IOM DISASTER RISK REDUCTION REPORT 2021 - Addressing Mobility Challenges in the Context of Disasters and Climate Change: A Global Stocktake of IOM ...

 
IOM DISASTER RISK REDUCTION REPORT 2021 - Addressing Mobility Challenges in the Context of Disasters and Climate Change: A Global Stocktake of IOM ...
IOM DISASTER RISK
REDUCTION REPORT 2021
Addressing Mobility Challenges in the Context of
Disasters and Climate Change: A Global Stocktake
of IOM Activities in Disaster Risk Reduction
IOM DISASTER RISK REDUCTION REPORT 2021 - Addressing Mobility Challenges in the Context of Disasters and Climate Change: A Global Stocktake of IOM ...
The opinions expressed in the report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the International
Organization for Migration (IOM). The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout the report do not
imply expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of IOM concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area,
or of its authorities, or concerning its frontiers or boundaries.

IOM is committed to the principle that humane and orderly migration benefits migrants and society. As an intergovernmental
organization, IOM acts with its partners in the international community to: assist in meeting the operational challenges of
migration; advance understanding of migration issues; encourage social and economic development through migration; and
uphold the human dignity and well-being of migrants.

____________________________________________

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Cover photo:               IOM’s Displacement Tracking Matrix team in Shaidayee IDP settlement in Afghanistan conducting consultation
                           with community leaders to collect information on community needs and population size. © IOM 2021/
                           Muse MOHAMMED

Required citation: International Organization for Migration (IOM), 2021. IOM Disaster Risk Reduction Report 2021. Addressing
                   Mobility Challenges in the Context Disasters and Climate Change: A Global Stocktake of IOM Activities in Disaster
                   Risk Reduction. IOM. Geneva.

_____________________________

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IOM DISASTER RISK REDUCTION REPORT 2021 - Addressing Mobility Challenges in the Context of Disasters and Climate Change: A Global Stocktake of IOM ...
IOM DISASTER RISK
REDUCTION REPORT 2021
Addressing Mobility Challenges in the Context of
Disasters and Climate Change: A Global Stocktake
   of IOM Activities in Disaster Risk Reduction
IOM DISASTER RISK REDUCTION REPORT 2021 - Addressing Mobility Challenges in the Context of Disasters and Climate Change: A Global Stocktake of IOM ...
IOM DISASTER RISK REDUCTION REPORT 2021 - Addressing Mobility Challenges in the Context of Disasters and Climate Change: A Global Stocktake of IOM ...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of country offices to the global survey of
disaster risk reduction (DRR) activities, specifically including the following individuals:

Teshome Adebabai, Hind Aissaoui Bennani, Jewel Ali, Ernesto Amaya, Aleksandar Anđušić, Muhammad
Asar Ul Haq, Jitendra Bohara, Christina Burwell, Roberto Canizañes, Federica Cecchet, Patrick Charignon,
Roger Charles Evina, James Charles Okello, Sabira Coelho, David Coomber, Alfonso Cuevas, Erika De
Bona, Jainil Didaraly, Pablo Escribano, Christophe Faye Laba, Michael Ferguson, Laura Freemen, Nathan
Glancy, Aman Gokalp, Diana Gomez, Lana Goral, Natasha Greaves, Yelena Gyulkhandanyan, Louise Henry
Bergman, David Hofmeijer, Abdi Hussein, Damien Jusselme, Anne Kathrin Schaefer, Omar Khayre, Jieun
Kim, Innocent Kokou Abressé, Soura Kouhounusse, Kerry Kyaa, Jennifer MacCormack, Achour Mahamat
Idriss, Cecilia McIntosh, Ana Medeiros, Getachew Mekuria, Bradley Mellicker, Tjossy Mitaart Sipasulta, Gul
Mohammad Ahmadi, Robert Mominee, Liana Moro, Conrado Navidad, Amanda Norberg, John Nyirenda,
Nedal Odeh, Suzana Paklar, Stefano Pes, Adela Poudratchi, Rukhshona Qurbonova, Moreira Sandro,
Frank Santana, Tomoko Sato, Angela Saunders, Mary Seck, Ileana Sinziana Puscas, Harry Smith, Ibrahima
Thiam, Yuko Tomita, Maria Veger, Michelle Villariez, Margherita Vismara, Katharina Von Braun, Phyo Wai
Kyaw, Jan-Willem Wegdam and Natsuko Yoshino.

The authors would also like to thank IOM colleagues who afforded time to be interviewed or consulted
during the production of this report. In this respect, they would like to acknowledge David James
Arnold, Olga Aymerich Franch, Soumyadeep Banerjee, Philippe Branchat, Bogdan Silviu Danila, Hassan
El Maaroufi, Lorenzo Guadagno, Marise Habib, Damien Jusselme, Lisa Lim Ah Ken, Andrew Lind,
Mafalda Marchioro, Kerry-Lynn Maze, Merja Elina Kahkonen, Maria Moita, Isaac Mwangi, Frank Santana,
Sunday Smith, Vivianne Van Der Vorst and Haley West, for their contributions; and Melissa Borlaza,
Valerie Hagger, Carlo Mendes, Lisa Rebeca, Ramir Recinto and Lori Werner for layout and publishing.

This report was written by Emmerentia Erasmus, independent consultant, under the guidance of Johan
Grundberg and with technical contributions from Erin Brewer and Shreya Mukhopadhyay of the IOM
Transition and Recovery Division (TRD) in IOM Headquarters. Fernando Medina, Head of TRD, provided
overall direction and support for the production of this report.

