ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES

ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES

ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES ANDERS HOVE AND DAVID SANDALOW FEBRUARY 2019

ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES

ABOUT THE CENTER ON GLOBAL ENERGY POLICY The Center on Global Energy Policy provides independent, balanced, data-driven analysis to help policymakers navigate the complex world of energy. We approach energy as an economic, security, and environmental concern. And we draw on the resources of a worldclass institution, faculty with real-world experience, and a location in the world’s finance and media capital. Visit us at www.energypolicy.columbia.edu @ColumbiaUenergy ABOUT THE SCHOOL OF INTERNATIONAL AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS SIPA’s mission is to empower people to serve the global public interest.

Our goal is to foster economic growth, sustainable development, social progress, and democratic governance by educating public policy professionals, producing policy-related research, and conveying the results to the world. Based in New York City, with a student body that is 50 percent international and educational partners in cities around the world, SIPA is the most global of public policy schools.

For more information, please visit www.sipa.columbia.edu

ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES

ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES ANDERS HOVE AND DAVID SANDALOW FEBRUARY 2019 1255 Amsterdam Ave New York NY 10027 www.energypolicy.columbia.edu @ColumbiaUenergy

ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES

ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES ENERGYPOLICY.COLUMBIA.EDU | FEBRUARY 2019 ­­| 3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION GLOSSARY BACKGROUND: ELECTRIC VEHICLES A. Electric Vehicle Deployment Today B. Electric Vehicle Deployment Projections C. Electric Vehicle Policies i.

China ii. United States 1. EV CHARGING TODAY A. EV Charging in China B. EV Charging in the United States C. Role of Charging Infrastructure in EV Purchase Decisions D. Comparison — China and the United States 2. EV CHARGING PROJECTIONS 3. EV CHARGING POLICIES A. EV Charging Infrastructure Policy in China i. General ii. Utility Rate Design B. Charging Infrastructure Policy in the United States i. General ii. Utility Rate Design C. Comparison - China and the United States 4. EV CHARGING TECHNOLOGIES A. Charging Level TABLE OF CONTENTS 5 7 9 10 10 11 13 13 14 16 16 19 21 22 23 26 26 26 28 29 29 31 34 35 35 TABLE OF CONTENTS

ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES

ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES 4 | ­­CENTER ON GLOBAL ENERGY POLICY | COLUMBIA SIPA B. Charging Standards i. China ii. United States C. Charging Communication Protocols D. Costs E. Wireless Charging F. Battery Swapping 5. EV CHARGING BUSINESS MODELS A. Independent Charging Networks i. China ii. United States B. Utility Companies i. China ii. United States C. Auto Manufacturer Charging Networks D. Shopping Malls, Hotels and Restaurants i. China ii. United States E. Fueling Stations F. Sharing Economy G. Mobile Charging Units H. Commercial Parking Lots I. Municipal EV Charging J.

Comparison — China and the United States 6. CONCLUSION NOTES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ABOUT THE AUTHORS 36 36 36 38 38 39 39 41 41 41 43 44 44 44 46 47 47 47 49 49 50 52 53 54 56 60 84 85

ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES

ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES ENERGYPOLICY.COLUMBIA.EDU | FEBRUARY 2019 ­­| 5 At least 1.5 million electric vehicle (EV) chargers have now been installed in homes, businesses, parking garages, shopping centers and other locations around the world. The number of EV chargers is projected to grow rapidly as the electric vehicle stock grows in the years ahead. The EV charging industry is a highly dynamic sector with a wide range of approaches. The industry is emerging from infancy as electrification, mobility-as-a-service and vehicle autonomy interact to produce far-reaching changes in transportation.

This report compares EV charging in the world’s two largest electric vehicle markets -- China and the United States – examining policies, technologies and business models. The report is based on more than 50 interviews with industry participants and a review of the Chineseand Englishlanguage literature. Findings include: 1. The EV charging industries in China and the United States are developing largely independently of the other. There is little overlap among the key players in the EV charging industries in each country.

  • 2. The policy frameworks with respect to EV charging in each country differ.
  • The Chinese central government promotes the development of EV charging networks as a matter of national policy. It sets targets, provides funding and mandates standards. Many provincial and local governments also promote EV charging.
  • The United States federal government plays a modest role in EV charging. Several state governments play active roles. 3. EV charging technologies in China and the United States are broadly similar. In both countries, cords and plugs are the overwhelmingly dominant technology for charging electric vehicles. (Battery swapping and wireless charging have at most a minor presence.)
  • China has one nationwide EV fast charging standard, known as China GB/T.
  • The United States has three EV fast charging standards: CHAdeMO, SAE Combo and Tesla. 4. In both China and the United States, many types of businesses have begun to offer EV charging services, with a range of overlapping business models and approaches. A growing number of partnerships are emerging, involving independent charging companies, auto manufacturers, utilities, municipalities and others.
  • The role of utility-owned public chargers is larger in China, especially along major longdistance driving corridors.

The role of auto maker EV charging networks is larger in the United States. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES
  • ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES 6 | ­­CENTER ON GLOBAL ENERGY POLICY | COLUMBIA SIPA 5. Stakeholders in each country could learn from the other.
  • US policy makers could learn from the Chinese government’s multiyear planning with respect EV charging infrastructure, as well as China’s investment in data collection on EV charging.
  • Chinese policymakers could learn from the United States with respect to siting of public EV chargers, as well as US demand response programs.

Both countries could learn from the other with respect to EV business models As the demand for EV charging grows in the years ahead, continued study of the similarities and differences between approaches in China and the United States can help policymakers, businesses and other stakeholders in both countries and around the world.

ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES
ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES ENERGYPOLICY.COLUMBIA.EDU | FEBRUARY 2019 ­­| 7 We are in the early stages of a major infrastructure build-out. In China, the United States and other countries around the world, hundreds of thousands of electric vehicle chargers are being installed in homes, businesses, parking garages, shopping centers and other locations. The number of chargers is projected to grow rapidly in the years ahead as the electric vehicle stock grows. This build-out will require new behavior patterns and business models. For more than a century, the vast majority of vehicles have been refueled at retail stations dispensing gasoline and/or diesel. Electric vehicle charging is different than this familiar model for a number of reasons, including:
  • Most recharging of electric vehicles takes place at home or work.
  • EV charging is slower than filling a conventional vehicle with liquid fuel.
  • EV charging is cheaper than filling a conventional vehicle with liquid fuel (which is good for the driver but means less revenue potential for businesses that provide charging).
  • Electric utilities are more central players in EV charging than traditional fueling.
  • Many governments are supporting the growth of EV charging infrastructure to help achieve a range of social objectives.

As a result of these and other factors, the EV charging industry is currently a highly dynamic sector with a wide range of approaches. The industry is emerging from infancy as electrification, mobility-as-a-service and vehicle autonomy interact to produce some of the most far-reaching changes in the transportation sector in a century. This report compares electric vehicle charging in the world’s two largest electric vehicle markets—China and the United States—based on more than 50 in-person interviews and a review of the Chineseand English-language literature. The report starts with background on electric vehicles and EV charging infrastructure today.

The report then explores three questions: 1. What policies are shaping the growth of EV charging? 2. What technologies are being used?

3. What business models are emerging as the EV charging industry grows? A final section offers conclusions and lessons each country could learn from the other. INTRODUCTION

ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES

ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES 8 | ­­CENTER ON GLOBAL ENERGY POLICY | COLUMBIA SIPA Figure 1A: Breakdown of interviews for this report - country Source: Authors Figure 1B: Breakdown of interviews for this report - sector Source: Authors RMB-U.S. Dollar Conversion During January 2019, the Chinese RMB and U.S. dollar exchanged at a rate of roughly RMB 6.8 to $1.

