Hot Rocks and Not-So-Hot Rocks: Retreat-Site Selection by Garter Snakes and Its Thermal Consequences
Hot Rocks and Not-So-Hot Rocks: Retreat-Site Selection by Garter Snakes and Its Thermal Consequences
Hot Rocks and Not-So-HotRocks: Retreat-SiteSelectionby Garter Snakes and Its Thermal Consequences Raymond B. Huey; Charles R. Peterson; Stevan J. Arnold; Warren P. Porter Ecology, Volume 70, Issue 4 (Aug., 1989),931-944. StableURL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0012-965828198908%2970%3A4%3C93 1%3AHRANRR%3E2.O.CO%3B2-V Your use of the JSTOR archive indicatesyour acceptanceof JSTOR's Terms and Conditionsof Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/about/terms.html. JSTOR's Terms and Conditionsof Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtainedprior permission,you may not download an entire issue of ajournal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.
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Ecolofl, 70(4). 1989, pp 931-944 O 1989 by the Ecological Society of America HOT ROCKS AND NOT-SO-HOT ROCKS: RETREAT-SITE SELECTION BY GARTER SNAKES AND ITS THERMAL CONSEQUENCES' RAYMOND B.
HUEY Department of Zoology NJ-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 USA CHARLES R.PETER SON^ AND STEVAN J. ARNOLD Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chlcago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 USA AND WARREN P. PORTER Department of Zoology, University of W~sconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 USA Abstract. Studies of behavioral thermoregulation of ectotherms have typically focused only on active animals. However, most temperate-zone ectotherms actually spend more time sequestered in retreats (e.g., under rocks) than active above ground. We documented retreat-site selection during summer by gravid garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) at Eagle Lake in northeastern California, USA.
To explore the thermal consequences of retreat-site selection, we measured potential body temperatures in retreats and combined these with data on thermal tolerances, thermal preferences, and thermal dependence of metabolism and digestion.
Garter snakes at Eagle Lake usually retreated under rocks of intermediate thickness (20-30 cm) even though both thinner and thicker rocks were available. Empirical and biophysical analyses of temperatures under rocks of various sizes and shapes demonstrated that rock thickness had the dominant effect on potential T, available to snakes and in turn on thermal physiology. Snakes selecting thin rocks (40 cm thick) or remaining at the bottom of deep burrows would not experience such extreme T,, but neither would they warm to T, in their preferred range. However, snakes selecting intermediate-thickness rocks would never overheat but would achieve preferred T, for long periods-far longer than if they remained on the ground surface or moved up and down within a burrow.
Interestingly, snakes selecting burrows or intermediate-thickness rocks may be able to have either the highest energy gain or the lowest overall metabolic rate, depending on the particular T, they select. Medium-thickness rocks, the size rocks normally selected by the snakes, offer them a variety of suitable thermoregulatory opportunities. Key words. body temperature, garter snake; habitat selection; operative temperature; telemetry; Thamnoph~s elegans; thermoregulation. Many terrestrial ectotherms behaviorally regulate body temperature (T,) during periods of aboveground activity by exploiting spatial and temporal variation in microclimates (Cowles and Bogert 1944, Porter et al.
1973,Casey 1981, Willmer 1982, Lillywhite 1987). Careful thermoregulation reduces the possibility that ectotherms will be exposed to extreme, potentially le- thal T,; and it also increases the time that they spend at physiologically favorable T, (Avery 1982, Avery et al. 1982, Huey 1982, Stevenson et al. 1985, Grant and Dunham 1988, Hailey and Davies 1988).
The apparent careful thermoregulation of exposed, active ectotherms may, however, present an incom- plete and potentially misleading portrait of their ther- mal biology over the entire 24-h day (Dawson 1975, Humphreys 1978, Huey 1982, Christian et al. 1984, Peterson 1987). For example, many temperate-zone reptiles actually spend only a few hours each day above ground and thus spend most of the day sequestered under rocks or in other retreats (Avery 1976, Huey 1982). Depending on the thermal properties of their retreat site, sequestered ecotherms may have different opportunities for thermoregulation and thus may ex- perience T, very different from those associated with aboveground activity (Sergeyev 1939, Bustard 1967, McGinnis and Dickson 1967, Regal 1967, Stebbins and Barwick 1968, DeWitt 1963, Ruben 1976, Dial ' Manuscript received 20 April 1988; revised and accepted 21 September 1988.
