Energy - solar

Energy - solar

Energy - solar

module 10 | BP energy education programme 2008 solar energy Click on the icons to go to the other modules. Next Next Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy Learning Area Science Society and Environment Outcomes Investigation, Communication and Participation (S&E) Resources (S&E) Earth and Beyond (SCI) Energy and Change (SCI) Phase Early Adolescence Program BPEEP Module 10: Solar Energy Learning Area, Outcomes and Phase Copyright This training module is copyright. Apart from fair dealing for private study or research as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced, copied, transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of BP Australia Pty Ltd.

All requests and enquiries should be directed to the BPEEP Coordinator on (08) 9419 9623.

Disclaimer The content of this training module is provided for educational purposes only. In no event will BP Australia Pty Ltd or any related corporation be liable for the accuracy of the information contained in the module or the reliance placed upon it. The module is provided on the basis that all persons using it take responsibility for assessing the relevance and accuracy of its content. The content was compiled by teachers Chris Hickman and Kate Bowman of Perth, Western Australia who have sourced and written the content.

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solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy Overview of Learning Module Module 10 titled ‘Solar Energy’ is part of the teaching and learning sequence to the BP Energy Education Program.

The main objective of the module is to explore the potential of solar energy to become a significant energy resource used to reduce the current dependence on fossil fuels. Key understandings addressed in this module are delivered through 3 major conceptual areas: 1. Solar Energy • Describe how solar energy is generated. • Explain how solar energy is used. • Identify the conditions required for efficient solar energy. • Identify and describe the advantages and disadvantages of solar energy as an energy resource. • Describe the extent of solar energy’s impact on the environment. • Determine the potential of solar energy as a world wide energy resource.

• Examine the extent and importance of solar energy in Australia. Each conceptual area is presented as a series of learning experiences that can be used sequentially or as stand alone learning experiences. However when delivered in sequence these learning experiences provide a comprehensive background understanding necessary for the Science and Society and Environment Curriculum, and the other extended modules in the BPEEP learning program. Module 10 ‘Solar Energy’ is linked to Western Australia’s Department of Education and Training’s Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Policy (CAR Policy) and associated documentation.

The program, presented as a series of teaching and learning experiences, links teacher planning and learning area (Science and Society and Environment) coverage back to the initial planning documents, namely the ‘Curriculum Framework’ and ‘Outcomes and Standards Framework’. Planning documentation provides teachers with the explicit links to the Curriculum Framework; Knowledge, Skills and Values focus; and learning area Outcomes and Standards coverage. Relevant learning area documentation, and teaching and learning links, are colour coded for both Science (ORANGE) and Society and Environment (PURPLE).

Teachers should refer to both Learning Area Curriculum Guides (What students should be taught) and Learning Area Outcomes and Standards Framework (What levels of achievement students can demonstrate/achieve across the relevant Learning Area outcomes) when considering the application of the BPEEP modules to their individual teaching and learning program requirements. PAGE 1 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy Overview of Learning Module A suggested timeframe is provided as a guide only to how long teachers may expect to spend on the learning experiences contained in each conceptual area of the module.

A teacher guide is provided for each of these conceptual areas. Lesson support material is also provided. Teachers should refer to both Learning Area Curriculum Guides (What students should be taught) and Learning Area Outcomes and Standards Framework (What levels of achievement students can demonstrate/achieve across the relevant Learning Area outcomes) when considering the application of the BPEEP modules to their individual teaching and learning program requirements. A suggested timeframe is provided as a guide only to how long teachers may expect to spend on the learning experiences contained in the conceptual area of the module.

A teacher guide is provided for the conceptual area. Lesson support material is also provided. PAGE 2 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy Contents  This symbol denotes worksheets Overview of Learning Module. . . 1 Relevance to BP . . 4 BPEEP Learning Area Outcome/Aspect Coverage . . 5 Suggested Teaching Timeframe. . . 8 Conceptual Area 1: Solar Energy . . 9 Learning Experience 1.1: ‘Solar Energy’. . . 12 Learning Experience 1.2: ‘How does a photovoltaic cell work . . 12 Learning Experience 1.3: ‘History of Solar Energy . . 13 Learning Experience 1.4: ‘Solar Cells’. . . 13 Learning Experience 1.5: ‘Heating Water . . 14 Learning Experience 1.6: ‘Solar Energy: Case Studies .

. 15 Learning Experience 1.7: Paragraph Task . . 16 Learning Experience 1.8: Alternative Energy Debate: Essay . . 16 Learning Experience 1.9: Assessment Task . . 17  Learning Experience 1.1 . . 21  Learning Experience 1.2 . . 23  Learning Experience 1.3 . . 25  Learning Experience 1.4 . . 29  Learning Experience 1.5 . . 31  Learning Experience 1.6 . . 37  Learning Experience 1.7 . . 41  Learning Experience 1.8 . . 43 ­ ­ ­  Learning Experience 1.9 . . 47 Reference for Module 10 . . 50 PAGE 3 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy Relevance to BP BP Solar’s experience in the Australian market spans three decades. Established in Australia in 1985, BP Solar is a leading supplier of solar photovoltaic (PV) products and services in the Australian solar market. Our Sydney Olympic Park facility is the base for the sales and marketing services we provide throughout the Asia-Pacific region. At BP Solar we have some of the most experienced solar engineers, project managers and sales people in the region whose expertise ensures the successful delivery of our projects, products and services.

Via a network of more than 150 Distributors and Dealers across Australia, we supply solar electricity products and systems to generate clean energy for homes, boats, recreational vehicles, businesses and farms. With our products, Australians are demonstrating environmental leadership and securing their energy costs. BP Solar is recognised as a supplier of innovative and quality large-scale solar electricity systems, providing full turnkey services to commercial and industrial customers. Some of the largest solar electricity systems in Australia have been delivered by BP Solar, such as 100kW on a Cadbury Schweppes facility in Sydney, 114kW on Adelaide International Airport and 200kW on the Queen Victoria Markets in Melbourne.

Over the years we have also supplied solar power systems for remote mining operations and telecommunication sites across this vast land. BP Solar’s expertise in the design and successful delivery of large-scale, comprehensive solar energy solutions was recognised by the Australian Government which selected the BP Solar-led Blacktown Solar City consortium to implement its million Solar City project. BP Solar is also a major participant in the successful Adelaide and Alice Springs Solar Cities projects. Part of the Australian-based business is also renowned for the delivery of large-scale projects which use solar to power community development in a number of Asian countries.

Thousands of people in communities across the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Malaysia have benefited from the installation of BP Solar systems to power medical clinics, schools, farms and homes.

