Island Bay to CBD - Preliminary Funding Report
Island Bay to CBD - Preliminary Funding Report
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility StudyIsland Bay to CBD i | May 2013 Opus International Consultants Ltd Contents Executive Summary ___ 1
1 Introduction ___ 5
1.1 Overview ___ 5
1.2 Study Scope ___ 5
2 Strategic Policy Context ___ 7
2.1 National Policy & Plans ___ 7
2.2 Regional Policy ___ 9
2.3 Policy Conclusions ___ 11
3 NZTA Assessment Framework ___ 12
4 Cycleway Scheme Objectives ___ 14
5 Corridor Description ___ 15
5.1 Topography ___ 15
5.2 Land-use ___ 16
5.3 Road Network ___ 19
5.4 Existing Commuter Cycle Trends ___ 25
5.5 Crash History ___ 27
6 Design Philosophy ___ 32
6.1 Commuter Cyclist User Priorities ___ 33
6.2 Wellington Specific Cyclist Route Choice Considerations ___ 34
6.3 Facility Types & Standards ___ 36
7 Cycleway Routes & Treatments Considered ___ 37
7.1 Section 1 ___ 37
7.2 Section 2 ___ 44
7.3 Section 3 ___ 53
7.4 Preferred Cycleway Route & Treatments ___ 62
8 Cost Estimates & Efficiency Forecasts ___ 63
8.1 Cost Estimates ___ 63
8.2 Economic Analysis ___ 65
9 NZTA Funding Assessment Profile ___ 70
10 Summary and Conclusions ___ 72
10.1 Summary ___ 72
10.2 Recommended Investment Strategy ___ 74
10.3 Conclusion ___ 75
10.4 Recommendations ___ 75
Appendix A .
A Appendix B . . B Appendix C . . C Appendix D . D
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility StudyIsland Bay to CBD ii | May 2013 Opus International Consultants Ltd Figure 1: Overview of Study Area Considered ___ 6
Figure 2: Short to Medium-Term Impacts (GPS July 2011, Page 7 ___ 8
Figure 3: Congestion typically observed down Adelaide Road (Looking South towards Newtown).14 Figure 4: Cross-Section of Study Corridor ___ 15
Figure 5: Study Corridor Elevation ___ 15
Figure 6: Key land-use features of the study area ___ 17
Figure 7: Forecast Population Growth (Left) and Employment Growth (Right ___ 18
Figure 8: Basic Principal of a Road Hierarchy ___ 19
Figure 9: Modified Version of “Hierarchy of Roads”, Map 33 WCC District Plan (Left) & the Study Corridor AADT’s (Right ___ 20
Figure 10: Gradient of the WCC Road Network ___ 21
Figure 11: Location & Characteristics of key roads in Section 1 of Study Corridor ___ 22
Figure 12: Location of key Road links within Section 2 of Study Corridor ___ 23
Figure 13: Location of key Road links within Section 3 of Study Corridor ___ 24
Figure 14: WCC Cycle-Counts 2003-2012 at Adelaide Road / John Street Intersection ___ 26
Figure 15: Cycle Crash Location in Study Area ___ 27
Figure 16: Time of day crashes have occurred ___ 30
Figure 17: Examples of On-road Cycle Facility (left) & Shared Use Cycle Path (Right ___ 36
Figure 18: Section 1 Routes – Option 1-A ___ 39
Figure 19: Section 1 Routes – Option 1-B, 1-C & 1-D ___ 40
Figure 20: Elevated Plans of Route 1 Options ___ 41
Figure 21: Section 2 Routes – Option 2-A ___ 45
Figure 22: Section 2 Routes – Option 2-B ___ 46
Figure 23: Section 2 Routes – Option 2-C ___ 47
Figure 24: Section 2 Routes – Option 2-D & Option 2-E ___ 48
Figure 25: Elevated Plans of Route 2 Options ___ 49
Figure 26: Section 3 Routes – Option 3-A ___ 55
Figure 27: Section 3 Routes – Option 3-B ___ 56
Figure 28: Section 3 Routes – Option 3-C ___ 57
Figure 29: Section 3 Routes – Option 3-D ___ 58
Figure 30: Elevated Plans of Route 3 Options .