                                                                  IOM Disaster Risk Reduction Report 2021 | iii
IOM DISASTER RISK REDUCTION REPORT 2021 - Addressing Mobility Challenges in the Context of Disasters and Climate Change: A Global Stocktake of IOM ...
IOM DISASTER RISK REDUCTION REPORT 2021 - Addressing Mobility Challenges in the Context of Disasters and Climate Change: A Global Stocktake of IOM ...
CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.............................................................................................................................................................iii

LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES...............................................................................................................................................vi

LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ...............................................................................................................vii

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY............................................................................................................................................................... ix

1. INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

    1.1. Context....................................................................................................................................................................................1
    1.2. Key global frameworks and IOM’s efforts in disaster risk reduction............................................................3
    1.3. Purpose of this report.......................................................................................................................................................4

2. IOM’S APPROACH AND COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE....................................................................................... 7

3. IOM’S DISASTER RISK REDUCTION ACTIVITIES IN 2019 AND 2020.......................................................... 9

    3.1. At a glance...............................................................................................................................................................................9
    3.2. Strategic outcome 1: Prevention – Ensuring that migration remains a choice....................................... 14
    3.3. Strategic outcome 2: Preparedness – Building capacity for response........................................................ 18
    3.4. Strategic outcome 3: Response – Managing mobility in disaster.................................................................. 21
    3.5. Strategic outcome 4: Recovery – Fostering resilience in recovery.............................................................. 23
    3.6. Strategic outcome 5: Partnerships – Strengthening coordinated support for mobility-based
         resilience................................................................................................................................................................................ 25

4. LESSONS LEARNED................................................................................................................................................................29

5. CONCLUSION AND WAYS FORWARD.....................................................................................................................31

ANNEX 1. GLOBAL-LEVEL OUTPUT INDICATORS, BASELINES AND TARGETS.....................................33

ANNEX 2. DISASTER RISK REDUCTION PROJECTS BREAKDOWN AND PROJECTS OVERVIEW....
40

ANNEX 3. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS, INTERNATIONAL NON-
GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CIVIL SOCIETY PARTNERSHIPS ...........................................46

BIBLIOGRAPHY...............................................................................................................................................................................49

                                                                                                                             IOM Disaster Risk Reduction Report 2021 | v
IOM DISASTER RISK REDUCTION REPORT 2021 - Addressing Mobility Challenges in the Context of Disasters and Climate Change: A Global Stocktake of IOM ...
LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES

Figure 1. Key mechanisms, processes and initiatives of relevance to IOM’s work in disaster risk
          reduction............................................................................................................................................................................ 5

Figure 2. Number of countries/territories and projects by region, 2019–2020..................................................... 9

Figure 3. IOM disaster risk reduction projects by region, 2019–2020.....................................................................10

Figure 4. IOM disaster risk reduction projects by hazard type, 2019–2020..........................................................10

Figure 5. Number of Member States supported by hazard type, 2019–2020......................................................11

Figure 6. Disaster risk reduction projects by disaster phase, 2019–2020..............................................................11

Table 1. Countries and territories benefiting from IOM disaster risk reduction
         programming, 2019–2020.........................................................................................................................................12

Figure 7. IOM disaster risk reduction activities, 2019–2020.........................................................................................13

vi | Contents
IOM DISASTER RISK REDUCTION REPORT 2021 - Addressing Mobility Challenges in the Context of Disasters and Climate Change: A Global Stocktake of IOM ...
LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

AROB     Autonomous Region of Bougainville
CADRI    Capacity for Disaster Reduction Initiative
CBDRM    community-based disaster risk management
CCA      climate change adaptation
CCCM     camp coordination and camp management
CRED     Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters
DDPM     Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation (Thailand)
DDWG     Disaster Displacement Working Group
DRM      disaster risk management
DRR      disaster risk reduction
DTM      Displacement Tracking Matrix
FAO      Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
HRP      Humanitarian Response Plan
IASC     Inter-Agency Standing Committee
IDMC     Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
IDP      internally displaced person
IOM      International Organization for Migration
MICIC    Migrants in Countries in Crisis
MECC     migration, environment and climate change
NEMA     National Emergency Management Agency
NFI      non-food item
NGO      non-governmental organization
NPC      National Planning Commission
PDD      Platform on Disaster Displacement
RIASCO   Regional Inter-Agency Standing Committee Southern Africa
SADC     Southern African Development Community
SDG      Sustainable Development Goal
SIMEX    simulation exercise
SOP      standard operating procedure
ToT      training of trainers
UN SLG   UN Senior Leadership Group on DRR for Resilience

                                                IOM Disaster Risk Reduction Report 2021 | vii
IOM DISASTER RISK REDUCTION REPORT 2021 - Addressing Mobility Challenges in the Context of Disasters and Climate Change: A Global Stocktake of IOM ...
UNCT                United Nations Country Team
            UNDP                United Nations Development Programme
            UNDRR               United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction
            UNSDCF              United Nations Sustainable Development Cooperation Framework
            WASH                water, sanitation and hygiene
            WHS                 World Humanitarian Summit
            WUA                 water user association

viii | List of acronyms and abbreviations
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This report highlights a broad selection of IOM’s disaster risk reduction (DRR) projects in 2019 and
2020. These projects made contributions to addressing mobility challenges in what is an increasingly
complex and interconnected global risk landscape, characterized by evolving disaster and climate risks and
unprecedented patterns of global and local mobility. The escalating frequency of extreme weather events
that are often propelled by climate change leads to the annual displacement and migration of millions
of people and erodes progress made towards the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals
(SDGs). The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated the growing systemic, cascading and multi-hazard
risk environment in which States and communities are interdependent and cooperation is paramount to
reduce risk and build resilience.

In line with the United Nations Plan of Action on Disaster Risk Reduction for Resilience: Towards a Risk-
informed and Integrated Approach to Sustainable Development, IOM delivers its DRR activities through
close cooperation with the United Nations system, as well as with local and national partners. The
significance of disasters, environmental degradation and climate change in shaping and driving population
movements has been reflected in the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration, which
calls on States to reduce risk that trigger mobility and include migrants in disaster risk management
efforts. The specific relevance of mobility to the risk reduction agenda is increasingly embraced also
within operational inter-agency initiatives, such as the Capacity for Disaster Reduction Initiative (CADRI),
which IOM co-chairs since 2021. CADRI is a global partnership that integrates mobility considerations in
the delivery of multisectoral capacity development services to support States’ efforts in DRR and climate
change adaptation (CCA). Overall, IOM’s DRR work is dedicated to supporting States in implementing
the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030, which along with the Paris Agreement,
contain vital targets that contribute towards achieving the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
and the SDGs.