During the past 10 years, the two currencies have exchanged within a range of roughly RMB 6.0 to $1 to RMB 7.0 to $1, with an average exchange rate of just over RMB 6.5 to $1.1

ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES

ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES ENERGYPOLICY.COLUMBIA.EDU | FEBRUARY 2019 ­­| 9 Term Abbreviation Explanation Electric vehicle EV A vehicle propelled solely or in part by an electric motor powered by batteries that can be recharged from a source outside the vehicle. (Includes both all-electric vehicles and plugin hybrids.) All-electric vehicle / battery electric vehicle AEV/BEV A vehicle propelled solely by an electric motor powered by batteries that can be recharged from a source outside the vehicle.

Plug-in hybrid PHEV A vehicle propelled in part by an internal combustion engine and in part by an electric motor powered by batteries that can be recharged from a source outside the vehicle.

Internal combustion engine ICE An engine that runs on liquid fuels including gasoline or diesel. New energy vehicle NEV A term used in China for vehicles not powered by an internal combustion engine. Last year roughly 99% of NEVs sold were plug-in electric vehicles (all-electric or plug-in hybrids). Electric vehicle supply equipment / Electric vehicle service equipment EVSE Charging infrastructure for electric vehicles. This broad term encompasses all types of charge posts and levels of charging stations.

Charging point / charging post A piece of equipment for charging an electric vehicle, other than an unmodified wall outlet Charging station A location with multiple charging points/posts. Level 1 charger L1 An EV charger using a standard 120 volt outlet. Often referred to as “trickle charging,” this is the slowest type of charger. Level 2 charger L2 An EV charger using a 240 volt electrical circuit, similar to a dryer or an electric stove top. DC fast charger DCFC A 480 volt charger that can deliver as much as hundreds of kWs of power. This is the fastest type of charger.

Combined Charging System CCS An EV charging standard that originated in the EU; supported by many automakers including Volkswagen, General Motors and Hyundai.

Charge de Move CHAdeMO An EV charging standard that originated in Japan; supported by many automakers including Nissan and Mitsubishi. Tesla Supercharger A proprietary EV 480 volt supercharger network deployed by Tesla, with its own proprietary standard. GLOSSARY

  • ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES 10 | ­­CENTER ON GLOBAL ENERGY POLICY | COLUMBIA SIPA BACKGROUND: ELECTRIC VEHICLES A. Electric Vehicle Deployment Today In 2018, roughly 1.25 million electric vehicles were sold in China—a 62% increase over 2017 sales. Electric vehicles were roughly 4.5% of light-duty passenger vehicles sold.2 As of January 2019, there were roughly 2.6 million electric vehicles on the roads in China.3 In the United States, roughly 361,000 electric vehicles were sold in 2018—an 81% increase over 2017 sales. Electric vehicles were roughly 2% of light-duty passenger vehicles sold.4 As of January 2019, there were roughly 1.1 million electric vehicles on the roads in the United States.5 The figures above do not include either low speed electric vehicles (LSEVs) or electric bicycles.
  • LSEVs have top speeds of roughly 40 kilometers per hour/25 miles per hour. In 2016, more than 500,000 LSEVs were sold in China.6 In the United States, LSEVs are largely confined to gated communities, golf courses, malls, airports, public parks and tourist facilities.7
  • Electric bicycles are wildly popular in China. Roughly 200 million electric bicycles are in use, with roughly 30 million sold each year.8 Sales of electric bicycles in the United States are in the range of 200,000 units per year.9 The average range of Chinese EVs is much less than the average range of U.S. EVs. In China,

ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES ENERGYPOLICY.COLUMBIA.EDU | FEBRUARY 2019 | 11 the average range of the top 10 selling all-electric vehicle models is less than 200 km/124 miles. In the United States, the average range of the top 10 selling all-electric vehicles is more than 400 km/248 miles. This suggests a need for greater density of EV charging infrastructure in China.10 Figure 2: Electric Vehicle Sales Source: IEA (2010-2017); Inside EVs (2018) Table 1: Comparison of China and U.S. light-duty EV sales China U.S.

Electric vehicle sales (2018) 1,250,000 361,000 Growth in 2018 vs prior year 73% 81% EV market share (new sales) 4.5% 2.1% All-electric vehicle sales (2018) 984,000 235,700 Growth in 2018 vs prior year 50.7% 227% Total Electric vehicles on road 2.6 million 1.1 million Source: China Car Association, Xinhua, China Passenger Car Market Information Alliance, Inside EVs B. Electric Vehicle Deployment Projections Forecasts of EV deployment vary widely. Some recent examples include:
  • The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) forecasts that 11.6% of passenger cars worldwide will be EVs by 2040.11
  • The International Energy Agency’s 2017 World Energy Outlook projects 280 million EVs on the road by 2040, which would represent 14% of the global fleet of roughly 2 billion vehicles at that time.12 The IEA’s 2018 Global EV Outlook projects 125 million EVs on
  • ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES 12 | ­­CENTER ON GLOBAL ENERGY POLICY | COLUMBIA SIPA the road by 2030 under the IEA’s New Policies Scenario (representing 6% of the global light-duty vehicle stock).13
  • BP’s “Evolving Transition” scenario suggests that 15% of vehicles will be EVs by 2040, but 30% of vehicle miles traveled will be powered by electricity.14
  • Morgan Stanley forecasts that EVs will represent around 25% of global vehicle stock by 2040 and surpass 55% of vehicle stock by 2050.15
  • In its 2018 EV Outlook, Bloomberg New Energy Finance projects that 55% of new car sales and 33% of the world’s vehicle fleet will be EVs by 2040.16
  • A “fast adoption” scenario set forth in one International Monetary Fund working paper suggests 90% penetration by 2042.17
  • The analysts at RethinkX, a consulting firm working on disruptive technology, project that transport-as-a-service and autonomous vehicle technology will enable EVs to replace virtually all privately owned and commercial vehicles as early as 2030.18 In contrast, a 2016 Mckinsey study projects a 15% market share for autonomous vehicles and less than 10% for shared vehicles (autonomous or not).19 The wide range of forecasts reflects different assumptions concerning battery costs, public policies and the impacts of mobility-as-a-service and vehicle autonomy, among other factors. EV deployment rates in China will be strongly affected by government targets. The Chinese government new energy vehicle targets currently include sales of 2 million per year by 2020 and 20% of total vehicle production and sales—or over 7 million vehicles annually—by 2025.20 According to a technology road map of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT), EVs could reach 40% of new vehicle sales in China by 2030.21 The projections in other studies vary:
  • A 2017 Tsinghua University study estimated EVs would account for 7% of vehicle sales in Beijing in 2030 without policy supports or technology breakthroughs and over 70% of sales and half the vehicle stock with aggressive policy support and technology progress.22
  • Bloomberg New Energy Finance forecasts EVs to reach 10% of Chinese new vehicle sales by 2025 and surpass 50% by 2035.23
  • The World Wildlife Fund expects China to reach over 90% of EV sales within 10–20 years.24 Forecasts of EV penetration in the US market vary:25
  • In the US Energy Information Administration’s 2018 “Reference Case,” EVs reach 7% of new vehicle sales in 2025 and 19% in 2050.26
  • The consultancy Energy Innovation estimates that EV sales will reach 10% of new US vehicle sales soon after 2025, 20% around 2030 and 65% by 2050.27
  • ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES ENERGYPOLICY.COLUMBIA.EDU | FEBRUARY 2019 | 13
  • Bloomberg New Energy Finance forecasts that EVs will reach 10% of new US vehicle sales by 2025 and 50% by 2035.28 C. Electric Vehicle Policies i. China The Chinese government promotes electric vehicles with a variety of policies including subsidies, rebates, quotas for vehicle manufacturers and tax exemptions. Many provincial and local governments do the same. City policies favoring EVs in obtaining license plates have been especially important.

National subsidies have been a major incentive for consumers to purchase EVs.

