Island Bay to CBD Preliminary Funding Report - Wellington Cycleway Feasibility Study

 
Island Bay to CBD Preliminary Funding Report - Wellington Cycleway Feasibility Study
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility Study

Island Bay to CBD

Preliminary Funding Report
Island Bay to CBD Preliminary Funding Report - Wellington Cycleway Feasibility Study
Island Bay to CBD Preliminary Funding Report - Wellington Cycleway Feasibility Study
Island Bay to CBD Preliminary Funding Report - Wellington Cycleway Feasibility Study
Island Bay to CBD Preliminary Funding Report - Wellington Cycleway Feasibility Study
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility Study- Island Bay to CBD                                                               i

Contents
Executive Summary ....................................................................................................1
1   Introduction....................................................................................................... 5
       1.1     Overview ................................................................................................................................ 5
       1.2     Study Scope............................................................................................................................ 5
2      Strategic Policy Context...................................................................................... 7
       2.1     National Policy & Plans......................................................................................................... 7
       2.2     Regional Policy ...................................................................................................................... 9
       2.3 Policy Conclusions................................................................................................................ 11
3      NZTA Assessment Framework ..........................................................................12
4      Cycleway Scheme Objectives .............................................................................14
5      Corridor Description ......................................................................................... 15
       5.1     Topography ........................................................................................................................... 15
       5.2     Land-use ...............................................................................................................................16
       5.3     Road Network .......................................................................................................................19
       5.4     Existing Commuter Cycle Trends....................................................................................... 25
       5.5     Crash History ....................................................................................................................... 27
6      Design Philosophy ............................................................................................ 32
       6.1 Commuter Cyclist User Priorities ...................................................................................... 33
       6.2     Wellington Specific Cyclist Route Choice Considerations................................................ 34
       6.3     Facility Types & Standards ................................................................................................. 36
7      Cycleway Routes & Treatments Considered ...................................................... 37
       7.1     Section 1 ............................................................................................................................... 37
       7.2     Section 2............................................................................................................................... 44
       7.3     Section 3 ............................................................................................................................... 53
       7.4     Preferred Cycleway Route & Treatments........................................................................... 62
8      Cost Estimates & Efficiency Forecasts .............................................................. 63
       8.1 Cost Estimates ..................................................................................................................... 63
       8.2     Economic Analysis .............................................................................................................. 65
9      NZTA Funding Assessment Profile ................................................................... 70
10     Summary and Conclusions ............................................................................... 72
       10.1 Summary .............................................................................................................................. 72
       10.2 Recommended Investment Strategy .................................................................................. 74
       10.3 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................... 75
       10.4 Recommendations............................................................................................................... 75
Appendix A................................................................................................................. A
Appendix B................................................................................................................. B
Appendix C ................................................................................................................. C
Appendix D ............................................................................................................... D

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Island Bay to CBD Preliminary Funding Report - Wellington Cycleway Feasibility Study
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility Study- Island Bay to CBD                                                     ii

Figure 1: Overview of Study Area Considered......................................................................................... 6
Figure 2: Short to Medium-Term Impacts (GPS July 2011, Page 7) ..................................................... 8
Figure 3: Congestion typically observed down Adelaide Road (Looking South towards Newtown) .14
Figure 4: Cross-Section of Study Corridor ............................................................................................. 15
Figure 5: Study Corridor Elevation ......................................................................................................... 15
Figure 6: Key land-use features of the study area ................................................................................. 17
Figure 7: Forecast Population Growth (Left) and Employment Growth (Right) ............................... 18
Figure 8: Basic Principal of a Road Hierarchy .......................................................................................19
Figure 9: Modified Version of “Hierarchy of Roads”, Map 33 WCC District Plan (Left) & the Study
Corridor AADT’s (Right) ........................................................................................................................ 20
Figure 10: Gradient of the WCC Road Network.....................................................................................21
Figure 11: Location & Characteristics of key roads in Section 1 of Study Corridor ............................ 22
Figure 12: Location of key Road links within Section 2 of Study Corridor ......................................... 23
Figure 13: Location of key Road links within Section 3 of Study Corridor ......................................... 24
Figure 14: WCC Cycle-Counts 2003-2012 at Adelaide Road / John Street Intersection .................. 26
Figure 15: Cycle Crash Location in Study Area ..................................................................................... 27
Figure 16: Time of day crashes have occurred ...................................................................................... 30
Figure 17: Examples of On-road Cycle Facility (left) & Shared Use Cycle Path (Right) .................... 36
Figure 18: Section 1 Routes – Option 1-A.............................................................................................. 39
Figure 19: Section 1 Routes – Option 1-B, 1-C & 1-D ............................................................................ 40
Figure 20: Elevated Plans of Route 1 Options .......................................................................................41
Figure 21: Section 2 Routes – Option 2-A ............................................................................................. 45
Figure 22: Section 2 Routes – Option 2-B ............................................................................................ 46
Figure 23: Section 2 Routes – Option 2-C ............................................................................................ 47
Figure 24: Section 2 Routes – Option 2-D & Option 2-E..................................................................... 48
Figure 25: Elevated Plans of Route 2 Options ...................................................................................... 49
Figure 26: Section 3 Routes – Option 3-A ............................................................................................ 55
Figure 27: Section 3 Routes – Option 3-B ............................................................................................. 56
Figure 28: Section 3 Routes – Option 3-C ............................................................................................ 57
Figure 29: Section 3 Routes – Option 3-D ............................................................................................ 58
Figure 30: Elevated Plans of Route 3 Options ...................................................................................... 59

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Wellington Cycleway Feasibility Study- Island Bay to CBD                                                      iii