This report features 83 DRR-related projects implemented by IOM in 43 countries/territories across
4 continents. In total, 6,203,257 individuals were supported through these projects. IOM crafted its
Strategic Work Plan on Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience 2017–2020 to propel the implementation
of the Sendai Framework; this report captures key achievements and lessons learned in the implementation
of this workplan. IOM’s DRR activities bolstered local and national initiatives to prevent and prepare
for disasters and related population movements, provided emergency assistance and protection where
displacement could not be avoided, and fostered post-disaster recovery solutions and resilience-building.
Collectively, these projects accentuated the need to enhance data collection and analysis on disaster-
related mobility, reinforce national capacities and local ownership to craft and sustain DRR initiatives, and
engender greater coherence and integration between migration, DRR, CCA and development policies to
more effectively address mobility challenges, while leveraging the potential that human mobility can bring
to reducing risk and building resilience.

As the world sets out the course for a post-pandemic recovery and beyond, migration and mobility must
remain fundamental considerations across all resilience-building and adaptation efforts. IOM will continue
to deliver joint support to States to meet their DRR commitments and ensure that such aspects are
integral to DRR strategies, plans and operational programmes. IOM will harness existing global processes
and coordination mechanisms, such as the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration, the
forthcoming 2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP26) and the 2022 Global Platform
for Disaster Risk Reduction, to deliver on the targets of the Sendai Framework and garner support for
mobility aspects of the DRR agenda.

                                                                    IOM Disaster Risk Reduction Report 2021 | ix
1. INTRODUCTION

A community leader in Shahrak Sabz IDP settlement, representing a community that has been displaced for two
years due to conflict and drought. He provides information to IOM’s DTM staff who assesses humanitarian needs
and drivers of displacement in the area. © IOM 2021

1.1. Context
In the last 20 years (2000–2019), more than 4 billion people1 have been affected by 7,348 disaster events
that were recorded globally (United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR) and the Centre
for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED), 2020). An estimated 1.23 million lives were lost,
and global economic losses amounted to around USD 2.97 trillion. The increased prevalence of extreme
weather events, which are often fuelled by climate change, and the occurrences of other hazards, are
displacing millions of people annually, eroding resilience and deepening poverty (ibid.). In 2019 alone,
around 1,900 disasters brought on 24.9 million new displacements in 140 countries and territories across
the world (Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC), 2020). This represents the highest number
of displacements recorded since 2012 and is three times the number of displacements induced by conflict
and violence (ibid.). By the end of 2019, approximately 5.1 million people in 95 countries and territories
were living in situations of displacement due to disasters that had occurred that year or in previous
years (ibid.). Moreover, the true global scale of displacement is not known. Data on internal disaster
displacement and displacement triggered by rapid-onset disasters, such as flash floods and earthquakes, is
available. Comprehensive data on cross-border displacement and displacement brought on by slow-onset
hazards, such as drought and rising sea levels, is lacking.

Hazard, exposure, vulnerability and capacity determine the magnitude of disaster risk for a community
during a specific period of time (IOM, 2019a). People may be compelled to move due to their exposure
and vulnerability to the actual or anticipated impact of a hazard. Such movements frequently exacerbate
vulnerability and can result in new hazard exposure in transit and destination sites. Risks that precipitated
the original movement often remain, resulting in new disasters occurring where sustainable relocation
options are not available. Poorly planned reconstruction processes frequently recreate or drive new risks,
which may result in re-displacement in the future.

1
    Many people were affected more than once by disaster events.

                                                                     IOM Disaster Risk Reduction Report 2021 | 1
Disaster risk reduction (DRR) aims to prevent and diminish disaster risk, while also preparing governments
and communities to respond to, manage and recover from the possible impact of hazards. Globally,
progress has been made in strengthening early warning systems, disaster preparedness and response
to counter the impact of single-hazard events (UNDRR and CRED, 2020). However, disaster risk is
determined by a variety of underlying risk factors that combine to compound people’s exposure and
vulnerability to the impact of hazards. These factors include unplanned urbanization, poverty, population
growth in hazard-prone areas and a decline in biodiversity (ibid.). In addition, interconnected and cascading
risks and hazards can lead to exacerbated risks and disasters. The COVID-19 pandemic has affirmed the
need to bolster risk governance through all of society, systemic and multi-hazard approaches that draw on
the strengths and address the weaknesses of the interdependent world (ibid.). Risk governance through
partnerships, knowledge generation and resource-sharing can strengthen individual countries’ capacity to
reduce risks that may affect the global community. Failure to manage disaster risk, however, may fuel new
or existing conflicts, exacerbate fragility and undermine development gains and the achievement of the
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), especially with regard to the least developed countries (IOM,
2017).

Almost 272 million people – 3.5 per cent of the world’s population – are estimated to be international
migrants (IOM, 2021). Internal migration, however, far exceeds international migration, with the majority
of migrants moving within the borders of their home countries. In 2009, internal migrants were estimated
at 740 million (ibid.). In many ways, migration is a positive force for migrants, as well as countries of
origin and destination, yielding development and resilience gains, including through engendering business
opportunities and investment, boosting skills development and knowledge-sharing and driving remittances
that uplift communities.

In the context of disasters, growing environmental degradation and climate change, mobility has also
proven to be an important strategy for many people to avoid risk and boost resilience, whether through
organized evacuation, planned relocation or domestic or international migration (IOM, 2017). Migration
builds resilience, as people move to access resources and livelihood opportunities and protect their
families and assets from the impact of environmental and human-made hazards. Safe, regular and orderly
migration pathways, including labour migration, should be one of the tools States use to achieve risk
reduction objectives.