China’s central government began subsidizing EV purchases for government and public fleets in 2009 and individual car buyers in 2013. Subsidies in 2013 ranged from RMB 35,000 to RMB 60,000, depending on the vehicle’s electric range, and have been reduced regularly since.29 Subsidies were paid directly to manufacturers, based on vehicle registrations and sales. These subsidies attracted many companies into EV manufacturing, including some with no car manufacturing experience. Criticism of the subsidies, along with reports of fraud by companies receiving subsidies, prompted a policy redesign.30 In early 2018, the Chinese central government updated its EV subsidies, linking automaker fuel economy credits with new electric vehicle (NEV) production targets.31 Subsidies are now available for vehicles with range over 150 km on the test cycle used in China, which is based on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC).32 An NEDC range of 400 km is needed to receive the highest subsidy.33 Requirements tied to battery performance were also made more stringent: batteries must have energy density over 105 Wh/kg to receive a subsidy and at least 140 Wh/kg to receive the full subsidy.34 Local governments are permitted to offer additional subsidies up to 50% of the level of national subsidies.35 Government officials have said EV subsidies should phase out by 2020.36 In addition to subsidies, China has promoted EVs with nonfinancial incentives, including exemption from city license plate lotteries or restrictions.

This has been an especially important incentive since applicants often wait years to acquire a license plate for a conventional vehicle. (In Beijing in 2016, 2.7 million people registered for a license plate lottery with only 90,000 plates available for conventional vehicles. In 2018, the number of conventional vehicle license plates available fell to just 40,000.37 In Shanghai, EV plates are available for free, while regular plates cost over $12,000.38 ) Initially, license plates for EVs were available through a simple queue.39 Today, EV plates are distributed by lottery, with more plates available for EVs than conventional vehicles.

In addition, cars with EV plates may have privileges such as access to restricted traffic zones. Many large Chinese cities, including Beijing, restrict drivers of passenger cars from entering the city on certain days based on license plate number, while exempting EVs from such limits. A few cities in China use special parking access or discounts, lane access and congestion zone discounts to promote EVs.40

ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES 14 | ­­CENTER ON GLOBAL ENERGY POLICY | COLUMBIA SIPA In September 2017, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology finalized its new energy vehicle (NEV) quota, which requires all carmakers with over 30,000 annual vehicle sales in the country to produce 10% NEVs in 2019 and 12% in 2020. The policy also integrates NEV quotas with new corporate average fuel consumption (CAFC) requirements. A trading mechanism incorporates mandates for both NEV and CAFC attributes. An analysis by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) suggests the credit trading mechanism will enable carmakers to meet the 2020 quota with about 4% NEVs.41 Fleet EVs remain a sizeable portion of China’s EV market. Cities including Taiyuan and Shenzhen continue to electrify taxi, bus, ride-hailing and bus fleets at a rapid pace. In May 2018, Shenzhen announced it would allow EVs only in taxi and ride-hailing fleets and require all commercial trucks to be EVs—along with installing over 5,000 dedicated taxi charging posts by 2020.42 Chinese policy makers have several motivations for pursuing policies related to electric vehicles, including promoting domestic manufacturing of batteries and vehicles, decreasing dependence on imported oil and reducing emissions:
  • In 2014, President Xi Jinping said that electric mobility is an emerging technology in which China has the ability to leapfrog other global automakers.43 Many of China’s EV policies benefit domestic manufacturers and promote use of Chinese-made batteries in vehicles while encouraging foreign carmakers to share technology with Chinese jointventure partners.44
  • Reducing oil imports is a second important objective of Chinese EV policies. Since 2017, China has been the world’s largest oil importer.45 Oil accounts for over 10% of China’s import volume by value.46 Gasoline demand is rising quickly due to increased car ownership and driving.

Cutting emissions of urban air pollutants and greenhouse gases is another motive for pursuing EVs. Transportation sector emissions are a major contributor to ambient PM2.5 haze in major cities of China.47 Adopting EVs has significant potential to benefit urban air quality, even though much of China’s electricity presently comes from coal. Over the medium to long term, vehicle electrification will be essential to decarbonizing the transportation sector in China.48 ii. United States The US federal government offers EV purchasers a tax credit of $2,500 to $7,500 per vehicle, depending on battery size.

The tax credit is available for the first 200,000 vehicles sold by each manufacturer, after which it begins to phase out for that manufacturer.49 Federal fuel efficiency standards also provide incentives for manufacturers to sell electric vehicles.50 Many US states have tax credits or rebates for the purchase of EVs. Among the most generous are Colorado, California, Delaware and Massachusetts. Georgia, Illinois, Maryland, South Carolina and Tennessee have offered tax credits or rebates in the past but have now retired or scaled back those programs.51

ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES ENERGYPOLICY.COLUMBIA.EDU | FEBRUARY 2019 | 15 Many observers consider the multistate zero emissions vehicle (ZEV) program to be the most important EV policy in the United States.52 The program requires ZEVs to account for roughly 8% of vehicle sales in ZEV states by 2025. (The ZEV states are California, Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island and Vermont.) To date the mandate has mostly encouraged EV sales in California, which accounted for 50.7% of EV sales in the United States in 2016.

This is due in part to a “travel provision” that allowed automakers to earn credit for vehicles sold in California in the other seven states with ZEV mandates. This travel provision is now being scaled back, and EV sales in other ZEV states may grow as a result.53 High occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane exemptions have been an important incentive for EV purchases in the United States. More than 10 states (including California, Colorado and New York) allow EVs access to HOV lanes.54 Federal and state government goals in promoting electric vehicles include reducing emissions, improving fuel economy and promoting US technology leadership.

ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES 16 | ­­CENTER ON GLOBAL ENERGY POLICY | COLUMBIA SIPA A. EV Charging in China In January 2019, the Chinese Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Promotion Agency (EVCIPA) reported 808,000 EV chargers in China. Of these, roughly 330,000 were public chargers and 480,000 were home chargers. The number of chargers reported by EVCIPA grew 80% since January 2018.55 (Other data suggests the number of EV chargers in China could be even higher. According to EVCIPA as well as interviews conducted for this report, most EVs sold for personal use in China are accompanied by a home charging unit.

Roughly 1.5-2 million EV’s have been sold in China for personal use. Although not all home charging units sold with EVs are installed, this suggests the number of home EV chargers could be higher than 480,000.) China’s first-tier cities have taken the lead in EV charging infrastructure. This partly reflects the legacy of earlier central government policies, in particular the EV pilots that began in 2009 under the Ten Cities, Thousand Vehicles program. At the end of 2018, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangdong Province (home to Shenzhen and Guangzhou) accounted for just under 40% of charging posts nationwide.56 Nevertheless, EV charging infrastructure is growing rapidly throughout China.

The majority of provinces added over 1,000 new charging posts in 2018. Several provinces grew the number of charging posts by over 100%. Most provinces in China now have more than 2,000 public charging posts.57 1. EV CHARGING TODAY

ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES ENERGYPOLICY.COLUMBIA.EDU | FEBRUARY 2019 | 17 According to industry experts interviewed for this study, most home EV charging in China takes place with chargers distributed by carmakers at the time of purchase and installed according to official procedures. Nevertheless, in some Chinese cities it is not unusual to see informal “fly-line” charging with extension cords passed through windows and doors to vehicles parked at the curb.58 Fly-line charging to the curb reflects a shortage of private parking and lack of access to charging even when private parking is available.

Such practices, if left uncontrolled, could create distribution grid reliability issues, as many older Chinese urban neighborhoods have insufficient distribution capacity for heavy volumes of EV charging.59 FIgure 3: Photos of informal “fly line” charging in Beijing Source: Anders Hove (left, March 2018) and Rob Earley (right, July 2017) Highway corridors for EV charging have now been installed between Beijing and Shanghai as well as other major cities. Utilization of these facilities is heaviest on weekends and major public holidays. During February 2018, the amount of electricity consumed at State Grid chargers along highways more than doubled versus the prior month due to the annual Spring Festival holiday.60

ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES 18 | ­­CENTER ON GLOBAL ENERGY POLICY | COLUMBIA SIPA FIgure 4: China State Grid highway charging corridors as of early 2018 溪南服务区 官陂服务区 小溪服务区 龙桥服务区 罗东 服务区 菜溪 服务区 青云山 服务区 57.9km 68.1km 183.8km 63. 5km 54.5 km 厦蓉高速 长汀 服务区 兴泰 服务区 80k m 52k m 古田 服务区 福安 服务区 连江 服务区 青口 服务区 三山 服务区 大往 服务区 赤港 服务区 东进 服务区 驿坂 服务区 洛阳江 服务区 朴里 服务区 龙掘东 服务区 白水 服务区 沙西 服务区 天福 服务区 常山 服务区 46.5km 38k m 53.8 km 47.1km 27km 24.3km 36.4km 27.4km 30.8 km 33.6k m 29.3km 31.2km 35.6km 28.3km 云淡 服务区 透堡 服务区 23.6km 福州 泉州 漳州 厦门 沈海高速 虎屿岛 服务区 福鼎 服务区 华丰服务区 忠信 服务区 南台 服务区 丰乐 服务区 大湖岭 服务区 42.7km 建州 服务区 关东 服务区 洋里 服务区 (五华山)菌都服务区 42.7 km 53km 53km 47.7k m 32km 32km 高桥 服务区 塔前服务区 洋中 服务区 官洋 服务区 白樟 服务区 上街 服务区 竹岐 服务区 将乐 服务区 泰宁 服务区 福银高速 43km 39km 41k m 25km 27.6km 22.