Table 1: RLTS Outcomes, Targets & Actions aligning with the Island Bay to CBD Cycleway ............. 9
Table 2: WCC Outcomes aligning with the Island Bay to CBD Cycleway ........................................... 10
Table 3: Funding Assessment Framework for New Walking & Cycling Projects ................................13
Table 4: Roads of Interest on Corridor Section 1.................................................................................. 22
Table 5: Roads of Interest on Corridor Section 2 ................................................................................. 23
Table 6: Roads of Interest on Corridor Section 2 ................................................................................. 25
Table 7: Two-hour peak totals recorded each survey period at Newtown Site (07:00-09:00) ......... 26
Table 8: Breakdown of Cycle Crashes by Study Area Section .............................................................. 28
Table 9: Study Area (All Sections) Cycle Crashes 2007-2012.............................................................. 29
Table 10: Wellington City (Urban) Comparison Cycle Crashes 2007-2012 ....................................... 29
Table 11: Road Users Involved in Cycle Crashes................................................................................... 29
Table 12: Intersection / Midblock Comparison .................................................................................... 30
Table 13: Crash Movement by Severity ..................................................................................................31
Table 14: Categories of cyclists and their characteristics (Adapted Austroads AP-G88-11 Page 9) .. 32
Table 15: Cyclists User Needs (Adopted “LTSA Cycle Network & Route Planning Guide Page 23”) 33
Table 16: Cycling Stages of Change (Adapted from LTNZ Research Report 294, Table 4.1&4.2) .... 34
Table 17: Cycle Facility Dimensions Adopted ....................................................................................... 36
Table 18: Summary of Estimates ........................................................................................................... 65
Table 19: Forecast Daily Trips on the cycleway .................................................................................... 66
Table 20: Cyclist Injury Totals on defined corridor (01/07/2007 – 01/07/2012)............................. 67
Table 21: BCR values for Central Corridor & Combination Option..................................................... 68
Table 22: First Year Rate of Return ....................................................................................................... 68
Table 23: Sensitivity Tests on Preferred Option BCR (note rounding) ............................................... 69
Table 24: NZTA Funding Criteria Assessment ..................................................................................... 70
Table 25: Priority of Activities................................................................................................................. 71
Table 26: Project Rating ......................................................................................................................... 75

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Island Bay to CBD Preliminary Funding Report - Wellington Cycleway Feasibility Study
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| May 2013                                                      Opus International Consultants Ltd
Island Bay to CBD Preliminary Funding Report - Wellington Cycleway Feasibility Study
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility Study- Island Bay to CBD                                     1

Executive Summary
Opus International Consultants has been commissioned by Wellington City Council (WCC) to
complete a cycleway feasibility study for a corridor linking the Wellington suburb of Island Bay and
the Central Business District (CBD).
This report documents the development of a preferred cycleway facility. The feasibility of the
project is closely linked to its ability to attract government funding from the New Zealand
Transport Agency (NZTA). For such reasons the options have been assessed against NZTA’s
funding criteria. NZTA seek to support walking and cycling proposals that align with the
Government funding priorities set out in the Government Policy Statement (GPS). NZTA will
therefore prioritise funding towards cycling schemes that:
•   Provide an option for travelling to work in large urban congested cities;
•   Attract new commuter cyclists; and / or
•   Improve the safety of existing cyclists.
This study has demonstrated that the creation of a cycleway linking Island Bay and Wellington
CBD would have a “High” strategic fit with these objectives. In order to provide a facility that is
highly effective in achieving these objectives, options have been developed and assessed against
their ability to attract new and maintain existing commuter cyclists. New and existing cyclists have
varying priorities expected from a cycleway. In carrying out this study, research obtained by the
project team1 has identified that the best way to effectively cater for both cycle user groups within
the context of Wellington’s road network is to provide a facility that feels safe, is flat and direct.
Option Development
The study team broke down the corridor into three sections. The existing physical characteristics
and constraints for cycling in each section were identified. Given the constraints and the desires of
the two cycle user groups a series of alternative treatment and route options were then developed.
The options looked to address existing barriers to cycling as a commuter mode in the corridor.
Treatment options considered on the routes developed included traffic calming, on-road cycle
lanes, shared use paths and Copenhagen lanes2. Examples of on-road cycle lanes and shared-paths
are shown in Figure ES1. The routes considered in the three sections are shown in Figure ES2.

         Figure ES1: Examples of On-road Cycle Facility (left) & Shared Use Cycle Path (Right)3

1 J.Beetham,(2013), School of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Victoria University of Wellington.
2 Copenhagen lanes are segregated cycle lanes separated from vehicle and pedestrian traffic by raised kerbs.
3 Source: New Zealand Supplement to the Austroads guide to Traffic Engineering Practice Part 14: Bicycles, page iii.

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                                                                                                       Tory St
                                            Hanson St

                                           Adelaide Rd
                                                                                                                 Cambridge /
                                                                                                                 Kent Tce

                                                                                           Tasman St

                           The Parade

                                                                                                                  Adelaide Rd

              Reef St

                   Figure ES2: Routes considered on Section 1 (left), Section 2 (Centre) & Section 3 (Right)

