 is based on close
collaboration between the central government, the regions and the municipalities with a
view to creating a modern and effective public sector.
The fundamental idea behind the strategy is to deliver public services in a more flexible and
contemporary manner via digital solutions and at the same time ensure the most cost-
effective use of taxpayers’ money. When the strategy is fully implemented Danish
authorities will save around DKK 1 billion currently spent on postage. A key element in the
strategy is that citizens and companies must communicate with authorities online and get
their post from authorities delivered in a digital letter box. The savings free up resources
for funding of other important matters such as health care and stimulating growth in the
private sector.

January 2013

On 6 January 2013 the updated version of the NemLog-in solution was launched. The new
NemLog-in is an updated version of the previous one which handled more than 31 million
login requests from citizens in 2012. This corresponds to an average of one login every
second of every day which is almost 40 % more logins than in 2011. This increase was due
to the increasing number of government services being available through the NemLog-in
solution. By the end of 2012, about 130 citizen-oriented public services were using the
NemLog-in solution.

News 2012-2001


 The Danish Parliament has passed legislation as part of its policy to make mandatory
   digital self-service in several government service areas. Thus, as part of the
   implementation of the joint eGovernment Strategy 2011-15 (central government,
   regional government and local government), the Danish Parliament adopted in June
   2012 an amendment which makes the first of four planned “sets” of digital self-service
   solutions mandatory for citizens to use as from December 2012. This first set of services
   include, among others, change of address, payment for obtaining hunting licence,

eGovernment in Denmark                                                           January 2015

   repayment of state education loan, and applications for a national health care card, an
   EU health care card, admission to day care, admission to elementary school, and
   admission to after-school care.
   The plan is that the second of the four planned “sets” of digital self-service solutions to
   become mandatory will become mandatory in late 2013, the third set in 2014 and the
   fourth in 2015. This means that those who can must use the digital self-service
   solutions which public authorities (in this case the individual municipalities) make
   available. Municipalities will be responsible for ensuring that there is sufficient help and
   guidance to those citizens who are unable to use or have difficulty using the digital
   channels. Municipalities will also make computers available to the public for the use of
   digital self-service solutions.
 In October 2012, the Danish government and Local Government Denmark (association
   of municipalities) signed an agreement aiming to improve and link public registers of
   basic data and make them available for public re-use free of charge. Later Danish
   Regions joined the agreement. The agreement is an element of the Basic Data
   Programme which aims to clean up data and consolidate core data registers, such as
   digital maps, cadastral information, company registration information, and official
   addresses, and put an end to costly parallel registers. This is expected to save the
   public sector DKK 260 million (approx. €34 million) annually by 2020. In addition, the
   abolishing of charges for the datasets, which took effect on 1st January 2013, is
   expected to provide opportunities for innovation and growth in the private sector as
   businesses will no longer have to buy their basic data from the public authorities. This is
   related to Denmark’s more general efforts to open up public sector data for re-use
   which is part of the country’s Open Government Partnership action plan.
 In October 2012, the new authority responsible for operation of payments of public
   benefits, Udbetaling Danmark (translates “Payments Denmark”), was established. The
   establishing of Udbetaling Danmark involved close cooperation between the new
   authority and the municipalities, getting IT systems and data from 98 municipalities in
   place and migrating around 1,000 employees. Responsible for payment of pensions and
   housing benefit among other things, Udbetaling Danmark is expected to pay out approx.
   DKK 200 billion to approx. 3 million beneficiaries in 2014. The new authority is on track
   realise economic savings of almost 300 million DKK per year by 2015 and an analysis
   has been initiated of the possibility of centralising more tasks under Udbetaling
   Danmark, including sickness benefits and economic scholarships.
 In April 2012, Denmark joined the Open Government Partnership (OGP), an
   international initiative whose purpose is to promote good governance and strengthen
   democracy in the participating countries. As part of its accession to the OGP, Denmark
   developed a one-year action plan for open government activities. The action plan was
   based on inputs from a broad consultation process, in which citizens, companies, non-
   governmental organisations (NGOs) and public authorities were invited to propose
   initiatives and activities. The Danish Agency for Digitisation is responsible for the overall
   coordination of Denmark’s OGP participation.
 Approximately 2 000 patients across five patient groups participate in the largest-ever
   telemedicine project in Denmark. The project is an initial step towards establishing a
   common national infrastructure for telemedicine in the country. The project started at
   the beginning of 2012 and will run for two years. Four hospitals in the Capital Region
   (Region Hovedstaden, in Danish) and the Central Denmark Region (Region Midtjylland,
   in Danish) participated in the project together with ten municipalities and a number of
   practitioners across the country. The project will produce a database that records
   information on patients while they remain at home. Health professionals in all sectors
   will have access to patient data from their own computer and can quickly decide
   whether there is a need to adjust the patient's medication. The patients represent five