The remittances that migrants send to their home communities also play an important role in post-
disaster recovery. Remittances often increase in the aftermath of disasters (Mohapatra et al., 2009) and
may reach affected households faster than official aid (Le De et al., 2015). Receiving remittances may
prevent households from selling their productive assets to rebuild after disasters and enhance resilience
and building back better.

The Mudd settlement on Abaco island that was mostly populated by Haitian migrant communities prior to Hurricane
Dorian. © IOM 2019/Angela WELLS

2 | Introduction
1.2. Key global frameworks and IOM’s efforts in disaster risk reduction
The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 prescribes four priorities for action to
prevent new and reduce existing disaster risks, namely: (a) understanding disaster risk; (b) strengthening
disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk; (c) investing in disaster reduction for resilience; and
(d) enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and to “build back better” in recovery,
rehabilitation and reconstruction. This global DRR blueprint acknowledges the need to prepare for and
manage displacement as central to DRR efforts, as well as the vital role migrants can play in advancing
DRR objectives.

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which was adopted in 2015, confirms the critical need
to reduce disaster risk to promote global prosperity and “leave no one behind”, and makes specific
reference to the importance of implementing the Sendai Framework coherently with the 2030 Agenda to
achieve sustainable development. Moreover, for the first time, DRR has been included in the Quadrennial
Comprehensive Policy Review of UN system operational activities, which is an important milestone
in ensuring that the UN system’s support for the implementation of the 2030 Agenda at the country
level will be risk-informed and aligned with the Sendai Framework. The Paris Agreement, which was
adopted by the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 2015,
recognizes the need to protect vulnerable populations, including migrants, and established the Task Force
on Displacement to develop recommendations in preventing, reducing and addressing displacement
triggered by climate change.

The World Humanitarian Summit (WHS) 2016 aimed to give new impetus to humanitarian principles,
and, inter alia, actions to address disasters. In line with the 2030 Agenda’s objective to “leave no one
behind”, the UN Secretary-General, in his Report to the 2016 WHS, appealed to the global community
to “reach those in situations of conflict, disaster, vulnerability and risk first so that they benefit from and
contribute to sustainable long-term development” (United Nations, 2016). The WHS also endorsed the
Grand Bargain, which promotes the New Way of Working, which emphasizes working towards collective
outcomes across disciplines, over multiple years, based on the comparative advantage of a diverse range
of actors. The New Way of Working provides momentum for integrating DRR more systematically
across humanitarian, development and peace action.

Since 2013, the United Nations Plan of Action on Disaster Risk Reduction for Resilience has been
guiding UN efforts to prioritize and bolster DRR. In 2016, the revised United Nations Plan of Action on
Disaster Risk Reduction for Resilience: Towards a Risk-informed and Integrated Approach to Sustainable
Development was adopted to further align UN DRR efforts to current policy developments, especially
the Sendai Framework, the SDGs and the Paris Agreement.

Migrants have unique vulnerabilities and needs and require targeted assistance in times of crisis, as vividly
illustrated by the COVID-19 pandemic. The Guidelines to Protect Migrants in Countries Experiencing Conflict
or Natural Disaster – the outcome document of the Migrants in Countries in Crisis (MICIC) Initiative,
a State-led consultation process that took place between 2014 and 2016 – provides a blueprint for all
actors to do so. IOM hosted the secretariat for this initiative and has since provided capacity-building
to governments to enhance the protection of migrants in countries experiencing conflicts or disasters,
in the framework of these guidelines. IOM has received a number of MICIC-related capacity-building
requests from governments since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, as the bespoke assistance that
migrants need is recognized, as well as the unique ways in which they can help to alleviate a crisis and
build resilience.

IOM has also contributed to global consultation processes in enhancing the protection of cross-border
disaster-displaced persons. This includes the Nansen Initiative, which was launched in 2012 to build
consensus on how to protect and support the needs of persons displaced across borders by disasters

                                                                      IOM Disaster Risk Reduction Report 2021 | 3
and climate change, for whom there is currently no comprehensive legal global framework to ensure
their protection. This process culminated in the adoption of the Agenda for the Protection of Cross-
Border Displaced Persons by 109 States in 2015. The Platform on Disaster Displacement (PDD), which
was launched in 2016, follows up on the work of the Nansen Initiative, including by implementing the
recommendations of the Protection Agenda. As a standing invitee of the PDD, IOM supports the
implementation of the PDD’s Strategic Framework and Workplan, and has worked with partners on the
development of the Words into Action Guidelines on how to prevent and address disaster displacement in
line with the Sendai Framework (UNDRR, 2019).

In 2016, 193 UN Member States adopted the New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants,
acknowledging the need for strengthened global cooperation on migrants and refugees. Intergovernmental
consultations followed and led to the development of the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular
Migration, which was endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly on 19 December 2018. This
non-legally binding yet influential framework aims to promote migration governance that fosters the
prosperity and resilience of migrants, as well as host countries and communities. It notes the nexus
between migration and disasters, including the need to reduce risk that leads to migration, the need to
prepare for and address movements triggered by disasters, and the importance of including migrants in
disaster risk management (DRM) efforts. IOM coordinates the United Nations Network on Migration,
which was launched in 2019 to steer the implementation of the Global Compact for Migration.

Promoting resilience and reducing risk to ensure that migration remains a choice and is safe, regular and
orderly are central to IOM’s mission, and its 2015 Migration Governance Framework (MiGOF), which
frames its activities. Resilience is a key pillar of IOM’s Strategic Vision 2019–2023, as it prepares for
larger numbers of people facing vulnerability and exposure to disasters due to climate change and other
risk drivers. IOM’s operational and policy-level DRR activities support the fulfilment of various global
development goals and policy frameworks. To bolster its DRR efforts and propel the implementation of
the Sendai Framework, IOM crafted its Strategic Work Plan on Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience
2017–2020.