5km 冠豸山 服务区 贡川 服务区 垄东 停车区 八一 服务区 新泉 服务区 七峰山 服务区 十方 服务区 长深高速 湛卢 服务区 北苑 服务区 沙县 停车区 新村 服务区 小桥服务区 28km 20km 49km 43km 29.3km 54km 44km 50km 61.5 km 24.6km 岵山 服务区 槐植 服务区 善乡 服务 区 下洋 服务区 坎市 服务区 湖洋 服务区 和平 服务区 西洋 服务区 大济 服务区 m k 3 4 55k m 59km 67km 45km 29km 仙店 服务区 洞宫山 服务区 佛子山 服务区 仁山 服务区 洋庄 服务区 36.5km 32.7 km 45km 54.5k m 吉州 服务区 上京 服务区 温郊 服务区 翠城 服务区 省新 服务区 达埔 服务区 泉南高速 40km 70km 36km 37km 40.7 km 42.6km 52.8km 龙岩 东孚 服务区 和睦 服务区 丰乐-小桥 39.5km 高桥-沙县 38km 垄东-沙县 30.8km 大济-菜溪 28.9km 东进-善乡 10.7km 北苑-小桥 26.4km 龙南 古城子服务区 榆林服务区 铁岭服务区 开原服务区 昌图服务区 毛家店服务区 井泉服务区 甘泉服务区 西海服务区 熊岳服务区 复州河服务区 三十里堡服务区 九里服务区 沈 海 高 速 辽河服务区 大连 沈阳 61km 75.8km 12km 63km 52km 32km 24.2km 49.2km 33.6km 66km 高花-井泉 71.3KM 高花-古城 子 55.9KM 井泉-古城 子 59.6KM 榆林-古城 子 40.8KM 四平 涞源北 服务区 陈家洼 服务区 南杨庄 服务区 涞源东 服务区 岗南 服务区 易县 服务区 阳原 服务区 化稍营 服务区 宣化 服务区 首都环线 京藏高速 京新高速 察北 服务区 张北 服务区 万全 服务区 罗家洼 服务区 双峰寺 服务区 承德 服务区 茅荆坝 服务区 钓鱼台服务区 平泉 服务区 洋河 服务区 邢台西 服务区 南和 服务区 威县 服务区 临西 服务区 尹支江 服务区 巨鹿 服务区 河间 服务区 渤海新区 服务区 海兴 服务区 定兴 服务区 满城 服务区 高阳服务区 顺平 服务区 保定 服务区 唐县 服务区 曲阳 服务区 王潼 服务区 景家山 服务区 三沟 服务区 宣化南 服务区 安子岭 服务区 金山岭 服务区 香河服务区 卢龙 服务区 北戴河 服务区 抚宁 服务区 昌黎 服务区 乐亭 服务区 唐海 服务区 山海关 服务区 西演 服务区 肃宁服务区 行唐 服务区 灵寿 服务区 石家庄 服务区 井陉 服务区 饶阳服务区 深州服务区 衡水 服务区 衡水湖 服务区 冀州 服务区 威县南 服务区 邱县 服务区 威县北 服务区 任丘 服务区 雄县 服务区 雄县 服务区 崔庄 服务区 徐水西 服务区 牛驼 服务区 廊坊 服务区 刘杖 子 服务 区 青龙东 服务区 青龙 服务区 抚宁北 服务区 东窝铺 停车区 靳杖子 服务区 遵化服务区 唐山 服务区 献县 服务区 武强 服务区 辛集 服务区 沧州 服务区 黄骅 服务区 野三坡 服务区 涞水 服务区 涿州 服务区 官厅 服务区 涿鹿 服务区 鲍家口 服务区 下花园 服务区 沙城 服务区 张家口 服务区 张家口南 服务区 崇礼 服务区 万庄 服务区 后奕 服务区 霸州 服务区 文安 服务区 木门店 服务区 莲花滩 服务区 沽源服务区 丰宁 服务区 凤山 服务区 唐曹 服务区 玉田 服务 区 丰润 停车区 滦县 服务区 迁安 停车区 正定 服务区 曲阳 阜平服务区 阜平西 服务区 平鲁 向阳堡 山阴 应县 服务区 浑源 服务区 峰峪服务区 阳高 服务区 天镇服务区 王庄堡 服务区 灵丘服务区 桑岗服务区 康家庄服务区 服务区 石家庄南 服务区 宁晋 服务区 58k m 53k m 唐官屯 服务区 青县 服务区 沧州 服务区 东光 服务区 吴桥 服务区 48km 39.2km 38.9km 定兴 服务 区 徐水服务区 望都 服务区 藁城 服务区 藁城北 服务区 西兆通服务区 元氏 服务区 柏乡 服务区 邢台 服务区 沙河 服务区 磁县 服务区 保定 服务区 定州 服务区 邯郸 漳河服务区 大名服务区 濮阳服务区 濮阳南服务区 滑县服务区 封丘服务区 朱砂服务区 扶沟 服务区 项城 服务区 新蔡 服务区 息县 服务区 槐店 服务区 泼河 服务区 泗店 服务区 罗铺 服务区 新洲 服务区 浠水 服务区 大冶服务区 三溪服务区 燕厦服务区 修水服务区 西海服务区 何市服务区 宜丰服务区 上高服务区 仙女湖 服务区 银湾桥服务区 南康服务区 信丰服务区 龙南服务区 服务区 30.1k m 27.1km 33k m 39km 15.6km 21km 35km 30km 26km 26km 24km 75km 53km 阳原-陈家洼 62.8km 武强-深州 63.5km 武强-衡水 39.5km 深州-辛集 78.6km 衡水-辛集 70.7km 王潼-衡水湖 78.2km 刘杖子-双峰寺 58.1km 三沟-双峰寺 22.8km 承德-双峰寺 26.6km 三沟-刘杖子 70.9km 茅荆坝-双峰寺 53.1km 54km 28km 40km 30km 31.7km 38.8km 28.9km 40.1km 33.9m 36.5km m k 5 ___ 2
3 42km 30km 52.8km 64km 55.1 km 46km 41km 57km 52km 45km 41.5km 50km 29.3k m 37km 53.8km 18.6km m k 7 4 101.8km 36k m 50k m 50km 30km 63.6km 抚宁北-北戴河 45km 抚宁北-山 海关 49.3km 抚宁-山海关 46.9km 遵化-丰润 43.1km 抚宁北戴河 32.7k m 唐山-滦县 41.4km 唐山-唐曹 55.3km 唐海-唐曹 24.5km 沧州 石家庄 邢台 保定 张家口 承德 秦皇岛 衡水 唐山-丰润 31.6km 10.9 km 涿州 服务区 44km 43km 30km 42km 51km 37k m 30.3km 5.5km 36km 27km 26km m k 9 ___ 7
2 32.9km m k 9 ___ 1
3 40km 26km 23.1km 54.1k m 15km 29.6k m 27km 28km 31km 31km 67.7 km 32km 32km 58km 阳原-化稍营 60.1km 35k m 58km 33km 45k m 32km 87km 58km 65km 45km 18km 93km 30k m 37km 86.7k m 140.7 km 49.8km 26km 19km 26km 40km 60km 30km 19.2km 37.2km 39km 37k m 68km 113 .9k m 47km 固安 服务区 肥乡服务区 邯郸服务区 39km 47km 51km 京 哈 高 速 窦店 服务区 百葛服务区 北务服务区 田家府 服务区 求贤 收费站 土沟 服务区 穆家峪服务区 韩村河 服务区 马驹桥 服务区 北京 48.