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Option Assessment

Based on the flatness, directness and safety criteria specified, an assessment of the route and
treatment options proposed was completed. The project team concluded that the following
components as shown in Table ES1 should make up the preferred “Combination Option” as they
are able to achieve a “High” rating against NZTA’s effectiveness criteria. An on-road treatment was
recommended due to low costs and because it had the least effect on parking, property and
adjacent land-use activities.
Table ES1: Preferred “Combination Option” Summary
 Name            Section                                Description
                 Reef Street and The Parade up until    Enhance and extend existing cycle lanes so
                 the Adelaide Road / Dee Street         continuous facility provided in each direction
                 Roundabout                             through the full length of the section.
 Option 1-A
                                                        Possibility of revisions to on-street parking
                                                        arrangements at Island Bay shops to maintain a
                                                        continuous cycle facility.
                                                        Provide on-road cycle lanes in each direction
                 Follows Adelaide Road from Dee         requiring the loss of on-street parking.
 Option 2-A
                 Street through to John Street.         Improvements to intersections with safety features
                                                        such as advanced cycle stop boxes provided.
                 Uses Adelaide Road and Kent /          Cater for cyclists in existing bus lanes in each
 Option 3-A
                 Cambridge Terrace to reach the CBD     direction.
                                                        Quiet-Street route for new / unconfident cyclists
                                                        provided by cycle directional signing, low-
                 Follows Stoke Street and Hanson        intervention traffic calming (e.g. measures to visually
 Option 2-D
                 Street.                                narrow the roads) and treatments to highlight the
                                                        presence of cyclists between Stoke Street and
                                                        Hanson Street;
                                                        Quiet-Street route for new / unconfident cyclists
                                                        continuation of Option 2-D measures on Tasman
                 Uses Tasman Street and Tory Street     Street until Rugby Street. North of Rugby Street,
 Option 3-C
                 to reach the CBD                       road space should be re-allocated to provide a
                                                        southbound cycle lane on the eastern side of Tory
                                                        and Tasman Streets.
 Expected Cost for Preferred Option: $4.50 Million

An economic efficiency assessment was then completed. The number of current and anticipated
users was forecast. 439 existing cyclists on the route are projected. Following completion of the
cycleway 400 new users are forecast. By considering Health, Safety and Travel Time benefits the
economic efficiency of the proposal was determined to be 3.7. The option can be considered to have
a “Medium” Economic Efficiency Rating. Based on these results it is proposed that the scheme
receives the following NZTA funding assessment profile as shown in the Table ES2 below.
Table ES2: Activity Profile
    Category                     Rating
 Strategic Fit        High
 Effectiveness        High
 Efficiency           Medium
 Rating               HHM Category 2

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Conclusions
This study has developed an improvement scheme that will cater to the needs of both new and
existing cyclists. The cycling corridor has a high strategic fit with the Government’s policy
objectives. The study has investigated a wide range of alternatives and recommended a scheme that
will achieve the policy outcomes effectively attaining value for money. With the efficiency of the
scheme confirmed as being able to generate a BCR of 3.7 a funding profile rating of 2 should be
assigned. Given these findings it is recommended that the project is continued to the next stage of
development where the following activities should occur:
•   Develop detailed designs and identify the preferred “Combination Option”;
•   Consultation with affected stakeholders; and
•   Refinement of the cost estimates.

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1       Introduction
1.1     Overview
        Opus International Consultants (Opus) has been commissioned by Wellington City Council
        (WCC) to complete a cycleway feasibility study for a corridor linking the Wellington suburb
        of Island Bay and the Central Business District (CBD).

        This report documents the development of a preferred route and cycleway facility (the
        scheme). The feasibility of the scheme is closely linked to its ability to attract government
        funding from the New Zealand Transport Agency (NZTA). For such reasons the scheme has
        been assessed against NZTA’s funding criteria. This approach will allow WCC to prioritise
        the implementation of different cycleway projects and have sufficient information to
        prepare a funding application.

1.2     Study Scope
        The scope of this study is to develop and determine whether the scheme is feasible on the
        6.1km section between Island Bay and the CBD as defined in Figure 1 (overleaf). The
        scheme will allow for improved cycle travel either through or around some of the most
        congested parts of Wellington City. The study area is a highly utilised commuter corridor. It
        connects Wellington’s southern suburbs to the CBD, passing through or nearby a number of
        local shopping precincts and key institutions such as Wellington Hospital and Massey
        University. A high demand for travel is exhibited through the study area. To ensure that the
        best cycle route and facility possible can be provided, the study scope of works has included:

        •    Determining the alignment of the study with national, regional and local policy;
        •    A review of NZTA’s “Assessment Framework” to define the essential funding
             requirements the study must comply with;
         •   Setting the cycleway scheme objectives given the policy and funding needs;
         •   Assessment of the study area characteristics;
         •   Development of various routes, treatment options & their assessment;
         •   Forecasting new users attracted to the scheme; and
         •   Assessment of the scheme against NZTA’s funding “Assessment Framework”.

        The study has been completed on the assumption that both the Memorial Park Underpass
        situated at Buckle Street and the Basin Reserve Overbridge will be constructed in the near
        future. Development of the Adelaide Road growth node between the Basin Reserve and
        John Street is not yet confirmed but has been considered as part of the study.

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             Study Area

                          Figure 1: Overview of Study Area Considered

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2        Strategic Policy Context
2.1      National Policy & Plans
         The Land Transport Management Act 2003 (the Act) is the main statute for New Zealand’s
         land transport planning and funding system. The purpose of the Act is to contribute to
         achieving an affordable, integrated, safe, responsive and sustainable land transport system.

         The Act requires that a Government Policy Statement (GPS) be issued by the Minister of
         Transport every three years. This enables the Minister to guide NZTA and the land
         transport sector on the outcomes, objectives, and the short to medium-term impacts that
         the crown wishes to achieve. Longer term government objectives are addressed in the New
         Zealand Transport Strategy 2008 (NZTS). While not a statutory document, the NZTS sets
         out a series of aspirational targets for land transport in 2040. As the NZTS was developed
         by the previous government and prior to the global financial crisis, the GPS is currently the
         primary document for land transport decision makers. However, the Act requires NZTA to
         at a minimum assess all projects against the GPS and the five NZTS objectives:

         •   Assisting economic development;
         •   Assisting safety and personal security;
         •   Improving access and mobility;
         •   Protect and promote public health; and
         •   Ensure environmental sustainability

         Providing a project that aligns well with the above objectives and those listed by the current
         GPS is a fundamental requirement of any funding application. Alignment of the Island Bay
         to CBD cycleway against these national policy documents is described in the remainder of
         Chapter 2.1.

