Gay Community Periodic Survey: Melbourne 2018 - UNSWorks

Gay Community Periodic Survey: Melbourne 2018 - UNSWorks
Arts     Social Sciences
                                                                    Centre for Social Research in Health




                                             Gay Community Periodic Survey:
                                             Melbourne 2018




                                                                                     Evelyn Lee1
                                                                                      Limin Mao1
                                                                                Timothy Broady1
                                                                                   Ben Bavinton2
                                                                                  Tex McKenzie3
                                                                                Colin Batrouney3
1
  Centre for Social Research in Health, UNSW Sydney                              Suzy Malhotra4
2
  The Kirby Institute, UNSW Sydney                                             John Manwaring5
3
  Victorian AIDS Council                                                           Michael West5
4
  Living Positive Victoria                                                     Garrett Prestage2
5
  Department of Health and Human Services, Government of Victoria                    Martin Holt1
For media enquiries, please contact Professor Martin Holt
on m.holt@unsw.edu.au or +61 2 9385 6410

Centre for Social Research in Health
UNSW Sydney NSW 2052
T +61 2 9385 6776
F: +61 2 9385 6455
E: csrh@unsw.edu.au
W: csrh.arts.unsw.edu.au


© UNSW Sydney 2018


Suggested citation: Lee, E., Mao, L., Broady, T., Bavinton, B., McKenzie, T., Batrouney, C., Malholtra, S.,
Manwaring, J., West, M., Prestage, G., & Holt, M. (2018). Gay Community Periodic Survey: Melbourne
2018. Sydney: Centre for Social Research in Health, UNSW Sydney.
https://doi.org/10.4225/53/5b2875d6780ec
Acknowledgments

We acknowledge the following individuals and organisations for contributing to the success of this project:

Victorian Department of Health and Human Services
who funded the project


Victorian AIDS Council
for ongoing support of the study and assistance in data collection


Survey coordinator
Tex McKenzie


The team of peer recruiters
who successfully recruited participants at venues and events


Survey participants
The 2,742 men who participated in the survey


Venues
The management and staff of the various gay community venues and clinics who gave permission for the
survey to be administered on their premises




                                                                                     Gay Community Periodic Survey: Melbourne 2018
                     Evelyn Lee, Limin Mao, Timothy Broady, Ben Bavinton, Tex McKenzie, Colin Batrouney, Suzy Malhotra, John Manwaring,
                                                                                              Michael West, Garrett Prestage, Martin Holt   I
Contents

Executive summary                                                                                                                            1
Key points		                                                                                                                                 2
Demographic profile                                                                                                                          2
HIV testing, status and treatment                                                                                                            2
Sexual partnerships and practices                                                                                                            3
Sexual health                                                                                                                                5
Recreational drug use                                                                                                                        6
Knowledge and use of PEP and PrEP                                                                                                            7
Reporting                                                                                                                                    7
Tables                                                                                                                                       8




                                                                                      Gay Community Periodic Survey: Melbourne 2018
                      Evelyn Lee, Limin Mao, Timothy Broady, Ben Bavinton, Tex McKenzie, Colin Batrouney, Suzy Malhotra, John Manwaring,
                                                                                               Michael West, Garrett Prestage, Martin Holt       II
List of tables
Table 1: Recruitment source                                                                                                                   8
Table 2: Age                                                                                                                                  8
Table 3: HIV testing                                                                                                                          9
Table 4: Where non-HIV-positive men were last tested for HIV                                                                                  9
Table 5: Number of HIV tests in the previous 12 months                                                                                    10
Table 6: HIV test result                                                                                                                  10
Table 7: Use of combination antiretroviral treatment among HIV-positive men                                                               10
Table 8: Undetectable viral load and CD4 count among HIV-positive men, by treatment status                                                11
Table 9: Current relationships with men                                                                                                   11
Table 10: Where men met their male sex partners in the six months prior to the survey                                                     12
                                                                                                                                          13
                                                                                                                                          13
Table 13: Match of HIV status between regular partners                                                                                    14
Table 14: Anal intercourse and condom use with regular partners                                                                           14
Table 15: Condomless anal intercourse with regular partners, by match of HIV status                                                       15
Table 16: Anal intercourse and condom use with casual partners                                                                            16
Table 17: Any condomless anal intercourse with casual partners, by HIV status of participants                                             17
Table 18: Disclosure of HIV status to or from casual partners, by HIV status of participants                                              17
Table 19: C
           onsistent disclosure of HIV status to casual partners among men who engaged in
          condomless anal intercourse, by HIV status of participants                                                                      18
Table 20: M
           en who frequently used risk reduction strategies when engaging in condomless anal
          intercourse with casual partners, by HIV status of participants                                                                 19
Table 21: STI testing among HIV-positive men in the 12 months prior to the survey                                                         20
Table 22: STI testing among HIV-negative men in the 12 months prior to the survey                                                         21
Table 23: Recreational drug use among all men in the six months prior to the survey                                                       22
Table 24: Recreational drug use among HIV-positive men in the six months prior to the survey                                              23
Table 25: Recreational drug use among HIV-negative men in the six months prior to the survey                                              24
Table 26: Injecting drug use in the six months prior to the survey, by HIV status of participants                                         25
Table 27: Party drug use and group sex in the six months prior to the survey                                                              25
Table 28: Knowledge and use of pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis                                                                         26




                                                                                       Gay Community Periodic Survey: Melbourne 2018
                       Evelyn Lee, Limin Mao, Timothy Broady, Ben Bavinton, Tex McKenzie, Colin Batrouney, Suzy Malhotra, John Manwaring,
                                                                                                Michael West, Garrett Prestage, Martin Holt       III
Glossary

ART antiretroviral treatment
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
seroconcordant a relationship in which both partners are of the same HIV status, either HIV-positive or HIV-
negative
serodiscordant a relationship in which both partners are known (as a result of testing) to be of different HIV
status, e.g. HIV-positive and HIV-negative
serononconcordant a relationship in which the HIV status of at least one partner in the relationship is not
known, e.g. HIV-positive and untested, HIV-negative and untested, or both untested
HIV status a person’s antibody status established by HIV testing, e.g. HIV-negative, HIV-positive, or unknown
(untested)
PEP post-exposure prophylaxis, a course of antiretroviral drugs used to reduce the risk of HIV infection after
potential exposure has occurred
PrEP pre-exposure prophylaxis, antiretroviral drugs used to reduce the risk of HIV infection before a potential
exposure
STI sexually transmissible infection
CAIC condomless anal intercourse with casual partners
CAIR condomless anal intercourse with regular partners




                                                                                     Gay Community Periodic Survey: Melbourne 2018
                     Evelyn Lee, Limin Mao, Timothy Broady, Ben Bavinton, Tex McKenzie, Colin Batrouney, Suzy Malhotra, John Manwaring,
                                                                                              Michael West, Garrett Prestage, Martin Holt   IV
Report




Executive summary
The Melbourne Gay Community Periodic Survey is a cross-sectional survey of gay and homosexually active
men recruited from a range of gay community sites in Melbourne and online throughout Victoria. Since 1998,
the project has been funded by the Victorian Department of Health and supported by the Victorian AIDS
Council and Living Positive Victoria. The Centre for Social Research in Health coordinates the survey, with
support from the Kirby Institute.
The major aim of the survey is to provide data on sexual, drug use and testing practices related to the
transmission of HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs) among gay men. The most recent
survey, the twentieth in Melbourne, was conducted in January 2018, recruiting a total of 2,742 men. The
majority of these men (n=2,305, 84.1%) were recruited using face-to-face recruitment by trained staff at gay
social venues (e.g. bars and community organisations), sex-on-premises venues, sexual health clinics and the
Midsumma Carnival.
The remaining 437 men (15.9%) participated through an online version of the survey. Online recruitment was
first conducted in 2015 through the social networking site Facebook. Men were directed to a website with an
online version of the GCPS questionnaire (http://gcpsonline.net). The advertisements were targeted to all men
who were resident in Victoria and who indicated in their Facebook profile that they were ‘interested in men’.
The overall response rate was 93%. The data presented in this report are from the period 2014 to 2018.
Between 2014 and 2018, the proportions of men recruited from Midsumma Carnival, sex-on-premises venues
and social venues have decreased. The proportions of men recruited from sexual health clinics and online
have remained unchanged in the current reporting period.




