Live Local Plant Local

Live Local Plant Local

Live Local Plant Local

Live Local Plant Local

Live Local Plant Local

Nillumbik’s natural vegetation Nillumbik’s natural vegetation Indigenous plants are native plants that occur naturally in a local area. Over 677 different species of indigenous plants have been recorded within the Shire of Nillumbik. These range from small delicate ground covers to an assortment of wildflowers, grasses, sedges, trees and shrubs. Many of these plants are now listed as either rare or endangered under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988. The Shire of Nillumbik is widely recognised for its significant natural environmental areas.

Its rich and varied flora has evolved to suit the local environment. Therefore, indigenous plants are well adapted to the soils, topography and climate of the local area. Planting and conserving indigenous species also helps to maintain the overall ecological balance of the local ecosystem. Plants and animals depend upon one another in an often complicated interrelationship. The loss of particular plants or animals from an area can result in the loss of other organisms that are dependent upon them.

For example: the Eltham Copper Butterfly relies on the indigenous plant Bursaria spinosa (Sweet Bursaria) and a species of native ant to complete its life cycle. Due to the decline in the population of this plant the Eltham Copper Butterfly is now a vulnerable species. Using indigenous plants in your garden Many of Nillumbik’s local indigenous plant species make ideal garden plants as they often require little or no maintenance, have low water requirements and can provide habitat for many of the native animals that inhabit the local area. Dense prickly shrubs and mature trees, such as Acacia verticillata (Prickly Moses) and Eucalyptus melliodora (Yellow Box), provide homes for a large range of insect, bird and mammal species.

Indigenous plants also provide spectacular displays of showy flowers throughout the year. If you plan your garden carefully and select a wide variety of species, you can create a mass of brilliant colours throughout each of the seasons. 1 live local plant local A snapshot of Nillumbik’s natural landscape Contents Nillumbik’s natural vegetation . . 1 Using indigenous plants in your garden . . 1 Creating your indigenous garden . . 2 Different plants for different situations . . 5 Fire and the environment . . 8 Pest plants . . 8 Where can I buy indigenous plants . . 9 Further reading . . 10 Acknowledgement: Thanks to Pat Coupar for supplying many of the photographs in this publication.

page 17 Pelargonium australe - © M Fagg, Australian National Botanic Gardens page 27 Callistemon sieberi - K Thaler © Australian National Botanic Gardens page 31 Gynatrix pulchella - © M Fagg, Australian National Botanic Gardens page 31 Hakea sericea - D Greig © Australian National Botanic Gardens page 33 Leptospermum horizontalis - © M Fagg, Australian National Botanic Gardens page 34 Melaleuca ericifolia - M Fagg © Australian National Botanic Gardens Indigenous plant list - Creepers and Climbers . . 11 - Herbs and Groundcovers . . 13 - Lilies . . 19 - Grasses . . 21 - Rushes and Sedges .

. 23 - Shrubs . . 24 - Trees . . 38 Pest plant list . . 45 live local plant local

Creating your indigenous garden Creating your indigenous garden It is important when using indigenous plants to select those that occur naturally within the Shire (plants that are of local provenance). Many nurseries carry species of indigenous plants that are not grown from locally collected seeds or cuttings. These plants may actually endanger the local genetic stock through interbreeding. When purchasing indigenous plants always make sure you ask where the seed or cutting material was collected – if it’s not from the Nillumbik area, don’t buy it. Creating your indigenous garden Planning and good site preparation is the key to a successful planting.

It is important to firstly consider if you really need to plant an indigenous plant in your garden. If pockets of remnant indigenous vegetation already exist you may be able to recruit new plants through natural regeneration. By allowing existing herbs, grasses and shrubs to set seed you will obtain new plants at little or no cost, in a matter of months.

By fencing existing patches of indigenous vegetation from stock and/or controlling rabbits, new plants will often regenerate in a relatively short period of time. Reducing your mowing regime in grassy areas that contain some indigenous vegetation can also be an effective way of encouraging the natural vegetation on your property to regenerate. For example: instead of mowing patches of native herbs and grasses on your property allow them to set seed over spring. This is not only an effective way of collecting seed but provides food and habitat for local insects, lizards and birds.

When it comes to selecting indigenous plants for your garden always consider which species are most appropriate for your site.