2.1.1        Land Transport Management Act Objectives

             •   Assisting economic development

             A new cycleway between Island Bay and the CBD has the potential to make the CBD and
             the employment opportunities located within it more accessible for both the financially
             disadvantaged and those without private vehicles.

             •   Assist safety and personal security

             A new cycleway has the potential to enhance cycle safety along the 6.1 km study
             corridor. On-road facilities typically see a reduction of between 10-20% in the number
             of cycle related injury crashes4. If completely separated facilities are provided the cycle
             safety benefits that can be captured will be even higher.

             •   Improve access and mobility

             The cycleway will not enhance access and mobility for freight. However, it could
             improve access to schools and educational establishments such as Massey University.

4   NZTA’ Economic Evaluation Manual Chapter A6

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             •   Protect and promote public health

             The cycleway has the potential to protect and promote public health by providing a
             facility which will encourage active mode travel. Cycling has a number of health benefits
             generated by the undertaking of physical activity. These benefits would be realised by
             the new cyclists attracted to the facility.

             •   Ensure environmental sustainability

             The installation of a cycleway has the ability to encourage people to cycle rather than
             travel by vehicle. A reduction in vehicle trips will improve congestion and energy
             efficiencies from stop/start movements characteristic of the study corridor during peak
             travel times. Through reductions in fuel consumption travel through the corridor may
             become more sustainable.

2.1.2        Government Policy Statement (GPS)

             The Government Policy Statement on Land Transport Funding 2012/13 – 2021/22 (July
             2011) presents the Government’s desired outcomes and funding priorities for the
             National Land Transport Fund (NLTF). At present economic growth and productivity is
             a key priority for the Government. For this reason the GPS lists three areas of focus:

             •   Economic growth and productivity;
             •   Value for money; and
             •   Road safety.

             In achieving these focus areas the impacts listed in Figure 2 should be met through the
             allocation of funding from the NLTF. In accordance with the reasons detailed in Chapter
             2.1.1, allocating funding for the cycleway will address the majority of the short to
             medium term impacts the Government wishes to achieve from its funding priorities.

                        Figure 2: Short to Medium-Term Impacts (GPS July 2011, Page 7)

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2.1.3        Safer Journeys – New Zealand’s Road Safety Strategy 2010-2020

             “Safer Journeys” is the National strategy to guide improvements in road safety over the
             period 2010-2020. It contains the long-term goal for road safety in New Zealand of
             achieving “A safe road system increasingly free of death and serious injury”. One
             priority area of road safety is for “safe walking and cycling” journeys. The Island Bay to
             CBD cycleway can align with the Strategy by:

             “Providing safe and convenient routes for pedestrians and cyclists, especially to and
             from work and school” (Safer Journeys, Page 39).

2.2 Regional Policy
2.2.1        Wellington Regional Land Transport Strategy (September 2010)

             The Wellington Regional Land Transport Strategy 2010 (RLTS) guides the development
             of the regions transport system (including public transport, roads, walking, cycling and
             freight) for the next ten years and beyond. It provides an overall context for investment.
             The RLTS identifies a number of key outcomes which the region seeks to achieve. A
             series of targets and actions have subsequently been developed for all the RLTS
             outcomes. Those outcomes and key actions relevant to the study are shown in Table 1.

             Table 1: RLTS Outcomes, Targets & Actions aligning with the Island Bay to CBD Cycleway

                   RLTS Outcome                   2020 Strategic Target                          Key Actions

              (2.1) Increased mode share    •   Increase active mode use to at       •     Improve walking and cycling
              for pedestrians & cyclists        least 30% of all trips in urban            facilities;
                                                areas;
                                                                                     •     Advocate for higher priority
                                            •   Active modes account for at least          of pedestrian and cyclist road
                                                16% of region wide journey to              safety funding.
                                                work trips.

              (2.2) Improved level of       •   70% of people report a “good” or     •     Provide quality footpaths and
              service for pedestrians and       “neither good nor bad” level of            cyclist facilities
              cyclists                          service for the strategic cycle
                                                network

              (2.3) Increased safety for    •   A reduction in the number of         •     Improve cycling networks
              pedestrians & cyclists            cyclist casualties to no more than
                                                110 per annum.                       •     Advocate for adequate
                                                                                           government funding.

              (3.1-3) Reduced               •   Transport generated CO2              •     Improve & promote mode
              greenhouse gas emissions;         emissions will be maintained               shift to public transport,
              private car mode share &          below year 2001 levels.                    walking and cycling.
              fuel consumption

              (4.1) Reduced severe road     •   Average congestion on selected       •     Advocate for mode shift.
              congestion                        roads well remain below 2003
                                                levels despite traffic growth.

              (5.1) Improved regional       •   There are no crashes attributable    •     Improve walking and cycling
              road safety                       to roading network deficiencies;           safety.
                                                Continuous reduction in the
                                                number of killed and seriously
                                                injured on the regions roads.

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2.2.2        Wellington Regional Cycling Plan (December 2008)

             The Regional Cycling Plan (2008) responds to the issues and policy framework set out
             in the RLTS. It sets out an action programme with a series of high level initiatives
             developed to contribute towards the RLTS outcomes, targets and actions detailed in
             Section 2.2.1. This includes reviewing, addressing any identified deficiencies and
             expanding the cycle network in accordance recognised best practice guidelines by
             considering:

             •     Road space allocation;
             •     Surface quality and maintenance;
             •     Route directness and connectivity;
             •     Signage and information;
             •     Vehicle traffic speeds and parking restrictions;
             •     Crash and risk statistics;
             •     Cycle parking and storage facilities;
             •     Cycle priority measures;
             •     Segregated cycle facilities on high speed/high volume routes; and
             •     Integration with public transport systems.