                                                                                     Gay Community Periodic Survey: Melbourne 2018
                     Evelyn Lee, Limin Mao, Timothy Broady, Ben Bavinton, Tex McKenzie, Colin Batrouney, Suzy Malhotra, John Manwaring,
                                                                                              Michael West, Garrett Prestage, Martin Holt   1
Report




Key points
„„   The proportion of men who reported ever being tested for HIV remained stable at 90% in 2018.
„„   The proportion of non-HIV-positive men who reported testing for HIV in the previous 12 months remained
     stable at 76% in 2018, while the proportion of men reporting three or more HIV tests in the previous year
     increased to 32%.
„„   Nearly all HIV-positive men in the 2018 survey (95%) reported being on HIV treatment. Among the men on
     treatment, nearly all (99%) said they had an undetectable viral load.
„„   In 2018, the most common way of meeting male sex partners was by using mobile apps (reported by 53%
     of the sample).
„„   The proportion of men with regular partners who report any condomless anal intercourse with those
     partners has increased over time to 68% in 2018.
„„   The proportion of men with casual partners who reported any condomless anal intercourse with those
     partners has increased over time to 55% in 2018. This increase is attributable to the rapid increase in the
     number of HIV-negative men using PrEP.
„„   The proportion of non-HIV-positive men using PrEP increased to 18% in 2018. Most of the men on PrEP in
     the 2018 survey (79%) obtained it from a research study or trial.


Demographic profile
As in previous surveys, the men in the sample were primarily of Anglo-Australian background, and the
majority lived in metropolitan Melbourne or urban Victoria, were well-educated and in full-time employment.
The majority of the sample identified as gay/homosexual (n=2,484, 90.6%) or bisexual (n=124, 4.5%). The
majority of men (71.9%) were born in Australia. In 2018, 1.8% (n=50) of the sample reported an Aboriginal or
Torres Strait Islander background. There has been no significant change in the proportion of Aboriginal or
Torres Strait Islander men in the survey over the last five surveys (2.2% in 2014 to 1.8% in 2018).
In 2018, the majority of participants indicated that they were cisgender men (n=2,660, 97.4%) with a
small number of participants identifying as transgender (n=19, 0.9%) or non-binary (n=35, 1.3%). Twelve
participants did not specify their gender (0.4%).
Between 2014 and 2018, the proportion of men aged under 25 years old decreased (from 17.2% to 15.3%)
while the proportion of men aged between 30 and 39 years old increased (from 27.3% to 31.2%). The
proportions of men in the other age categories remained unchanged.


HIV testing, status and treatment
In 2018, the majority of men in the sample reported ever having been tested for HIV (89.9%). More than three-
quarters of non-HIV-positive participants (76.1%) reported having an HIV test in the 12 months prior to the
2018 survey. The proportion of non-HIV-positive men who reported being tested in the previous 12 months
increased from 72.4% in 2014 to 76.1% in 2018.
In 2018, the two most common places to get tested were general practices (47.3%) and sexual health clinics/
hospitals (42.2%). The proportion of non-HIV-positive men tested at a community-based service (such as
Pronto) increased from 6.1% in 2017 to 8.6% in 2018.




                                                                                        Gay Community Periodic Survey: Melbourne 2018
                        Evelyn Lee, Limin Mao, Timothy Broady, Ben Bavinton, Tex McKenzie, Colin Batrouney, Suzy Malhotra, John Manwaring,
                                                                                                 Michael West, Garrett Prestage, Martin Holt   2
Report



The frequency of HIV testing has increased over time, with almost one in three non-HIV-positive men (32.1%)
reporting three or more HIV tests in the 12 months prior to the 2018 survey (compared with 13.9% in 2014).
Of the participants who had been tested, most reported they were HIV-negative (89.2%), with smaller
proportions reporting that they were HIV-positive (9.6%) or did not know their HIV status (1.1%). The
proportion of men who did not know their HIV status has declined from 2.7% in 2014 to 1.1% in 2018. The
proportions of men who report being HIV-positive or HIV-negative have remained unchanged in the reporting
period.
In 2018, the majority of HIV-positive men reported taking combination antiretroviral treatment at the time of the
survey (95.2%). Almost half of the HIV-positive men who were on treatment in the 2018 survey reported a CD4
count of more than 500 (49.3%) and nearly all of these men (n=215, 99.1%) had an undetectable viral load.
The majority of HIV-positive men (n=167, 69.9%) reported attending at least three clinical appointments to
manage their HIV in the year before the 2018 survey. The proportions of HIV-positive men who reported
attending at least three clinical appointments in the previous 12 months decreased from 77.0% in 2014 to
69.9% in 2018.


Sexual partnerships and practices
At the time of the 2018 survey, nearly one in five men reported having casual partners only (22.5%). There
were larger proportions of men who reported being in monogamous relationships (28.3%) or having
both regular and casual male partners (35.7%). A smaller proportion (13.6%) reported having no sexual
relationships with men at the time of the survey. Between 2014 and 2018, the proportion of men with both
regular and casual male partners increased while the proportions who had casual partners only or were in
monogamous relationships decreased.
In 2018, over half of the sample reported using mobile applications (such as Grindr) to meet male sex
partners (53.4%). The next most common way to meet partners was through the internet (31.7%). Other
common methods included going to gay saunas or sex venues (29.2%), meeting at gay bars (28.7%), while
travelling overseas (21.9%), at dance parties (15.7%) or beats (13.0%).
The use of mobile apps to meet men has continued to increase from 46.4% in 2014 to 53.4% in 2018. The
proportions of men who met male partners at dance parties, private sex parties and travelling overseas have
also increased in the reporting period.
A small proportion of men (4.4%) said they have been paid for sex at least once in the 6 months prior to the
2018 survey. The proportion of men reporting sex work has not changed since the question was first asked in
2016.

Regular male partners
Among men with regular partners in the six months prior to the 2018 survey, more than half reported an
agreement with their regular partner about sex within the relationship (57.2%) and a slightly smaller proportion
(53.1%) reported an agreement about sex outside the relationship. In 2018, the most commonly held
agreements about sex within a relationship specified that anal intercourse could occur without a condom
(40.4%), or that condoms must always be used for anal intercourse (11.7%). Between 2014 and 2018, the
proportion of men in relationships who reported an agreement that anal intercourse could occur without a
condom increased significantly, while the proportions of men who reported no sex or that condoms must
always be used for anal intercourse within the relationship declined significantly.