For example, a Swamp Gum is well suited for planting in a gully situation but would not do well if planted on a dry hilltop. You should also consider why you are planting a particular plant. For example, do you need tall screening shrubs, prickly plants to provide habitat for local birds, flowering plants to attract butterflies or a small tree to provide shade in your garden? Once you have compiled a plant species list you will need to order your plants from a local indigenous nursery, see page 9 for list of suppliers.

Site preparation: Weeds should be controlled prior to planting to reduce competition and post-planting maintenance. A good quality mulch should be spread over your garden bed (to a minimum depth of 10cm), this will assist in retaining moisture in the soil and preventing future weed growth. Ensure that the mulch you select is made from an environmentally friendly resource. Chipped waste wood and green waste mulches are generally a good option. Always ensure that any green waste has been well composted before use to kill any potential weed seeds. For a list of local suppliers of environmentally friendly mulches please contact Nillumbik’s Environment and Strategic Planning Unit on 9433 3111.

Before you start to plan your new garden remember to look up for powerlines and check for services below ground. It is pointless to plant extensively in easements where access for maintenance and new works may be required. Planting: Once your site is well prepared you can begin planting. • The planting hole should be approximately twice the width of the plant container and slightly deeper. Remember to dig your hole into the soil below the mulch – if you plant straight into the mulch your plant will dry out and die.

• Give your plants a thorough pre-soaking in a bucket of water prior to planting.

• In dry soils, fill the hole with water and allow it to drain before planting. • Any particularly long or coiled roots protruding through the bottom of the pot can be pruned with sharp secateurs before removing the plant from the pot. Some root disturbance is tolerable but be careful not to damage living roots. • Remove the plant from the pot. This is best achieved by turning the pot upside down and striking the rim gently against a solid object.

• Place the plant into the hole so that the plant is a little lower than the original soil level. Firmly replace the soil around the plant breaking up any lumps. 2 3 live local plant local live local plant local A burst of bush colour in Spring. Mulching assists in retaining moisture in the soil and preventing future weed growth. Lilies, herbs and leaf litter provide habitat for local insects, lizards and birds.

Creating your indigenous garden Different plants for different situations • Water the plant in well. Initially all plants need to be watered individually to settle soil around the root system.

Plants may require a good deep soaking, once a week, when establishing, particularly during dry periods. Generally planting after the first heavy autumn rain is the best time for dry or exposed sites. For frost prone areas spring may be a more appropriate time for planting, try to avoid any planting during the summer period.

Other factors to consider before commencing your planting project include: • By selecting a variety of plants you will attract a variety of animals to your garden. Plants that produce flowers and seeds provide food for many of our native birds and mammals whilst prickly shrubs provide them with a refuge in which to build their homes or escape from predators. • Dead shrubs and trees often provide habitat for many of our native fauna. Before any dead vegetation is removed it’s important to note what wildlife is frequenting your garden, the chances are they may be roosting or obtaining food in the dead vegetation.

• Leaving a few logs (particularly those containing hollows), sticks and leaves on the ground provides habitat for many local insects and lizards. • The availability of plant stock from your local indigenous nurseries may influence your planting program as many nurseries only grow to order. When ordering large numbers of plants, stock should be ordered well in advance. • By controlling and removing weeds in areas of your property that contain indigenous vegetation, the competition for water, light and nutrients will be reduced thus helping to enhance the growth of indigenous species.

• Unwanted grazing by stock, kangaroos, wallabies, rabbits and hares can cause problems when trying to establish your new garden.

When undertaking a large planting, consider using tree guards to protect your plants until they are established, or a temporary fence to prevent damage from grazing animals. Different plants for different situations Indigenous plants can be used to create a natural garden, arranged formally to enhance a traditional garden, as cut flowers or grown in pots. In fact, there is probably an indigenous plant for every use in your garden. The following list provides examples of how some indigenous plants can be used to landscape your yard.

1. Hedges and borders Many indigenous plants are responsive to pruning and can therefore be grown to form a hedge. Suitable species include Bursaria spinosa (Sweet Bursaria), Hymenanthera dentata (Tree Violet), Melaleuca ericifolia (Swamp Paperbark), Pomaderris racemosa (Cluster Pomaderris), Acacia acinacea (Gold-dust Wattle) and Spyridium parvifolium (Dusty Miller). Small shrubs such as Correa glabra (Rock Correa) and Daviesia latifolia (Hop Bitter-pea) can be pruned to shape to create a dwarf hedge. Many indigenous tussock forming species are ideal to use as border plants. Suitable plants may include Dianella longifolia (Pale Flax-lily), Lomandra longifolia (Spiny-headed Mat-rush) and Poa labillardierei (Common Tussock Grass).