             The Island Bay to CBD cycleway can align with the Regional Cycling Plan by considering
             the above issues in its design and development. This will assist in the cycleway achieving
             the recognised RLTS outcomes.

2.2.3        WCC Transport Strategy 2006

             The WCC Transport Strategy provides the ten year direction and strategic vision for
             transport activities in Wellington City. Table 2 lists long term outcomes relevant to the
             Island Bay to CBD cycleway project. The Cycleway project could positively contribute
             towards the realisation of these key outcomes by providing a facility that will encourage
             mode shift away from private vehicle use.

             Table 2: WCC Outcomes aligning with the Island Bay to CBD Cycleway

                                 WCC Outcome                          Outcome Alignment with Cycleway Project

                 2.3 More Sustainable: Wellington will minimise       •   Increasing the use of low-energy transport
                 the environmental effects of transport and support       options
                 the environmental strategy;

                 2.4(a) Better connected: Wellington will have a      •   A well connected system of local roads and
                 highly interconnected public transport, road and         streets, footpaths and cycleways.
                 street system that supports its urban development
                 and social strategies;

                 2.4(b) Healthier: Wellingtons Transport system       •   Promoting walking and cycling and reduced
                 will contribute to healthy communities and social        dependence on motor vehicles for short trips
                 interaction                                              through the travel demand management
                                                                          programme.

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2.2.4        WCC Cycling Policy 2008

             The “WCC Cycling Policy 2008” is a component of the overall transport plan set out in
             the “Transport Strategy 2006”. The Cycling Policy “creates a framework for the
             development of infrastructure and measures to improve the safety and convenience of
             cycling and cycling facilities”. The Policy is built on six specified objectives:

             •   To improve cycle safety throughout Wellington;
             •   To improve the convenience of cycling in Wellington;
             •   To improve the experience of cycle trips to and from the Central Area;
             •   To improve the experience of cycle trips to and from Suburban Centres;
             •   To improve the experience of cycle trips to and from educational centres; and
             •   To improve the experience of cycle trips for recreation.

             The proposed Island Bay to CBD cycleway is well aligned with these objectives and the
             overarching Transport Strategy it supplements.

2.2.5        WCC Adelaide Road Framework 2008

             The cycleway also helps achieve the vision outlined in the “Adelaide Road Framework
             2008”. Having a designated facility for cyclists within the vicinity of Adelaide Road will:

             •   Make Adelaide Road safer for cyclists and more cycle friendly;
             •   Better connected for people to access areas of work and living; and
             •   Result in reduced mode conflicts.

2.3 Policy Conclusions
        The concept of the Island Bay to CBD cycleway project has been assessed against national,
        regional and local strategic policy. Clearly the project demonstrates the potential to
        correlate strongly with the desires and aspirations of all levels of governance. A number of
        common themes have been identified across these policies, highlighting the need for the
        cycleway to:

         •   Ease congestion between Island bay and the CBD which will help to reduce vehicle
             emissions;
         •   Reduce death and serious injury through the provision of new or improved cycle
             facilities;
         •   Make it easier for residents along the study corridor to access employment
             opportunities and retail areas, particularly people that may be unable to afford to travel
             by car or by bus.
         •   Make better use of existing transport capacity available on the city road network;
         •   Remove barriers to cycling that will increase the amount of choice in ways to travel and
             propensity for change. This may be through the removal of perceived discomfort or
             danger;
         •   Reduce reliance on one form of transport to improve the resilience of the wider
             transport network; and
         •   Encourage more regular cycling to improve public health.

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3        NZTA Assessment Framework
         Under the Act, NZTA is responsible for allocating funds from the NLTF for investment
         activities set by the Government. Territorial Authorities such as WCC can gain funding from
         the NLTF if they successfully demonstrate to NZTA that a project can achieve value for
         money. Value for money is generally defined as a means of selecting the right things to do
         (Strategic Fit), implementing them in the right way (Effectiveness), at the right time and for
         the right price (Economic Efficiency)5.

         To demonstrate value for money a project must be assessed against NZTA’s funding
         Assessment Framework. The Assessment Framework uses a ranking system of “High”,
         “Medium” or “Low” against the Strategic Fit, Effectiveness and Economic Efficiency criteria
         which are defined as follows:

         •   Strategic Fit

             A strategic fit assessment considers how an identified problem, issue or opportunity
             aligns with the NZTA’s strategic investment direction without considering the possible
             solution. The investment direction is derived from the GPS. Strategic fit assessments
             and the criteria within them are specific to “activity classes”. Walking and cycling is
             considered to be a single “activity class”. This ensures uniformity in the comparison
             between different walking and cycling projects. It should be noted that for walking and
             cycling projects, a “High” Strategic Fit can be gained if the project aligns with one or
             more of the defined “High” rating targets.

         •   Effectiveness

             The effectiveness assessment considers the contribution that a project makes to achieve
             the potential identified in the strategic fit assessment. Higher ratings are given to
             projects providing long-term, integrated and enduring benefits.

         •   Economic Efficiency

             The economic efficiency assessment considers how well the proposed solution
             maximises the value of what is produced from the resources used. The Benefit Cost
             Ratio (BCR) is the primary mechanism used to rate the economic efficiency of a project.