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility StudyIsland Bay to CBD iii | May 2013 Opus International Consultants Ltd Table 1: RLTS Outcomes, Targets & Actions aligning with the Island Bay to CBD Cycleway ___ 9
Table 2: WCC Outcomes aligning with the Island Bay to CBD Cycleway ___ 10
Table 3: Funding Assessment Framework for New Walking & Cycling Projects ___ 13
Table 4: Roads of Interest on Corridor Section 1 ___ 22
Table 5: Roads of Interest on Corridor Section 2 ___ 23
Table 6: Roads of Interest on Corridor Section 2 ___ 25
Table 7: Two-hour peak totals recorded each survey period at Newtown Site (07:00-09:00 ___ 26
Table 8: Breakdown of Cycle Crashes by Study Area Section ___ 28
Table 9: Study Area (All Sections) Cycle Crashes 2007-2012 ___ 29
Table 10: Wellington City (Urban) Comparison Cycle Crashes 2007-2012 ___ 29
Table 11: Road Users Involved in Cycle Crashes ___ 29
Table 12: Intersection / Midblock Comparison ___ 30
Table 13: Crash Movement by Severity ___ 31
Table 14: Categories of cyclists and their characteristics (Adapted Austroads AP-G88-11 Page 9)..32 Table 15: Cyclists User Needs (Adopted “LTSA Cycle Network & Route Planning Guide Page 23”) 33 Table 16: Cycling Stages of Change (Adapted from LTNZ Research Report 294, Table 4.1&4.2 ___ 34
Table 17: Cycle Facility Dimensions Adopted ___ 36
Table 18: Summary of Estimates ___ 65
Table 19: Forecast Daily Trips on the cycleway ___ 66
Table 20: Cyclist Injury Totals on defined corridor (01/07/2007 – 01/07/2012 ___ 67
Table 21: BCR values for Central Corridor & Combination Option ___ 68
Table 22: First Year Rate of Return ___ 68
Table 23: Sensitivity Tests on Preferred Option BCR (note rounding ___ 69
Table 24: NZTA Funding Criteria Assessment ___ 70
Table 25: Priority of Activities ___ 71
Table 26: Project Rating .
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility StudyIsland Bay to CBD iv | May 2013 Opus International Consultants Ltd
- Provide an option for travelling to work in large urban congested cities;
- Attract new commuter cyclists; and / or
- Improve the safety of existing cyclists. This study has demonstrated that the creation of a cycleway linking Island Bay and Wellington CBD would have a “High” strategic fit with these objectives. In order to provide a facility that is highly effective in achieving these objectives, options have been developed and assessed against their ability to attract new and maintain existing commuter cyclists. New and existing cyclists have varying priorities expected from a cycleway. In carrying out this study, research obtained by the project team1 has identified that the best way to effectively cater for both cycle user groups within the context of Wellington’s road network is to provide a facility that feels safe, is flat and direct. Option Development The study team broke down the corridor into three sections. The existing physical characteristics and constraints for cycling in each section were identified. Given the constraints and the desires of the two cycle user groups a series of alternative treatment and route options were then developed. The options looked to address existing barriers to cycling as a commuter mode in the corridor. Treatment options considered on the routes developed included traffic calming, on-road cycle lanes, shared use paths and Copenhagen lanes2. Examples of on-road cycle lanes and shared-paths are shown in Figure ES1. The routes considered in the three sections are shown in Figure ES2. Figure ES1: Examples of On-road Cycle Facility (left) & Shared Use Cycle Path (Right)3 1 J.Beetham, (2013), School of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Victoria University of Wellington. 2 Copenhagen lanes are segregated cycle lanes separated from vehicle and pedestrian traffic by raised kerbs. 3 Source: New Zealand Supplement to the Austroads guide to Traffic Engineering Practice Part 14: Bicycles, page iii.
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility StudyIsland Bay to CBD 2 | May 2013 Opus International Consultants Ltd Figure ES2: Routes considered on Section 1 (left), Section 2 (Centre) & Section 3 (Right) Cambridge / Kent Tce Hanson St The Parade Adelaide Rd Tasman St Tory St Adelaide Rd Reef St
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility StudyIsland Bay to CBD 3 | May 2013 Opus International Consultants Ltd Option Assessment Based on the flatness, directness and safety criteria specified, an assessment of the route and treatment options proposed was completed. The project team concluded that the following components as shown in Table ES1 should make up the preferred “Combination Option” as they are able to achieve a “High” rating against NZTA’s effectiveness criteria.
An on-road treatment was recommended due to low costs and because it had the least effect on parking, property and adjacent land-use activities.
Table ES1: Preferred “Combination Option” Summary Name Section Description Option 1-A Reef Street and The Parade up until the Adelaide Road / Dee Street Roundabout Enhance and extend existing cycle lanes so continuous facility provided in each direction through the full length of the section. Possibility of revisions to on-street parking arrangements at Island Bay shops to maintain a continuous cycle facility. Option 2-A Follows Adelaide Road from Dee Street through to John Street. Provide on-road cycle lanes in each direction requiring the loss of on-street parking. Improvements to intersections with safety features such as advanced cycle stop boxes provided.
Option 3-A Uses Adelaide Road and Kent / Cambridge Terrace to reach the CBD Cater for cyclists in existing bus lanes in each direction.
Option 2-D Follows Stoke Street and Hanson Street. Quiet-Street route for new / unconfident cyclists provided by cycle directional signing, lowintervention traffic calming (e.g. measures to visually narrow the roads) and treatments to highlight the presence of cyclists between Stoke Street and Hanson Street; Option 3-C Uses Tasman Street and Tory Street to reach the CBD Quiet-Street route for new / unconfident cyclists continuation of Option 2-D measures on Tasman Street until Rugby Street. North of Rugby Street, road space should be re-allocated to provide a southbound cycle lane on the eastern side of Tory and Tasman Streets.