Common Tussock Grass should be pruned back after flowering to encourage new green growth.

2. Creepers and Climbers Clematis microphylla (Small-leafed Clematis) is a fast growing climber that occurs widely throughout the Shire. An attractive, vigorous climber for pergolas and trellises is Pandorea pandorana (Wonga Vine). The local species of Hardenbergia violacea (Purple Coral-pea) can be used as a rambling creeper or climber. Kennedia prostrata (Running Postman) and Convolvulus erubescens (Pink Bindweed) are delicate creepers that cover the ground. 4 5 live local plant local live local plant local Leaf litter, sticks and logs are important habitat for lizards.

Different plants for different situations Different plants for different situations 5.

Feature trees Some indigenous plants make ideal specimen trees for feature planting in a lawn or garden bed. Where space permits, the mottled bark of Eucalyptus melliodora (Yellow Box) or Eucalyptus rubida (Candlebark) will form an excellent feature tree. Eucalyptus tricarpa (Red Ironbark) has dark fissured bark and forms an excellent specimen in a large garden. For the small garden, species such as Acacia melanoxylon (Blackwood), Acacia pycnantha (Golden Wattle), Acacia implexa (Lightwood), Banksia marginata (Silver Banksia), and Allocasuarina littoralis (Black Sheoke) all perform well as individual trees.

6. Screen plants Screen planting is often necessary to create privacy, conceal undesirable views or buffer wind and noise. Many of the trees and larger shrubs listed in this booklet are suitable for this purpose. Some of these include Melaleuca ericifolia (Swamp Paperbark), Prostanthera lasianthos (Victorian Christmas Bush), Allocasuarina species (Sheoke), Solanum laciniatum (Large Kangaroo Apple), Bursaria spinosa (Sweet Bursaria) and Acacia melanoxylon (Blackwood). 7. Windbreak/shelter belts and wildlife corridors Local indigenous plants are great to use when creating a windbreak/shelter belt and/or a wildlife corridor.

For a windbreak to be effective it should be structured over a wide area with tiers of vegetation (ranging from low to high growing trees and shrubs). A gentle upward slope will deflect wind to a higher elevation, while a steep windbreak tends to be less effective. In many areas, farmers are now dissecting crops and pasture with thickets of indigenous vegetation to reduce evaporation rates and attract insectivorous animals. In turn these animals help to protect crops from insect attack. Many landowners with isolated or small stands of remnant trees on their properties are restoring the understorey vegetation around them to improve the health of these trees, and where appropriate linking these areas with local wildlife corridors.

7 live local plant local 3. Colorful flowers To achieve a mass of colour in your garden why not try a few of the following indigenous plants: Yellow flowers: Chrysocephalum apiculatum (Clustered Everlasting), Chrysocephalum semipapposum (Clustered Everlasting), Goodenia ovata (Hop Goodenia) and Helichrysum scorpioides (Button Everlasting), Red flowers: Kennedia prostrata (Running Postman) and Daviesia leptophylla (Narrow-leaf Bitter-pea) with its orange-red egg and bacon type flowers. White flowers: Olearia lirata (Snowy Daisy-bush), Spyridium parvifolium (Dusty Miller), Kunzea ericoides (Burgan) and Ozothamnus ferrugineus (Tree Everlasting).

Purple flowers: Hardenbergia violacea (Purple Coral-pea), Indigofera australis (Austral Indigo) which has pink-purple coloured flowers, Solanum laciniatum (Large Kangaroo Apple) and Brachyscome multifida (Cut-leaf Daisy). Blue flowers: Dianella revoluta (Black Anther Flax-lily), Dianella longifolia (Pale Flax-lily) with its interesting violet blue berries and pale blue flowers, Wahlenbergia communis (Tufted Bluebell) and Wahlenbergia stricta (Tall Bluebell). 4. Groundcovers Einadia nutans (Nodding Saltbush) is a great addition to any landscape with its colourful blue- green foliage and small bright red berries.

Dichondra repens (Kidney Weed) and Viola hederacea (Ivy-leafed Violet) are small, spreading groundcovers useful for rockeries and as lawn substitutes, especially in damp shady locations.