eGovernment in Denmark                                                         January 2015

   different groups: COPD (emphysema), diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases and
   pregnant women with and without complications.
   The project constitutes Denmark's largest investment in telemedicine, with the
   government providing almost 66 million DKK (€9 million approximately). Of this, 33.4
   million DKK (€4.5 million approximately) comes from the Foundation for Welfare
   Technology (Fonden for Velfærdsteknologi, in Danish) while the Capital Region, Central
   Denmark Region and some smaller partners finance the rest. The aim of telemedicine is
   to free up resources in health care, ensure a more intensive treatment and monitoring,
   and enable patients to avoid strenuous routine visits and hospitalisations. Several
   hospitals have already had good experiences with telemedicine. The project provides
   the opportunity to scale up these local experiences to the national level.


 On 1 December 2011, 'NemHandel' became mandatory to use when invoicing the public
   sector. More than one third of all active Danish enterprises have already used
   NemHandel to send electronic invoices to the public sector. NemHandel is a Danish e-
   business technology, which makes electronic invoicing as easy as sending an email. It
   allows businesses to send standardised electronic invoices directly from their PCs via the
   Internet, in a secure and reliable manner. As NemHandel is based on open standards
   and open source components, any IT vendor or IT service provider may connect to the
   open infrastructure. Building on extensive hands-on experience gained through the
   development and implementation of NemHandel, Denmark is an active participant in the
   European Commission's large-scale pilot project PEPPOL.
 Following the closing of the National IT and Telecom Agency in October 2011 and the
   subsequent transfer of its responsibilities to several ministries, the Ministry of Finance
   was reorganised. The former Agency for Governmental Management, under the Ministry
   of Finance, which was responsible for certain public sector digitisation activities, was
   dissolved and a new agency, namely the Agency for Digitisation, was established. The
   Agency for Digitisation combines the expertise of the previous National IT and Telecom
   Agency (IT- og Telestyrelsen) and that of the former Agency for Governmental
   Management (Økonomistyrelsen) in order to strengthen the digitisation of the public
   sector. This Agency will be in charge of ensuring that digitisation strategies are
   implemented to the benefit of citizens and those new digital opportunities are fully
 Another agency, the Agency for Modernisation was also established, merging the
   Finance Board and the Personnel Board, and covering responsibility for the finances,
   agreements and management of public administration. It will serve as a solid platform
   for freeing up resources through the modernisation of the public sector, improving the
   management of public funds and providing for a better leadership.
 Denmark's National IT and Telecom Agency was dissolved and its functions are
   transferred to four ministries, according to a decision of the new government. NITA,
   under the Ministry of Science, Innovation and Higher Education, had the overall
   responsibility for ICT issues concerning the public sector, citizens and businesses. Its
   closure follows the formation of a new coalition government on 3 October 2011.
   According to Her Majesty the Queen's Resolution of 3 October, the following four key
   ministries are tasked with assuming the Agency's duties:
        Ministry of Finance: responsible for IT policy and public sector digitisation,
         including matters concerning digital communication with citizens and businesses
        Ministry of Business and Growth: responsible for telecom and Internet regulation,
         and frequency management

eGovernment in Denmark                                                         January 2015