Expected Cost for Preferred Option: $4.50 Million An economic efficiency assessment was then completed. The number of current and anticipated users was forecast. 439 existing cyclists on the route are projected. Following completion of the cycleway 400 new users are forecast. By considering Health, Safety and Travel Time benefits the economic efficiency of the proposal was determined to be 3.7. The option can be considered to have a “Medium” Economic Efficiency Rating. Based on these results it is proposed that the scheme receives the following NZTA funding assessment profile as shown in the Table ES2 below.
Table ES2: Activity Profile Category Rating Strategic Fit High Effectiveness High Efficiency Medium Rating HHM Category 2
- Develop detailed designs and identify the preferred “Combination Option”;
- Consultation with affected stakeholders; and
- Refinement of the cost estimates.
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility StudyIsland Bay to CBD 5 | May 2013 Opus International Consultants Ltd 1 Introduction 1.1 Overview Opus International Consultants (Opus) has been commissioned by Wellington City Council (WCC) to complete a cycleway feasibility study for a corridor linking the Wellington suburb of Island Bay and the Central Business District (CBD). This report documents the development of a preferred route and cycleway facility (the scheme). The feasibility of the scheme is closely linked to its ability to attract government funding from the New Zealand Transport Agency (NZTA).
For such reasons the scheme has been assessed against NZTA’s funding criteria. This approach will allow WCC to prioritise the implementation of different cycleway projects and have sufficient information to prepare a funding application.1.2 Study Scope The scope of this study is to develop and determine whether the scheme is feasible on the 6.1km section between Island Bay and the CBD as defined in Figure 1 (overleaf). The scheme will allow for improved cycle travel either through or around some of the most congested parts of Wellington City. The study area is a highly utilised commuter corridor. It connects Wellington’s southern suburbs to the CBD, passing through or nearby a number of local shopping precincts and key institutions such as Wellington Hospital and Massey University. A high demand for travel is exhibited through the study area. To ensure that the best cycle route and facility possible can be provided, the study scope of works has included:
- Determining the alignment of the study with national, regional and local policy;
- A review of NZTA’s “Assessment Framework” to define the essential funding requirements the study must comply with;
- Setting the cycleway scheme objectives given the policy and funding needs;
- Assessment of the study area characteristics;
- Development of various routes, treatment options & their assessment;
- Forecasting new users attracted to the scheme; and
- Assessment of the scheme against NZTA’s funding “Assessment Framework”. The study has been completed on the assumption that both the Memorial Park Underpass situated at Buckle Street and the Basin Reserve Overbridge will be constructed in the near future. Development of the Adelaide Road growth node between the Basin Reserve and John Street is not yet confirmed but has been considered as part of the study.
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility StudyIsland Bay to CBD 6 | May 2013 Opus International Consultants Ltd Figure 1: Overview of Study Area Considered Study Area
- Assisting economic development;
- Assisting safety and personal security;
- Improving access and mobility;
- Protect and promote public health; and
- Ensure environmental sustainability Providing a project that aligns well with the above objectives and those listed by the current GPS is a fundamental requirement of any funding application. Alignment of the Island Bay to CBD cycleway against these national policy documents is described in the remainder of Chapter 2.1.
- 2.1.1 Land Transport Management Act Objectives
- Assisting economic development A new cycleway between Island Bay and the CBD has the potential to make the CBD and the employment opportunities located within it more accessible for both the financially disadvantaged and those without private vehicles.
- Assist safety and personal security A new cycleway has the potential to enhance cycle safety along the 6.1 km study corridor. On-road facilities typically see a reduction of between 10-20% in the number of cycle related injury crashes4. If completely separated facilities are provided the cycle safety benefits that can be captured will be even higher.
Improve access and mobility The cycleway will not enhance access and mobility for freight. However, it could improve access to schools and educational establishments such as Massey University. 4 NZTA’ Economic Evaluation Manual Chapter A6
- Wellington Cycleway Feasibility StudyIsland Bay to CBD 8 | May 2013 Opus International Consultants Ltd
- Protect and promote public health The cycleway has the potential to protect and promote public health by providing a facility which will encourage active mode travel. Cycling has a number of health benefits generated by the undertaking of physical activity. These benefits would be realised by the new cyclists attracted to the facility.
- Ensure environmental sustainability The installation of a cycleway has the ability to encourage people to cycle rather than travel by vehicle. A reduction in vehicle trips will improve congestion and energy efficiencies from stop/start movements characteristic of the study corridor during peak travel times. Through reductions in fuel consumption travel through the corridor may become more sustainable.