          Table 3 overleaf provides a summary of the Assessment Framework for a walking and
          cycling project. Therefore in order to successfully demonstrate that the Island Bay to CBD
          Cycleway provides value for money, the study must:

         •   Achieve a “High” Strategic Fit rating by either significantly reducing actual crash risk, be
             part of a model walking / cycling community, or by reducing congestion on a key route
             in a major urban area;
         •   Achieve a “High” Effectiveness rating by at a minimum showing that the project can be
             significantly effective at achieving the Strategic Fit.
         •   Achieve a “High” efficiency rating by having four times as many transport benefits as
             there are costs.
5   http://www.pikb.co.nz/assessment-framework/assessment-framework-overview/

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Table 3: Funding Assessment Framework for New Walking & Cycling Projects
                                        Low Rating               Medium Rating                        High Rating
Strategic Fit
•   Reduce actual crash risk                                 Reduction in predicted crash      Reduction in actual crash
                                                              risk involving deaths and        risk (5 fatal/serious over
                                                              serious injuries - comply       last 5 year) – Comply with
                                                             with Safer Journeys strategy       Safer Journeys strategy
•   Increase cycle participation                                                                  Be Part of a Model
                                                              Improve uptake of cycling
                                                                                                    Walking/Cycling
                                           Default            and walking in main urban
                                                                                                Community to make it
                                                                        areas
                                                                                                    easier and safer.
•   Reduce congestion                                          Complete/ complement            On a key route in Major
                                                              existing walking an cycling        urban area on agreed
                                                                  network for easing              walking and cycling
                                                                      congestion              strategy strategic network
Effectiveness
•   Impact from strategic fit         Has an impact and
    assessment                       proportional to scale      Significantly effective            Significantly effective
                                          of project
•   Reach agreed LOS (NLTP)                                              Satisfied
•   Consider all problems, issues
                                                                        Considered
    and opportunities
•   Consider all alternatives                                           Considered
•   Consider Opportunities to                                                                    Collaboration of the
    collaborate                                          Considered                            development of studies,
                                                                                                 strategies and plans
•   Consider adverse effects                                            Considered
•   Affordable                                                           Satisfied
•   Avoid job duplication                                                Satisfied
•   Include monitoring and review
                                                                         Satisfied
    framework
•   NZTA supported strategy,
    endorsed package, programme                              Part of or will contribute to           Key component
    or plan
•   Long term solution                                                       Provide enduring benefits
•   Solution to land use strategy
                                                                                       Satisfied
    and implementation plans
•   Contribute to multiple GPS                                                                     Strategic approach to
    impacts                                                           Contributes                     make significant
                                                                                                        contribution
•   A whole network approach                                                                              Satisfied
•   Improve integration between
                                                                                                         Satisfied
    modes
•   Integrates land transport, use                                                            Satisfied through strategic
    and activity                                                                                       approach
•   Supports network from a
                                                                                                         Satisfied
    national perspective
•   Optimised against multiple
    transportation outcomes and                                                                          Satisfied
    objectives
Efficiency
•   BCR                                     1.0-2.0                     2.0-4.0                             4.0+

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4       Cycleway Scheme Objectives
        The study corridor is one of Wellington’s key urban routes connecting the southern suburbs
        with employment opportunities in the CBD. The daily demand for travel along the corridor
        is highest during the morning and evening peak hours as shown in Figure 3. At these times
        people commute to and from work respectively, contributing towards congestion on the
        road network. Providing a cycleway facility that encourages commuter mode shift will assist
        in the reduction of this congestion. Adopting commuter cyclists as the primary user group
        increases the potential to realise a number of important benefits aligning with current
        strategic policy including:

        •    Reduction of congestion and its environmental effects during peak travel periods;
        •    Enhanced cycle safety;
        •    Building on Wellington’s existing cycle network; and
        •    Providing increased health benefits for new users.

        The cycleway scheme objectives are therefore:

        •    To reduce congestion through the study corridor by encouraging commuter mode shift
             from private vehicles to cycling;
        •    To significantly improve cycle safety and reduce the number of fatal and serious injury
             crashes in the study corridor; and
        •    To provide a facility that meets the “High” ratings under NZTA’s Assessment
             Framework making the project more likely to attract further funding.

         Figure 3: Congestion typically observed down Adelaide Road (Looking South towards Newtown)

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5       Corridor Description
         The study area corridor extends 6.1km between The Esplanade, Island Bay and Wellington
         Waterfront in the CBD. The corridor has a number of physical and geographical
         characteristics with implications for the choice of a cycleway route. For simplicity the
         corridor has been broken down into the following three sections as shown in Figure 6:

        •    Section 1 – The Esplanade to Dee Street / The Parade Roundabout
        •    Section 2 – Dee Street / The Parade Roundabout through to John Street
        •    Section 3 – John Street through to Wellington Harbour

        The remainder of this Chapter provides context to the corridor sections and describes the
        opportunities and challenges a cycleway may present.

5.1     Topography
         The study area corridor is situated at the bottom of a steep valley between the Brooklyn Rise
         (West) and Mount Victoria (East). A typical cross section of the valley is shown in Figure 4.
         The cross-section was taken where Adelaide Road and The Parade intersect at Dee Street.

             Brooklyn Rise                                                                     Mt Victoria

             W                                                                                                E

                                        Figure 4: Cross-Section of Study Corridor
         While the study corridor is situated in a valley, the topography and grade of the route is not
         constant. An elevated plan of Adelaide Road from Island Bay through to the Basin Reserve
         is shown in Figure 5. The route requires a number of climbs to travel from the shoreline in
         either direction of travel (at 5m above sea level) to a maximum elevation, 65m above sea
         level at MacAlister Park.