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solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy Click on the module number to go to that module. OUTCOME BPEEP MODULE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 SCIENCE Earth and Beyond Sustainability of life and wise resource use X X X X X X X X X Earth forces and materials X X X X X X X X Relationships between the Earth, our Solar System and the Universe. X Energy and Change Energy, sources, patterns and uses. X X X X X X Transfer and transformation. X X Natural and Processed Materials Structures, Properties and Uses X Interactions and Changes X SOCIETY and ENVIRONMENT Resources Use of Resources X X X X X X X X Management and Enterprise X X X X X X X X X X People and Work X X X X X X Place and Space Features of Places X X People and Places X X X Care of Places X X X Investigation, Communication, Participation Planning X X X X X X X X X X X Conducting X X X X X X X X X X X Processing and Translating X X X X X X X X X X X Applying and Communicating X X X X X X X X X X X BPEEP Learning Area Outcome/Aspect Coverage PAGE 5 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy DESCRIPTION OF CROSS CURRICULAR PROGRAM Module 10: “Solar Energy” is predominantly focused upon Society and Environment outcomes Investigation, Communication and Participation, and Resources and Science outcomes Earth and Beyond, and Energy and Change. The module requires students to investigate the option of solar energy as a substitute for fossil fuels. The module applies conceptual understandings of previous BPEEP modules and establishes new essential knowledge for the students to apply in further modules as part of the BPEEP program.

Teachers are encouraged to adopt a cross curricular approach with relevant learning areas. CONCEPTUAL FOCUS SKILLS FOCUS How solar energy is generated. The conditions required for efficient solar energy. The advantages and disadvantages of solar energy as an energy resource.

The extent of solar energy’s impact on the environment. The potential of solar energy as a world wide energy resource. The extent and importance of solar energy in Australia. Ongoing literacy focus: paragraphing. Science laboratory process skills. Viewing and information retrieval. Information retrieval / note-taking. Internet / Website information retrieval Statistical data analysis and graphing. Group work and independent work. Research skills (as per S&E I.C.P. ladder process). DESCRIPTION OF ASSESSMENT Supporting the on-going literacy focus a paragraph task is included. Though some conceptual understanding can be levelled in certain Learning Area Outcomes, teachers are encouraged to use the paragraph rubric (provided) through the delivery of the BPEEP modules to monitor the student’s ability to construct well structured paragraphs over an extended period of time.

Consideration should be given to both modelling and scaffolding the paragraph framework prior to assessing this vital literacy skill.

To formally assess the students an assessment task and rubric is provided. The task requires students to complete two parts. Firstly to design a wind turbine and present a report on the planning and testing process. Secondly, to present an essay on wind energy as a future sustainable energy source. The task is ideally suited to a cross curricular approach where students follow the research process outlined by the ICP ladder and connected support frameworks. These resources are available in the appendix section of the BPEEP resource file. LITERACY FOCUS NUMERACY FOCUS PEDAGOGICAL FOCUS A major on-going focus on Paragraphing utilising paragraph framework.

Also emphasis on keywords, note-taking and other literacy oriented strategies. Graph and statistics interpretation. Shape, space, angles and measurement.

Group Work Inquiry based learning. CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK VALUES STRAND No. A pursuit of knowledge & a commitment to achievement of full potential. 1.1 – 1.7 (CF) Self Acceptance and Respect of Self. 2.1 – 2.5 (CF) Respect and Concern for Others and Their Rights. 3.1 – 3.7 (CF) Social and Civic responsibility. 4.4, 4.8, 4.9 (CF) Environmental responsibility. 5.2, 5.3 BPEEP Learning Area Outcome/Aspect Coverage PAGE 6 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy Overarching Learning Outcomes Context 1.

Students use language to understand, develop and communicate ideas and information with others. Literacy Focus and wide range of learning experiences. 2. Students select, integrate and apply numerical and spatial concepts and techniques. Units of measurement and simples calculations. Map interpretation. 3. Students recognise when and what information is needed, locate and obtain it from a range of sources and evaluate, use and share it with others.

Focus of S&E I.C.P. outcome and associated skills e.g. keywords, note-taking, sources. 4. Students use, select and apply technologies. Internet (website) research. 5. Students describe and reason about patterns, structures and relationships in order to understand, interpret, justify and make predictions. Analysing current trends to predict future outcomes. 6. Students visualise consequences, think laterally, recognise opportunity and potential and are prepared to test opinions. Use of fossil fuels and implications for the future.

7. Students understand and appreciate the physical, biological and technological world and have the knowledge and skills to make decisions in relation to it.

Conceptual Area 1. 8. Students understand their cultural, geographical and historical contexts and have the knowledge, values and skills to make decisions in relation to it. Conceptual Area 1. 9. Students interact with people and cultures other than their own and are equipped to contribute to the global community. N.A. 10. Students participate in creative activity of their own and understand and engage with the artistic, cultural and intellectual work of others Learning Experiences comprising of variety of tasks throughout Conceptual Area 1.

11. Students value and implement practices that promote personal growth and well-being. Group Work and values oriented learning. 12. Students are self motivated and confident in their approach to learning and area able to work individually and collaboratively. Range of teaching strategies – individual and group work. 13. Students recognise that everyone has the right to feel valued and to be safe and in this regard understand their rights and obligations and behave responsibly. Explicit teaching and implementation of group learning strategies.

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solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy Day Time Learning Experience Learning Area Learning Task Conceptual Area 1: The Origin of Fossil Fuels 1 60 minutes Experience 1.1: ‘Solar Energy’. Science Brainstorm. Classification 2 60 minutes Experience 1.2: ‘How does a photovoltaic cell work?’ Science Internet based research. 3 60 minutes Experience 1.3: ‘History of Solar Energy’. Science Society and Environment Transcript. 4 60 minutes Experience 1.4: ‘Solar Cells’ Science Science Laboratory. 5 60 minutes Experience 1.5: ‘Heating Water’. Science Science Laboratory.

6 60 minutes Experience 1.6: ‘Solar Energy Case Studies’.

Science Society and Environment Internet based case study research. 7 60 minutes Experience 1.7: Paragraph Task Science Society and Environment Paragraph Task. 8-9 120 minutes Experience 1.8: ‘Alternative Energy Essay’. Science Society and Environment Essay Task. 10-? To be determined by the teacher Experience 1.9: Assessment Task Science Society and Environment Science Laboratory/ Marketing assessment. Suggested Teaching Timeframe PAGE 8 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy LEARNING AREA: Science Society and Environment OUTCOME/S: Energy & Change (Sci) Earth & Beyond (Sci) Investigation, Communication & Participation (S&E) PHASE OF DEVELOPMENT: Early Adolescent CONCEPTUAL AREA : Solar Energy KEY UNDERSTANDINGS: Students will be able to determine the potential for solar energy to be increasingly used as an energy resource, reducing dependence on the highly consumed fossil fuels as energy resources.

Conceptual Understandings Skills Values • Explain how solar energy is used. • Describe how solar energy is generated.

• Identify the conditions required for efficient solar energy. • Identify and describe the advantages and disadvantages of solar energy as an energy resource. • Describe the extent of solar energy’s impact on the environment. • Determine the potential of solar energy as a world wide energy resource. • Examine the extent and importance of solar energy in Australia. • Diagramming. • Timelines • Information retrieval. • Brainstorm/mind-map. • Note-taking. • Focus Questions. • Science Laboratory Process. • Statistics.