- 2.1.2 Government Policy Statement (GPS) The Government Policy Statement on Land Transport Funding 2012/13 – 2021/22 (July 2011) presents the Government’s desired outcomes and funding priorities for the National Land Transport Fund (NLTF). At present economic growth and productivity is a key priority for the Government. For this reason the GPS lists three areas of focus:
- Economic growth and productivity;
- Value for money; and
- Road safety. In achieving these focus areas the impacts listed in Figure 2 should be met through the allocation of funding from the NLTF. In accordance with the reasons detailed in Chapter 2.1.1, allocating funding for the cycleway will address the majority of the short to medium term impacts the Government wishes to achieve from its funding priorities. Figure 2: Short to Medium-Term Impacts (GPS July 2011, Page 7)
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility StudyIsland Bay to CBD 9 | May 2013 Opus International Consultants Ltd 2.1.3 Safer Journeys – New Zealand’s Road Safety Strategy 2010-2020 “Safer Journeys” is the National strategy to guide improvements in road safety over the period 2010-2020. It contains the long-term goal for road safety in New Zealand of achieving “A safe road system increasingly free of death and serious injury”. One priority area of road safety is for “safe walking and cycling” journeys. The Island Bay to CBD cycleway can align with the Strategy by: “Providing safe and convenient routes for pedestrians and cyclists, especially to and from work and school” (Safer Journeys, Page 39).
- 2.2 Regional Policy 2.2.1 Wellington Regional Land Transport Strategy (September 2010) The Wellington Regional Land Transport Strategy 2010 (RLTS) guides the development of the regions transport system (including public transport, roads, walking, cycling and freight) for the next ten years and beyond. It provides an overall context for investment. The RLTS identifies a number of key outcomes which the region seeks to achieve. A series of targets and actions have subsequently been developed for all the RLTS outcomes. Those outcomes and key actions relevant to the study are shown in Table 1. Table 1: RLTS Outcomes, Targets & Actions aligning with the Island Bay to CBD Cycleway RLTS Outcome 2020 Strategic Target Key Actions (2.1) Increased mode share for pedestrians & cyclists
- Increase active mode use to at least 30% of all trips in urban areas;
- Active modes account for at least 16% of region wide journey to work trips.
- Improve walking and cycling facilities;
- Advocate for higher priority of pedestrian and cyclist road safety funding. (2.2) Improved level of service for pedestrians and cyclists
- 70% of people report a “good” or “neither good nor bad” level of service for the strategic cycle network
- Provide quality footpaths and cyclist facilities (2.3) Increased safety for pedestrians & cyclists
- A reduction in the number of cyclist casualties to no more than 110 per annum.
- Improve cycling networks
- Advocate for adequate government funding. (3.1-3) Reduced greenhouse gas emissions; private car mode share & fuel consumption
- Transport generated CO2 emissions will be maintained below year 2001 levels.
- Improve & promote mode shift to public transport, walking and cycling. (4.1) Reduced severe road congestion
- Average congestion on selected roads well remain below 2003 levels despite traffic growth.
- Advocate for mode shift. (5.1) Improved regional road safety
- There are no crashes attributable to roading network deficiencies; Continuous reduction in the number of killed and seriously injured on the regions roads.
- Improve walking and cycling safety.
- Road space allocation;
- Surface quality and maintenance;
- Route directness and connectivity;
- Signage and information;
- Vehicle traffic speeds and parking restrictions;
- Crash and risk statistics;
- Cycle parking and storage facilities;
- Cycle priority measures;
- Segregated cycle facilities on high speed/high volume routes; and
- Integration with public transport systems.
The Island Bay to CBD cycleway can align with the Regional Cycling Plan by considering the above issues in its design and development. This will assist in the cycleway achieving the recognised RLTS outcomes. 2.2.3 WCC Transport Strategy 2006 The WCC Transport Strategy provides the ten year direction and strategic vision for transport activities in Wellington City. Table 2 lists long term outcomes relevant to the Island Bay to CBD cycleway project. The Cycleway project could positively contribute towards the realisation of these key outcomes by providing a facility that will encourage mode shift away from private vehicle use.
- Table 2: WCC Outcomes aligning with the Island Bay to CBD Cycleway WCC Outcome Outcome Alignment with Cycleway Project 2.3 More Sustainable: Wellington will minimise the environmental effects of transport and support the environmental strategy;
- Increasing the use of low-energy transport options 2.4(a) Better connected: Wellington will have a highly interconnected public transport, road and street system that supports its urban development and social strategies;
- A well connected system of local roads and streets, footpaths and cycleways.
- 2.4(b) Healthier: Wellingtons Transport system will contribute to healthy communities and social interaction
- Promoting walking and cycling and reduced dependence on motor vehicles for short trips through the travel demand management programme.
- To improve cycle safety throughout Wellington;
- To improve the convenience of cycling in Wellington;
- To improve the experience of cycle trips to and from the Central Area;
- To improve the experience of cycle trips to and from Suburban Centres;
- To improve the experience of cycle trips to and from educational centres; and
- To improve the experience of cycle trips for recreation. The proposed Island Bay to CBD cycleway is well aligned with these objectives and the overarching Transport Strategy it supplements.
- 2.2.5 WCC Adelaide Road Framework 2008 The cycleway also helps achieve the vision outlined in the “Adelaide Road Framework 2008”. Having a designated facility for cyclists within the vicinity of Adelaide Road will:
- Make Adelaide Road safer for cyclists and more cycle friendly;
- Better connected for people to access areas of work and living; and
- Result in reduced mode conflicts. 2.3 Policy Conclusions The concept of the Island Bay to CBD cycleway project has been assessed against national, regional and local strategic policy. Clearly the project demonstrates the potential to correlate strongly with the desires and aspirations of all levels of governance. A number of common themes have been identified across these policies, highlighting the need for the cycleway to:
- Ease congestion between Island bay and the CBD which will help to reduce vehicle emissions;
- Reduce death and serious injury through the provision of new or improved cycle facilities;
- Make it easier for residents along the study corridor to access employment opportunities and retail areas, particularly people that may be unable to afford to travel by car or by bus.