1.3. Purpose of this report
This report provides an overview of IOM’s DRR activities in 2019 and 2020 and serves as the final report
to review the implementation of IOM’s Strategic Work Plan on Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience
2017–2020. Moreover, it captures challenges experienced in the application of the Strategic Work Plan,
as well as lessons learned; partnerships built to foster DRR efforts, innovative practices undertaken and
strategic priorities for the future.

The methodology employed for the development of the report consisted of an online survey of 83 IOM
projects with stated DRR objectives that were implemented in 45 countries/territories. It also entailed a
desk review of relevant policy frameworks, reports and publications, as well as key informant interviews
with 12 IOM staff working on DRR-related initiatives in various regions of the world.

4 | Introduction
Figure 1. Key mechanisms, processes and initiatives of relevance
                               to IOM’s work in disaster risk reduction

2012
•   IOM Migration Crisis Operational Framework
•   Nansen Initiative

                                                                                            2013
                                                         •   United Nations Plan of Action on
                                                             Disaster Risk Reduction for Resilience

2014
•   Migrants in Countries in Crisis Initiative

                                                                                            2015
                                                              •   Sendai Framework for Disaster
                                                                  Risk Reduction 2015–2030
                                                              •   2030 Agenda for Sustainable
                                                                  Development and the Sustainable
                                                                  Development Goals
2016                                                          •   Paris Agreement
•   World Humanitarian Summit
                                                              •   Migration Governance Framework
•   New York Declaration for Refugees
    and Migrants
•   Platform on Disaster Displacement
                                                                                            2017
                                                                     •   2017 Global Platform for
                                                                         Disaster Risk Reduction
                                                                     •   IOM Strategic Work Plan on
                                                                         Disaster Risk Reduction and
                                                                         Resilience 2017–2020
2018
•   Global Compact for Safe, Orderly
    and Regular Migration
•   IOM Framework for Addressing
    Internal Displacement

                                                                                            2019
                                                               •   2019 Global Platform for
                                                                   Disaster Risk Reduction
                                                               •   IOM Strategic Vision 2019–2023:
                                                                   Setting a Course for IOM

2020                                                           •   Words into Action Guidelines
                                                                   on Disaster Displacement
•   DRR and CCA Capacity Assessment
    Tool on Human Mobility

                                                                                            2021
                                                    •   IOM rotating co-chair of the Capacity for
                                                        Disaster Reduction Initiative with United
                                                        Nations Development Programme
                                                    •   IOM Strategy on Migration, Environment
                                                        and Climate Change (forthcoming)

                                                                         IOM Disaster Risk Reduction Report 2021 | 5
2. IOM’S APPROACH AND COMPARATIVE
                         ADVANTAGE

IOM’s DRR programming builds on three decades of operational and policy work in countering risk
drivers and responding to mobility challenges in disaster situations. The Organization’s DRR work aligns
with the Sendai Framework priorities and strives to build the capacity of States and other actors in
preventing and managing disasters and associated displacement, as well as integrating mobility dimensions
in broader resilience-building efforts. Specifically, IOM’s DRR work seeks to achieve the following:
(a) minimize disaster-induced displacement by strengthening prevention and preparedness capacities of
States; (b) mitigate the impacts of displacement through timely and effective humanitarian assistance;
(c) promote solutions to displacement and build back better in post-disaster recovery and reconstruction;
and (d) strengthen resilience by harnessing the value that mobility and migrants can bring to risk reduction
efforts and sustainable development. Integral to these efforts is IOM’s work to bolster DRR partnerships
that integrate mobility considerations and ensure that mobile populations are included in the design and
implementation of DRR activities.

IOM’s global footprint, as well as its capacity to operate at various levels of society and government,
enables it to meet these objectives. Since 2016, IOM is a recognized UN agency and currently counts
590 offices around the world and 174 Member States (IOM, 2021). Through a combination of “top-
down” and “bottom-up” approaches, IOM maintains responsiveness of its programming to changing
contexts, needs and risks on the ground, while ensuring alignment with policy priorities and processes at
institutional and global levels. IOM’s mandate to work across the humanitarian, development and peace
spectrum enables the Organization to link its work in disaster contexts with long-term development
activities in building resilience, for example through work to harness labour migration schemes in areas
affected by slow-onsets hazards, engage diaspora groups in DRR or build capacities of governments in
assisting migrants in countries in crisis.

IOM’s DRR work is supported by strong relationships fostered at the community level. Communities’
unique context, perspectives and needs are identified and built into programming by ensuring inclusive
participation and local-level engagement. Programmes often draw from data generated through IOM’s
Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM), which tracks the locations and the evolving needs of disaster-
affected populations to ensure that programmatic responses remain effective and relevant to shifting
needs. Moreover, IOM has dedicated DRR and climate change adaptation (CCA) thematic specialists
based in its regional offices that provide technical and analytical support for programmes at the country
level. They also engage with the United Nations and other partners in regional coordination mechanisms
relevant to DRR, such as inter-State dialogue processes and issue-based coalitions and related working
groups.

At the country level, IOM works in partnership with other UN agencies and stakeholders as a member of
the United Nations Country Teams (UNCTs) and Humanitarian Country Teams (HCTs), and contributes
to or leads disaster and climate risk reduction objectives and activities as contained in humanitarian
response plans and UN development cooperation frameworks. IOM is actively engaged in the international
humanitarian coordination system. The Organization serves as co-lead of the Global Camp Coordination
and Camp Management (CCCM) Cluster and is responsible for leading the cluster during a disaster
response.

                                                                    IOM Disaster Risk Reduction Report 2021 | 7
The specific expertise that IOM lends to DRR has been recognized through its appointment as co-chair
of the Capacity for Disaster Reduction Initiative (CADRI) from 2021.2 CADRI is a global partnership,
consisting of 20 UN and non-UN organizations that provides States with tailored capacity development
services in DRR and CCA. Since 2019, IOM has also been the regional co-host of CADRI in West and
Central Africa and East and Southern Africa. CADRI is contributing to the operationalization of the
humanitarian–development–peace nexus through joint country analysis and programming that builds on
the comparative advantage of the combined expertise of the CADRI partners.