1978,Humphreys 1978, Henderson et al. 1980,Chris- 'Present address: Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho tian et al. 1984, Peterson 1987). Consequently, the State University. Box 8007, Pocatello, Idaho 83209 USA. retreat sites selected by ectotherms may have a pro-
932 RAYMOND B. HUEY ET AL. Ecology, Vol. 70, No. 4 found impact not only on energy budgets and growth (Bennett and Nagy 1977,Stevenson et al. 1985,Arnold and Peterson 1989) but also on the evolution of the thermal sensitivity of physiological performance and development (Dawson 1975, Huey and Slatkin 1976, Huey 1982, Lynch and Gabriel 1987). Despite these considerations, thermoregulatory and physiological consequences of retreat-site selection have rarely been studied either in ectotherms (McNab and Auffenberg 1976,Ruben 1976,Bennett and Nagy 1977,Huey 1982, Christian et al. 1984)or in endotherms (Kenagy 1973, Buttemer 1985, Walsberg 1985, 1986).
Garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) are excellent subjects for a study ofretreat-siteselection and its phys- iological consequences. They regularly spend long pe- riods in retreats (e.g., under rocks), are abundant in many areas, and are large enough for implanting tem- perature-sensitive transmitters. Moreover, their ther- moregulatory behavior (Carpenter 1956, Ruben 1976, Gibson and Falls 1979, Scott et al. 1982, Peterson 1987)and thermal physiology (Aleksiuk 1976,Steven- son et al. 1985, Arnold and Peterson 1989) are well studied.
We address several questions: (1) Do snakes select retreat rocks that are of particular sizes? (2) What are the body temperatures of snakes in self-selected re- treats? (3) What are the potential body temperatures of snakes sequestered under rocks of different sizes, at various depths in burrows, or on the ground surface? (4) Are some sites too hot or too cold for snakes to tolerate or to survive?( 5 )Are certain retreat sites seem- ingly optimal for physiological activities? Specifically, do certain rock sizes (or depths in burrows) maximize the total time that snakes can maintain T, within their preferred range, maximize their energy gain, or mini- mize their metabolic costs? (6) Do the retreat sites selected by free-ranging snakes possess thermal prop- erties that are physiologically favorable for the snakes? To study retreat-site selection by garter snakes, we implanted temperature-sensitive radiotransmitters in several snakes and then monitored both the use by these snakes of retreats and the body temperatures of many of the snakes themselves.
To characterize the potential thermoregulatory opportunities available to snakes sequestered in particular retreats, we placed thermocouples in a variety of available retreat sites and monitored for 24 h the associated operative tem- peratures (T,; the steady-state T, of a snake, see Ma- terials and Methods; Bakken 1976, Roughgarden et al. 1981,Tracy 1982,Grant and Dunham 1988).Thus we consider retreat sites as potential thermal resources to snakes (Magnusson et al. 1979, Tracy and Christian 1986). Following Huey (1983) we then estimated the physiological performance of snakes in various retreat sites by combining data on available T, (above) with that on the known physiological effects of particular T, (Stevenson et al.
Although our data are insufficient to provide defin- itive answers to the specific questions outlined above, we believe that our data, as well as those of Christian et al. (1984), Buttemer (1985), and Walsberg (1985, 1986), clearly demonstrate the importance of under- standing the relationship between retreat-site selection and physiological performance. We hope that the pat- terns emerging from these studies encourage additional work in this general area. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study site Our study site was located at Pikes Point, Eagle Lake, Lassen County, California (40'33'24" N, 120°47'5" W, altitude 1555 m), a semiarid region in the Transition Life Zone.
The vegetation is largely sagebrush and pine forest (Kephart 1982). Pikes Point consists of a series of basaltic ridges that extend into the lake and inter- digitate with small meadows (Kephart and Arnold 1982). Basalt rocks are abundant and are used as retreat sites by garter snakes that live along the lake shore. These rocks range in size from small pebbles and flakes to boulders > 2 m in diameter, have a density of 2.6 g/cm3,and have visible (400-700 nm) and overall (290- 2600 nm) reflectances of 10 and 16%, respectively, measured as described by Porter (1967). Our studies were conducted on clear days in the summers of 1983- 1987.
Telemetry and retreat-slte selection To discover the retreat sites selected by snakes and to monitor snake body temperatures, we surgically im- planted Model T, temperature-sensitive radiotrans- mitters (pulse-interval modulated, Mini-Mitter Com- pany, Sunriver, Oregon) in the body cavities of several adult, gravid snakes in the summers of 1983-1986. Calibration, implantation, and monitoring procedures followed Peterson (1987) except that we used Brevital Sodium (dosage = 10mg/kg) instead ofcold anesthesia. In 1985, we used transmitters (equipped with mercury switches) that doubled or halved their pulse rate when- ever snakes moved.