• Paragraph Framework. • Research – Internet/website. 1.1 – 1.7 2.1 – 2.5 3.1 – 3.7 4.1, 4.2, 4.4, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9 5.2, 5.3, 5.4 Conceptual Area 1: Solar Energy Teacher Information: This series of learning experiences aims to promote the need for world energy companies to explore alternative energy sources other than fossil fuels.

This module explores the potential for solar energy to be increasingly used as an energy resource, reducing dependence on the highly consumed fossil fuels as energy resources. For the purpose of this Learning Experience the teacher should consult relevant websites on solar energy. BP’s website is a good starting point (www.bp.com). The information below provides a concise overview of solar energy, it is adapted from the “How Solar Works” page of the BP Australia website: http://www.bp.com/ sectiongenericarticle.do?categoryId=9020423&contentId=7038282 There are two types of solar energy: 1.

Solar photovoltaic energy Photovoltaics (PV) are solid-state semiconductor devices that convert light directly into electricity. They are usually made of silicon with traces of other elements and are first cousins to transistors, computer chips and other electronic devices.

A photovoltaic device (generally called a solar cell) consists of layers of semiconductor materials with different electronic properties. In a typical BP Solar crystalline silicon cell, the bulk of the material is silicon, doped with a small quantity of boron to give it a positive or p-type character. A thin layer on the front of the cell is doped with phosphorous to give it a negative or n-type character. The interface between these two layers contains an electric field and is called a junction. PAGE 9 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy Conceptual Area 1: Solar Energy Teacher Information: Light consists of particles called photons.

When light hits the solar cell, some of the photons are absorbed in the region of the junction, freeing electrons in the silicon crystal. If the photons have enough energy, the electrons will be able to overcome the electric field at the junction and are free to move through the silicon atoms in the cell and into an external circuit as energy. As they flow through the external circuit they give up their energy as useful work (turning motors, lighting lamps, etc.) and return to the solar cell. The photovoltaic process is completely solid-state and self-contained. There are no moving parts and no materials are consumed or emitted.

During a typical sunny day, one square metre of solar cells exposed to the sun at noon will receive approximately 1 kilowatt (kW) of energy from the sun. BP Solar’s multicrystalline cells convert roughly 15% of this into electricity, generating 150 Watts in full sunshine.

2. Solar thermal energy – Energy from the sun is used to heat water. Solar hot water systems work this way. Water can also be heated to create steam to drive a turbine to generate electricity. Advantages of using solar energy • It’s almost free once the equipment is installed. • Energy from the sun is renewable (it won’t run out) • It is very useful for remote areas that are not connected to the main electricity grid. • When replacing a diesel generator, it can reduce or eliminate the need to bring in diesel fuel across vast distances • It is environmentally safe (ie it produces no greenhouse gases or other fumes) • It is silent • Unlike other renewable energy generators, such as large wind turbines and hydro power, solar can be installed just about anywhere, including urban areas.

Disadvantages of using solar energy • It doesn’t work well on days when it is overcast or cloudy and it doesn’t work at all at night. • Solar generators are expensive • High energy users such as businesses, schools and factories, often don’t have enough roof space to install all the solar power they might need. PAGE 10 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy Conceptual Area 1: Solar Energy Resources Equipment Copies of worksheets attached to learning experiences.

Paragraph framework and rubric. Access to computers/internet Science Laboratory Equipment for Solar Cells: Photovoltaic (PV) cell Wires with alligator clips Voltmeter Ammeter Protractor Science Laboratory Equipment for Heating Water: 5 containers of varying size and shape Black paint or black bin liners Thermometer Measuring Cylinder Measuring Tape Ruler Clear plastic food wrap Styrofoam cups Masking tape Newspapers Water Student Prior Knowledge: Prior to delivering this module it is recommended that students would have completed all or some aspects of several modules including Module 1: What is Energy, Module 5: Oil economics, Module 6: Peak Oil, Module 7: Climate Change and Module 8: Alternative Energy.

This provides students with an understanding of the need to optimise the potential of energy sources, like solar energy, to substitute for and reduce our dependence on fossil fuels.

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solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy Conceptual Area 1: Solar Energy Learning Experiences: Learning Experience 1.1: ‘Solar Energy’ Before investigating the potential for solar energy to be used as an energy source, students should reflect on what they already know about the use of solar. Students should initially brainstorm what they know about how humans use solar. This brainstorm could be developed through the use of a ‘think, pair and share’ strategy.

The teacher should introduce the two main categories of solar energy; solar photovoltaic energy and solar thermal energy, to the students. The students should refer to their brainstorm and classify their examples into these two categories. Using the pluses and minuses framework the students should be provided an opportunity to reflect and record their initial thoughts on the advantages and disadvantages of solar energy. The teacher may opt to use a card cluster on the board to display the student’s initial ideas. Alternatively the students could share their best examples in small groups. A class discussion should be facilitated by teacher questioning leading to the main idea of the potential solar energy offers in catering for Australia’s energy needs.

➜ go to Learning Experience 1.1 worksheet Learning Experience 1.2: ‘How does a photovoltaic cell work?’ This learning experience requires students to research how a photovoltaic cell works. It is suggested the students access the following websites: http://www.solarschools.net http://www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle.do?categoryId=9020423&contentId=703 8282 If students are unable to access these websites they should access the school library or classroom textbooks. Students need to complete the worksheet: ‘How does a photovoltaic cell work?’. The worksheet requires students to consider key terms such as conductor, insulator and semiconductor; how solar energy is converted into electrical energy, and the advantages and disadvantages of using photovoltaic cells to produce electricity.

Once completed the worksheet should form the basis of teacher instruction and questioning to reinforce student understanding. Before discussing responses as a class it is suggested that the students work with a partner to share and modify their responses to the questions.

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solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy Conceptual Area 1: Solar Energy Learning Experience 1.3: ‘History of Solar Energy’ The ABC transcript located at: http://www.abc.net.au/rn/science/earth/stories/s96751.htm forms the basis of this learning experience. Presented in script form an opportunity is available for teachers to allow selected students to role play the discussion about the history of solar energy.

Alternatively, the teacher may opt to simply read through the script and discuss the issues that are raised with the class. Once the students are familiar with the script they should be provided with a period of time to read through it again and identify the main ideas of the transcript. Students should then complete the worksheet questions which should prompt class discussion. Using the information presented in the transcript students should create a solar energy timeline showing major developments in the use of solar energy. The timeline should start at 400BC and end at current day living.

Students should use text and pictures to illustrate the major developments like solar water heating. This provides the teacher with an opportunity to teach timeline construction. ➜ go to Learning Experience 1.3 worksheet Learning Experience 1.4: ‘Solar Cells’ The experiment ‘Solar Cells’ aims to investigate how the tilt angle of photovoltaic cell will affect its electrical output.

Before conducting the experiment students should develop their own hypothesis in relation to the task and consider the variables that should be taken into account. If students are not familiar with science laboratory process the teacher may decide to facilitate this section. To conduct the experiment in class the following equipment is required per group of students: • Solar photovoltaic (PV) cell • Wires with alligator clips • Voltmeter • Ammeter • Protractor Solar kits containing a solar cell, motor, fan, buzzer and connector wires (no ammeter or voltmeter) can be purchased from the BP Educational Service at www.bpes.com.