8km 20.3km 28km 56.9km 54.6 5km 30km 泗村店 徐官屯 服务区 服务区 静海 服务区 蓟州服务区 大厂 服务区 新安镇 服务区 宝坻 停车区 宁河 服务区 汉沽 服务区 宝坻温泉 服务区 七里海服务区 淮淀 服务区 西青 服务区 芦北口 服务区 天津南 服务区 大港 服务区 天津 29km 38.8km 16km 王庆坨 服务区 m k 9 ___ 6
2 38.1km 芦北口-王庆 坨 44.1km 22.8 km 36.8km 44.4km 57.8km 太谷服务区 武乡服务区 长治服务区 平遥服务区 灵石服务区 临汾服务区 襄汾服务区 二广高速 荣乌高速 清徐 服务区 太原北服务区 太原 大同 吕梁 临汾 太原服务区 102km 太原北-太谷 73.5km 50km 52km 58km 66.4km 太原-太原 北 12.3km 28.6km 58.6km 怀仁-古店 50km 33km 68.8km 34.4 km 青兰高速 晋城服务区 原平服务区 大盂服务区 大营服务区 康庄服务区 怀仁服务区 古店服务区 河津服务区 韩城服务区 澄城服务区 富平服务区 汉城服务区 朱雀服务区 秦岭服务区 油坊坪服务区 山阳服务区 灞桥服务区 华胥服务区 洩湖服务区 商州服务区 丹凤服务区 金丝峡服务区 小栗园服务区 重阳服务区 西峡服务区 镇平服务区 南阳东服务区 唐河服务区 泌阳服务区 毛集服务区 罗山服务区 光山服务区 商城服务区 众兴服务区 吴庄 服务区 汤泉 服务区 杰海 服务区 天竺山服务区 郧县服务区 双河服务区 宁陕服务区 黑虎崖服务区 洋县服务区 汉汇服务区 汉中服务区 勉县 服务区 七盘关 服务区 剑门关 服务区 宁强 服务区 阳泉 服务区 杏花 服务区 吴城 服务区 晋中 服务区 50k m 48k m 72k m 90km 44.6km 青州 服务区 临朐服务区 沂水北 服务区 诸城西 服务区 沂水 服务区 沂南服务区 东平 服务区 沂源服务区 费县服务区 济南 服务区 文登服务区 乳山服务区 寿光服务区 兰陵服务区 峄城服务区 曹州服务区 费县-沂南 21.1km 费县-临沂 44.8km 兰陵-临沂 51.4km 兰陵-郯城 90.9km 高青-淄博 39.4km 高青-邹平 48km 济南(京沪) -禹城 45.9km 济南-天桥 27.8km 夏津-高唐 43km 章丘-天桥 58km 59.2km 青州-潍坊 61.8km 潍坊-平度 81.2km 高密-平度 68.2km 济南-邹平 66.9km 临朐-沂水 47.1km 莒县-临沭 44.2km 临朐-沂源 116.1km 沂水北-沂源 66.6km 沂水北-沂水 16.7km 蓬莱-乳山 101.8km 乳山-福山 84.7km 文登-乳山 93.9km 平度-莱西 41.5km 高密-胶 州 40.3km 诸城西-胶州 103km 诸城西-胶南 98.6km 济宁-曲阜 28.5km 邹城-济宁 56.9km 泗水-曲阜 32.8km 泗水-邹城 60.7km 峄城枣庄 43km 临沭 服务区 潍坊 服务区 高唐服务区 69km 57.5km 41.4km 29.3km 70.2km 67.4km 天桥服务区 德州 服务区 平原服务区 禹城 服务区 章丘 服务区 雪野湖 服务区 莱芜 服务区 新泰服务区 沂南服务区 临沂 服务区 郯城服务区 21.4km 29.4km 30.6km 53.8km 27.9 km 111km 17.5km 59km m k 1 ___ 8
6 34.5km 济南 服务区 泰安 服务区 宁阳 服务区 曲阜服务区 邹城 服务区 滕州 服务区 枣庄 服务区 36.1km 40.7km 34.7km 33.4km 29.5km 福山服务区 栖霞 服务区 莱西 服务区 胶州 服务区 胶南服务区 日照服务区 66.6k m 68km 72km m k 1 5 80k m 84km 41km 54km 46km m k 8 7 37km 51km 57km 125 km 57k m 216k m 35km 济南 泰安 临沂 青岛 烟台 菏泽 28.3km 49.7km 京台高速 51.

7km 馆陶服务区 高青服务区 蓬莱-福山 32km 72km 招远服务区 蓬莱服务区 利津服务区 莱州服务区 平度 服务区 阳信服务区 乐陵服务区 德州东服务区 德州东-德州 27.9km 60km 53km 莱芜服务区 新泰-莱芜(滨莱) 63km 60km 巨野 服务区 菏泽服务区 55km 冠县服务区 28.5km 青银高速 淮口服务区 遂宁服务区 南充服务区 岳池服务区 荆坪服务区 76km 67km 80km 73km 成都 遂宁 乐山 雅安 泸州 广安 57.7km 沪蓉高速 沪蓉高速 重庆 青山泉 服务区 刘集服务区 议堂 服务区 港头 服务区 古黄河 服务区 高作 服务区 成子湖 服务区 八仙台 服务区 明祖陵 服务区 洪泽湖 服务区 重岗山 服务区 东海 服务区 锦屏山 服务区 赣马 服务区 沙河 服务区 浦南 服务区 灌云服务区 响水服务区 滨海服务区 射阳服务区 蒋庵 服务区 王兴 服务区 沭阳 服务区 川星 服务区 六洞 服务区 范水 服务区 龙奔 服务区 广陵 服务 区 江阴大 桥服务区 梅村 服务区 阳澄湖 服务区 大丰服务区 东台服务区 如皋 服务区 先锋 服务区 苏通大桥 服务区 沙溪 服务区 白洋湖 服务区 古盐河 服务区 车桥服务区 九龙口 服务区 郭猛 服务区 盱眙 服务区 洪泽湖 服务区 双沟 服务区 郭村 服务区 白米 服务区 老山 服务区 三桥 服务区 仪征 服务区 第四大桥 服务区 江宁 服务区 方山 服务区 东庐山 服务区 天目湖 服务区 宜兴太湖 服务区 荣炳 服务区 茅山 服务区 长荡湖 服务区 滆湖 服务区 新桥服务区 宛山荡 服务区 石牌 服务区 阳澄西湖 服务区 平望 服务区 高塍 服务区 小黄山 服务区 淹城 服务区 麒麟服务区 崇启大桥服务区 清修 服务区 41.2 km 69.7 km 44.6k m 47.4km 9km 38km 徐州 连云港 南京 山 茂 芳 22.9km 57.7km 麒麟-先锋 34.9km 麒麟-苏通大桥 39.2km 王兴-川星 65.6km 王兴-成子湖 56km 王兴-古盐河 65km 龙奔-双沟 46.7km 双沟-仪征 58.9km 龙奔-郭村 63.5km 王兴-六洞 48.33km 白米店-如皋 60.7km 白洋湖-平望 25.7km 白米店-东台 62.4km 沙河-赣马 22.4km 沙河-浦 南 22.4km 锦屏山-浦南 20.6km 青山泉-古黄河 34.9km 刘集-古黄河 57.8km 邵楼-古黄河 26.9km 高作-重岗山 56.1km 成子湖-重岗山 108.5km 八仙台-盱眙 44.6km 邵楼-青山泉 53.3km 锦屏山-灌云 42.7km 沙河-锦屏山 43.7km 34.4km 26km 45.2km 37.2km 40.7k m 46.6k m 36.5km 50.2km 19.5km 46.6k m 52.7k m 59.9km 15.4km 54.9 km 64.3km 71.1 km 44.3k m 30.5km 58.5k m 54.2 km 53.9km 32k m 127.3km 43.9km 18km 35.9km 33.3k m 41.2km 27.6 km 42.4 km 34.1km 61.8k m 118.2 km 38.3 km 18.5 km 46.1km 8.3km 68.3km 56.8km 37.6km 79.1km 37.6km 29.6km 49.5km 42.9km 90.