                                                                                     Gay Community Periodic Survey: Melbourne 2018
                     Evelyn Lee, Limin Mao, Timothy Broady, Ben Bavinton, Tex McKenzie, Colin Batrouney, Suzy Malhotra, John Manwaring,
                                                                                              Michael West, Garrett Prestage, Martin Holt   3
Report



The most commonly held agreements about sex outside a relationship were that casual sex was not allowed
(21.7%) or that condoms must always be used for anal intercourse with casual partners (19.3%). However,
between 2014 and 2018 the proportion of men whose agreement indicated that they could have condomless
sex with casual partners increased significantly, while the proportions of men with other types of agreement
about casual sex declined significantly.
Among HIV-positive men who had regular partners in the six months prior to the 2018 survey, almost a third
were in a seroconcordant relationship (32.6%), almost half reported being in a serodiscordant relationship
(46.9%), and the remainder (20.6%) reported being in a serononconcordant relationship. Between
2014 and 2018, the proportion of HIV-positive men in serodiscordant relationships has increased while
serononconcordant relationships have become less common.
HIV-negative men with regular partners were more likely to be in seroconcordant relationships, compared
with HIV-positive men. In 2018, nearly three-quarters of HIV-negative men with regular partners were
in seroconcordant relationships (74.8%) and a fifth reported being in a serononconcordant relationship
(20.2%). In 2018, seventy-nine HIV-negative men (or 5.0% of those with regular partners) reported having a
serodiscordant partner. The proportion of HIV-negative men in seroconcordant relationships has increased
significantly while serononconcordant relationships have declined between 2014 and 2018.
In 2018, slightly more than two out of three men with a regular partner reported any condomless anal
intercourse (CAIR) with their partner (67.7%) in the six months prior to the survey, while one in five men
reported having no anal intercourse with their regular partner (20.5%). The proportion of men who reported
always using condoms for anal intercourse with their regular partner decreased significantly from 24.4% in
2014 to 11.8% in 2018. The proportion reporting any CAIR increased significantly between 2014 and 2018.
The level of CAIR recorded in the 2018 survey is the highest observed over the last five surveys.
Rates of CAIR varied according to the HIV status of participants and their regular partners. In 2018, among
HIV-positive men with regular partners, half reported CAIR with partners who were not concordant (50.3%)
and a similar proportion of men avoided CAIR (24.6%) or reported seroconcordant CAIR (25.1%). Since 2014,
the proportion of HIV-positive men reporting CAIR that was not concordant has increased significantly while
the proportion reporting no CAIR has declined.
Compared to HIV-positive men, HIV-negative men with regular partners were more likely to restrict CAIR
to seroconcordant partners or to avoid CAIR. Among HIV-negative men with regular partners in 2018,
slightly more than half reported seroconcordant CAIR (54.5%) and nearly a third avoided CAIR (31.1%). The
remaining minority (14.4%) reported CAIR that was not concordant. Since 2014, the proportions of HIV-
negative men reporting seroconcordant CAIR and CAIR that was not concordant have increased significantly
while the proportion reporting no CAIR has declined.

Casual male partners
The use of condoms for anal intercourse remains more common with casual partners than with regular
partners. In 2018, over half of men with casual partners (55.2%) reported any condomless anal intercourse
with casual partners (CAIC) in the six months prior to the survey, with a quarter (26.5%) reporting consistent
condom use.
Between 2014 and 2018, the proportion of men reporting any CAIC increased significantly while the
proportion of men who always used condoms for anal intercourse decreased. The level of CAIC recorded in
2018 is the highest observed over the last five surveys.




                                                                                     Gay Community Periodic Survey: Melbourne 2018
                     Evelyn Lee, Limin Mao, Timothy Broady, Ben Bavinton, Tex McKenzie, Colin Batrouney, Suzy Malhotra, John Manwaring,
                                                                                              Michael West, Garrett Prestage, Martin Holt   4
Report



Table 16 provides additional details about the HIV statuses of men who engaged in CAIC and the use of
antiretroviral-based prevention (specifically HIV-positive men maintaining an undetectable viral load through
HIV treatment and HIV-negative men taking pre-exposure prophylaxis or PrEP). It also shows the highest risk
activity for HIV transmission (HIV-negative and untested men not on PrEP engaging in receptive CAIC).
From this table we can see that the large, recent increase in CAIC is due to the increase in the proportion of
men with casual partners who are HIV-negative, on PrEP and who report CAIC (increasing from 0.6% of men
with casual partners in 2014 to 18.7% in 2018). This reflects the rapid increase in the availability and use of
PrEP in Victoria over the last few years.
The proportion of men reporting the highest risk practice for HIV transmission (HIV-negative and untested
men not on PrEP engaging in receptive CAIC) has remained unchanged between 2014 and 2018.
In 2018, HIV-positive men with casual partners remained the most likely to report any CAIC (78.0%)
compared with their HIV-negative counterparts (53.6%) and untested/unknown status men (40.4%). Between
2014 and 2018, the levels of CAIC reported by HIV-positive men and HIV-negative men have increased
significantly.
In 2018, disclosure of HIV status before sex to casual partners continued to be more commonly reported by
HIV-positive men (83.8%) than by HIV-negative men (75.4%). There was a similar proportion of HIV-positive
men and HIV negative men who reported HIV disclosure from their casual partners in 2018. The proportions
of HIV-negative men who disclosed their HIV status before sex to any casual partner and who reported
disclosure from their casual partners increased significantly between 2014 and 2018.
Over time, HIV-negative men who engaged in CAIC have become significantly more likely to disclose their
HIV status to all casual partners (45.1% in 2014 to 50.6% in 2018). In 2018, more than half of the HIV-positive
men who had CAIC in the six months prior to the survey disclosed their HIV status to all their casual partners
(53.7%).
Among HIV-positive men who reported CAIC in the six months prior to the 2018 survey, the majority (90.6%)
said they relied on having undetectable viral load before CAIC, two-fifths (40.9%) said that they frequently
made sure that their partners were HIV-positive before CAIC (serosorting) and nearly half (49.0%) said they
knew their partner was on PrEP before CAIC. Smaller proportions of HIV-positive men (20.1%) reported
frequently taking the receptive role during CAIC (strategic positioning) or frequently withdrawing before
ejaculation (12.1%). The proportion of men who said they frequently relied on serosorting before CAIC has
declined from 57.3% in 2014 to 40.9% in 2018.
Among HIV-negative men who reported CAIC in the six months prior to the 2018 survey, nearly half (48.2%)
said they frequently made sure their partners were HIV-negative before sex (serosorting), more than two-fifths
(44.9%) said they were taking PrEP and a similar proportion said they knew their partner was on PrEP before
CAIC (46.5%). Almost one in five (17.1%) reported frequently taking the insertive role during CAIC (strategic
positioning) and fewer than one in ten said that their casual partners frequently withdrew before ejaculating
inside them (7.5%). A quarter of HIV-negative men who had CAIC (25.4%) said that when they had an HIV-
positive partner, they frequently ensured he had an undetectable viral load before CAIC. The proportion of
HIV-negative men who have CAIC and who report taking PrEP has significantly increased from 1.7% in 2014
to 44.9% in 2018. In addition, the proportion of HIV-negative men who knew that their partner was on PrEP
before they had CAIC significantly increased between 2017 and 2018 (from 38.2% to 46.5%).