6 live local plant local Viola hederacea looks great in a damp shady spot.

Fire and the environment & Pest plants Where can I buy indigenous plants? Fire and the environment Fire has been a natural part of Australia’s ecosystems for thousands of years. Indigenous plants have successfully adapted to its presence and some species even rely on fire to stimulate reproduction. The need to plan for fire prevention should always be considered when undertaking planting or landscaping works, especially in areas that are prone to bushfire. Under the right conditions all plants, both indigenous and exotic, can be a potential fire risk.

All property owners should prepare a fire management plan for their family and home. To obtain further advice on developing a plan, contact Council’s Emergency Risk Coordinator or your local Country Fire Authority. The Country Fire Authority (CFA) and Department of Sustainability and Environment (DSE) have several publications addressing the issue of vegetation and fire management. For further information visit www.cfa.vic.gov.au or www.nre.vic.gov.au/fire Pest plants A weed or pest plant is a plant growing where it is not wanted. Pest plants include those that invade and/or degrade natural bushland, agricultural land, waterways and roadsides.

Weeds are spread throughout the Shire in a variety of ways. Fruit and seeds can be dispersed by wind, water, animals, machinery and dumped garden waste. The major types of weeds that affect indigenous vegetation are: • Environmental weeds: plants, which can threaten the values of natural ecosystems.They often invade native bushland and natural areas.

• Declared noxious weeds: plants which are scheduled under the Catchment and Land Protection Act 1994 and are legally required to be controlled or eradicated. Some pest plants are sold in nurseries and at markets, so beware when buying new plants for your garden. It is often a wise decision to research what plants are weeds in your local area before you make any new purchases. If the plant is likely to escape into your local bushland, don’t buy it. Many noxious and environmental weeds exist throughout the Shire of Nillumbik. See page 45 for a comprehensive list or contact Council’s Environment and Strategic Planning Section on 9433 3111 for a copy of the Environmental Weeds in Nillumbik Shire poster.

Council organises incentive programs, training courses, walks and other activities to help residents with pest plant identification and control.

Where can I buy indigenous plants? The following is a list of local nurseries that specialise in growing plants indigenous to the Shire of Nillumbik. They also offer advice and guidance on species selection. Edendale Farm Community Environment Centre (Nillumbik Shire Council) Gastons Road, Eltham Phone: 9439 8113 Keelbundora Indigenous Nursery Adjacent to Latrobe University Wildlife Sanctuary University Ring Road, Bundoora Phone: 9479 2871 Open House Nursery 320 Arthurs Creek Road, Nutfield Phone: 9718 2850 Victorian Indigenous Nursery Cooperative Yarra Bend Road, Fairfield Phone: 9482 1710 Warrandyte State Park Nursery Pound Bend Road, Warrandyte Phone: 9844 2659 Wyeena Nurseries 950 Kangaroo Ground – St Andrews Road, Smiths Gully Phone: 9710 1340 8 9 live local plant local live local plant local Blackberries smother indigenous flora along the Diamond Creek.

Further reading Indigenous Plant list: Creepers and Climbers Many Landcare and Friends groups propagate their own plants for revegetation projects. To find out more about your local community environment group please contact Nillumbik Shire Council’s Environment and Strategic Planning section on 9433 3111. Further reading Flora of Melbourne A guide to the indigenous plants of the Greater Melbourne area. Society for Growing Australian Plants, Maroondah, Inc, Hyland House, 3rd ed., 2001. Native Plants of Melbourne and Adjoining Areas David and Barbara Jones, Blooming Books, 1999. Native Trees and Shrubs of South Eastern Australia Leon Costermans, Landsdowne Publishing, 1994.

Bush Invaders of South-East Australia Adam Muyt, R.G. and F.J. Richardson, 2001. Environmental weeds - A field guide for SE Australia Kate Blood, Blooming Books, Republished 2003. Indigenous Plant list The following is a list of plants, which you may wish to include in your garden. Some are suitable to use in container plantings or for a mass of colour, while others look great when used in formal designs or as specimen plants.

Creepers and Climbers Billardiera scandens Common Apple-berry Flowering time: Jun-Jan Flower colour: Green-yellow Preferred aspect: Well drained soils, semi shade Features: A twiner or soft climber with bell shaped flowers. It grows in most soils but requires sunny, open position to ensure compact growth. Bird attracting. Clematis aristata Old Mans Beard Flowering time: Aug-March Flower colour: Creamy white Preferred aspect: Moist well drained soils Features: A vigorous, showy climber with sweetly scented star- like flowers and attractive, feathery seed heads. A great food plant for seed eating birds.