2km 40.6km 47.4km 39.8 km 45.7km 48.8km m k 3 ___ 2
3 27.2km 京沪高速 釜山服务区 17.2km 连霍高速 京 昆 高 速 渭南西服务区 宝鸡西服务区 眉县服务区 华山服务区 西安 宝鸡 72km 43km 60km 武功服务区 116km 郑州北 服务区 灵宝服务区 三门峡服务区 渑池服务区 渑池西停车区 洛阳服务区 巩义服务区 开封 服务区 民权 服务区 宁陵服务区 商丘服务区 夏邑服务区 安阳服务区 鹤壁服务区 新乡服务区 原阳 服务区 郑州东 服务区 许昌服务区 确山服务区 灵山服务区 豫冀界服务区 新郑服务区 驻马店服务区 24.3km 21.5km 39.6km 43km 43.4km 19.2km 48.3km 56.6km 19.5km 56.6k m 49km 28k m m k 8 ___ 4
2 20.9km 38.8km 18.3km 68.9 km 52.8km m k 6 ___ 2
6 m k 8 ___ 3
9 郑州 洛阳 安阳 许昌 信阳 京港澳高速 63km 60km 40km 43km 56km 41km 62km 51km 48k m 130km 郑州北-原阳 47.7km 开封-原阳 64.7km 郑州北-郑州东 29.6km 开封-郑州东 48.1km 大广高速 桥头 服务区 石龙湖 服务区 岳西 服务区 红星 服务区 河口服务区 霍山 徐集 服务区 服务区 顺安 服务区 天门 服务区 千军 服务区 福山 服务区 清溪 服务区 广德服务区 宁国 服务区 金沙 服务区 宿州 服务区 濉溪 服务区 虞姬 服务区 三角元服务区 沪渝高速 沪渝高速 宁洛高速 新竹 服务区 新芜 服务区 牛头山 服务区 大龙山 服务区 升金湖 服务区 花园 服务区 马衙 服务区 潜山 服务区 陈埠 服务区 香铺 服务区 八公山 服务区 官塘 服务区 龙门寺 服务区 焦岗湖 服务区 四方湖 服务区 颍上 服务区 伍明服务区 砀山服务区 庄里 服务区 符离 服务区 君王 服务区 禹会 服务区 吴圩 服务区 沙溪 服务区 肥东 服务区 周潭服务区 九华山服务区 太平湖服务区 呈坎服务区 休宁服务区 30.7km 84.9k m 71.7km 65km 52.2km 33.4k m 5.6km 23.1k m 54.9k m 11.7km 45.6km 56.3km 68.7km 77.4km 63km 63.4km 51.6km 19.1k m 35.7k m 94.6km 58.4k m 54km 74.3km 68.9km 34.3km 25.

4km 43.8km 52.7km 18.5 km 73. 8km 28k m 46.6km 33.8km 10.8km 林东半岛 服务区 阜南 服务区 临泉 服务区 蚌埠 宿州 合肥 六安 黄山 安庆 阜阳 120 km 70.2km 42.4km 45k m 104.1k m 39.2km 30.6km 24.7km 75.2km 40.2km 104.8km 36.6 km 53.5 km 45km 130km 31k m 44. 5km 41.5km 31.

6km 吕望 服务区 嘉山 服务区 41k m 72.6km 官塘-君王 72.4km ⑤ 伍明-三 角元 36.8km 伍明-吕 望 70.2km 48.7km 太白 服务区 济广高速 黄梅小池 服务区 黄梅 服务区 黄梅界子墩 服务区 蕲春二里湖 服务区 鄂州 服务区 汉川 服务区 钟祥 服务区 兴山 服务区 巴东 服务区 夷陵雾渡河 服务区 当阳白河 服务区 天门北 服务区 江夏 服务区 福 银 高 速 沪陕高速 仙桃 服务区 枝江服务区 高家堰 服务区 野三关 服务区 恩施 服务区 白羊塘 服务区 施岗 服务区 葛店 服务区 孝感 服务区 安陆服务区 随州服务区 枣阳服务区 钟岗服务区 华容 服务区 孝感 服务区 东西湖 服务区 蔡甸 服务区 咸宁 服务区 赤壁 服务区 110.9km 34.1k m 49.5 km 30.7 km 59.8km 50.9 km 55.3km 57km 67.3km 武汉 黄石 襄阳 18.7km 46.1km 58.2km 119k m 33.6km 110 .2km 81.4km 97.2km 81km 54.1 km 64. 4km 59.4 km 51.9k m 32.1km 69.7km 41km 42.2km 15.3km 55.2km 30.6km 17.8km 蔡甸-咸宁 71.4km 江夏-蔡甸 49.9km 杭瑞高速 112.6k m 178.5km 永州 羊楼司服务区 临湘服务区 巴陵服务区 平江服务区 长沙服务区 朱亭服务区 耒阳服务区 苏仙服务区 宜章服务区 47.6km 昭山服务区 20.3km m k 1 ___ 5
5 31.4km 桃林服务区 25km 33.4km 47km 34.3km 64.8km 56km 105.

3km 长沙 衡阳 怀化 常德 郴州 雁城服务区 南昌 九江 龙虎山服务区 东乡服务区 黎川服务区 临川 服务区 南城 服务区 朱洋服务区 丰城服务区 樟树服务区 新余 服务区 峡江服务区 宜春 服务区 萍乡服务区 醴陵服务区 跳马 服务区 湘潭 服务区 水府庙 服务区 宝庆服务区 洞口服务区 安江服务区 上饶服务区 横市服务区 遂川服务区 吉安服务区 庐山服务区 湾里 服务区 七里岗服务区 石钟山服务区 80km 48km 62km 54km 98km 47k m 73km 60k m 74km 31km 30km 56km 丰城-湾 里 60km 峡江-樟 树 58km 峡江-新余 63km 华丰-和平 49.7km 华丰-槐植 96.5km 华丰-兴泰 66.4km 华丰-天宝 62.2km 宜春-吉 安 137km 湾里-庐山 94km 湾里-七里岗 31km 瑞金 长深高速 军山湖服务区 奉新 服务区 沪昆高速 柴桥 服务区 嵊州 服务区(常台) 龙岗 服务区 临安 服务区 径山 服务区 安吉 服务区 永康 服务区 临海 服务区 神仙居 服务区 仙居 服务区 磐安 服务区 东阳服务区 (甬金) 东阳服务区 (诸永) 天台 服务区 象山 服务区 余姚 服务区 武义 服务区 诸暨 服务区 诸暨 服务区 金塘 服务区 绍兴 服务区 平湖 服务区 海宁 服务区 云和 服务区 丽水 服务区 青田 服务区 桥头 服务区 松阳 服务区 灵溪 服务区 龙游服务区 衢州 服务区 常山 服务区 鉴湖服务区 萧山 服务区 桐庐服务区 建德服务区 嘉绍大桥 服务区 嘉善 服务区 新塍 服务区 开化 服务区 江山 服务区 仙霞 服务区 76.