To conduct the experiment the following method should be followed: 1) Connect the solar cell to the voltmeter and the ammeter using the wires and alligator clips A V + ) (-) (-) (+) (-) Solar panel PAGE 13 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy Conceptual Area 1: Solar Energy 2) Place the solar cell in sunlight 3) Using the protractor, angle the cell so that it is at 0 degrees. Take readings from the ammeter and the voltmeter. Record your results. 4) Repeat Step 3 at 20, 45, 60 and 90 degree angles After conducting the experiment the students should use their records to complete the discussion questions.

These questions should form the basis of classroom discussion to reinforce and consolidate student understanding.

As an extension to this practical task the teacher may choose to extend the students and get them to plan and conduct a science laboratory process to consider the variables that can affect the electrical output of a PV cell, for example: time of day, use of reflectors and shade. Students design and conduct an investigation to investigate one of these variables. Students should work in groups and produce a laboratory report. ➜ go to Learning Experience 1.4 worksheet Learning Experience 1.5: ‘Heating Water’ The experiment ‘Heating Water’ aims to investigate the effect the size and shape of a hot water collector will have on its ability to heat water.

This activity is based on the experiment “Collecting Solar Energy: Is Bigger Better?” from www.wattsonschools.com Before conducting the experiment students should develop their own hypothesis in relation to the task and consider the variables that should be taken into account. If students are not familiar with science laboratory process the teacher may decide to facilitate this section. To conduct the experiment in class the following equipment is required per group of students: • 5 containers of varying size and shape • Black paint or black bin liners • Thermometer • Measuring Cylinder • Measuring Tape • Ruler • Clear plastic food wrap • Styrofoam cups • Masking tape • Newspapers • Water PAGE 14 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy Conceptual Area 1: Solar Energy To conduct the experiment the following method should be followed: 1. Prepare the containers by painting their insides black or by lining them with bin liners. 2. Measure and record the volume and surface area of each container. 3. Using a measuring cylinder add 100ml of water to each of the containers. 4. Record the temperature of the water in each container. 5. Cover the top of each container with plastic food wrap and tape securely. 6. Place each container on a newspaper in the sun for 10 minutes.

7. Remove the plastic food wrap and pour the water from each container into a Styrofoam cup. 8. Measure and record the temperature of the water in each cup.

9. Calculate the change in temperature. After conducting the experiment the students should use their records to graph their results and complete the discussion questions. These questions should form the basis of classroom discussion to reinforce and consolidate student understanding. ➜ go to Learning Experience 1.5 worksheet Learning Experience 1.6: ‘Solar Energy: Case Studies’ This learning experience requires students to access the information found at the following website address: http://www.bp.com/genericsection.do?categoryId=9063&contentId=7038606 To complete the research activity the teacher may opt to get students to work independently or in groups of 3.

The students need to use the information to find out the projects BP Solar are involved with in supplying clean energy for homes, businesses and industry. Students need to choose an Australian Case Study from each of these categories and summarise them using the note taking framework that is provided.

If working in groups students should be assigned one category each and then report that information back to their group. The teacher could extend students to look at international community case studies. Individual students could nominate separate case study examples and report this back to the class, or present a summary sheet that could be collated to form a class overview of solar energy projects and examples. International community case studies can be found at: http://www.bp.com/genericsection.do?categoryId=9020418&contentId=7038605 The focus question provided following the note-taking framework requires students to consider the benefits, obstacles and environmental implications of solar energy use.

These should be used as discussion points in class.

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solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy Conceptual Area 1: Solar Energy Learning Experience 1.7: Paragraph Task Using the ‘Think, Plan, Write, Edit and Present’ paragraph framework students, under test conditions, should respond to the following statement: ”Solar power is the way of the future in reducing our dependence on fossil fuels to meet our ever increasing energy needs.” For this written task it is recommended students be permitted to use their notes to assist in completing this task.

To enhance student application of the editing process it is suggested students take drafted paragraphs (THINK, PLAN and WRITE stages of framework) home to complete the EDIT and PRESENT stages. A rubric is provided to assess student’s application of the paragraph framework (numerically based). Teachers may opt to use ‘one off’ paragraphs as further evidence of student attainment of levels in certain aspects of Learning Area outcomes. NOTE – Paragraph Rubric and Edit Checklist are located in the appendices. Paragraph Framework – Explanation: • The initial part of the paragraph framework requires the students to brainstorm all relevant information to the main idea of the paragraph.

This is the ‘THINK’ component. • With a set of initial thoughts students plan the structure of the content in their paragraph. Using the ‘hamburger’ framework students sort ideas into the four main types of sentences: Statement (or Topic Sentence), Explanation (or Developing Sentence/s), Examples (or Supporting Sentence/ s) and Conclusion (or Concluding Sentence). This is the ‘PLAN’ component. • Students draft their paragraph at this stage, using their Plan as a guide. Emphasis should be placed on the students identifying each type of sentence to ensure the paragraph is correctly structured.

This can be done by a colour a scheme for each sentence type or simply labelling after sentences with TS (Topic Sentence), DS (Developing Sentence), SS (Supporting Sentence) and CS (Concluding Sentence). This is the ‘WRITE’ component. • Once drafted, students should edit their paragraph. Spelling, grammar and punctuation should all be a focus, as well as ensuring all four types of sentences correctly structure the paragraph. As well as self, peer or parental editing should be encouraged. This is the ‘EDIT’ component. • Once a full edit process is completed the student is ready to present their paragraph.

All corrections should be made and sentence identification (i.e. TS, DS, SS and CS) removed. This is the ‘PRESENT’ component.

➜ go to Learning Experience 1.7 worksheet Learning Experience 1.8: Alternative Energy Debate: Essay This written assessment task requires students to plan and present an essay. The essay topic is: To reduce Australia’s current dependence on fossil fuels, compare the potential of solar energy with another alternative energy source (preferably LNG or Wind as covered in other modules) to meet our energy needs. Students need to consider both the advantages and disadvantages of both alternative energy sources. They need to justify a viewpoint on which alternative energy source offers the best potential to meet future energy needs in Australia.

Students should use the essay planning framework provided to gather and organise their information.

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solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy Conceptual Area 1: Solar Energy Students will need to access past learning experience work, the library, class textbooks and the internet to research and prepare for their alternative energy debate. It should be expected that students use the paragraph framework to draft all their essay paragraphs. Teachers should determine whether this task is set as an in-class or homework task. A rubric is provided. ➜ go to Learning Experience 1.8 worksheet Learning Experience 1.9: Assessment Task Cross Curricular Opportunity The assessment task is split into two parts: Part A: Design a Solar Cell Device This aspect of the major assessment task is primarily driven by the Science ‘Investigating Scientifically Process’ (a marking guide is provided: source unknown).

Part B: Marketing Strategy of PV Cell Device This aspect of the major assessment task is primarily driven by the Society and Environment process outcome of Investigation, Communication and Participation. The Society and Environment outcome Resources and Science outcomes Earth and Beyond and Energy and Change are the focus conceptual outcomes for the task.