             S                                                                                                N

                                           Figure 5: Study Corridor Elevation

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5.2 Land-use
        Development within the corridor broadly follows the valley floor described in Chapter 5.1.
        Following the valley floor, Adelaide Road is the main arterial road linking Island Bay and
        the CBD. From Island Bay through to Newtown, Adelaide Road traverses an area of low
        density residential housing. As shown in Figure 6 clusters of retail shopping areas are also
        located at Island Bay, Berhampore and Newtown. North from Newtown towards the
        Adelaide Road growth node and the CBD development in the corridor is increasingly
        commercial with higher density apartment dwellings. Additionally the cycleway would be
        situated within close proximity to Wellington Hospital, many schools and Massey
        University. The cycleway would therefore provide an important connection for active mode
        travel between the southern residential suburbs, employment opportunities to the north,
        educational facilities and health services.

         Although existing land-use activities provide an important snap-shot of how a cycleway
         could benefit the community at the present time, considering the future is essential to
         determine if the cycleway will support future growth initiatives and aspirations.

         The Wellington Transport Strategy Model (WTSM) operated by the Greater Wellington
         Regional Council (GWRC) enables future transport demands to be forecast. The forecasts
         are based on data from Statistics New Zealand and demographic trends from previous
         Census’. Figure 7 shows the forecast changes to population and employment that are used
         as the basis for WTSM travel demand forecasts. These are utilised for all the transport
         projects in the region including the components of the Road of National Significance.

         It can clearly be seen that the population is forecast to increase along the corridor and that
         the growth will be most intense around Newtown and in the CBD. Employment growth is
         also concentrated around Newtown and the CBD with a pocket of high growth at the
         “Adelaide Road growth node”. With an increase in employment opportunities in these
         areas the demand for travel in the corridor will also increase. The cycleway will therefore
         play an important role in servicing active mode travel in the north-south direction.

         Based on the current land-use activities and the projected WTSM outputs it can be
         concluded that the cycleway will increase connectivity for existing cycle demand. The
         cycleway is also in a location capable of servicing future year requirements as population
         and employment growth changes are influenced by future land-use patterns.

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        Central Business District

             Adelaide Road Growth Node

                                                               Section 3

                                                 Section 2

             Newtown Shops

                                                                                Wellington Hospital

             Berhampore Shops

                                     Section 2

                                    Section 1

                                                             Island Bay Shops

                                      Figure 6: Key land-use features of the study area

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                           Figure 7: Forecast Population Growth (Left) and Employment Growth (Right)

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Wellington Cycleway Feasibility Study- Island Bay to CBD                            19

5.3 Road Network
          The road network through the study corridor contains a mixture of arterial, principal,
          collector and local roads. Key arterial and principal roads are typically straight, very wide,
          low in gradient and appropriate for high volume traffic flows. The roads generally have good
          forward visibility and controlled intersections along them. Conversely the quieter, local
          roads are windy, narrow, low volume and have poor visibility. The local roads do however
          provide a greater access to property. The general principle for a roading hierarchy and their
          effect on access and mobility is shown in Figure 8.

                               Figure 8: Basic Principal of a Road Hierarchy6

          The road network hierarchy for Wellington City in the study corridor and a summary of the
          Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT) traffic volumes sourced from NZTA’s Crash Analysis
          System (CAS) is shown in Figure 9. There is strong correlation between the roading
          hierarchy and the traffic volumes observed. Heavy traffic volumes of over 20,000 vehicles
          per day are seen at the northern end of the corridor on the designated SH1 and arterial
          roads. However, Taranaki Street and Adelaide Road (south of the Basin Reserve) carry
          similar levels of traffic despite being only collector and principal roads respectively. Historic
          development of Wellington’s road network and the significant growth that has occurred
          around it has limited the potential for transport capacity changes. Therefore the desirable
          road layout cannot always be provided to cater for the high traffic volumes. Unsurprisingly
          congestion is a feature through the corridor south of the Basin Reserve.

6   Image from Austroads Guide to Traffic Management Part 5: Road Management; Page 5.

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                                               Basin Reserve                                                       Basin Reserve

                                                                                 Taranaki St

                 Taranaki St

                                                                                 Adelaide Rd

                Adelaide Rd

                                      The Parade
                                                                                                          The Parade

             Figure 9: Modified Version of “Hierarchy of Roads”, Map 33 WCC District Plan (Left) & the Study Corridor AADT’s (Right)

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        In addition to traffic volumes, the gradient of the roads through the study corridor is also an
        important consideration for the cycleway. The respective gradients per 50m road section
        can be seen in Figure 10. The road gradient has been calculated using LIDAR using a geo-
        spatial system. Generally it can be seen through the corridor that the arterial roads for the
        most maintain a low gradient while local roads can be at between 5-15%. The remaining
        contents of Chapter 5.3 specify the characteristics of the study corridor sections in detail.

                               Figure 10: Gradient of the WCC Road Network

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5.3.1        Section 1

             The Parade is the main link into and out of Island Bay. Defined as a principal road in the
             WCC District Plan, The Parade has an AADT of over 10,000 vehicles per day north of
             Medway Street. The road is wide and relatively flat until the Dee Street roundabout
             where it becomes Adelaide Road. Surrounding The Parade is a series of parallel
             residential streets including Derwent Street, Medway Street, Eden Street (West of The
             Parade) and Clyde Street (East of The Parade). With AADT’s under 3,000 vehicles per
             day the parallel routes cater for low volume residential traffic. A summary of the road
             characteristics for these roads and their location is shown in Table 4 and Figure 11
             respectively. Note that the road widths are from kerb to kerb (from RAMM) and have
             not been surveyed as part of this study.