Clematis microphylla Small-leafed Clematis Flowering time: July-Nov Flower colour: Cream Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Attractive star shaped flowers and fluffy seed heads. Similar to Clematis aristata, with smaller, narrower leaves. It is a fast growing climber useful for drier sites. 10 11 live local plant local live local plant local

Creepers and Climbers Herbs and Groundcovers Glycine clandestina Twining Glycine Flowering time: Oct-Jan Flower colour: Mauve Preferred aspect: Semi sun/full shade Features: A dainty climber with small pea flowers, it requires moist, well drained soil and tolerates dryness once established.

Food plant for caterpillars. Glycine tabacina Vanilla (Variable) Glycine Flowering time: Dec-May Flower colour: Blue-purple Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: A dainty creeper covered in clusters of attractive pea flowers in spring-summer. It prefers dry well drained soils. Butterfly attracting.

Hardenbergia violacea Purple Coral Pea Flowering time: Jul-Nov Flowering colour: Purple Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: A showy, wiry creeper with beautiful purple pea flowers and dark green leaves. Prefers well-drained soils and full sun. It is important to plant the local form. Hovea linearis Common Hovea Flowering time: Aug-Oct Flower colour: Mauve Preferred aspect: Semi sun/full shade Features: A dainty little plant, with pea-type flowers and long narrow leaves. It looks attractive when planted amongst small plants or under trees where soil is dry and well drained. Kennedia prostrata Running Postman Flowering time: April-Dec Flower colour: Scarlet Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Trailing, hardy and adaptable ground cover with red pea shaped flowers and wavy-edged leaves.

Prefers dry sites, but can tolerate drought once established. A useful plant for hanging baskets.

Pandorea pandorana Wonga Vine Flowering time: Sep-Jan Flower colour: White Preferred aspect: Semi sun/shade Features: Dense vigorous climber with dark green leaves and bunches of creamy white tubular flowers. Great for growing over a pergola. Herbs and Groundcovers Acaena novae-zealandiae Bidgee-widgee Flowering time: Oct-Jan Flower colour: Greenish white Preferred aspect: All Features: Creeping groundcover that dies back during winter, and is useful for binding soil. Fruits have barbed spines and are dispersed by animals and humans. It tolerates wet or dry conditions.

Adiantum aethiopicum Common Maidenhair Preferred aspect: Semi sun Features: A very delicate fern found in wet shaded gullies and on streambanks.

Forms an expanding clump or open ground cover. Also suited to a container if kept moist and protected from drying winds (dormant during dry warm spells). 12 13 live local plant local live local plant local

Herbs and Groundcovers Herbs and Groundcovers Brachyscome diversifolia Tall Daisy Flowering time: Oct-Feb Flower colour: White Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Forms a small creeping clump with daisy flowers. It is endangered in the Melbourne region. Excellent for small gardens, rockeries or containers, provided soil is well drained. Butterfly attracting. Brachyscome multifida Cut-leaf Daisy Flowering time: Year round, peaking in spring and summer Flower colour: Lilac blue, mauve, pink or white Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Ornamental, low spreading perennial which prefers moist soil and will tolerate dryness once established.

It may require a light pruning after flowering. Butterfly attracting. Bracteantha viscosa Shiny Everlasting Flowering time: Aug-April Flower colour: Bright yellow Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: A branched herb with long lasting daisy flowers. Excellent for garden or container planting. Prune in late winter to encourage bushiness and extended life. Butterfly attracting. Brunonia australis Blue Pincushion Flowering time: Oct-Jan Flower colour: Blue Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Flowering annual with leaves at ground level and dense, blue ‘pin-cushion’ flowers on tall stems.

Looks attractive when mass planted and grows well in containers in an open sunny position. Butterfly attracting. Chrysocephalum apiculatum Common Everlasting Flowering time: Mainly Sep-Dec Flower colour: Bright yellow Preferred aspect: Full sun Features: Spreading prostrate herb with clusters of yellow daisy flowers. Requires well-drained soil and pruning to encourage new growth. Butterfly attracting. Chrysocephalum semipapposum Clustered Everlasting Flowering time: Aug-Mar Flower colour: Golden yellow Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: The form found locally in Eltham forms tight clumps of silvery-green foliage bearing clusters of long lasting, daisy flowers.