       Ministry of Defence: responsible for matters related to the protection of critical IT
         infrastructure and the Governmental Computer Emergency Response Team
       Ministry of Economic Affairs and the Interior: responsible for certain tasks for IT
         modernisation and digitisation-related issues.
 The Danish Government published it’s new Digitisation Strategy for 2011-2015 in
   August 2011. The central aim of the strategy is that by 2015 digital self-service
   solutions will be established as the normal way for citizens to interact with the public
   sector. The new strategy, called 'The digital path to future welfare', aims to phase out
   paper-based forms and postage. Citizens will use the Internet for all applications and
   notifications to the public sector, namely, a moving notification; the enrolment of a child
   in a nursery; or when issuing a new passport. In addition, all citizens and businesses
   will automatically be given a free digital mailbox to which all communications from the
   public sector will be sent. The transition will take place gradually, as user-friendly
   eGovernment solutions are introduced in increasingly more areas. Help will be available
   for citizens who find it hard to use the new solutions. By 2015, the Government expects
   to be able to send 80 % of all correspondence to citizens in digital form. It is also
   expected that 80 % of all applications and correspondence from citizens will be in digital
   The new digital strategy has a broad scope and aims to provide digital solutions across
   the public sector. It provides 60 individual initiatives, including:
       a commitment to and investment in IT and digital learning resources in primary
       an action plan for the national dissemination of good and effective telemedicine
         solutions, such as the monitoring of patients with diabetes or chronic obstructive
         pulmonary disease (COPD);
       Vocational initiatives to provide businesses with easier paths to growth.
   This includes fully digital written communication between the public sector and
   businesses as of 2013.
 1 July 2011 marked the first anniversary of the launch of Denmark's digital signature
   system NemID (EasyID), which provides the means for secure digital communication.
   During 2011, it was used 310 million times by 79 % of the adult population to access
   services in both the public and private sectors, and notably for Internet banking. More
   than 3.2 million Danes now use it, with over 2.9 million using it for both banking and
   the public sector. In the future, NemID is expected to facilitate much greater use of
   self-service in citizens' contacts with the municipalities, regions and State authorities.
 According to the financial sector, NemID has also made a significant contribution to the
   decline of the number of intrusions in Internet banking. The Danish Bankers Association
   (Finansrådet) reported that the number of intrusions fell from 251 in 2008 to 12 in
   2010, and since November 2010 there have been none at all.
 On 8 June 2011, it is announced that students have the opportunity to be paid during
   their summer vacations to enhance open source software for the Danish public sector.
   The Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (Ministeriet for Videnskab,
   Teknologi OG Udvikling) has launched the 'Kod i ferien' ('Holiday of Code') scheme,
   which provides funding for 15 students. Both parties have much to gain from the
   scheme. The successful students have the opportunity to develop their professional IT
   skills while being paid DKK 20 000 each, and the authorities will have fresh eyes
   generating new ideas for their software. The results will be made available to all public
   authorities through Softwareboersen (Software Exchange), a government website where
   public organisations can share open source software.

eGovernment in Denmark                                                          January 2015

 Following a meeting between the Danish Minister of Science Technology and Innovation
   Ms Charlotte Sahl-Madsen and the Danish Parliament's spokesperson for IT on 30 March
   2011, it has been decided that the Danish public authorities will remain committed to
   receiving documents from citizens and businesses in all common formats (including
   Open Document Format - ODF and Open Office XML - OOXML). Likewise, it will still be
   mandatory for the public authorities to send non-editable documents to citizens and
   businesses in the open PDF/A-1 format.
   With the decision not to make it mandatory to send editable documents in the open
   document formats OOXML and ODF, the Minister followed the recommendations of an
   Expert Committee on Open Standards which argued that these standards are not
   mature enough to be applied for the time being. The Expert Committee on Open
   Standards will be discontinued, and the National IT and Telecom Agency will, on a
   regular basis, continue to monitor the maturity of the standards involving relevant
 In January 2011, eLearning films on the most important aspects ofNemID, Denmark's
   digital signature providing Danes with a single access to public and private digital self-
   service solutions are made available in sign language. The sign language videos tell the
   viewers about the security features of NemID, how to order the card and how to enable
   its functionalities. The films are seen as a good alternative to general instructions
   through screenshots. They show in a very simple manner what users need to know
   about NemID, including: the NemID concept; what the NemID can do; how the NemID
   works; security features; presentation of the NemID portal; support and secure