                                                                                     Gay Community Periodic Survey: Melbourne 2018
                     Evelyn Lee, Limin Mao, Timothy Broady, Ben Bavinton, Tex McKenzie, Colin Batrouney, Suzy Malhotra, John Manwaring,
                                                                                              Michael West, Garrett Prestage, Martin Holt   5
Report




Sexual health
As in previous surveys, in 2018 a higher proportion of HIV-positive men (92.1%) reported having had any
sexual health test (including a blood test for syphilis) in the 12 months prior to the survey, compared with HIV-
negative men (77.3%).
The proportion of HIV-positive men reporting urine samples increased from 78.3% in 2014 to 84.9% in 2018
while the proportions of HIV-positive men reporting other types of STI testing (anal, throat and penile swabs)
remained stable.
The proportion of HIV-negative men reporting any STI test has increased significantly between 2014 and
2018. In this period, there have been significant increases in the proportions of HIV-negative men reporting
anal and throat swabs, urine samples and blood tests for syphilis.
In 2018, similar proportions of the whole sample reported being diagnosed with chlamydia (13.4%) or
gonorrhoea (14.3%) in the year prior to the survey. A smaller proportion of men reported being diagnosed
with syphilis (4.5%). Almost one in four men (23.3%) said that they had been diagnosed with any STI in the 12
months prior to the 2018 survey. The proportion of men diagnosed with two or more different STIs in the 12
months prior to the 2018 survey has increased from 4.0% in 2017 to 9.2% in 2018.
Because of the relatively high level of STI diagnoses in the 2018 survey, we examined how STI diagnoses
varied by HIV status, PrEP use and sexual behaviour. In 2018, 40.6% of HIV-positive men, 55.1% of HIV-
negative men on PrEP and 14.6% of HIV-negative and untested men not on PrEP reported a diagnosis
with any STI other than HIV. In 2018, 45.1% of men who had engaged in CAIC in the six months prior to
the survey reported an STI diagnosis, compared with 11.5% of men who had not engaged in CAIC. STI
diagnoses remain concentrated among HIV-negative men on PrEP (who typically engage in higher frequency
STI testing) and men who engage in condomless sex with casual partners (a higher risk practice for STI
transmission).
In 2018, the majority of men reported having been tested for hepatitis C (76.1%). Among them, the large
majority reported that they did not have hepatitis C (97.4%) and 32 men (1.6%) said they had chronic hepatitis
C. In 2018, the survey participants were asked for the first time if they had been vaccinated for hepatitis A or
hepatitis B. The majority of men reported that they were vaccinated for hepatitis A (72.0%) and hepatitis B
(77.2%).


Recreational drug use
Recreational drug use remains common within the sample, with the most frequently used drugs being
amyl/poppers (42.1%), cannabis (30.7%), Viagra (20.7%), ecstasy (18.5%), cocaine (17.0%), crystal
methamphetamine (9.2%) and amphetamine (speed; 8.0%).
Between 2014 and 2018, there have been significant increases in the use of amyl/poppers, Viagra, cocaine,
ketamine and gamma hydorxybutyrate (GHB). The use of amphetamine and crystal methamphetamine have
declined. Since 2014, the proportion of men who report the use of more than two drugs in the six months prior
to the survey has increased significantly.
In general, HIV-positive men remain more likely to report drug use compared with HIV-negative men. HIV-
positive men remain considerably more likely than HIV-negative men to report any injecting drug use (19.3%
vs. 3.8% in 2018) and crystal methamphetamine use (29.3% vs. 7.8% in 2018).
Since 2014, the proportion of HIV-positive men reporting any drug use has remained stable. The proportion
of HIV-negative men reporting the use of more than two drugs in the six months prior to the survey has
increased significantly.




                                                                                      Gay Community Periodic Survey: Melbourne 2018
                      Evelyn Lee, Limin Mao, Timothy Broady, Ben Bavinton, Tex McKenzie, Colin Batrouney, Suzy Malhotra, John Manwaring,
                                                                                               Michael West, Garrett Prestage, Martin Holt   6
Report



In 2018, 17.9% of all men reported using party drugs for sex in the six months prior to the survey. The
proportion of men engaged in group sex during or after drug use increased from 8.8% in 2014 to 11.7% in
2018.
In 2018 the proportion of men who reported having more than four drinks at least weekly was 32.7%, slightly
more than one in four said they had more than four drinks at least monthly (28.1%), and nearly a quarter
(24.7%) said they had had more than four drinks once or twice in the previous 6 months. The proportion of
men who reported having had more than four drinks at least monthly decreased significantly between 2014
and 2018.


Knowledge and use of PEP and PrEP
In 2018, more than three-quarters of the sample (78.1%) reported knowing that post-exposure prophylaxis
(PEP) was available. PEP awareness has increased over time, particularly between 2016 and 2018. There
has been a rapid increase in the awareness of PrEP (from 30.7% in 2014 to 78.1% in 2018).
The proportion of non-HIV-positive men who reported taking a prescribed course of PEP in the six months
prior to the survey increased from 3.2% in 2014 to 4.7% in 2018. The increase in PrEP use was more dramatic,
with the proportion of non-HIV-positive men who reported PrEP use increasing from 1.0% in 2014 to 18.4% in
2018.
Among men who reported taking PrEP in the six months prior to the 2018 survey, the majority of men obtained
PrEP through a trial or study (79.4%) or by buying it online from overseas (11.9%).


Reporting
Data are shown for the period 2014–2018. Each table includes the statistical significance (p-value), if any,
of the change between 2017 and 2018 and the trend over time (2014–2018). An alpha level of .05 was used
for all statistical tests. Changes between 2017 and 2018 were assessed with logistic regression (comparing
one category with all the others). The p-value of the logistic regression test (if shown) indicates a statistically
significant change within that category compared with all the others. For statistically significant trends over
time, also tested with logistic regression, the direction of the change (an increase or decrease) is indicated.
Where there is no significant change, ns (non-significant) is shown. Where there are low frequencies or data
over time are not comparable, tests have not been performed and are marked NA (not applicable). Please
exercise caution when interpreting results where there are low frequencies. When data are missing or were
not collected in a given year, this is indicated in the table by a dash (–).




                                                                                      Gay Community Periodic Survey: Melbourne 2018
                      Evelyn Lee, Limin Mao, Timothy Broady, Ben Bavinton, Tex McKenzie, Colin Batrouney, Suzy Malhotra, John Manwaring,
                                                                                               Michael West, Garrett Prestage, Martin Holt   7
Findings




Tables
The findings of the survey are presented in tables 1 to 28 below.