- Make better use of existing transport capacity available on the city road network;
- Remove barriers to cycling that will increase the amount of choice in ways to travel and propensity for change. This may be through the removal of perceived discomfort or danger;
- Reduce reliance on one form of transport to improve the resilience of the wider transport network; and
- Encourage more regular cycling to improve public health.
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility StudyIsland Bay to CBD 12 | May 2013 Opus International Consultants Ltd 3 NZTA Assessment Framework Under the Act, NZTA is responsible for allocating funds from the NLTF for investment activities set by the Government.
Territorial Authorities such as WCC can gain funding from the NLTF if they successfully demonstrate to NZTA that a project can achieve value for money. Value for money is generally defined as a means of selecting the right things to do (Strategic Fit), implementing them in the right way (Effectiveness), at the right time and for the right price (Economic Efficiency)5.To demonstrate value for money a project must be assessed against NZTA’s funding Assessment Framework. The Assessment Framework uses a ranking system of “High”, “Medium” or “Low” against the Strategic Fit, Effectiveness and Economic Efficiency criteria which are defined as follows:
- Strategic Fit A strategic fit assessment considers how an identified problem, issue or opportunity aligns with the NZTA’s strategic investment direction without considering the possible solution. The investment direction is derived from the GPS. Strategic fit assessments and the criteria within them are specific to “activity classes”. Walking and cycling is considered to be a single “activity class”. This ensures uniformity in the comparison between different walking and cycling projects. It should be noted that for walking and cycling projects, a “High” Strategic Fit can be gained if the project aligns with one or more of the defined “High” rating targets.
- Effectiveness The effectiveness assessment considers the contribution that a project makes to achieve the potential identified in the strategic fit assessment. Higher ratings are given to projects providing long-term, integrated and enduring benefits.
- Economic Efficiency The economic efficiency assessment considers how well the proposed solution maximises the value of what is produced from the resources used. The Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) is the primary mechanism used to rate the economic efficiency of a project. Table 3 overleaf provides a summary of the Assessment Framework for a walking and cycling project. Therefore in order to successfully demonstrate that the Island Bay to CBD Cycleway provides value for money, the study must:
- Achieve a “High” Strategic Fit rating by either significantly reducing actual crash risk, be part of a model walking / cycling community, or by reducing congestion on a key route in a major urban area;
- Achieve a “High” Effectiveness rating by at a minimum showing that the project can be significantly effective at achieving the Strategic Fit.
Achieve a “High” efficiency rating by having four times as many transport benefits as there are costs. 5 http://www.pikb.co.nz/assessment-framework/assessment-framework-overview/
- Wellington Cycleway Feasibility StudyIsland Bay to CBD 13 | May 2013 Opus International Consultants Ltd Table 3: Funding Assessment Framework for New Walking & Cycling Projects Low Rating Medium Rating High Rating Strategic Fit
- Reduce actual crash risk Default Reduction in predicted crash risk involving deaths and serious injuries - comply with Safer Journeys strategy Reduction in actual crash risk (5 fatal/serious over last 5 year) – Comply with Safer Journeys strategy
- Increase cycle participation Improve uptake of cycling and walking in main urban areas Be Part of a Model Walking/Cycling Community to make it easier and safer.
- Reduce congestion Complete/ complement existing walking an cycling network for easing congestion On a key route in Major urban area on agreed walking and cycling strategy strategic network Effectiveness
- Impact from strategic fit assessment Has an impact and proportional to scale of project Significantly effective Significantly effective
- Reach agreed LOS (NLTP) Satisfied
- Consider all problems, issues and opportunities Considered
- Consider all alternatives Considered
- Consider Opportunities to collaborate Considered Collaboration of the development of studies, strategies and plans
- Consider adverse effects Considered
- Affordable Satisfied
- Avoid job duplication Satisfied
- Include monitoring and review framework Satisfied
- NZTA supported strategy, endorsed package, programme or plan Part of or will contribute to Key component
- Long term solution Provide enduring benefits
- Solution to land use strategy and implementation plans Satisfied
- Contribute to multiple GPS impacts Contributes Strategic approach to make significant contribution
- A whole network approach Satisfied
- Improve integration between modes Satisfied
- Integrates land transport, use and activity Satisfied through strategic approach
- Supports network from a national perspective Satisfied
- Optimised against multiple transportation outcomes and objectives Satisfied Efficiency
- BCR 1.0-2.0 2.0-4.0 4.0+
- Reduction of congestion and its environmental effects during peak travel periods;
- Enhanced cycle safety;
- Building on Wellington’s existing cycle network; and
- Providing increased health benefits for new users. The cycleway scheme objectives are therefore:
- To reduce congestion through the study corridor by encouraging commuter mode shift from private vehicles to cycling;
- To significantly improve cycle safety and reduce the number of fatal and serious injury crashes in the study corridor; and
- To provide a facility that meets the “High” ratings under NZTA’s Assessment Framework making the project more likely to attract further funding.