 In December 2010, 10 000 businesses, more than one third of all active Danish
   businesses, sent electronic invoices to the public sector via the Danish national open
   eBusiness framework 'NemHandel' (Easy Trade). NemHandel is a Danish eBusiness
   technology, which makes electronic invoicing as easy as sending an email. It allows
   businesses to send standardised electronic invoices directly from their PCs via the
   Internet, in a secure and reliable manner. As NemHandel' is based on open standards
   and open source components, any IT vendor or IT service provider may connect to the
   open infrastructure. Building on extensive hands-on experience gained through
   NemHandel, Denmark is an active participant in the European Commission's large-scale
   pilot project PEPPOL.
 During November and December 2010, Government IT (Statens It) introduces a new
   web Service Portal (Serviceportalen), where its users can find information about the
   current IT operational status, planned service windows, news about the Agency and
   consult several help guides. 'Service Portal' will also constitute a web-based application
   for the 10 000 users of the Agency's service desk, where they are able to report IT
   problems online and receive support.
   On 4 November 2010, Denmark's Central Government along with the Danish Regions
   and Local Government unveil the terms of their future joint digital government strategy
   for 2011-2015. The strategy is planned to be completed in the first half of 2011, giving
   additional impetus to the digitisation of the public sector. According to its terms, the
   strategy will pursue the further spread of digitisation in all areas where the public sector
   is in close contact with citizens and businesses, in particular in the fields of education,
   social affairs and employment.
   On 1 November 2010, the known as eDag 3 (eDay 3) marks the start of a collaboration
   initiative between the State, the regions and the municipalities, aiming towards an 'easy
   online access to the government'. A specific example of this is the timetable agreed by

eGovernment in Denmark                                                         January 2015

   the Steering Committee for joint-government cooperation (STS) for the phasing out of
   the usernames/password codes. From 1 March 2011 onwards, the authorities will no
   longer issue password codes. From 1 August 2011 onwards, citizens will only be able to
   access the public eServices through NemID.
 On 1 July 2010, Charlotte Sahl-Madsen, the Danish Minister for Science, Technology and
   Innovation launches 'NemID', the new digital signature, which gives Danes a single
   access to public and private digital self-service solutions. NemID thus provides people
   with easy and safe access to a wide range of self-service solutions on the web, both
   public and private, including eBanking, real estate, and insurance and pension funds
 In May 2010, the Minister for Culture, Mr Per Stig Møller and the Minister for Science,
   Technology and Innovation, Ms Charlotte Sahl-Madsen decide to jointly mobilise DKK 21
   million (approx. € 1.6 million) for the digitisation of the national cultural heritage
   for 2010-2012. The budget is allocated to four different projects, carried out by the
   Danish Film Institute, the State and University Library, the Royal Library and the
   National Museum of Natural History.
   A new solution, developed by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, the
   Commerce and Companies Agency and the private provider behind 'NemID', makes it
   easier for the owners of sole proprietorship companies to obtain a digital signature
   and thus start using digital solutions and eGovernment services for businesses. The
   owners only need to use their own personal digital signature to install a digital signature
   for the company. Thus it becomes easier and faster to be ready for various business-
   related solutions provided via the business portal
 On 29 January 2010, the Danish Minister of Science, Technology and Innovation - in
   agreement with the Danish Parliament's spokesperson for IT - make it mandatory for all
   public authorities to send documents, which are to be read but not edited, in the open
   document format PDF/A-1. It was also agreed that an Expert Committee on Open
   Standards should evaluate the maturity of the two most common open document
   formats for editable documents (ODF and OOXML).
   The Danish State, regions and municipalities agree on 12 January 2010 on a roadmap
   for the transition from the various usernames/password codes to the new digital
   signature. As from late summer 2011, people should only use the new, secure digital
   signature 'NemID' when accessing the public eServices requiring secure identification.


 In October 2009, the Danish Ministry of Science recommends that open source be used
   where it adds value.
 Even very small Danish businesses are sending electronic invoices directly from their
   PCs, via 'NemHandel', a technology enabling the easy and secure sending of electronic
   business documents. All public authorities and institutions can receive eInvoices through
   'NemHandel'. In the long term, businesses will be able to choose to use it when
   contacting other businesses. As of July 2009, more than 33 000 businesses sent
   electronic invoices to the public authorities via 'NemHandel'.
 According to a press release of the Ministry of Science and Technology Innovation
   published in February 2009, the large majority of Danish public authorities allow citizens
   and businesses to download forms and to directly submit information online from their
   respective websites.

eGovernment in Denmark                                                          January 2015