As stated in the Sendai Framework, States bear the primary responsibility for preventing and reducing
disaster risk. IOM recognizes the importance of supporting a whole-of-government approach to DRR,
and its relationships across government ministries enables it to bolster the incorporation of mobility
aspects in risk reduction across relevant strategies and sectors. IOM also collaborates with academia,
civil society, diaspora networks, local and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the
private sector. IOM builds the DRR capacity of local actors to promote the long-term effectiveness and
sustainability of DRR efforts.

2
    The CADRI Board has one permanent chair (UNDP) and one rotating chair.

8 | IOM’s approach and comparative advantage
3. IOM’S DISASTER RISK REDUCTION ACTIVITIES
                    IN 2019 AND 2020

3.1. At a glance
This report provides an overview of 83 IOM projects that contributed to DRR objectives in 43 countries/
territories in 2019 and 2020, with a total value of approximately USD 287 million. There were 6,203,257
individuals who benefited directly or indirectly from these projects, while 85,801 community members,
7,136 government officials and 3,107 civil society representatives were trained on DRR topics.

The majority of programming took place in the Asian, Pacific and African regions. Asia and the Pacific
accounted for 30 per cent of DRR projects and East and the Horn of Africa for 27 per cent. Central and
West Africa benefited from 17 per cent of DRR projects, Central and North America and the Caribbean,
as well as the Middle East and North Africa 10 per cent, and the other regions accounted for a combined
7 per cent of the projects.

In 2019 and 2020, most of IOM’s projects addressed the following: (a) flash floods; (b) river floods and
drought; (c) landslides and mudslides; (d) cyclones, typhoons and hurricanes; (e) epidemics; (f) coastal
floods; (g) earthquakes; (h) extreme temperatures; (i) tsunamis and wildfire; and (j) volcanic eruptions.
IOM also implemented projects focussed on reducing risks associated with the following: (a) strong
winds; (b) water scarcity; (c) deforestation; (d) torrential rains; (e) storm surges; (f) land erosion; and
(g) slow-onset processes like coastal erosion and sea-level rise. The range of hazards addressed through
IOM’s programming highlights the importance of adopting comprehensive, multi-hazard approaches to
achieve effective risk governance.

The projects examined in this report addressed different phases of the disaster management cycle. There
were 56 projects that focused on prevention, 39 on preparedness, 36 on response and 21 on recovery
measures. This amounted to 36 countries/territories supported through prevention projects, 25 through
preparedness, 23 through response and 16 through recovery-focused projects. At the same time, many
projects addressed more than one phase of the disaster management cycle.

                 Figure 2. Number of countries/territories and projects by region, 2019–2020
   30

   25

   20

   15

   10

    5

    0
           Asia and     East and Horn   Central and   Middle East and      Central and     South-Eastern, Southern Africa   South America
          the Pacific      of Africa    West Africa    North Africa      North America    Eastern Europe
                                                                        and the Caribbean and Central Asia

                                                       Projects     Countries/Territories

Note: Figures are based on data from the survey results.

                                                                                            IOM Disaster Risk Reduction Report 2021 | 9
Figure 3. IOM disaster risk reduction projects by region, 2019–2020

                                                                3%
                                                         10%
                                           1%
                                         2%

                                                                                        30%

                                          10%

                                                 27%

                                                                             17%

                               Asia and the Pacific                 Southern Africa

                               West and Central Africa              South America

                               East and Horn of Africa              North and Central America and the Caribbean

                               Middle East and North Africa         South-Eastern, Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Note: Figures are based on data from the survey results.

                         Figure 4. IOM disaster risk reduction projects by hazard type, 2019–2020

             Drought

           Flash flood

           River flood
   Cyclones/Typhoons
          /Hurricanes

   Landslide/Mudslide

           Earthquake

        Coastal flood
Extreme temperatures
 (cold wave/heat wave)

             Epidemic

              Tsunami

              Wildfire

               Other

     Volcanic eruption

                         0                       5                 10                    15                     20   25

                                                               Number of projects

Note: Figures are based on data from the survey results.

10 | IOM’s disaster risk reduction activities in 2019 and 2020
Figure 5. Number of Member States supported by hazard type, 2019–2020

             Flash flood

               Drought

             River flood

     Landslide/Mudslide

     Cyclones/Typhoons
            /Hurricanes
               Epidemic

          Coastal flood

             Earthquake
  Extreme temperatures
   (cold wave/heat wave)

                Tsunami

                Wildfire

                 Other

       Volcanic eruption

                            0         5          10             15          20            25          30         35         40

                                                             Number of projects

Note: Figures are based on data from the survey results.

                           Figure 6. Disaster risk reduction projects by disaster phase, 2019–2020

                                                          14%

                                                                                       37%

                                           23%

                                                                     26%

                                           Preparedness    Prevention      Response       Recovery

Note: Figures are based on data from the survey results.

                                                                                      IOM Disaster Risk Reduction Report 2021 | 11
Table 1. Countries benefiting from IOM disaster risk reduction programming, 2019–2020

Asia and the Pacific

 Afghanistan                                                     Pakistan
 Bangladesh                                                      Papua New Guinea
 Fiji                                                            Republic of Korea
 Indonesia                                                       Solomon Islands
 Marshall Islands                                                Thailand
 Federated States of Micronesia                                  Philippines
 Myanmar                                                         Timor-Leste
 Nepal                                                           Viet Nam

Central and North America and the Caribbean

 Bahamas                                                         Honduras
 Dominica                                                        United States of America
 El Salvador                                                     Trinidad and Tobago
 Haiti

Central and West Africa

 Benin                                                           Niger
 Burkina Faso                                                    Nigeria
 Chad                                                            Senegal
 Guinea                                                          Sierra Leone
 Guinea-Bissau

Eastern Africa

 Burundi                                                         Somalia
 Ethiopia                                                        South Sudan
 Kenya                                                           United Republic of Tanzania
 Rwanda                                                          Uganda