Snakeswere released near the orig- inal capture site within 2 d after surgery and monitored for periods of up to 2 wk.
We also obtained (courtesy of Donald G. Kephart) body temperature and microhabitat data for a garter snake on 28-30 July 1979. A gravid female was force fed a custom-made, 1 g, AM radiotransmitter and monitored at varying intervals for the next 3 d. To determine whether snakes used only a subset of the available size range of rocks, we compared the size distribution of selected vs. available rocks. By follow- ing telemetered snakes, we found and measured 13 rocks on Pikes Point that snakes regularly used as nighttime retreat sites. We then estimated the size dis- tribution of available rocks by measuring the maxi- mum linear dimensions of rocks encountered along four transects (each 20 m long and 2 m wide) extending
August 1989 RETREAT-SITE SELECTION BY GARTER SNAKES 933 east, west, north, and south from each of the selected rocks. We excluded some rocks on the basis of several a priori criteria: (1) rocks under which snakes could not crawl, (2) rocks that were too small (i.e.,
934 RAYMOND B. HUEY ET AL. Ecology, Vol. 70, No. 4 achieve any temperature between the edge and center temperatures; (2) snakes at the surface could choose any temperature between the exposed and shaded model temperatures; (3) snakes in burrows could choose any temperature between those at 2.5 cm and the maxi- mum depth of the burrow; and (4) if a choice was available, snakes would select temperatures in the pre- ferred range and avoid extreme Tb.
To simulate the effect of retreat-site selection on en- ergy balance for snakes digesting food, we adopted equations for the thermal dependence of digestion and of resting metabolic rate from Stevenson et al. (1985). We adjusted for specific dynamic action (SDA) by de- creasing the energy obtained from the digestion of prey by 25% (Bennett and Dawson 1976). (We decided to adjust for SDA in this way [rather than by increasing metabolic rate] because data on the thermal sensitivity of SDAare not available for snakes.) "Net energy avail- able," defined as the difference between the energy ob- tained from digestion and the energy lost from metab- olism (Waldschmidt et al.
1987), is maximal for these garter snakes at 29' if they have enough food in their guts (Stevenson et al. 1985). Net energy available is negative for garter snakes at temperatures < 12" be- cause digestion ceases at this temperature. Combining data on the thermal dependence of net energy available for snakes (Stevenson et al. 1985)and the thermal data for rocks, we then simulated net energy available over 24 h for a 100-g snake under each rock and at each soil depth.
We also simulated the effects of different thermal environments on the metabolic rates of fasting snakes, which might be attempting to reduce energy expen- ditures (Regal 1966, Brett 1971, Huey 1982). Resting metabolic rates (Stevenson et al. 1985)over 24 h were calculated for snakes under rocks, snakeson the surface in the shade, and snakes in burrows (allowed to move between 2.5 and 50 cm depth). When a range of T, was available in a given retreat, we assumed that the snake always chose the coldest available temperature. RESULTS General patterns of activitv and of b0d.v tetnperatures Based on our experiences capturing ~ 2 0 0 0 garter snakes over the past 15 yr at Pikes Point, we can make several general statements regarding retreat-site selec- tion and activity patterns of garter snakes: (1) Snakes usually use rocks (occasionally burrows) as retreat sites at night and on cold days.
They seldom retreat under exposed small rocks (< 15 cm thick). (2) During mid- morning hours, they typically bask on sunlit ground near rocks or shrubs. Later in the day, they may forage along the lake shore (often in the water) or in nearby meadows, but often they return to retreat sites. (3) However, some snakes(especially those that aregravid, shedding, or digesting food) apparently never emerge from retreats even on clear days.
Focal animal studies, using radiotelemetered snakes, confirm these general observations. The gravid female observed by Donald G. Kephart on 29-30 July 1979 (snake 1, Fig. la) spent the night under a 30 cm thick rock and emerged the following morning between 0900 and 0933. She basked with her body fully exposed to the sun until z 1100, when she moved most of her body under the rock, leaving only a loop of her body in direct sun. By 1400 she retreated completely under the rock and remained there for the rest of the day. Her body temperature pattern showed the triphasic, plateau pattern that is typical of T.
elegans (Peterson 1987): a rapid heating phase in the morning, an ex- tended plateau phase during the day, and a long cooling phase during the night. During the 14-h plateau phase, she controlled her Tbprecisely (range = 27.6"-3 1.6"C; mean t SD = 30.3 t 1.12"; N = 22). Moreover, her Tbnever declined