There are also possible extended cross curricular links with Technology and Enterprise given the task’s potential for presentations such as power point. If the teacher opts to have students present their work as an oral presentation a link to English and their Speaking and Listening outcome exists. Prior to this task it is recommended most if not all of the Learning Experiences covered in Module 10 ‘Solar Energy’ are covered in class. All learning experiences would provide very useful information to assist students in demonstrating their understanding of the topic. The assessment task suits either individual student or group completion and presentations, the teacher should determine this.

The assessment requires students to complete 2 parts: Part A: Design a Solar Cell Device and report.

Part B: Marketing Strategy of device. PART A: DESIGN A Solar Cell Device and Report The task requires students to use their knowledge of solar PV cells (especially Learning Experience 1.2 and 1.4) to design; produce and test a device that will allow a PV cell to produce an optimum electrical output during all the hours of sunlight in a day. Students can make their device out of any household materials they would like, but it will need to be designed in such a way that it can be easily connected to a voltmeter and ammeter using wires and alligator clips.

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solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy Conceptual Area 1: Solar Energy Students will need to conduct preliminary tests in order to get the best design of their device. It is important to not only have a good design, but they must be able to show the process they took to find it. Therefore they will need to submit a report that must include the following sections and sub sections Preliminary Tests • Identify the variables you tested. • The method you used to trial your designs. • The results of these trials in table and graph form. Final Design • A material list identifying all equipment you used in the final construction.

• The method you used to construct your solar PV Cell Device. • A labelled diagram of your solar PV Cell Device. • A justification of why you choose this final design. As well as a report students must also submit their solar PV Cell Device to be tested. PART B: Marketing Strategy: PV Cell Device The second part of the assessment requires students to plan, draft and present a marketing strategy that encourages energy businesses to invest their money into producing your PV Cell Device. The students marketing strategy should pay particular attention to a few key areas: 1. An overview of their PV Cell Device – its design, how it works, what it offers...

2. The benefits their PV Cell Device provides in terms of energy provision. 3. The advantages of solar energy.

4. The long term benefits of solar energy as a means of reducing our current dependence on fossil fuels to meet our energy needs. It is recommended the teacher spend some time investigating with the students how businesses go about marketing their products for sale. This approach would best be suited to a Society and Environment teaching and learning program. As part of the ICP Outcome assessment students will need to submit all aspects of the I.C.P. ladder process, including: • A3 Planning Sheet (task in own words, goals, 3-Levels of Questioning, brainstorm, reference list). • All your note-taking (including the use of a variety of frameworks: H.A.K.D., structured overview, PMI, SWOT, keyword summary ) .

• A learning journal (including initial prediction, mid-way review, final self-evaluation and on-going daily progress reflections). • All their draft work (including all paragraphs drafted using the paragraph framework). • Their good copy (be proud of what you submit). PAGE 18 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy Conceptual Area 1: Solar Energy Teachers should provide students with a blank ICP ladder that guides the student through the research assessment process.

This is initially supported in the planning stage by the ICP planning sheet (should be photocopied A3 size). The planning sheet provides a framework for students to explain the task in their own words, consider the outcomes they may cover, set their assessment goals, develop their literal, inferential and evaluative focus research questions and consider the sources they will utilise and the note-taking frameworks they will use to collect their information. The teacher should encourage students to use appropriate note-taking frameworks for collecting their information. To ensure students seek information that enables a viewpoint and argument to be developed about their chosen energy source they should use frameworks including: PMI (Pluses, Minuses and Interesting), SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) and table summary (For, Against, Neutral).

Students should utilise all sources of information available to them: library, newspaper, internet, questionnaire, guest speaker, TV documentaries, letters to industry . . requests for information packs.

The BP website (www.bp.com) is also a good starting point. An assessment rubric is provided incorporating the Society and Environment outcomes Investigation, Communication and Participation and the Resources Outcome, as well as the Science Earth and Beyond and Energy and Change Outcomes. ➜ go to Learning Experience 1.9 worksheet Monitoring and Evaluation: Student understanding of Solar Energy as an alternative energy option is assessed through: • The completion of learning experience tasks. • A paragraph task for which a rubric is provided in the appendix section of the BPEEP resource file to assess the student’s ability to construct a well structured paragraph.

Paragraphs should be used by the teacher as evidence toward the attainment of conceptual outcome levels. • A science laboratory activity that requires students to design a PV Cell Device. • A marketing strategy of their PV Cell Device looking at the benefits and long term potential of solar energy.

• An essay assessment task, requiring students to present a report on the potential of solar energy to meet the energy needs of Australia, in comparison to another alternative energy source. The task sheet, supporting frameworks and rubric are provided. Teachers are encouraged to utilize informal assessment practices throughout the module to continually monitor and consolidate student understandings. PAGE 19 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

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solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy Solar Energy Light and heat energy from the sun is referred to as solar energy. Humans have been harnessing the power of the sun for thousands of years. Brainstorm: How do humans use solar energy? Solar energy can be divided into two main categories, solar photovoltaic energy and solar thermal energy. • Solar photovoltaic energy uses photovoltaic cells also known as solar cells to convert sunlight directly into electricity.

• Solar thermal energy is absorbed by objects and used to heat things.

For example in summer the water in a pool uses solar thermal energy to heat the water. Table: The ideas you brainstormed previously will be able to be divided into these two main categories. Solar Energy Uses of solar photovoltaic energy Uses of solar thermal energy Name: Class: Date:  Learning Experience 1.1 To dry clothes solar energy PAGE 21 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy  Learning Experience 1.1 (contd.) Solar energy is a renewable resource that is available right now! So why aren’t we using it to power all of our needs? There are lots of advantages to using solar energy but there are also disadvantages. List: What do you think the advantages and disadvantages of solar energy are? PLUS + MINUS - Why would Australia be an ideal country to start using solar energy to power more of its needs? Think about the conditions needed for solar energy to be used efficiently. PAGE 22 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy Name: Class: Date:  Learning Experience 1.2 How does a Photovoltaic Cell Work? Use the internet, textbooks and library searches to complete the following activities. If you are using the internet the following websites will provide you with useful information: • http://www.solarschools.net • http://www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle.do?categoryId=9020423&contentId=703 8282 • http://wikipedia.org What is the function of a solar photovoltaic cell? What is another name for a photovoltaic cell? What substance are photovoltaic cells usually made out of? Find definitions for the following terms: Conductor Insulator Semiconductor Find out how a solar photovoltaic cell converts solar energy into electrical energy.

Use diagrams and text to explain your answer.

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solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy  Learning Experience 1.2 (contd.) A number of factors can affect how well a photovoltaic cell works. Find 3 factors that can affect their efficiency. 1) 2) 3) What are the advantages and disadvantages of using photovoltaic cells to produce electricity? Advantages Disadvantages PAGE 24 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy  Learning Experience 1.3 History of Solar Energy Read the transcript of a discussion on the history of solar energy on ABC Radio National between interviewer Alexandra de Blas and John Perlin.