 In December 2008, the Ministry of Science publishes 'Open Source Software and the
   Public Sector', outlining principles for the strategic use of open source software. The
   Danish public sector 'Software Exchange' website contains open source software
   developed for or by public authorities and institutions in Denmark, which can be freely
   reused and further developed by anyone interested.
 A new, updated version of Denmark’s citizen web portal ‘’ is launched on 20
   October 2008.
 'Digitalisé' goes live in October 2008. Its homepage is a new common entrance to
   public IT architecture and open standards for all public authorities and suppliers.
   In the same month, the National IT Council publishes a set of guidelines for all Danish
   ministries to update their respective IT strategies in line with the national eGovernment
   strategy 2007-2010.
 In June 2008, an agreement is reached between the Danish Government, Local
   Government Denmark (LGDK), the Danish Regions and the private provider DanID for
   the development and implementation of the next generation of digital signature in
 The Danish Government decides in April 2008 to create a shared service centre for IT
   which will perform a number of IT tasks for all Danish ministries. Its purpose is to cut
   costs and to create a firm foundation for improving existing administrative services
   while developing new ones.
 In March 2008, a political agreement is reached on a new reform of the public sector,
   the 'Quality Reform'. 180 initiatives will be implemented in cooperation with Danish
   regions and municipalities.
   The Agency for Governmental Management launches, during the same month, an EU
   tender for the establishment and implementation of a cross-governmental digital
   communication and archive solution with the objective to allow a direct, digital and
   secure communication among the public sector, citizens and businesses.
 As of 1 January 2008 and in line with a national agreement reached in October 2007,
   which rendered the use of open standards mandatory in the public sector, all public
   authorities must use seven sets of open standards in all new IT solutions. All authorities
   must also be able to receive office documents in two open document standards, namely,
   ODF and OOXML.


 In October 2007, the Danish Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation launches a
   new national SOA infrastructure utilising state-of-the-art open standards to perform
   eBusiness transactions. This infrastructure is the first in the world to enable SOA
   capabilities on a national level and make them available to businesses of all sizes, thus
   offering a comprehensive legal and technical framework for interoperability.
 In June 2007, the new eGovernment Strategy for 2007-2010 is published and is jointly
   adopted by the Danish Government, Local Government Denmark (LGDK) and the five
   Danish regions, establishing new standards for the development of citizen services and
   the cohesion across the public sector, setting principles for a more binding cooperation
   among all levels of Government.

eGovernment in Denmark                                                         January 2015

 In April 2007, Denmark tops the Networked Readiness Index of the Global Information
   Technology report 2006-2007.
 In February 2007, the Danish Ministry of Employment launches the
   website aimed at helping foreign workers to find employment in Denmark.
 The '' portal is launched on 1 January 2007. ‘’ becomes the citizens’
   single Internet entry point to all Danish public authorities.
   The ‘Local Government Reform’ takes effect on the same day. As a result, local
   government is made up of 5 regions and 98 local authorities (against 14 regions and
   275 authorities previously). The 98 new municipalities are responsible for handling most
   tasks related to citizen service delivery.


 Launch of an innovative web service for pensioners in August 2006. The private pension
   scheme providers subscribing to this web service are automatically informed when a
   citizen is awarded an early public retirement pension scheme.
 In June 2006, the Danish Parliament adopts a resolution that requires the Government
   to ensure that the public sector’s use of IT and software is based on open standards.
   In line with this resolution, the Government should adopt and maintain a set of open
   standards at the latest by 1 January 2008.
 In January 2006, the Digital Task Force becomes part of the Administrationspolitisk
   Center (APC), a division of the Ministry of Finance. Both entities have a joint website,, which is a knowledge centre for the public sector in the areas of
   public management, eGovernment and other related areas.


 Since November 2005, all payments from public institutions (State benefits, pensions,
   etc) are only made by electronic transfer through the NemKonto Easy Account System.
 In October 2005, the Danish Digital Taskforce discloses the OECD Peer Review of
   eGovernment in Denmark. The report highlights several domains where improvements
   are needed, e.g. more focus on the citizen perspective, clarification of the relationship
   between authorities responsible for eGovernment, better measurement of the effects of
 In August 2005, the Danish authorities launch a large-scale communication campaign to
   raise citizens’ awareness of eGovernment services.
 Version 1.2 of the Danish Interoperability Framework is released in June 2005. It
   includes, among other, the OIOXML standards in the InfoStructurebase, the revision of
   technical standards and the addition of new ones.
 In May 2005, Denmark, Finland and Sweden set up a cross-border tax portal:
   Nordisk eTax. Their respective national tax administrations form a ‘Virtual Tax Office’; a
   network of Nordic tax experts make it easier for citizens to obtain answers to cross-
   border tax questions.
   On another note, the OASIS ratified SAML 2.0 standards becomes the officially
   recommended standard for federation in the Danish public sector.
 Since 1 February 2005 (a date known as ‘eDay 2’), all citizens and businesses are
   granted the right to communicate electronically with public authorities and to receive

eGovernment in Denmark                                                          January 2015

   electronic replies, if they request so. From that day onwards, all invoices sent to and by
   public sector bodies have to be in digital form when the public institution receives them.