Table 1: Recruitment source

                                                        2014                   2015                   2016                   2017                   2018        Change from 2017                 Trend over time
                                                        n (%)                  n (%)                  n (%)                  n (%)                  n (%)           (p-value)                       (p-value)
 Midsumma Carnival                              1,336 (71.4)           1,628 (54.2)           1,924 (66.7)           1,938 (65.5)           1,902 (69.4)             Increase
Findings




Table 3: HIV testing

                                              2014                  2015                 2016                 2017                  2018        Change from 2017                Trend over time
                                              n (%)                 n (%)                n (%)                n (%)                 n (%)           (p-value)                      (p-value)
 All participants
 Ever tested                            1,639 (87.6)        2,638 (87.8)         2,586 (89.6)          2,663 (90.1)         2,464 (89.9)                    ns                    Increase
Findings




Table 5: Number of HIV tests in the previous 12 months

                                                    2014                    2015                    2016                    2017                     2018        Change from 2017               Trend over time
                                                    n (%)                   n (%)                   n (%)                   n (%)                    n (%)           (p-value)                     (p-value)
 None                                          674 (39.4)            1042 (38.0)               939 (35.1)              888 (33.0)              836 (33.4)                    ns                  Decrease
Findings




Table 8: Undetectable viral load and CD4 count among HIV-positive men, by treatment status

                                      2014                    2015                    2016                   2017                    2018         Change from 2017                Trend over time
                                      n (%)                   n (%)                   n (%)                  n (%)                   n (%)            (p-value)                      (p-value)
 Men using ART
 Undetectable viral load          130 (94.2)            222 (94.9)               191 (97.5)              252 (97.3)              215 (99.1)                   ns                     Increase  500                   69 (50.0)             129 (55.1)             122 (62.2)              144 (55.6)              107 (49.3)                    ns                            ns
 Total                             138 (100)             234 (100)               196 (100)               259 (100)               217 (100)
 Men not using ART
 Undetectable viral load            4 (23.5)                8 (38.1)                4 (40.0)                 2 (100)               7 (63.6)                  NA                             NA
 CD4 count > 500                    9 (52.9)              11 (52.4)                 5 (50.0)              1 (50.00)                5 (45.5)                  NA                             NA
 Total                              17 (100)               21 (100)                10 (100)                 2 (100)                11 (100)



Table 9: Current relationships with men

                                              2014                  2015                   2016                   2017                  2018 Change from 2017                      Trend over time
                                              n (%)                 n (%)                  n (%)                  n (%)                 n (%)    (p-value)                            (p-value)
 None                                     249 (14.0)           442 (15.3)             409 (14.6)             405 (14.1)            363 (13.6)                   ns                           ns
 Casual only                              477 (26.8)           752 (26.0)             653 (23.3)            698 (24.2)             601 (22.5)                   ns                  Decrease
Findings




Table 10: Where men met their male sex partners in the six months prior to the survey

                                                              2014                  2015                   2016                   2017                  2018 Change from 2017                      Trend over time
                                                              n (%)                 n (%)                  n (%)                  n (%)                 n (%)    (p-value)                            (p-value)
    Mobile app e.g. Grindr                               868 (46.4)          1,455 (48.4)          1,392 (48.2)           1,562 (52.8)           1,463 (53.4)                   ns                   Increase
Findings




Table 11: Agreements with regular male partners about sex within the relationship

                                                                        2014               2015               2016                2017               2018        Change from 2017                Trend over time
                                                                        n (%)              n (%)              n (%)               n (%)              n (%)           (p-value)                      (p-value)
 No agreement about sex within the relationship                    538 (41.4)         864 (43.4)         895 (44.4)         990 (48.2)          823 (42.8)           Decrease
Findings




Table 13: Match of HIV status between regular partners

                                                                 2014                 2015                 2016                 2017                 2018 Change from 2017                       Trend over time
                                                                 n (%)                n (%)                n (%)                n (%)                n (%)    (p-value)                             (p-value)
 HIV-positive men
 Seroconcordant                                              41 (36.9)             71 (41.3)           53 (34.9)             72 (35.3)            57 (32.6)                  ns                            ns
 Serodiscordant                                              38 (34.2)            61 (35.4)            59 (38.8)             87 (42.7)            82 (46.9)                  ns                    Increase
Findings




Table 15: Condomless anal intercourse with regular partners, by match of HIV status

                                                     2014                    2015                    2016                    2017                    2018        Change from 2017                Trend over time
                                                     n (%)                   n (%)                   n (%)                   n (%)                   n (%)           (p-value)                      (p-value)
 HIV-positive men
 Seroconcordant CAIR                               31 (27.9)             59 (34.2)               45 (29.6)                59 (28.9)               44 (25.1)                  ns                            ns
 Not concordant CAIR                               31 (27.9)             53 (30.8)                50 (32.9)               86 (42.2)              88 (50.3)                   ns                   Increase
Findings




Table 16: Anal intercourse and condom use with casual partners

                                                            2014                  2015                  2016                 2017                  2018         Change from 2017                Trend over time
                                                            n (%)                 n (%)                 n (%)                n (%)                 n (%)            (p-value)                      (p-value)
 No anal intercourse                                    209 (17.6)           363 (19.2)           296 (16.7)            316 (16.5)            320 (18.3)                    ns                            ns
 Always uses a condom                                   552 (46.5)           791 (41.9)           724 (40.7)            583 (30.4)           463 (26.5)            Decrease
Findings




Table 17: Any condomless anal intercourse with casual partners, by HIV status of participants

                                                                  2014                2015                 2016                2017                 2018        Change from 2017                Trend over time
                                                                  n (%)               n (%)                n (%)               n (%)                n (%)           (p-value)                      (p-value)
 HIV-positive men                                             75 (64.1)          136 (68.3)          122 (73.9)           154 (73.3)          149 (78.0)                    ns                    Increase
Findings




Table 19: Consistent disclosure of HIV status to casual partners among men who engaged in condomless anal intercourse, by HIV status of participants

                                                              2014                 2015                 2016                 2017                 2018         Change from 2017                 Trend over time
                                                              n (%)                n (%)                n (%)                n (%)                n (%)            (p-value)                       (p-value)
 HIV-positive men who disclosed to all                    35 (46.7)             64 (47.1)            63 (51.6)           86 (55.8)            80 (53.7)                    ns                             ns
 Total                                                     75 (100)            136 (100)            122 (100)            154 (100)            149 (100)
 HIV-negative men who disclosed to all                   134 (45.1)          235 (44.4)            283 (48.9)           385 (47.8)           384 (50.6)                    ns                     Increase
Findings




Table 20: Men who frequently used risk reduction strategies when engaging in condomless anal intercourse with casual partners, by HIV status of participants

                                                                         2014               2015              2016                2017               2018        Change from 2017                Trend over time
                                                                         n (%)              n (%)             n (%)               n (%)              n (%)           (p-value)                      (p-value)
 HIV-positive men
 Ensured partners were seroconcordant before CAIC                     43 (57.3)         88 (64.7)          62 (50.8)          80 (52.0)           61 (40.9)                  ns                  Decrease
Findings




Table 21: STI testing among HIV-positive men in the 12 months prior to the survey

                                                               2014                 2015                 2016                  2017                 2018 Change from 2017                       Trend over time
                                                               n (%)                n (%)                n (%)                 n (%)                n (%)    (p-value)                             (p-value)
 Anal swab                                                 113 (70.2)          191 (73.2)           161 (75.2)            209 (77.1)           182 (76.2)                   ns                            ns
 Throat swab                                              110 (68.3)           190 (72.8)           158 (73.8)           207 (76.4)            182 (76.2)                   ns                            ns
 Penile swab                                                66 (41.0)          128 (49.0)             97 (45.3)           122 (45.0)            115 (48.1)                  ns                            ns
 Urine sample                                             126 (78.3)          206 (78.9)            180 (84.1)           231 (85.2)            203 (84.9)                   ns                    Increase
Findings




Table 22: STI testing among HIV-negative men in the 12 months prior to the survey

                                                                   2014                2015                 2016                 2017                 2018        Change from 2017                Trend over time
                                                                   n (%)               n (%)                n (%)                n (%)                n (%)           (p-value)                      (p-value)
 Anal swab                                                    682 (47.2)       1,068 (45.3)          1,176 (50.4)        1,376 (58.3)         1,310 (59.5)                    ns                   Increase
Findings