Original Transcript found at http://www.abc.net.au/rn/science/earth/stories/s96751.htm History of Solar Energy Broadcast on Saturday 16/12/00 Summary: Author John Perlin talks about the history of solar energy dating back to ancient Greece. Transcript: While we slug it out over how to cut our Greenhouse gas emissions its sobering to think that the Greeks and Romans were working with solar energy over 2000 years ago.

Author, John Perlin is fascinated by the way civilisations have developed technologies to utilise the sun. The Greeks were the first to use solar architecture They oriented their houses to make use of the sun during winter, while obscuring its rays during summer and entire cities were built this way as early as 400 BC. But the Romans took it even further and incorporated the sun into their legal system. John Perlin: After the Greeks, the Romans improved upon Greek solar architecture; they developed window glass, and window glass allows sunlight to come in, but traps solar heat, much like in your car when you park it in the sunlight.

And the Romans needed sunlight so much that they put it into their legal system that you could not deny someone their solar access, and that was in the Opieans Digesture (spelling tbc) which is sort of like I guess the code of the Romans.

Alexandra de Blas: Was solar energy used in any other ways at that time? John Perlin: Yes, well in Rome it was used for example to allow the Romans to enjoy the fruits and vegetables of their conquests. For example, when they went to the Middle East or to Africa, they would bring home exotic fruits and vegetables, and they would want to force them in their colder climate, and they used glass covers for greenhouses. Alexandra de Blas: What happened to solar technologies as Europe went into the Dark Ages? John Perlin: Well what happened was, most people stopped using glass, and glass allows people to better use solar energy.

The Greeks I must say did not have glass, it was the Romans who invented window glass, although glass had been used for thousands of years for decorations, it was the Romans who got the idea to use clear glass for glazings.

Alexandra de Blas: So when were the first solar water heaters, as we know them today, developed? John Perlin: In the 18th century a French-Swiss scientist began to experiment to see how much heat window glass could actually trap. So he built a little box and put several glass tops on it, and found out he could reach above boiling point inside the box, and then someone thought of putting tanks of water inside and painting them black to heat water, and that was invented in Maryland, USA. And then it became very big in the 1890s in California. Alexandra de Blas: Then that’s led on to the solar water heaters we have now.

John Perlin: In 1909 to improve upon the tank-type heater, because the tank-type heater would still have water in it during the night and it would cool down, a person named William J. Bailey in California, separated the water heating system with the water storage system, and developed that type, and that’s the type that actually is used in Australia today.

Alexandra de Blas: You recently completed another book which is called ‘From Space to Earth: the Story of Solar Electricity’ which covers the history of photovoltaics. When were photovoltaics first discovered? PAGE 25 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy  Learning Experience 1.3 (contd.) Alexandra de Blas: And that’s the photovoltaic effect which forms the basis for the solar cells we use now. But when were the first modern PV cells developed? John Perlin: The people who discovered the solar cell that we use today were three Americans working on the transistor in the early 1950s.

They were the people who initiated the revolution in silicon that we now all participate in, and they were building what we call transistors which are small electrical devices that are the electronics for everything we use today. And they found that if you built a transistor in a certain way, you would have a very efficient solar cell.

Alexandra de Blas: Well solar cells are used to power satellites; how important has that linkage been for the development of the solar cell itself? John Perlin: Well actually if it hadn’t been for the satellite industry, solar cells would have never have taken off, because in the 1950s you have to understand the solar cells were extremely expensive, and there was absolutely no use for them until satellites came. And the whole point of satellites is that they’re up in space and they need power, and you don’t have a telephone line or what you call mains power line to connect. And so you’re willing to pay almost any price for energy, because the real price is lifting it off, and if you don’t have some kind of power source that will allow the satellite to last for a long time, you’re going to lose millions and millions of dollars.

Alexandra de Blas: So that made a huge difference?

John Perlin: Right. What it did, it created the first sustainable market for solar power. Alexandra de Blas: How do you see the future of photovoltaics? John Perlin: Well I see it every day intruding more and more in the urban landscape. I mean for example when I was driven from Melbourne airport to Geelong, my driver said, ‘Well what about solar cells, where are they?’ And then I started on the highway just pointing out solar cells one after another, because they seem to be used in Australia right now in many urban applications. For example, billboards, like in Geelong you see them powering the bus shelter illumination.

I would say it’s one of the most successful industries right now in the world; it’s growing by about 25% a year.

Alexandra de Blas: But the solar industry is still small scale when compared to the oil industry. BP is supposedly one of the world leaders in the solar field, but for every $10,000 they spend on oil exploration, they only spend $16 on solar. So what’s going to bring the solar industry to a point where it can genuinely compete with fossil fuels? John Perlin: Well right now there’s so many applications for solar cells that fossil fuels cannot hope to compete with, because the solar cells are perfect for delivering energy where mains power cannot go. And there are two-and-a-half-billion people who are not hooked up to mains power.

And for these people, solar cells are the ideal means of say the difference between having a light at night and your children succeeding in school or not. And for example in Kenya, tens of thousands of solar installations are going up right now, and in South Africa too, because just like in Australia where Telecom Australia, which is now Telstra, had made a national commitment that for everybody in the nation, they would have the same quality of communication, and that calls for an incredible amount of use of solar cells. In South Africa they promised electricity to everyone and they can only deliver that if they use on a large scale photovoltaics.

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solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy  Learning Experience 1.3 (contd.) History of Solar Energy When did Greeks and Romans begin to use solar energy? Greeks used ‘solar architecture’ since 400BC. What did this involve? How did the Romans use window glass and solar energy? Why is glass so important to the successful use of solar energy? How did the experiments of a French-Swiss scientist in the 18th century led to the first solar water heaters?

How did William J.

Bailey improve on the original design of solar water heaters? What do telegraphs have to do with the discovery of photovoltaics? PAGE 27 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy  Learning Experience 1.3 (contd.) Satellites played a very important role in the development of photovoltaic energy. Explain the role that they played. Name two uses of solar photovoltaics in Australia. What property of solar cells gives them an advantage over fossil fuels? Why is this important to people in rural Australia, South Africa and Kenya? ACTIVITY: Create a solar energy timeline showing major developments in the use of solar energy. Start at 400 B.C and end at current day living. Use text and pictures to illustrate the major developments like solar water heating.

Complete the table below to map out the history of solar energy. YEAR DEVELOPMENT PAGE 28 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy  Learning Experience 1.4 Solar Cells Aim To investigate how the tilt angle of a solar cell will affect its electrical output. Materials Solar photovoltaic (PV) cell. Wires with alligator clips. Voltmeter. Ammeter. Protractor. Method 1. Connect the solar cell to the voltmeter and the ammeter using the wires and alligator clips. A V + ) (-) (-) (+) (-) Solar panel 2. Place the solar cell in sunlight. 3. Using the protractor, angle the cell so that it is at 0 degrees. Take readings from the ammeter and the voltmeter.

Record your results.