Figure 3: Congestion typically observed down Adelaide Road (Looking South towards Newtown)
- Section 1 – The Esplanade to Dee Street / The Parade Roundabout
- Section 2 – Dee Street / The Parade Roundabout through to John Street
- Section 3 – John Street through to Wellington Harbour The remainder of this Chapter provides context to the corridor sections and describes the opportunities and challenges a cycleway may present.
5.1 Topography The study area corridor is situated at the bottom of a steep valley between the Brooklyn Rise (West) and Mount Victoria (East). A typical cross section of the valley is shown in Figure 4. The cross-section was taken where Adelaide Road and The Parade intersect at Dee Street. Figure 4: Cross-Section of Study Corridor While the study corridor is situated in a valley, the topography and grade of the route is not constant. An elevated plan of Adelaide Road from Island Bay through to the Basin Reserve is shown in Figure 5. The route requires a number of climbs to travel from the shoreline in either direction of travel (at 5m above sea level) to a maximum elevation, 65m above sea level at MacAlister Park.
Figure 5: Study Corridor Elevation E W N S Mt Victoria Brooklyn Rise
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility StudyIsland Bay to CBD 16 | May 2013 Opus International Consultants Ltd 5.2 Land-use Development within the corridor broadly follows the valley floor described in Chapter 5.1. Following the valley floor, Adelaide Road is the main arterial road linking Island Bay and the CBD. From Island Bay through to Newtown, Adelaide Road traverses an area of low density residential housing. As shown in Figure 6 clusters of retail shopping areas are also located at Island Bay, Berhampore and Newtown.
North from Newtown towards the Adelaide Road growth node and the CBD development in the corridor is increasingly commercial with higher density apartment dwellings. Additionally the cycleway would be situated within close proximity to Wellington Hospital, many schools and Massey University. The cycleway would therefore provide an important connection for active mode travel between the southern residential suburbs, employment opportunities to the north, educational facilities and health services.
Although existing land-use activities provide an important snap-shot of how a cycleway could benefit the community at the present time, considering the future is essential to determine if the cycleway will support future growth initiatives and aspirations. The Wellington Transport Strategy Model (WTSM) operated by the Greater Wellington Regional Council (GWRC) enables future transport demands to be forecast. The forecasts are based on data from Statistics New Zealand and demographic trends from previous Census’. Figure 7 shows the forecast changes to population and employment that are used as the basis for WTSM travel demand forecasts.
These are utilised for all the transport projects in the region including the components of the Road of National Significance. It can clearly be seen that the population is forecast to increase along the corridor and that the growth will be most intense around Newtown and in the CBD. Employment growth is also concentrated around Newtown and the CBD with a pocket of high growth at the “Adelaide Road growth node”. With an increase in employment opportunities in these areas the demand for travel in the corridor will also increase. The cycleway will therefore play an important role in servicing active mode travel in the north-south direction.
Based on the current land-use activities and the projected WTSM outputs it can be concluded that the cycleway will increase connectivity for existing cycle demand. The cycleway is also in a location capable of servicing future year requirements as population and employment growth changes are influenced by future land-use patterns.
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility StudyIsland Bay to CBD 17 | May 2013 Opus International Consultants Ltd Figure 6: Key land-use features of the study area Central Business District Adelaide Road Growth Node Newtown Shops Berhampore Shops Island Bay Shops Wellington Hospital Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 2
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility StudyIsland Bay to CBD 18 | May 2013 Opus International Consultants Ltd Figure 7: Forecast Population Growth (Left) and Employment Growth (Right)
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility StudyIsland Bay to CBD 19 | May 2013 Opus International Consultants Ltd 5.3 Road Network The road network through the study corridor contains a mixture of arterial, principal, collector and local roads.
Key arterial and principal roads are typically straight, very wide, low in gradient and appropriate for high volume traffic flows. The roads generally have good forward visibility and controlled intersections along them. Conversely the quieter, local roads are windy, narrow, low volume and have poor visibility. The local roads do however provide a greater access to property. The general principle for a roading hierarchy and their effect on access and mobility is shown in Figure 8.
Figure 8: Basic Principal of a Road Hierarchy6 The road network hierarchy for Wellington City in the study corridor and a summary of the Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT) traffic volumes sourced from NZTA’s Crash Analysis System (CAS) is shown in Figure 9. There is strong correlation between the roading hierarchy and the traffic volumes observed. Heavy traffic volumes of over 20,000 vehicles per day are seen at the northern end of the corridor on the designated SH1 and arterial roads. However, Taranaki Street and Adelaide Road (south of the Basin Reserve) carry similar levels of traffic despite being only collector and principal roads respectively.
Historic development of Wellington’s road network and the significant growth that has occurred around it has limited the potential for transport capacity changes. Therefore the desirable road layout cannot always be provided to cater for the high traffic volumes. Unsurprisingly congestion is a feature through the corridor south of the Basin Reserve. 6 Image from Austroads Guide to Traffic Management Part 5: Road Management; Page 5.