Table 23: Recreational drug use among all men in the six months prior to the survey

                                                        2014                 2015                  2016                 2017                  2018         Change from 2017                  Trend over time
                                                        n (%)                n (%)                 n (%)                n (%)                 n (%)            (p-value)                        (p-value)
 Cannabis                                           545 (29.1)          938 (31.2)            924 (32.0)         1,001 (33.9)           843 (30.7)             Decrease
Findings




Table 24: Recreational drug use among HIV-positive men in the six months prior to the survey

                                       2014                 2015                   2016                   2017                   2018 Change from 2017                         Trend over time
                                       n (%)                n (%)                  n (%)                  n (%)                  n (%)    (p-value)                               (p-value)
 Cannabis                           54 (33.5)          110 (42.2)               85 (39.7)              97 (35.8)              97 (40.6)                  ns                              ns
 Amyl nitrite (poppers)             84 (52.2)          155 (59.4)             124 (57.9)             170 (62.7)              146 (61.1)                  ns                              ns
 Ecstasy                             28 (17.4)           63 (24.1)              54 (25.2)             69 (25.5)              57 (23.9)                   ns                              ns
 Amphetamine (speed)                21 (13.0)            36 (17.8)              28 (13.1)                21 (7.8)             26 (10.9)                  ns                              ns
 Crystal methamphetamine            39 (24.2)            92 (35.3)              66 (30.8)              84 (31.0)              70 (29.3)                  ns                              ns
 Viagra                             58 (36.0)          121 (46.4)              94 (43.9)             129 (47.6)             118 (49.4)                   ns                      Increase
Findings




Table 25: Recreational drug use among HIV-negative men in the six months prior to the survey

                                         2014                   2015                  2016                  2017                   2018        Change from 2017                 Trend over time
                                         n (%)                  n (%)                 n (%)                 n (%)                  n (%)           (p-value)                       (p-value)
 Cannabis                             420 (29.1)          725 (30.8)             740 (31.7)            805 (34.1)             674 (30.6)          Decrease
Findings




Table 26: Injecting drug use in the six months prior to the survey, by HIV status of participants

                                       2014                     2015                      2016                     2017                      2018 Change from 2017                      Trend over time
                                       n (%)                    n (%)                     n (%)                    n (%)                     n (%)    (p-value)                            (p-value)
 All men                             59 (3.2)               120 (4.0)                 114 (4.0)                 126 (4.3)                 103 (3.8)                  ns                           ns
 Total                            1,872 (100)            3,006 (100)              2,886 (100)               2,956 (100)               2,742 (100)
 HIV-positive men                   23 (14.3)               47 (18.0)                 38 (17.8)                 52 (19.2)                 46 (19.3)                  ns                           ns
 Total                              161(100)               261 (100)                 214 (100)                 271 (100)                 239 (100)
 HIV-negative men                    29 (2.0)                 63 (2.7)                  61 (2.6)                 63 (2.7)                  51 (2.3)                  ns                           ns
 Total                            1,444 (100)            2,357 (100)               2,332 (100)              2,362 (100)               2,202 (100)



Table 27: Party drug use and group sex in the six months prior to the survey

                                                2014                  2015                   2016                  2017                   2018        Change from 2017                 Trend over time
                                                n (%)                 n (%)                  n (%)                 n (%)                  n (%)           (p-value)                       (p-value)
 Used party drugs for sex                 292 (15.6)             545 (18.1)             508 (17.6)            565 (19.1)             491 (17.9)                   ns                             ns
 Engaged in group sex during or            165 (8.8)             339 (11.3)             330 (11.4)            391 (13.2)             321 (11.7)                   ns                     Increase
Findings




Table 28: Knowledge and use of pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis

                                                        2014                2015                2016                 2017                2018         Change from 2017                 Trend over time
                                                        n (%)               n (%)               n (%)                n (%)               n (%)            (p-value)                       (p-value)
 Belief that PEP is available now (all men)      1,199 (64.1)        1,875 (62.4)        1,913 (66.3)        2,249 (76.1)         2,140 (78.1)                    ns                    Increase
Appendix




                                                                                                                                   Appendix
                  Melbourne Gay Community Periodic Survey 2018
  Melbourne Gay Community Periodic Survey 2018
                                                                       Conducted by




                       This is a survey of sexual practices of men who have had sex with another man in the last five years.
                       This survey is completely anonymous – please do not write your name on the questionnaire.
                       Your responses are very important – they provide valuable information that assists in HIV health
                       promotion efforts. PLEASE COMPLETE THE SURVEY ONCE ONLY THIS YEAR (including online).



Section A – About you                                                             Section B – Your sex partners
1. How many of your friends are gay or homosexual men?                                     In this survey we distinguish between REGULAR
   1   None      2   A few          3   Some         4   Most      5   All            (boyfriends/fuck buddies) and CASUAL partners
2. How much of your free time is spent with                                       13. Do you currently have sex with casual male partners?
   gay or homosexual men?                                                            1   No             2   Yes
   1   None      2   A little       3   Some         4   A lot                14. Do you currently have sex with a regular male partner (or
3. What is your gender?                                                               partners)?
   1
       Male          2
                          Female         3
                                              Non-binary        4
                                                                     Other          1   No             2   Yes
4. What gender were you assigned at birth?                                        15. How would you describe your sexual relationship with your
                                                                                      current regular male partner(s)? (choose one)
   1
       Male          2
                          Female                                                    1 We are monogamous – neither of us has casual sex
5. Do you think of yourself as:                                                      2 Both my partner and I have casual sex with other men
   1 Gay/Homosexual              2    Bisexual        3    Heterosexual           3
                                                                                       I have casual sex with other men but my partner does
   4 Other                                                    (please specify)           not
                                                                                     4 My partner has casual sex with other men but I do not
6. How old are you?                                                                  5I have several regular male partners

               Years                                                                 6
                                                                                       No current regular male partner  Go to Section C
7. Are you of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin?                        16. If you are in a relationship with a man, for how long has it
   1   No                  2   Yes                                                  been?

8. What is your ethnic background? (e.g. Dutch, Greek,
                                                                                     1Less than 6 months
   Vietnamese, Lebanese)
                                                                                     26–11 months
                                                                                     31–2 years
   1   Anglo-Australian          2
                                      Other                                         4More than 2 years

9. Where were you born?                                                              5Not in a relationship with a man         Go to Section C
   1    Australia                2   Overseas                                   17. Do you have a clear (spoken) agreement about sex within
                                                                                      your relationship?
10. Where do you live?                                                               1 No agreement
       Postcode                                OR                                    2
                                                                                       Agreement: No sex at all
                                                                                     3Agreement: No anal sex at all
       Suburb/Town
                                                                                     4
                                                                                       Agreement: All anal sex is with a condom
11. Are you:                                                                         5
                                                                                       Agreement: Anal sex can be without a condom
       1Employed full-time                         4A student                   18. Do you have a clear (spoken) agreement in your relationship
       2Employed part-time                         5Unemployed                      about sex with casual male partners?
       3On pension/social security                 6Other                         1No agreement
12. What is the highest level of education you have completed?
                                                                                    2Agreement: No sex at all
                                                                                    3Agreement: No anal sex at all
   1
     Up to Year 10
                                                                                    4Agreement: All anal sex is with a condom
   2
     Year 12 / VCE / HSC / QCE / SACE / WACE
                                                                                    5Agreement: Anal sex can be without a condom
   3Tertiary diploma or trade certificate / TAFE