4. Repeat Step 3 at 20, 45, 60 and 90 degree angles. Results Angle Current (Amps) Voltage (Volts) 0o 20o 45o 60o 90o PAGE 29 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy  Learning Experience 1.4 (contd.) Discussion How did the angle of the PV cell affect its electrical output? Which angle was gave the best electrical output? Do you think that this angle would be the most appropriate at every point during the day? Explain your answer. Extension There are a number of variables that can affect the electrical output of a PV cell.

For example: • Time of day. • Use of reflectors. • Shade.

In your class design and conduct experiments to investigate the effect of these factors on the electrical output of PV cells. Each group will be given a different variable to investigate and they are to produce a lab report that includes the following sections: • Aim • Materials • Method • Results • Discussion PAGE 30 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy  Learning Experience 1.5 Heating Water Aim To investigate the effect the size and shape of a solar hot water collector will have on its ability to heat water.

Equipment • 5 containers of varying size and shape • Black paint or black bin liners • Thermometer • Measuring Cylinder • Measuring Tape • Ruler • Clear plastic food wrap • Styrofoam cups • Masking tape • Newspapers • Water Method 1. Prepare the containers by painting their insides black or by lining them with bin liners 2. Measure and record the volume and surface area of each container 3. Using a measuring cylinder add 100ml of water to each of the containers 4. Record the temperature of the water in each container 5. Cover the top of each container with plastic food wrap and tape securely 6.

Place each container on a newspaper in the sun for 10 minutes 7. Remove the plastic food wrap and pour the water from each container into a Styrofoam cup. 8. Measure and record the temperature of the water in each cup 9. Calculate the change in temperature Results CONTAINER Volume (ml) Surface Area (cm2 ) INITIAL TEMP (o C) FINAL TEMP (o C) CHANGE IN TEMP (o C) 1 2 3 4 5 PAGE 31 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy  Learning Experience 1.5 (contd.) Graph the change in temperature against the volume of the container and graph the change in temperature against the surface area of the container on the same axis. PAGE 32 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy  Learning Experience 1.5 (contd.) Discussion Why paint or line the containers with black material? Why use plastic wrap? Why did you place the containers on newspaper? Why pour the water into cups before taking the temperature? Which container caused the water to heat up the most? Which container caused the water to heat up the least? PAGE 33 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy  Learning Experience 1.5 (contd.) Which factor, volume or surface area, affected the solar container’s ability to heat water the most? Explain your answer. How can the results you gained from this experiment help you design a solar collector? How could you have improved this experiment in terms of fairness and accuracy? PAGE 34 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy  Learning Experience 1.5 (contd.) Extension Design an experiment to investigate the effect of one of the following variables on effectiveness of a solar hot water collector • Colour • Material • Position Then conduct and evaluate your experiment.

You must submit a lab report with the following sections • Aim • Materials • Method • Results • Discussion PAGE 35 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

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solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy  Learning Experience 1.6 SOLAR ENERGY – Case Studies BP Solar is a global company with over 2,200 employees focused on harnessing the sun’s energy to produce solar electricity. This includes the design, manufacturing, marketing and installation of quality solar power systems for a wide range of applications in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors.

In Australia BP Solar are involved in projects that are responsible for providing clean energy to homes, businesses and industry.

Using the cases studies found at http://www.bp.com/genericsection.do?categoryId=9063&contentId=7038606 Find out what BP Solar is doing in Australia • In homes • In businesses • In industry Choose an Australian case study from each of these categories and summarise them by completing the table below. If the CO2 reduction benefit is not listed, you may estimate the CO2 reduction using the following rule of thumb for solar compared to coal fire power plants: 1 MWh (or 1000 kWh) of solar power saves 1 tonne (or 1000kg) of CO2 Case Study Location Overview • How did the project come about?

• What was the purpose behind the project? Date Completed Project Value/Cost Problem or Challenge that had to be overcome How much electricity is generated Environmental Benefits FOR HOME PAGE 37 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy  Learning Experience 1.6 (contd.) Case Study Location Overview • How did the project come about? • What was the purpose behind the project? Date Completed Project Value/Cost Problem or Challenge that had to be overcome How much electricity is generated Environmental Benefits Case Study Location Overview • How did the project come about? • What was the purpose behind the project? Date Completed Project Value/Cost Problem or Challenge that had to be overcome How much electricity is generated Environmental Benefits FOR BUSINESS FOR COMMUNITY PAGE 38 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy  Learning Experience 1.6 (contd.) What are the benefits of using solar energy? What are the obstacles that need to be overcome before solar power is used more widely in Australia? What are the environmental implications of using solar energy to power more of our country’s needs? PAGE 39 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

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solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy  Learning Experience 1.7 Paragraph Framework The main idea of the paragraph is … ”Solar power is the way of the future in reducing our dependence on fossil fuels to meet our ever increasing energy needs.” THINK PLAN Statement (Topic Sentence T.S.) Explanation (Developing Sentence D.S.) Examples (Supporting Sentence S.S.) Conclusion (Concluding Sentence C.S.) PAGE 41 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy WRITE (Identify each type of sentence using T.S., D.S., S.S., C.S.).

EDIT Spelling Punctuation Grammar Sentences Keywords PRESENT  Learning Experience 1.7 (contd.) PAGE 42 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy The Alternative Energy Debate Your task is to plan and present an essay on the following topic: To reduce Australia’s current dependence on fossil fuels, compare the potential of solar energy with another alternative energy source to meet our energy needs. You need to consider both the advantages and disadvantages of both alternative energy sources. You need to justify a viewpoint on which alternative energy source offers the best potential to meet future energy needs in Australia. Use the framework below to gather and organise your information to support both viewpoint statements, then write the essay.

Introductory Information: Solar Energy Consider the advantages and disadvantages of solar energy. Assess these to form a viewpoint on the potential solar energy offers to reduce our current dependence on fossil fuels. Other Alternative Energy Source: Consider the advantages and disadvantages of one other alternative energy source, such as LNG or wind. Assess these to form a viewpoint on the potential the energy source offers to reduce our current dependence on fossil fuels. Introductory Information – Solar Energy: Introductory Information – Alternative Energy Source: Advantages Advantage 1: Supporting Evidence: Advantage 1: Supporting Evidence: Advantage 2: Supporting Evidence: Advantage 2: Supporting Evidence: Advantage 3: Supporting Evidence: Advantage 3: Supporting Evidence: Name: Class: Date:  Learning Experience 1.8 PAGE 43 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy Disadvantages Disadvantage 1: Supporting Evidence: Disadvantage 1: Supporting Evidence: Disadvantage 2: Supporting Evidence: Disadvantage 2: Supporting Evidence: Disadvantage 3: Supporting Evidence: Disadvantage 3: Supporting Evidence: Viewpoint Viewpoint: Supporting Evidence: Viewpoint: Supporting Evidence: Conclusion Concluding Information: Concluding Information:  Learning Experience 1.8 (contd.) PAGE 44 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy Rubric Level Earth and Beyond Energy and Change Resources 2 Identify uses for solar energy and one other alternative energy source.