             Table 4: Roads of Interest on Corridor Section 1
                                                                         Typical                        On-Street          Max
                  Road             Hierarchy           AADT*                               Lanes
                                                                       Road Width                        parking         Gradient
                Reef Street        Local Road            2,182            16m                 2            Yes
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility Study- Island Bay to CBD                                        23

5.3.2        Section 2

             From the Dee Street roundabout, Adelaide Road traverses the entirety of Section 2 from
             Island Bay through to the Adelaide Road / John Street / Riddiford Street intersection.
             Running parallel to Adelaide Road are local roads including Stanley Street, and Hanson
             Street to the west. To the east of Adelaide Road are Rintoul Street and the Principal road
             Riddiford Street. Riddiford Street passes Wellington Hospital and is the primary
             corridor from the CBD to Newtown. Characteristics of these roads and their location are
             shown in Table 5 and Figure 12 respectively. Roads are again taken from kerb to kerb.

             Table 5: Roads of Interest on Corridor Section 2
                                                                       Typical                           On-street       Max
                   Road             Hierarchy          AADT                               Lanes
                                                                      Road width                          parking      Gradient
                 Adelaide Road        Principal         11,576          8.5-10m              2            In Places     10-15%
                  Stanley Street     Local Road         1,027           7.5-9.5m            1-2                Yes       10-15%
                    Stoke Street     Local Road         1,127           8.5-10m              2                 Yes
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility Study- Island Bay to CBD                          24

5.3.3        Section 3

             In Section 3 there are a number of high volume links connecting the main Adelaide
             Road Corridor to the south and the CBD to the north. As shown in Figure 13 Adelaide
             Road continues from the John Street signalised intersection before it reaches SH1 at the
             southern side of the Basin Reserve (Rugby Street). Following the Basin Reserve, the key
             arterials Kent and Cambridge Terrace provide access to and from the coast respectively.
             Cambridge Terrace has three lanes of vehicle capacity in the northbound direction to
             cater for over 10,000 vehicles per day. Kent Terrace provides three lanes of southbound
             capacity and is designated as SH1 (south of the Vivian Street intersection). Kent Terrace
             typically sees over 20,000 vehicles daily. Adelaide Road, Kent and Cambridge Terrace
             are situated on a relatively flat grade. Roads are again taken from kerb to kerb.

                                  Section 3

                                                                     Section 2

                        Figure 13: Location of key Road links within Section 3 of Study Corridor

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             Defined as a Collector Road, Taranaki Street / Wallace Street to the West of the
             Adelaide Road corridor sees in excess of 20,000 vehicles per day. Taranaki Street is one
             of the primary vehicle corridors into the CBD. It has multiple lanes of capacity in each
             direction to the north of SH1. South of SH1 there is one lane in each direction as it
             passes Wellington High School and Massey University. Some grades up to 10% can be
             experienced before it ties into John Street.

             In addition to these high capacity and heavily utilised links, the local road Tasman /
             Tory Street provides a two-way, single lane in each direction between John Street, SH1
             and the waterfront. Tasman Street begins at John Street and terminates at SH1. Tory
             Street begins at SH1 and proceeds through the CBD to the waterfront. Tasman Street
             covers a residential area and allows access to Massey University. Situated on a hill, it
             has one short section with a steep grade up to 10% near John Street. Tory Street is one
             of the central corridors through the CBD. However, as it has only one lane of capacity in
             each direction, traffic is instead attracted to the high capacity routes of Taranaki Street
             or Cambridge / Kent Terrace. There is a high proportion of foot traffic using Tory Street.
             The key characteristics for each of the roads described are shown in Table 6.

             Table 6: Roads of Interest on Corridor Section 2
                                                                           Typical                On-street         Max
                     Road                 Hierarchy          AADT                      Lanes
                                                                          Road width               parking        Gradient
                     Adelaide Road         Principal         22,905          15.5m     2-4**       In Places
Wellington Cycleway Feasibility Study- Island Bay to CBD                         26

             Table 7: Two-hour peak totals recorded each survey period at Newtown Site (07:00-09:00)
                                                                                            Weekday
                Year     Monday      Tuesday     Wednesday       Thursday      Friday
                                                                                            Average
                2003       130         136           179            131          131           141
                2004       160         155           101           138             132             137
                2005       157         184           175           123             101             148
                2006       200         206          208            197             169             196
                2007       267         278          284            269             283             276
                2008       231         252          254            217             239             239
                2009       247         312          274            295             220             270
                2010       321         352          334            322             206             307
                2011       243         286          283            296             249             271
                2012       150         285          299            310             223             253

               Figure 14: WCC Cycle-Counts 2003-2012 at Adelaide Road / John Street Intersection

             The annual growth calculated is significantly higher than the 0% stated for the
             Wellington Region in NZTA’s Economics Evaluation Manual (EEM Volume 2, page 8-
             21). Therefore it can be said that there is an increasing demand for cycle activity in the
             study corridor. The cycleway project will contribute as a means of providing a
             designated facility to meet this and additional demand both now and in the future.

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5.5     Crash History
         A high level crash analysis was completed for the study corridor using data sourced from
         NZTA’s CAS. A five year analysis period between the 1st of July 2007 and 30th of June 2012
         has been adopted. The analysis period uses the most up-to date data set currently available
         allowing current crash trends and issues to be identified. Most crash benefits associated
         with the cycleway project will come from improvements to cycle safety. Therefore only
         crashes involving cyclists have been considered in this analysis. Any crash in the selected
         study area not involving a cyclist has been removed from consideration. Detailed crash
         outputs, reporting and key assumptions from the CAS analysis is provided in Appendix A.
         The remainder of this chapter summarises the key trends identified on the road corridors
         considered critical for the study. Figure 15 shows the distribution of the crashes by Section.

                                                                    Section 3

                                                                  Section 2

                                                             Section 1

                              Figure 15: Cycle Crash Location in Study Area

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