4km 42.5km 45.7km 北岸服务区 南岸服务区 慈城 服务区 奉化服务区 宁海服务区 台州服务区 清江服务区 温州服务区 温州服务区 苍南服务区 18.7 km 61.2k m 51.1km 60.8km 33.9 km 94km m k 3 ___ 1
7 63.9km 60km 36.6km 26.2 km 30k m 69.1km 25.8k m 65km 52.1km 85.2 km 54.8 km m k 7 ___ 5
5 23.7km 65.8km 62.7km 60.4km 43.2k m 长兴太湖 服务区 长兴 服务区 青山服务区 长安 服务区 嘉兴 服务区 128.2k m m k 3 ___ 5
5 嘉兴 湖州 杭州 宁波 台州 温州 金华 丽水 37.2k m 66. 5km 61. 7km 44.8km 81.6 km 94.4 km 34.1km 宁波服务区 89.5 km 嵊州服务区 (甬金) 东阳(甬 金) -诸暨4 5km 绍兴-余 姚 48.3km 金华-东阳 52.6km 东阳(甬金) -兰溪93.1km 兰溪-武艺 67.6km 灵溪-兰溪 54.3km 诸暨-鉴湖 诸暨东阳(诸永) 47km 47km 东阳(甬金) - 天台120km 嵊州(甬金) -天台77.7k m 嵊州(常台) -天台98.7km 天台-台州 36.9km 天台-宁海 68.6km 衢州-灵溪 22.3km 衢州龙游 21.5k m 开化-常 山 76km 江山-常山 42.3km 65km 磐安-临 海 75.1km 临海-清江 85.5km 神仙居-温 州 101km 桥头-温州 36km 桥头-苍 南 104km 神仙居-清江 110km 临海-台州 32.5km 磐安-神仙居 35.5km 青田-丽水 34.7km 青田-云 和 100.8km 84.4 km 南湖 服务区 85.5km 40km 32.9km 杭州湾环线 兰溪 服务区 龙游-兰溪 43.7km 55.9km 淀山湖 服务区 嘉定安 亭出口 枫泾服务区 港沿服务区 长兴岛 服务区 上海 朱桥 服务区 临港 服务区 练塘 服务区 常台高速 30km 枫泾服务区 叶榭服务区 沈海线 朱桥服务区 航头服务区 合庆 服务区 长兴岛 服务区 小昆山 服务区 沪渝高速 沪浙(金山)服务区 莘奉金高速 嘉定安亭出口 京沪线 港沿服务区 临港服务区 庄行服务区 光明服务区 上海绕城高速 沪芦高速 沪陕高速 练塘服务区 上海 申嘉湖高速 43.2km 30k m 42.5km 43.8k m 47.3km 19.3k m ① ② 小昆山-朱桥 60.7km 航头-颛桥 23.8km 沪浙(金山)-庄行 35km 沪浙(金山)-光明 46.4km 小昆山-叶榭 36.2km ① ② 练塘服务区至小昆山服务区距离30.1km 标注: 练塘服务区至庄行服务区服务区距离45.8km ③ 临港-光明 29.2km 光明-合庆 53.4km 光明-庄行 15.3km ④ 叶榭服务区至航头服务区距离29.5km 叶榭服务区至沪浙(金山)服务区距离42.2km 航头服务区至沪浙(金山)服务区距离62.3km 航头服务区至庄行服务区距离39.3km 叶榭服务区至庄行服务区距离33km 叶榭服务区至光明服务区距离37.2km 航头服务区至光明服务区距离41.2km 沪昆高速 沪昆高速 淀山湖服务区 示例(以京港澳为例) 双方向已建设 在建 单方向已建设 国家电网高速公路快充网络图(2018版) G15 G15 G15 G20 G20 G18 G18 G22 G22 G18 G55 G72 G72 G15 G40 G36 G42 G42 G50 G50 G50 G50 G50 G42 G15 G15 G15 G25 G45 G45 G45 G76 G6 G95 G5 G5 G5 G95 G95 G7 G25 G25 G30 G30 G30 G70 G30 G25 G25 G92 G25 G25 G35 G35 G35 G35 G35 G2 G4 G4 G4 G4 G3 G3 G3 G3 G3 G3 G3 G2 G2 G2 G2 G2 G2 平山 服务区 永乐店 服务区 鹿泉 服务区 阳澄北湖 服务区 即墨服务区 即墨-胶州 51.1km 海阳服务区 海阳-乳山 文登-海阳 96km 64.6km 13.3km 无棣服务区 泗水 服务区 56km 72km 济宁 服务区 45k m 54km 聊城服务区 梁山服务区 长清 服务区 东昌府 服务区 曹县服务区 东营服务区 牛道口 服务区 小韩庄 停车区 4.4km 37.3km 金华 服务区 金华-武艺 金华-兰溪 61.8km 57.9 km 43.2km 龙泉 服务区 庆元 服务区 47.7 km 65.9km 62.2km 方岩服务区 方岩-永 康 34km 宝坻服 务区 25.2km 阳信-无棣 45.8km 51km m k 8 3 滨州服务区 阳信-滨州 38.9km 50km 56.9km 长清-济南(京台) 34.9km 汶上-东平 40.5km 80km 46km 60km 适中 服务区 南阳 服务区 金山 服务区 33km 33.3 km 天宝 服务 区 66k m 泉岭-七里 岗 77km 50km 南城-临 川 60km 湾里-东乡 102.1km 65.1km 17km 文宫服务区 永兴服务区 汪洋服务区 27km 永兴-淮口 (经绕城高速) 80km 46km 安县服务区 济阳南-章丘 63.7km 泰山-宁阳 52.5km 晋中-太原北 49.1km 襄垣服务区 东阳关服务区 高平服务区 霍州服务区 永济服务区 54km 46km 30km 39.3km 70km 39km 榆社服务区 43k m 44km 新沂 服务区 38.5km 32.6k m 邵楼服务区 39.6km 173.4 km 郧西服务区 包茂高速 大观服务区 水江服务区 武隆服务区 古路服务区 垫江 服务区 新立 服务区 曾家 服务区 珞璜 服务区 迎龙 服务区 龙兴 服务区 复盛 服务区 晏家 服务区 复兴 服务区 铜梁 服务区 大路 服务区 潼南 服务区 忠州 服务区 万州 服务区 云阳 服务区 奉节 服务区 三店 服务区 55km 42.7km G65 G42 G50 G50 28km 芙蓉 服务区 43.6km 16.7km 大溪河 服务区 大溪河-君 王 89.2km 66km 辛集服务区 60km 132km 90.7km 42.4km 新芜 - 太白岛 60km 54.2k m 芷江服务区 新晃服务区 66km 渝昆高速 G60 G60 G70 堰桥 服务 区 40.6km 45.8k m 富顺服务区 威远服务区 47km 59km 八角服务区 新安服务区 城北服务区 63km 65km 25km 50km 26km 36km 58.4km 35km 47km 47km 67k m 60km 38.7km 28.6 km 41.9km 24km 18km 44km 45km 63.5km 36.3km 108.9km 24.2km 30.6km 36.9km 34.4k m 31.9km 95.5 km 75.5 km 77.9 km 80.5km 7.1km 37.1km 56.1km 46.5km 86.8km 32.8km 41.3km 49km 74km 58.5km 43.4k m 76.4k m 85.5km G70 62.2 km 32.2 km 53.4 km 42.4km 57.9km 45.3km 98.2 km 73.7km 37.9km 40.3km 43.2km 47.8km 69.5km 40.6km 62.2km 46.2k m 46.6km 55.5km 44.9km 61km 55.2km 36.1km 62km 59.8km 60.5 km 88.4 km 97.9km 108.