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility StudyIsland Bay to CBD 20 | May 2013 Opus International Consultants Ltd Figure 9: Modified Version of “Hierarchy of Roads”, Map 33 WCC District Plan (Left) & the Study Corridor AADT’s (Right) Basin Reserve Basin Reserve Adelaide Rd Adelaide Rd Taranaki St The Parade Taranaki St The Parade
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility StudyIsland Bay to CBD 21 | May 2013 Opus International Consultants Ltd In addition to traffic volumes, the gradient of the roads through the study corridor is also an important consideration for the cycleway.
The respective gradients per 50m road section can be seen in Figure 10. The road gradient has been calculated using LIDAR using a geospatial system. Generally it can be seen through the corridor that the arterial roads for the most maintain a low gradient while local roads can be at between 5-15%. The remaining contents of Chapter 5.3 specify the characteristics of the study corridor sections in detail. Figure 10: Gradient of the WCC Road Network
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility StudyIsland Bay to CBD 22 | May 2013 Opus International Consultants Ltd 5.3.1 Section 1 The Parade is the main link into and out of Island Bay. Defined as a principal road in the WCC District Plan, The Parade has an AADT of over 10,000 vehicles per day north of Medway Street. The road is wide and relatively flat until the Dee Street roundabout where it becomes Adelaide Road. Surrounding The Parade is a series of parallel residential streets including Derwent Street, Medway Street, Eden Street (West of The Parade) and Clyde Street (East of The Parade). With AADT’s under 3,000 vehicles per day the parallel routes cater for low volume residential traffic.
A summary of the road characteristics for these roads and their location is shown in Table 4 and Figure 11 respectively. Note that the road widths are from kerb to kerb (from RAMM) and have not been surveyed as part of this study.
Table 4: Roads of Interest on Corridor Section 1 Road Hierarchy AADT* Typical Road Width Lanes On-Street parking Max Gradient Reef Street Local Road 2,182 16m 2 Yes
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility StudyIsland Bay to CBD 23 | May 2013 Opus International Consultants Ltd 5.3.2 Section 2 From the Dee Street roundabout, Adelaide Road traverses the entirety of Section 2 from Island Bay through to the Adelaide Road / John Street / Riddiford Street intersection. Running parallel to Adelaide Road are local roads including Stanley Street, and Hanson Street to the west.
To the east of Adelaide Road are Rintoul Street and the Principal road Riddiford Street. Riddiford Street passes Wellington Hospital and is the primary corridor from the CBD to Newtown. Characteristics of these roads and their location are shown in Table 5 and Figure 12 respectively. Roads are again taken from kerb to kerb. Table 5: Roads of Interest on Corridor Section 2 Road Hierarchy AADT Typical Road width Lanes On-street parking Max Gradient Adelaide Road Principal 11,576 8.5-10m 2 In Places 10-15% Stanley Street Local Road 1,027 7.5-9.5m 1-2 Yes 10-15% Stoke Street Local Road 1,127 8.5-10m 2 Yes
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility StudyIsland Bay to CBD 24 | May 2013 Opus International Consultants Ltd 5.3.3 Section 3 In Section 3 there are a number of high volume links connecting the main Adelaide Road Corridor to the south and the CBD to the north. As shown in Figure 13 Adelaide Road continues from the John Street signalised intersection before it reaches SH1 at the southern side of the Basin Reserve (Rugby Street). Following the Basin Reserve, the key arterials Kent and Cambridge Terrace provide access to and from the coast respectively. Cambridge Terrace has three lanes of vehicle capacity in the northbound direction to cater for over 10,000 vehicles per day.
Kent Terrace provides three lanes of southbound capacity and is designated as SH1 (south of the Vivian Street intersection). Kent Terrace typically sees over 20,000 vehicles daily. Adelaide Road, Kent and Cambridge Terrace are situated on a relatively flat grade. Roads are again taken from kerb to kerb. Figure 13: Location of key Road links within Section 3 of Study Corridor Section 3 Section 2
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility StudyIsland Bay to CBD 25 | May 2013 Opus International Consultants Ltd Defined as a Collector Road, Taranaki Street / Wallace Street to the West of the Adelaide Road corridor sees in excess of 20,000 vehicles per day. Taranaki Street is one of the primary vehicle corridors into the CBD. It has multiple lanes of capacity in each direction to the north of SH1. South of SH1 there is one lane in each direction as it passes Wellington High School and Massey University. Some grades up to 10% can be experienced before it ties into John Street.
In addition to these high capacity and heavily utilised links, the local road Tasman / Tory Street provides a two-way, single lane in each direction between John Street, SH1 and the waterfront.
Tasman Street begins at John Street and terminates at SH1. Tory Street begins at SH1 and proceeds through the CBD to the waterfront. Tasman Street covers a residential area and allows access to Massey University. Situated on a hill, it has one short section with a steep grade up to 10% near John Street. Tory Street is one of the central corridors through the CBD. However, as it has only one lane of capacity in each direction, traffic is instead attracted to the high capacity routes of Taranaki Street or Cambridge / Kent Terrace. There is a high proportion of foot traffic using Tory Street.