Middle East and North Africa

 Iraq                                                            Yemen
 Sudan

Southern Africa

 Zimbabwe

South America

 Peru

South-Eastern Europe, Eastern Europe and Central Asia

 Bosnia and Herzegovina                                          Tajikistan

12 | IOM’s disaster risk reduction activities in 2019 and 2020
Figure 7. IOM disaster risk reduction activities, 2019–2020
IOM Disaster Risk Reduction Report 2021 | 13

                                               Note: This map was produced by IOM’s Media and Communications Department. Figures are based on data from the survey results. This map is for illustration
                                                     purposes only. The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by IOM.
3.2. Strategic outcome 1: Prevention – Ensuring that migration remains a choice
IOM implemented 57 prevention-focused projects in 37 countries/territories in 2019 and 2020. Prevention
activities served to reduce existing risk and avert future risk, thereby empowering countries and
communities to preserve their ways of life and livelihoods and avoid displacement and forced migration.

                            57 projects                                     37 countries
                        included prevention                             supported on prevention

                                                          Prevention
                           21 countries
           supported with research and assessment                           40 countries
            on migration, environment and climate                supported with DRR policy and strategy
                            change

There were 22 countries/territories supported with hazard mapping and risk assessments, which
examined the following: (a) type and significance of hazards; (b) exposure to these hazards and
vulnerability to their impacts; and (c) capacities to address related risks. These assessments often formed
the foundation for effective prioritization and planning of specific actions to address risks at the local level.
Communities and local authorities were systematically engaged in these processes to ensure that disaster
risks were understood, and risk reduction actions owned and proactively undertaken by communities
themselves. In Rakhine State in Myanmar, for example, government officials, civil society organizations
and community members participated in risk assessment and risk mapping workshops. In Somalia, focus
group discussions and key informant interviews in rural and urban areas served to assess vulnerabilities
and community coping mechanisms to the adverse effects of climate change.

IOM implemented community-based disaster risk management (CBDRM) projects in 14 countries.
This included supporting the Marshall Islands with the development of disaster management action plans,
and Papua New Guinea with the development of a CBDRM plan through intensive community engagement.
In Burundi, the risks of rainy season erosion and landslides were mitigated through the digging of contour
lines, while communities also learned about build back better construction techniques. Moreover, in
21 countries, traditional, indigenous and local knowledge or practices informed the development or
implementation of CBDRM projects. The project titled Strengthening Institutional Capacity for Disaster
Risk Reduction and Management in Timor-Leste used traditional, indigenous and local knowledge to
revise a shelter guideline by conducting field assessments in 8 sites from 5 sampled municipalities. These
assessments, inter alia, captured local building practices, cultural housing solutions and local strategies to
deal with the impact of natural hazards on settlements and housing. The shelter guideline was further
fine-tuned through a stakeholder feedback workshop and rolled out through training.

IOM carried out activities related to information, education and communication (IEC) in 23
countries. This included raising public awareness on various hazards in Papua New Guinea in 2019, inter
alia, through print and electronic media. In partnership with the National Disaster Centre and Provincial
Disaster Centres, and with support from local community members, IOM installed billboards to raise
disaster awareness in Oro, East New Britain and West New Britain provinces. The billboards were
placed along highways and provide information on the hazards these provinces are prone to and risk
mitigation measures. In 2020, IOM supported Papua New Guinea with COVID-19 risk communication
and community engagement initiatives, targeting communities in East Sepik, East New Britain, West
New Britain, Morobe, Oro, Jiwaka, Milne Bay, Madang and Western Provinces. IOM worked closely with

14 | IOM’s disaster risk reduction activities in 2019 and 2020
the National Department of Health and used the materials developed by them for the communication
activities. IOM also facilitated public announcement systems and collaborated with local authorities to
reach 6,806 people.

The potential for disaster impacts leading to new displacement and in some cases rendering areas
permanently uninhabitable in the future may require planned relocation of communities as an option
of last resort. IOM contributed with operational or policy support to planned relocation efforts in 12
countries, including in Ethiopia, Fiji, Rwanda, Solomon Islands, Viet Nam and Zimbabwe. In Fiji, IOM
provided technical inputs to the development of standard operating procedures (SoPs) to accompany the
government’s planned relocation guidelines. In Solomon Islands, a planned relocation advisory committee
was established as part of an ongoing IOM project to develop similar guidelines. In Ethiopia, IOM, as a
member of the federal-level Durable Solutions Working Group, supported the drafting of the Guidelines
for Sustainable Planned Relocation of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). IOM’s regional office for Central
America, North America and the Caribbean launched a study to assess current State policies in place
in the region regarding planned relocation and develop recommendations for managing future planned
relocation to prevent disaster displacement.

To enhance the resilience of communities to the impacts of climate change and natural hazards, IOM
implemented sustainable and diversified livelihood focused activities in six countries. The El Niño-
induced drought in Papua New Guinea intensified the need for more sustainable agriculture. IOM
conducted technical trainings for 100 master farmers to improve local and indigenous farming practices,
which built community resilience through the use of locally developed hybrid varieties of crops and
vegetables.

IOM supported countries in the areas of building DRR institutional capacity, risk-informing national
or local development strategies and developing DRR and CCA strategies and plans. Overall,
IOM provided institutional capacity-building on DRR at the national or subnational levels in 30 countries.
In Burkina Faso, senior government officials were trained on DRR, including through cross-border
simulation exercises (SIMEX) to test their level of coordination, preparedness and response for real-life
crisis situations.3 Local DRR capacities will continue to be built as the newly certified trainers cascade the
training in various communities. In Guinea, focal points from the ministries of environment, agriculture,
livestock, fisheries and hydraulics participated in an online training on the linkages between migration,
environment and climate change. To bolster data management on this topic, IOM provided computers
and logistical support to the Ministry of Environment, Water and Forestry.