 In June 2004, the Danish National IT and Telecom Agency introduces a Definition of
   Open Standards which provides the relevant parameters to evaluate the openness of
   technical standards.
 As of March 2004, all ministries and their agencies publish strategies of efficiency and
   effectiveness. Such strategies shall include four elements, namely: performance
   management policy; outsourcing policy; procurement policy; and clear targets for
   service delivery to citizens.
   The Government also presents a strategy for creating a more open and transparent
   public sector; it sets out several obligations in relation to the publication of the service
   delivery targets and the related achievements over the Internet.
 In February 2004, the Danish Government launches a new eGovernment Strategy for
   the period 2004-2006. Its main goal is to achieve a highly effective, customer-focused
   public sector capable of delivering top quality services to citizens and businesses.
 In January 2004, Denmark becomes the first country to adopt the Universal Business
   Language (UBL) as a standard for public sector eProcurement, to enable the integration
   of eProcurement applications across Government systems and within the Government-
   wideeProcurement portal.


 In October 2003, the Government issues guidance for improving efficiency and
   effectiveness in national Government, seeking to better integrate and coordinate a
   number of management tools, including ministerial strategies for efficiency and
   effectiveness, performance management, outsourcing and procurement policies.
   Moreover, the Government publishes the first draft version of its eGovernment
   Interoperability Framework, the ‘Reference Profile’.
 The first eDay takes place in September 2003: All Public Administrations are granted
   the right to send documents electronically to all other authorities and to demand that
   documents from other authorities be sent electronically (with the exception of sensitive
   data and documents).
 The White Paper on Enterprise Architecture is published in June 2003; making proposals
   for broader, more qualified work on enterprise architecture in the public sector in
   In the same month, the Government adopts the 'Danish Software Strategy' which aims
   to increase competition in the software market and to raise the quality and coherence of
   software products deployed in the public sector.
   The Infostructurebase is launched in March 2003. It consists of a central repository of
   information on data interchange standards for the public and private sectors.
 In February 2003, the Government appoints the telecoms company TDC to deliver the
   basic technology for digital signatures to Government organisations and the general

eGovernment in Denmark                                                         January 2015

 The Danish Board of Technology publishes the report Open Source Software in
   eGovernment in October 2002. The report shows that the use of the Open Source
   Software by public authorities would generate major potential savings.
 The public sector modernisation programme of the Danish Government 'Citizens at the
   Wheel' is published in May 2002.
 The Danish eGovernment strategy, 'towards eGovernment: Vision and Strategy for
   the Public Sector in Denmark', is published in January 2002. It sets out a vision to
   systematically use digital technologies to introduce new ways of thinking and to
   transform organisations and work processes, so as to improve the quality of service and


 Introduction of the e-Boks (eBox or Digital Post and Archive) service in 2001; the
   aim is to replace the 'window envelopes' – such as bank statements, insurance policies,
   payslips and official documents from Public Administrations – with digital documents
   sent to and stored in a secure electronic mailbox.
 In October 2001, the Danish XML Project is launched and an XML committee is
   established; the objective is to define standards for the description of all relevant data
   in the public sector, so as to enable data exchange and information systems'
   interoperability across the public sector.
 In June 2001, the central Government and the regional and municipal authorities launch
   a joint eGovernment Project and establish a Joint Board for the digitisation of the
   public sector. The board is served by both an ad-hoc public digitisation unit (the Digital
   Task Force) and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation.
 In May 2001, the Finance Ministry’s Committee for Digital Administration publish the
   'Digital Administration' report, which stresses the need for cross-level effort and
   coordination to improve eGovernment in the country.

eGovernment in Denmark                                                          January 2015

EGovernment Strategy
Main strategic objectives and principles

The Joint Public Digital Strategy (2011-2015)