                                                                                                                                 Go to section C 
   4
     University degree                        Go to section B 
Page 1                                                                                                                              MGCPS 2018/-


                                                                                                             Gay Community Periodic Survey: Melbourne 2018
                                   Evelyn Lee, Limin Mao, Timothy Broady, Ben Bavinton, Tex McKenzie, Colin Batrouney, Suzy Malhotra, John Manwaring,
                                                                                                            Michael West, Garrett Prestage, Martin Holt         27
Appendix




Section C – Sex in the last 6 months                                       Section E – Casual male partners – last 6 months
19. How many different men have you had sex with in the last 6             30. Have you had any sex with any casual male partner/s
                                                                                   In this
                                                                               in the  last survey we distinguish between REGULAR
                                                                                            6 months?
   months?                                                                            (boyfriend/lover) and CASUAL partners . . .
                                                                              1   Yes              2No 
                                                                                                                Go to section F 
  1
    None              4
                         6–10 men            7
                                                  More than 50 men               
  2
    One               5
                         11–20 men
                                                                                  In the last 6 MONTHS how often have you done the
  3
    2–5 men           6
                         21-50 men                                               following with any of your CASUAL male partner/s?
20. In the last 6 months how often have you had sex with                   Anal sex casual partner/s:
    men you met at or through:
                                                                           31. I fucked him with a condom.
                                   Never Occasionally Often
 Internet                           1         2        3
                                                                              1   Never           2   Occasionally       3   Often
 Mobile app e.g. Grindr, Scruff         1               2      3        32. He fucked me with a condom.
 Gay bar                                1               2      3           1
                                                                                  Never           2
                                                                                                       Occasionally       3
                                                                                                                               Often
 Dance party                            1
                                                        2
                                                                3
                                                                          33. I fucked him without a condom but pulled out before I came.
 Beat                                   1               2      3
                                                                              1
                                                                                  Never           2
                                                                                                       Occasionally       3
                                                                                                                               Often
 Gay sauna / sex venue                  1
                                                        2
                                                                3
                                                                   
                                                                           34. He fucked me without a condom but pulled out before he
 Sex workers                            1
                                                        2
                                                                3
                                                                              came.
 Private sex parties                    1
                                                        2
                                                                3
                                                                             1   Never           2   Occasionally       3   Often
 Travelling in Australia                1
                                                        2
                                                                3
                                                                          35. I fucked him without a condom and came inside.
 Overseas                               1               2      3
                                                                              1   Never           2   Occasionally       3   Often
21. In the last 6 months, how often did you have group sex                 36. He fucked me without a condom and came inside.
    involving at least two other men?
                                                                              1   Never           2   Occasionally       3   Often
  1Every week                  3Once / A few times
  2Monthly                     4Never
                                                                           HIV disclosure casual partner/s
                                                                           37. How many of your casual partners did you tell your HIV status
                                                                               before sex?
22. In the last 6 months, how often have you been paid for sex?
                                                                              1
                                                                                  None            2
                                                                                                       Some               3
                                                                                                                               All
  1Every week                  3Once / A few times
  2Monthly                     4Never                                    38. How many of your casual partners told you their HIV status
                                                                               before sex?

Section D – Regular male partners – last 6 months
                                                                              1
                                                                                  None            2
                                                                                                       Some               3
                                                                                                                               All
23. Have you had sex with regular male partner/s
    in the last 6 months?                                                  HIV status of casual partner/s
   1
       Yes            2
                           No       Go to section E                 Go 39.
                                                                          to section   E
                                                                              In the last 6 months, did you have any sex with casual
                                                                             partners who were:

       In the last 6 MONTHS how often have you done the
                                                                              HIV-positive         1
                                                                                                     Yes       2
                                                                                                                  No      3
                                                                                                                            Donʼt know
       following with any of your REGULAR male partner/s?                     HIV-negative         1
                                                                                                     Yes       2
                                                                                                                  No      3
                                                                                                                            Donʼt know
                                                                                                   1Yes        2No       3Donʼt know
Anal sex regular partner/s:                                                   Untested
24. I fucked him with a condom.
                                                                           40. In the last 6 months, did you fuck or get fucked without a
   1   Never          2   Occasionally            3   Often                 condom with casual partners who were:

25. He fucked me with a condom.                                               HIV-positive         1
                                                                                                    Yes        2
                                                                                                                 No       3
                                                                                                                            Donʼt know
   1   Never          2   Occasionally            3   Often                HIV-negative         1Yes        2No       3Donʼt know
                                                                                                   1Yes        2No       3Donʼt know
26. I fucked him without a condom but pulled out before I came.               Untested
   1   Never          2   Occasionally            3   Often
27. He fucked me without a condom but pulled out before he
    came.
   1   Never          2   Occasionally            3   Often
28. I fucked him without a condom and came inside.
   1
       Never          2
                           Occasionally            3
                                                        Often
29. He fucked me without a condom and came inside.
                                                                                      Survey continues on next page
   1   Never          2   Occasionally            3   Often
Go to section E 




Page 2                                                                                                                          MGCPS 2018/-




                                                                                               Gay Community Periodic Survey: Melbourne 2018
                             Evelyn Lee, Limin Mao, Timothy Broady, Ben Bavinton, Tex McKenzie, Colin Batrouney, Suzy Malhotra, John Manwaring,
                                                                                                      Michael West, Garrett Prestage, Martin Holt   28
Appendix




          The following questions are for men who have had any anal sex without a condom
          with casual male partner(s) in the last 6 months.
          If you have not had any anal sex without a condom with casual male partners, go to section F 

41. In the last 6 months, if you had anal sex without a condom with any casual male partner(s),
    how often did you do any of the following to avoid getting or passing on HIV?
I made sure we were the same HIV status before we fucked
without a condom
                                                                           1    Never       2    Occasionally            3    Often      4    Always
I chose to take the top role (I fucked him) because his HIV status
was different or unknown to me
                                                                           1    Never       2    Occasionally            3    Often      4    Always
I chose to take the bottom role (he fucked me) because his HIV
status was different or unknown to me
                                                                           1    Never       2    Occasionally            3    Often      4    Always
When I fucked him, I chose to pull out before cumming because
his HIV status was different or unknown to me
                                                                           1    Never       2    Occasionally            3    Often      4    Always
When he fucked me, I made sure he pulled out before cumming
because his HIV status was different or unknown to me
                                                                           1    Never       2    Occasionally            3    Often      4    Always
I took anti-HIV medication (PrEP) before sex                               1
                                                                             Never          2
                                                                                               Occasionally               3
                                                                                                                             Often         4
                                                                                                                                              Always
                                                                           1 Never          2 Occasionally               3 Often         4 Always
I knew my partner was on PrEP before we had sex
When my partner was HIV-positive, I checked he had an
undetectable viral load before we had sex
                                                                           1    Never       2    Occasionally            3    Often      4    Always
I knew I had an undetectable viral load before we had sex                  1    Never       2    Occasionally            3    Often      4    Always
                                                                                                                                         Go to section F 