6km 85. 8km 22.2 km 32.9km 56.5km 周口服务区 沈丘服务区 汝阳服务区 汝州服务区 平顶山服务区 G36 漯河服务区 38.9km 107. 6km 71.5k m 112.2km 52.1k m 37.2km 19.3km 32.1km 龙池 服务区 53.3k m 55.5k m 93.3km 31.5km 40.6km 31.1km 60. 4km 68.9km 35.5km 梁平服务区 湖州服务区 44.7km 三清山服务区 60k m 46k m 曹庄服务区 45km 30km 安县-八角元 56.6km 赤岗-大往 26km 64km 105km 20km 鄱阳服务区 涌泉服务区 太师屯服务区 40.2km 42km 126.4km 济南(京台)-天桥 黄龙 服务区 31.3km 125 .2km 井陉北 服务区 46.4km 41.8km 41.1km 寻乌服务区 会昌南 服务区 宁都东 服务区 广昌 服务区 南丰 服务区 金溪 服务区 万年 服务区 余江 服务区 月亮湖 服务区 110km 130km 52km 61km 130km 50km 62km 62km 40km 雷埠 服务区 30km 35.4km 70k m 90km 清家沟 服务区 龙泉寺 服务区 23.8km 25.5km 花都 服务区 海门岛 服务区 朝阳 服务区 天宝-花都 39.1km 海门岛-花都 49.7km 海门岛-白水 60.2km 海门岛-朝阳 60.2km 华阳服务区 寒亭服务区 华阳-金沙 33.6km 华阳-呈坎 66.5km 62km 84.9 km 石棉服务区 石棉-文宫 261.8km 遵化新城服务区 26.8km 孟村 服务区 济阳 服务区 鱼台服务区 济宁-鱼台 99.7km 浦江服务区 荥经服务区 新津服务区 57.7km 27.8km 103.6km 43.9km 阳曲服务区 盂县服务区 48.1km 43.6km 78.5km 68.8km 49.8km 27.2km 东狮山服务区 93.9km 秦和东服务区 36.9km 更乐服务区 武安服务区 59.8km 29.4km 25km 80.

7km 大庄 服务区 云灵山 服务区 大白 服务区 大埠岗 服务区 68km 72.8k m 大埠-泰宁 27.2km 大埠-朱阳 27.2km 大埠-大白 70.9km 大白-仙店 35.6 km 云灵山-大埠岗 68.2km 云灵山-大白 66.3km 白沙服务区 24.3km 香隅服务区 30km 铅山高速 35.4k m 50.3km 安窠服务区 68.9km 52km 榕桥 服务区 42.2km 30.1km 30km 上田服务区 17km 48km 21.6k m 闽江源服务区 94.4km 60.6km 92.6km 44.7km 24.6km 38.4km 80.9km 石弓服务区 马集服务区 22.5km 33km 香泉 服务区 景德镇服务区 婺源服务区 唐河服务区 涪陵西服务区 120km 65km 南江 服务区 67km 15km 25.4km 43.4km 60km Source: State Grid Corporation of China 2018; colors indicate east-west, north-south, and urban cluster routes FIgure 5: Number of China public and dedicated fleet EV charging posts, in thousands Source: China EV Charging Alliance, January 2019

  • ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES ENERGYPOLICY.COLUMBIA.EDU | FEBRUARY 2019 | 19 FIgure 6: Number of China public and dedicated fleet EV charging posts by province Source: China EV Charging Alliance, January 2019 B. EV Charging in the United States We estimate there are at least a half million electric vehicle chargers in the United States today.
  • The overwhelming majority of these are home chargers. Exact figures with respect to the numbers of home chargers are not available, however if just under two-thirds of electric vehicle owners in the United States have installed home chargers, as suggested by one survey,61 there would be more than a half million residential charging posts in the United States. (Survey data suggest that more than 80% of EV charging in the United States takes place at home.62 )
  • In addition, as of January 2019, the United States had over 67,000 nonresidential EV charging posts located at approximately 24,000 charging stations, according to US Department of Energy data. (In 2018 the number of non-residential stations increased by 33%, according to DOE data.63 Workplace charging is growing in the United States.64 )

ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES 20 | ­­CENTER ON GLOBAL ENERGY POLICY | COLUMBIA SIPA As of January 2019, California had 5,600 nonresidential EV charging stations (24% of the national total), hosting over 21,000 charging posts (32% of the national total). Only three other states—Texas, Florida and New York—had over 1,000 charging stations, according to the DOE. The average among all 50 US states was around 450 stations and around 1,300 charging posts.65 Of the approximately 22,000 charging stations in DOE’s database in January 2019, 11% offered some form of DC fast-charging.

91% of stations offered Level 2 charging, and 6% offered Level 1 charging. Most stations have more than one charge point. Approximately half of stations with DC fast charging also have a Level 2 charger available.

FIgure 7: U.S. electric vehicle charging stations (light blue) and EV signage corridors (green, orange pending) Source: Federal Highway Administration, 2019 FIgure 8: Number of charging posts at non-residential charging stations, United States 2011-2018 Source: Alternative Fuels Data Center, US Department of Energy, January 2019

ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES ENERGYPOLICY.COLUMBIA.EDU | FEBRUARY 2019 | 21 C. Role of Charging Infrastructure in EV Purchase Decisions In both China and the United States, most EV charging takes place at home or work.66 Nevertheless, EV drivers and potential EV drivers express strong interest in the availability of public charging infrastructure.

Some studies suggest a “chicken and egg” problem, in which more public EV charging infrastructure is required for growth in EV sales and more EV sales are required for growth in public EV charging infrastructure.67 Availability of public EV charging infrastructure is an especially important consideration for many potential Chinese EV purchasers for several reasons. First, many Chinese households lack access to a dedicated parking spot near home. Some Beijing-area EV dealers responsible for installing home EV chargers report that as few as 40% of households have such access.68 Second, for drivers with such a dedicated parking spot, installing home chargers may take as long as eight months and require visits and paperwork submissions to the grid company, district management department and the civil preparedness bureau.69 Studies suggest the availability of public EV charging is an important factor in decisions on EV purchases in the United States as well.70 A 2017 online survey of U.S.

EV owners found that public charging and access to fast charging were viewed as top criteria when buying an EV.71 A 2016 survey of potential EV buyers found that “lack of charging facilities in my area” was the third-ranked reason for not purchasing an EV and “lack of quick charging stations” the fourth. Eight of the top 30 reasons cited for not purchasing an EV related to public charging.72 A 2015 study by the US National Academies of Science found that charging infrastructure was critical to EV adoption, with home charging as most important, followed by workplace charging and then by public charging within urban areas, and lastly by fastcharging along major highways.

Citing data from Japan, the study noted that availability of public charging doesn’t necessarily result in more charging at public locations but can result in greater EV adoption.73

ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES 22 | ­­CENTER ON GLOBAL ENERGY POLICY | COLUMBIA SIPA D. Comparison—China and the United States In both China and the United States, EV charging infrastructure is growing at double-digit rates. The percentage of EV charging stations with DC fast-charging is higher in China than the United States. In both China and the United States, charging infrastructure is concentrated in cities and states with favorable policies and high rates of EV adoption. Table 2: Comparison of China and U.S. EV charging infrastructure Period China U.S.

Number of public or fleet charging points 2018 year-end 330,000 67,500 2017 year-end 210,000 50,600 Annual growth rate of public + fleet charging points 2017 to 2018 43% 33% Number of charging stations 2018 year-end 70,000 (est.) 24,000 2017 year-end 50,000 (est.) 20,000 % DC charging 2018 year-end 36% 14% 2017 year-end 24% 11% Source: China EV Charging Infrastructure Promotion Alliance, U.S.

Department of Energy

ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING IN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES ENERGYPOLICY.COLUMBIA.EDU | FEBRUARY 2019 | 23 Future demand for EV charging infrastructure will depend on a number of factors. Many of these are highly uncertain:
  • One important factor is the number of electric vehicles sold, yet projections for EV sales vary widely (as discussed in the Background section above).
  • Driving patterns are another important factor, yet mobility-as-a-service and autonomous vehicle technology could change driving patterns in the decades ahead in significant and potentially unpredictable ways. Drivers may be less prone to own vehicles, for example, and vehicles’ average time on the road each day may increase.
  • A third factor is the progress of technologies such as wireless charging and EV battery swapping (discussed in Sections 4E and 4F below). At present wireless charging has little or no commercial presence in China or the United States. Battery swapping is used in some Chinese taxi fleets but has little or no presence in the United States.74 If either technology becomes more common, that would affect the development of EV charging infrastructure.

A final factor is government policies supporting EV charging. In China, the growth of EV charging infrastructure will be largely determined by government targets. NDRC’s Guidelines for Developing Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure (2015– 2020), issued in October 2015, calls for at least 120,000 EV charging stations and 4.8 million 2. EV CHARGING PROJECTIONS

You can also read
Next part ... Cancel