A community leader in an informal settlement hosting IDPs and Afghan returnees that has seen significant destruction
over the years due to heavy rains and flooding. He oversees the maintenance of a protection wall built by IOM in
2020 to prevent severe damage from future floods. © IOM 2021/Muse MOHAMMED

3
    See https://youtu.be/ymDrdPDNJ1c.

                                                                        IOM Disaster Risk Reduction Report 2021 | 15
Of all internal displacement in Burundi, 79 per cent is triggered by natural hazards. IOM is
   supporting a multi-hazard assessment and risk mapping initiative targeting all 18 provinces
   and 5 especially vulnerable localities in the country. The purpose of the assessment is to map
   major hazards in Burundi – specifically torrential rains, flooding, earthquakes, violent winds
   and landslides – and understand their potential impacts on lives, properties, available services,
   livelihoods and the environment of communities, as well as on population movements, including
   displacement. The assessment and mapping will inform government and other stakeholders’
   planning, decision-making and prioritization of DRM investments and activities at national and
   subnational levels. At the end of the project, 18 provinces and 119 municipalities in Burundi
   will be equipped with updated risk maps and contingency plans, which will help targeted
   populations to better prevent, prepare for and respond to the impact of natural hazards.

Furthermore, IOM supported 18 countries with risk-informing development strategies or plans and
22 countries with DRR or CCA plans, policies or strategies. In West Africa, IOM supported the
Migration Dialogue for West Africa regional consultation process, where governments deliberated a
regional approach to environmental migration and disaster displacement. In Somalia, IOM worked with
the Government and its partners to develop recommendations on the integration of CCA measures into
durable solutions programming and frameworks. In Timor-Leste, IOM supported the development of a
civil protection strategic plan.

At the national level, IOM strengthened multi-stakeholder disaster coordination in 15 countries,
including Dominica, Haiti and Honduras. In Nepal, IOM bolstered multi-stakeholder coordination that
served to mainstream disaster management issues into sectoral policy formulation processes. This
included facilitating consultations between the National Planning Commission (NPC), UN agencies and
ministries that identified priorities and targets for disaster management and that were integrated into the
NPC’s 15th Five-year Periodic Plan (2018/19–2022/23) approach paper.

Research and assessments on migration, environment and climate change (MECC) were
conducted in 21 countries. A study in Senegal explored the migration–environment nexus in the Kolda
region. In Honduras, key informant surveys and household surveys were undertaken to explore the
linkages between human mobility and climate change.

There were 12 countries that benefited from capacity-building on MECC. In the Caribbean, Kenya, the
Philippines, Somalia, United Republic of Tanzania and Uganda, government officials were trained on the
migration, environment and climate change nexus. In Guinea, capacity-building included training events
on migration and climate resilience for local authorities and national stakeholders, as well as training for
local NGOs on community-based project management.

IOM helped five countries to report on displacement through the Sendai Framework monitor.
IOM provided technical support to the Federated States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands to collect
and analyse data that contributed to its reporting for the Sendai Framework monitor. In Afghanistan, IOM
supported the National Disaster Management Information System that captures disaster impact data,
which contributes towards its Sendai Framework monitoring report.

IOM aided 12 countries in developing databases that incorporate displacement. In Indonesia, IOM
developed a big-data platform that can be used to analyse the movements of people by tracking the
nearest communication tower their mobile phones are connected to. This data will speed up the
Government’s logistical planning and response when assisting displaced populations. It is to be hosted by
the National Statistics Bureau, and informs the planning activities of the Ministry of Social Affairs and the
National Disaster Management Agency.

16 | IOM’s disaster risk reduction activities in 2019 and 2020
IOM assisted 14 countries with the production of thematic guidelines and tools to aid DRR efforts.
In Burundi, a document was developed on rainy season preparedness; in Haiti, a hosting families database
was piloted, while Peru benefited from the creation of risk maps of its northern border.

IOM produced DRR statements, publications and communication products for 14 countries. In
Dominica, various community engagement materials were developed in collaboration with the Red
Cross, using key preparedness messages of the Office of Disaster Management, which included a shelter
manual, murals and family disaster plan booklets. IOM supported 9 countries with DRR public or
advocacy events. In Iraq, public awareness-raising campaigns on health, safety, risks and hazards were
implemented, while Afghanistan, Nepal and Myanmar were supported with events for the International
Day for Disaster Reduction.

IOM supported 13 countries with disease outbreak prevention and health systems strengthening.
This included reinforcing the efforts of El Salvador, Iraq, the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of
Micronesia, the Philippines, Rwanda, South Sudan, Somalia and Sudan to prevent and combat COVID-19.
In Rwanda, screenings at points of entry enabled the early detection of travellers with suspected
COVID-19 symptoms, which helped to prevent the spread of the disease in the country. In South Sudan,
prevention was bolstered by providing COVID-19 water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) home-care kits
to 8,445 households; while in Somalia, awareness-raising on good hygiene practices was strengthened
to reduce disease transmission, with 125,000 individuals targeted through hygiene promotion activities.

  A six-year international conflict has exacerbated humanitarian needs in Yemen, which also faces
  severe water scarcity that triggers localized conflict. Through the project titled Strengthening the
  Role of Women in Peace Building through Natural Resources Management at the Community Level
  in Yemen, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and IOM supported
  the revival of 14 water user associations (WUAs) in Sana’a and Lahj, and built their capacity in
  project administration and conflict resolution. WUAs are community-based organizations for
  water management comprised of local water users. The gender assessment conducted at the
  inception of the project found that women were largely excluded from participation in the WUAs
  with resource management decisions made in all-male sessions. To address this, the project
  established 14 conflict resolution committees within each WUA, where women and men were
  equally represented. Shared stories and community anecdotes record that women were able to
  participate in community and institutional processes for the first time, leading in conflict resolution
  processes, and in negotiating agreements among local stakeholders on the rehabilitation of
  irrigation channels in a manner that improved equitable access to water and protected against
  recurrent floods.

                                                                  IOM Disaster Risk Reduction Report 2021 | 17
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