Section F – HIV testing and HIV status                                               If you are HIV-positive please complete
42. Have you ever had an HIV test?                                                   the next five questions. If not, go to section G 
   1
       No                         2
                                       Yes                                 49. When were you first diagnosed as HIV-positive?
43. When were you last tested for HIV?
                                                                                 Year
   1 Never tested                     5 7–12 months ago
   2 Less than a week ago             6 1–2 years ago                     50. In the last 12 months, how many clinical appointments about
   3
     1–4 weeks ago                    7
                                         2–4 years ago                         managing HIV have you attended?
   41–6 months ago                    8More than 4 years ago                   1   None           2   1-2              3   3-4             4   5 or more
44. Based on the results of your HIV tests,                                 51. Are you on combination antiretroviral therapy (HIV treatment)?
    what is your HIV status?                                                     2   Yes                         1   No
   1
    No test/Donʼt know                    3
                                               Positive
   2Negative
                                                                            52. What was your last viral load test result?
                                                                                 1Undetectable
45. Where did you have your last HIV test?                                       2Detectable
   1No test/donʼt know                    5   Private home                     3Donʼt know/unsure
   2GP                                    6   Community-based service
   3Sexual health clinic                  e.g. Pronto                     53. What was your last CD4 count?
   4Hospital                              7   Somewhere else                   1≤200                               4   >500
                                                                                 2201-350                            5   Donʼt know/unsure
46. How many HIV tests have you had in the last 12 months?                       3351-500
   1
     None (no tests)                      4
                                               3-4 tests                                                                                Go to section G 
   2
     One test                             5
                                               5 or more tests
   3
     Two tests
47. If you have a regular partner, do you know the result of his HIV
    test?
   1   Positive        3   I donʼt know/He hasnʼt had a test
   2
       Negative        4
                            No regular partner
48. If your regular partner is HIV positive, what was his last viral
    load test result?
                                                                                            Survey concludes on next page
   1Undetectable                  3Donʼt know/unsure
   2Detectable                    4No HIV-positive partner


Page 3                                                                                                                                     MGCPS 2018/-




                                                                                                    Gay Community Periodic Survey: Melbourne 2018
                              Evelyn Lee, Limin Mao, Timothy Broady, Ben Bavinton, Tex McKenzie, Colin Batrouney, Suzy Malhotra, John Manwaring,
                                                                                                       Michael West, Garrett Prestage, Martin Holt                29
Appendix




Section G – Sexual health                                                   63. If you took PrEP in the last 6 months, where did you get it
                                                                                from?
54. Which of these sexual health tests have you had in the last 12
    months?
                                                                               1
                                                                                 A trial or study      2
                                                                                                           I bought it online (from overseas)
                           None     Once     Twice      3 or more              3  I used drugs prescribed for PEP
   Anal swab                   1
                                        2
                                                    3
                                                              4
                                                                              4
                                                                                  Chemist              5
                                                                                                           Other
   Throat swab                 1
                                        2
                                                    3
                                                              4
                                                                           Go to section I 
   Penile swab                 1
                                        2
                                                    3
                                                              4
                                                                 
   Urine sample                1
                                        2
                                                    3
                                                              4
                                                                           Section I – Drug use
                               1        2          3        4
   Blood test for HIV                                                       64. How often have you used these drugs in the last 6 months?
   Blood test for                                                                                          Once/       At least    Every
   syphilis
                               1
                                        2
                                                    3
                                                              4
                                                                                                 Never
                                                                                                            twice      monthly     week
                               1        2          3        4
   Other blood test                                                            Amyl/poppers        1        2          3         4


55. Have you ever been tested for hepatitis C?                                 Marijuana               1           2        3         4 
   1   Yes             2   No                 3   Donʼt know                Viagra/Cialis etc       1           2        3         4 
                                                                               Ecstasy                 1           2        3         4

56. Do you have chronic hepatitis C?                                           Speed                   1
                                                                                                                   2
                                                                                                                             3
                                                                                                                                        4
                                                                                                                                           
   1
       Yes             2
                            No                 3
                                                    Donʼt know                Cocaine                 1
                                                                                                                   2
                                                                                                                             3
                                                                                                                                        4
                                                                                                                                           
57. Have you been vaccinated for:
                                                                               Crystal meth / ice      1
                                                                                                                   2
                                                                                                                             3
                                                                                                                                        4
                                                                                                                                           
   1   Hepatitis A     2   Hepatitis B
                                                                               GHB                     1
                                                                                                                   2
                                                                                                                             3
                                                                                                                                        4
                                                                                                                                           
                                                                               Ketamine                1           2        3         4

                                                                               Heroin                  1           2        3         4
58. Which sexually transmitted infection(s) other than HIV were
    you diagnosed with in the last 12 months?                                  Steroids                1           2        3         4

                                                                               Any other drug          1           2        3         4
   1Chlamydia           Gonorrhoea
                               2

   3Syphilis           4Other
                                                                            65. In the last 6 months, how often have you had more than four
   5Not been diagnosed with an STI in the last 12 months                       alcoholic drinks on one occasion?
                                                     Go to section H          1
                                                                                   Every week               3
                                                                                                                 Once or twice
Section H – Medication to prevent HIV                                          2
                                                                                   At least monthly         4
                                                                                                                 Never
59. What do you know about post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP)?                 66. Have you ever injected drugs?
    PEP is a month-long course of anti-HIV medication prescribed
    after an exposure to HIV.
                                                                               1
                                                                                   Yes                      2
                                                                                                                 No
   1
     Itʼs available now                                                    67. How often have you injected drugs in the last 6 months?
   2
     It will be available in the future                                       1
                                                                                   Every week               3
                                                                                                                 Once or twice
   3
     Iʼve never heard about it                                                2
                                                                                   At least monthly         4
                                                                                                                 Never
60. What do you know about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)?                 68. In the last 6 months, how often have you used party drugs for
    PrEP is anti-HIV medication you take regularly to protect                   the purpose of sex?
    yourself from HIV.
                                                                               1   Every week               3   Once or twice
   1Itʼs available now                                                        2   At least monthly         4   Never
   2It will be available in the future

   3Iʼve never heard about it                                              69. In the last 6 months, how often have you had group sex after
                                                                                or while using party drugs?

        If you are HIV-positive you can skip the next three
                                                                               1   Every week               3   Once or twice
        questions and go to section I                                         2   At least monthly         4   Never
61. In the last 6 months, did you take a prescribed course of PEP
    because you were exposed to HIV?                                                    The survey concludes here.
   1
    No                                                                                   Thank you for your time.
   2Yes, once
   3Yes, more than once

                                                                                       As this survey is anonymous, feedback cannot
62. In the last 6 months, did you take anti-HIV medication                             be provided directly. Please check the CSRH
    regularly to protect yourself from HIV (PrEP)?                                     and VAC websites for the results of this survey.
   1
       No  Go to Section I                                                          https://csrh.arts.unsw.edu.au
   2   Yes, I was prescribed anti-HIV medication to take every
   day                                                                                 http://www.vac.org.au
   3Yes, I took anti-HIV medication that was not prescribed
   Continues at top of page 
Page 4                                                                                                                            MGCPS 2018/-




                                                                                                Gay Community Periodic Survey: Melbourne 2018
                              Evelyn Lee, Limin Mao, Timothy Broady, Ben Bavinton, Tex McKenzie, Colin Batrouney, Suzy Malhotra, John Manwaring,
                                                                                                       Michael West, Garrett Prestage, Martin Holt   30
You can also read
Next part ... Cancel