The key characteristics for each of the roads described are shown in Table 6. Table 6: Roads of Interest on Corridor Section 2 Road Hierarchy AADT Typical Road width Lanes On-street parking Max Gradient Adelaide Road Principal 22,905 15.5m 2-4** In Places
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility StudyIsland Bay to CBD 26 | May 2013 Opus International Consultants Ltd Table 7: Two-hour peak totals recorded each survey period at Newtown Site (07:00-09:00) Year Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Weekday Average 2003 130 136 179 131 131 141 2004 160 155 101 138 132 137 2005 157 184 175 123 101 148 2006 200 206 208 197 169 196 2007 267 278 284 269 283 276 2008 231 252 254 217 239 239 2009 247 312 274 295 220 270 2010 321 352 334 322 206 307 2011 243 286 283 296 249 271 2012 150 285 299 310 223 253 Figure 14: WCC Cycle-Counts 2003-2012 at Adelaide Road / John Street Intersection The annual growth calculated is significantly higher than the 0% stated for the Wellington Region in NZTA’s Economics Evaluation Manual (EEM Volume 2, page 8- 21).
Therefore it can be said that there is an increasing demand for cycle activity in the study corridor. The cycleway project will contribute as a means of providing a designated facility to meet this and additional demand both now and in the future.
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility StudyIsland Bay to CBD 27 | May 2013 Opus International Consultants Ltd 5.5 Crash History A high level crash analysis was completed for the study corridor using data sourced from NZTA’s CAS. A five year analysis period between the 1st of July 2007 and 30th of June 2012 has been adopted. The analysis period uses the most up-to date data set currently available allowing current crash trends and issues to be identified. Most crash benefits associated with the cycleway project will come from improvements to cycle safety. Therefore only crashes involving cyclists have been considered in this analysis.
Any crash in the selected study area not involving a cyclist has been removed from consideration. Detailed crash outputs, reporting and key assumptions from the CAS analysis is provided in Appendix A. The remainder of this chapter summarises the key trends identified on the road corridors considered critical for the study. Figure 15 shows the distribution of the crashes by Section. Figure 15: Cycle Crash Location in Study Area Section 1 Section 2 Section 3
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility StudyIsland Bay to CBD 28 | May 2013 Opus International Consultants Ltd 5.5.1 General Trends In summary a total of 76 crashes have occurred during the identified analysis period. Importantly no fatal crashes have occurred in the study area. Although the non-injury crash total is low, it is most likely that cyclist non-injury crashes go un-reported and are unlisted in the CAS database. Non-injury cyclist crashes with vehicles are usually only reported for insurance claims. Clearly and unsurprisingly due to exposure rates, Section 3 which includes the high volume SH1 and local roads surrounding the Basin Reserve and the CBD is where the majority of cycle crashes have occurred.
The breakdown of the injury totals by section is shown in Table 8.
Table 8: Breakdown of Cycle Crashes by Study Area Section Section Fatal Serious Minor Non-injury Total Study Area% Section 5% Section 2 0 2 15 1 18 24% Section 3 0 10 38 6 54 71% Total 0 12 55 9 76 100% As indicated in Figure 15, in Section 1, two of the four crashes occurred on The Parade, the predominant route into and out of Island Bay. The crashes are unrelated and no trends are identifiable. Of note was that one crash occurred when a bus collided with a cyclist within the vicinity of the Island Bay shopping precinct. In Section 2 the cycle crashes have been concentrated at the northern end where there are a number of heavily utilised, local road, signalised intersections.
The intersections see a high frequency of turning traffic. The intersections are also on the main bus routes linking the CBD, Wellington Hospital and the southern suburbs. Cyclists are therefore exposed to a higher degree of vehicle conflict compared to Section 1. The two serious injury crashes are located at Adelaide Road / John / Riddiford Street and the Riddiford / Rintoul Street signalised intersections respectively. Of importance is that there is a high frequency of crossing / turning crashes at the Stoke Street / Adelaide Road priority controlled intersection. The intersection could be one of the possible deviations for the cycleway to avoid the Adelaide Road / John Street intersection.
Further design considerations will be necessary should the Stoke Street intersection be used for the cycleway.
On Section 3 many of the cycle crashes occur on Adelaide Road and Taranaki Street; the primary routes into the CBD for both vehicles and cyclists. Four of the ten serious injury crashes for the section have occurred on Adelaide Road. On Adelaide Road there has been a high number of crossing / turning and overtaking crashes. Adelaide Road has multiple lanes and a variety of commercial developments with frontage and parking requirements. This includes petrol stations and fast food restaurants. Bus lanes also operate during the peak periods in an alternating directional flow to allow for increased travel to and from the CBD during peak travel periods.
With much going on and with no designated facility for cycling, there is a high potential for vehicle / cycle conflict. There are however noticeably fewer crashes on Tory and Tasman Streets with only seven occurring on the entire link. This local road route has significantly lower traffic volumes compared to the main corridors into and through the CBD.