                                         The current Danish eGovernment strategy,
                                         published in August 2011, is entitled 'Joint Public
                                         Digital Strategy: The Digital Road to Future
                                         Prosperity 2011-2015'. The central aim of the
                                         strategy is that by 2015 digital self-service
                                         solutions will be established as the normal
                                         procedural way for citizens to interact with the
                                         public sector. This new joint digital strategy
                                         focuses on a more rapid use of digital means by
the government, municipalities and counties in order to renew and render more efficient
the public sector. The strategy is divided into three main tracks, each of which covers
different areas and target groups:

TRACK 1: An end to paper forms and post

For citizens, it will be mandatory to use digital solutions in all their written communications
with the public authorities by 2015. Paper forms are to be phased out so that all citizens
serve themselves online. Furthermore, all citizens must have a digital post box, in which
they will receive all letters from public authorities, as of 2014.
For individual citizens, it becomes easier and more flexible to manage their transactions
with the public digitally, at a citizen's convenience and not only within office hours. Along
with this development, help-services will be introduced for those citizens who find it hard to
use the new digital solutions. It is the aim that 80 % of all service requests will be
electronic by 2015 - even though that would be applicable for a number of selected services
only and implemented in phases in the period 2012-2015.
For businesses, all relevant communication will be fully digital by the end of 2012. This
means that companies must make all reports to public authorities digitally by the end of the
year - or shortly thereafter, once the necessary legislation and effective solutions are in

TRACK 2: New digital welfare

On the way towards 2015, the digitisation and welfare technology is to be used consistently
to modernise and streamline the major areas of welfare by, among other actions:
 Undertaking an ambitious venture in the use of IT in schools. Investments are up to
   DKK 1.5 billion to bring schools into the 'digital future';
 using welfare technology to advance the treatment of chronic illnesses out of hospitals
   and into private homes, engaging thus patients in their own treatment;
 setting clear targets for the use of health IT, so that every day matters in hospitals can
   be facilitated;
 Simplifying and streamlining employment effort.
The effort towards digitising the major welfare areas, as outlined in the strategy, will be
developed even further by the Danish Government that took office in October 2011.

eGovernment in Denmark                                                             January 2015

TRACK 3: Closer digital public cooperation

The common digital solutions promoted by the State, regions and municipalities have been
developing together. These must constitute the natural platform for the authorities'
digitisation efforts. Each public authority or institution should not develop its own systems;
rather adopt systems in areas where there are already available good common solutions.
This is only possible if the public digitisation effort is coordinated effectively - across state,
regional and municipal authorities and institutions. Hence, there is a need for a stronger
joint public effort in four main areas:
 promotion of a common digital infrastructure, secure and robust enough to cover future
 effective sharing of reliable baseline data between administrations;
 adoption of a law which takes into consideration and cultivates opportunities in the
   digital society;
 A stronger coordination of public digitisation efforts.

Strategy for Digital Welfare (2013-2020)

The Danish government, Local Government Denmark and Danish Regions jointly launched a
common public sector "Strategy for Digital Welfare 2013-2020".
The aim of the strategy is to accelerate through concrete initiatives the use of ICT and
welfare technology in frontline public service delivery, specifically within healthcare, care
for the elderly, social services, and education.
Also, the strategy must ensure that the public sector continually acquires new knowledge of
the effects of digital technologies. Thus, the strategy includes a plan for testing promising
technologies to determine whether it would be advantageous to use them throughout
Overall, the strategy aims to modernise, rethink and make more effective and efficient
production and provision of public welfare services. The goal is to maintain or increase the
quality of public welfare services while at the same time reducing public expenditure.

Previous eGovernment Strategies

EGovernment Strategy (2007-2010)

The Danish eGovernment Strategy ‘Towards Better Digital Service, Increased Efficiency and
Stronger Collaboration’ covered the period 2007-2010. It was jointly adopted by the Danish
Government, the association of municipalities, 'Local Government Denmark' (LGDK) and
the association of the five 'Danish Regions'. Published in June 2007, it builds upon the
experience gained during the implementation of the two previous eGovernment strategies.
The strategy entailed a better and more binding cooperation among all levels of
Government. In this light, the strategy focused on three overarching priority areas that
mutually interact:
Better digital service
This priority area in question aimed at:
 making public services readily accessible to citizens and businesses through the
   digitisation process;

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