Describe the different ways solar and one other alternative energy source can be used Categorise energy resources. Identify ways energy resources are used. Recognise that people engage in different activities, utilising energy resources. 3 Relate the location of alternative energy sources to its importance to Australia. Relate emissions to the changes they cause to the atmosphere.

Recognize that solar and one other alternative energy source are energy sources that have many different requirements. Understand that different energy resources and activities can be grouped into categories. Explain how people manage and use energy resources. Categorise different forms of activities people engage in, utilising energy resources. 4 Understand that natural resources can be used to provide energy requirements. Predict the changes in emission levels with the widespread use of solar energy and one other alternative energy source.

Understand the link between emission levels and the greenhouse effect.

Compare different sources of energy in terms of their ease of use, cost and effects on living things and the environment. Examine alternative choices to utilising available energy resources. Explain how people’s circumstance and decisions reflect their choices in accessing energy resources. Examine how access to energy resources can be managed more effectively. 5 Assess solar energy and one other energy source as an alternative energy resource to oil and coal.

Explain how solar energy and one other alternative energy source are utilized now and how it might be utilized in the future. Use a greenhouse model to describe how human activity and resource use can impact our global environment. Predict possible trends in global warming if changes are made to the way solar energy and one other alternative energy source are used. Analyse the efficiency of applications that use solar energy and one other alternative energy source in terms of energy input and output. Examine the link between energy resource availability and usage.

Evaluate the factors that determine the availability of energy resources.

Examine how people can manage their available energy resources more effectively.  Learning Experience 1.8 (contd.) PAGE 45 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

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solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy ­ ­ ­  Learning Experience 1.9 Name: Class: Date: Optimum Electrical Output Device This assessment requires you to complete 2 parts: Part A: Design a PV Cell Device and report. Part B: Marketing Strategy of device. PART A: Design a PV Cell Device and Report Your task is to use your knowledge of PV cells to design; produce and test a device that will allow a PV cell to produce an optimum electrical output during all the hours of sunlight in a day.

You can make your device out of any household materials you would like, but it will need to be designed in such a way that is can be easily connected to a voltmeter and ammeter using wires and alligator clips.

You will need to conduct preliminary tests in order to get the best design of your device. It is important to not only have a good design, but you must be able to show the process you took to find it. Therefore you will need to submit a report that must include the following sections and sub sections Preliminary Tests • Identify the variables you tested. • The method you used to trial your designs. • The results of these trials in table and graph form. Final Design • A material list identifying all equipment you used in the final construction. • The method you used to construct your PV Cell Device.

• A labelled diagram of your PV Cell Device. • A justification of why you choose this final design. As well as your report you must also submit your PV Cell Device to be tested. PART B: Marketing Strategy The second part of your assessment requires you to plan, draft and present a marketing strategy that encourages energy businesses to invest their money into producing your PV Cell Device. Your marketing strategy should pay particular attention to a few key areas: 1. An overview of your PV Cell Device – its design, how it works, what it offers... 2. The benefits your PV Cell Device provides in terms of energy provision.

3. The advantages of solar energy.

4. The long term benefits of solar energy as a means of reducing our current dependence on fossil fuels to meet our energy needs. PAGE 47 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy You will need to follow the ICP ladder process to guide the planning and development of your marketing task. Given the nature of marketing, many options are available to you in “selling” the concept of your PV Cell Device, thus you have the flexibility to develop your marketing strategy in any form that will inspire investors.

As part of your planning you will need to ensure you develop your 3 Levels of Focus Questions to guide your marketing strategy presentation. You must use the paragraph framework to draft your paragraphs.

You will need to submit the following • A completed A3 ICP Planning sheet. • All note-taking addressing all focus questions and your paragraph plan. • All planning and drafting of your marketing strategy. • A paragraph plan outlining the main idea of each paragraph. • A completed paragraph framework for each of your paragraphs • A final marketing strategy. • A resource list showing where you got your information from. You need to have used at least three different resources.

Due Date: Marking Key: Investigating Scientifically Preliminary Tests Independent & Dependent Variables I can identify the independent variable I attempt to identify the independent & dependent variables I can identify independent & dependent variable When I plan the experiment I show a good understanding of the independent and dependent variables Method I can write a method in simple ordered steps I can write a method in ordered numerical steps I can thoroughly design a method which clearly specifies what is to be recorded.

I might include a control and repeat trials I can analyse a problem & thoroughly plan my investigation and may modify my technique through preliminary testing Organising Observations I organise my observations in simple formats: as pictures, words, numbers. I can fill in provided tables I can draw and complete a simple observations table I can draw a table which included repeat trials & averages. I show correct units. My variable measurements change in gradual amounts. I can draw and complete complex matrix-designed tables.

­ ­ ­  Learning Experience 1.9 (contd.) PLANNING LEVEL 2 LEVEL 3 LEVEL 4 LEVEL 5 PAGE 48 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy Use of Equipment I attempt to use equipment in a proper and safe way I use equipment in a consistent and safe manner I can demonstrate consistency and accuracy when measuring and using equipment I use preliminary tests to modify technique and select the right equipment to enhance accuracy. Measurements I can make statements and comparisons eg.

rankings I can make simple measurements made and attempt to use of units I make measurements with appropriate accuracy and I make more than one measurement for each test. I use correct units. I make sufficient measurements for reliability and select the most appropriate unit. Data Processing I compare events in words I can graph my findings I can calculate averages and draw an appropriate graph; type and averages I can draw graphs with labels, line of best fit and well balanced scales Final Design Method I attempt to use equipment in a proper and safe way I use equipment in a consistent and safe manner I can demonstrate consistency and accuracy when measuring and using equipment I use preliminary tests to modify technique and select the right equipment to enhance accuracy.

Evaluating Findings I comment on whether what happened was expected I can identify difficulties within my investigation I can make sound suggestions for improving my investigation I can explain improvements to my measurements, use of equipment, repetition of trials, replicates and uncontrolled variables in the investigation. I can indicate additional variables/measurements to be made. Applications I attempt to give an application I can suggest a related application I propose and explain a specific applications The source of this Investigating Scientifically Marking Key is unknown. ­ ­ ­  Learning Experience 1.9 (contd.) CONDUCTING PROCESSING PLANNING EVALUATING LEVEL 2 LEVEL 3 LEVEL 4 LEVEL 5 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 3 LEVEL 4 LEVEL 5 PAGE 49 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy Reference for Module 10: http://www.solarschools.net http://www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle.do?categoryId=9020423&contentId=703 8282 www.abc.net.au/rn/science/earth/stories/s225110.htm http://www.energy.com.au/energy/ea.nsf/Content/Kids+Sun www.bp.com http://www.bp.com/genericsection.do?categoryId=9063&contentId=7038606 www.wattsonschools.com PAGE 50 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy Notes: PAGE 51 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

solar energy ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 10: solar energy Notes: PAGE 52 Next Next Previous Previous Contents Contents

This book has been produced using paper from mills that have ISO4001 (International Environment Management Standard) accreditation and FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) accreditation. These standards promote forest certification and product labeling to allow papermakers to identify wood pulp that comes from well managed forests with sustainable reforestation policies. FSC is the only eco label endorsed by WWF Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace.

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