Grows in dry areas along ridges and rocky outcrops. To encourage new growth prune after flowering. Butterfly attracting.

Craspedia glauca Common Billy-buttons Flowering time: Sep-Nov Flower colour: Yellow Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Spectacular large golden button flowers, this plant suits containers, rockeries or mass plantings in moist well drained soils. Butterfly attracting. Dichondra repens Kidney Weed Flowering time: Sep-Dec Flower colour: Cream Preferred aspect: Semi sun/full shade Features: Excellent as a lawn substitute in low use moist shady areas. It has inconspicuous flowers and small kidney-shaped leaves.

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Herbs and Groundcovers Herbs and Groundcovers Einadia nutans Nodding Saltbush Flowering time: Dec-May Flower colour: Green Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Sprawling or scrambling plant with clusters of greenish flowers followed by succulent red berries.

Useful ground cover for dry gardens and rockeries. Berries are a food source for birds. Geranium solanderi Austral Cranesbill Flowering time: Oct-Feb Flower colour: Pink Preferred aspect: Semi sun Features: A creeping, perennial herb with deeply lobed leaves and small pale pink flowers. Requires well-drained soils and will tolerate moisture. Forms a dense cover in damp areas. Helichrysum scorpioides Button Everlasting Flowering time: Sep-Dec Flower colour: Yellow Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: A very hardy rockery or bush garden plant with grey leaves and long lasting flowers. Dies back after flowering.

Butterfly attracting.

Leptorhynchos squamatus Scaly Buttons Flowering time: Sep-Jan Flower colour: Yellow Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Low spreading herb with deep green leaves and bright yellow button flowers on wiry stems. Requires moist soil. Leucochrysum albicans Hoary Sunray Flowering time: Nov-Mar Flower colour: Yellow Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: A dense, clumping perennial herb with soft silvery white leaves. It grows well amongst rocks and is suited to rockeries or containers where soil is very well drained. Effective when used in mass displays. Butterfly attracting. Lobelia alata Angled Lobelia Flowering time: Most of year Flower colour: Pale blue Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: A swamp-loving perennial herb that spreads by layering.

It has small, pale blue fan-shaped flowers and requires ample moisture. It is suitable for a bog garden.

Mentha australis River Mint Flowering time: Sep-Mar Flower colour: White Features: Imparts a delightful mint fragrance. Useful for planting by ponds or pathways, where soil is moist to wet. Attracts insect eating birds. It is a good alternative to introduced mint species. Pelargonium australe Austral Stork’s-bill Flowering time: Oct-Feb Flower colour: Pink/white with red stripes Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Soft sprawling herb with aromatic rounded leaves and clusters of pretty flowers on long stalks. Prefers moist well drained soils and may die back in summer. 16 17 live local plant local live local plant local

Herbs and Groundcovers Lilies Platylobium formosum Handsome Flat-pea Flowering time: Sep-Dec Flower colour: Yellow and red Preferred aspect: Semi sun Features: Upright or scrambling low growing shrub with bright pea flowers. Prefers moist soil and shady position. Platylobium obtusangulum Common Flat-pea Flowering time: Sep-Dec Flower colour: Yellow/red Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Similar to Platylobium formosum but less vigorous. It has a decorative triangular leaf and prefers drier, well-drained soils.

Pultenaea pedunculata Matted Bush-pea Flowering time: Oct-Nov Flowering colour: Yellow/red Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Excellent ground cover with typical ‘egg and bacon’ type pea flowers.

Useful for soil binding, cascading over rockeries or in containers. Prefers well-drained soils. It is important to plant local form. Stylidium graminifolium Grass Trigger-plant Flowering time: Oct-Dec Flower colour: Pink Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Fine grass-like foliage with spikes of bright pink flowers in spring-summer. Very attractive when clumped together and provides food for insect eating birds. Viola hederacea Native Violet or Ivy-leaf Violet Flowering time: Jun-Mar Flower colour: Purple and white Preferred aspect: All Features: A great groundcover that forms extensive mats in damp areas.

It has small flowers held above the foliage. Keep moist, in full sun or part shade. It is a great alternative to introduced violets.

Vittadinia muelleri Narrow-leaf New Holland Daisy Flowering time: Most of year Flower colour: Blue Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: A small, perennial shrub found in the open. It flowers for most of the year. Wahlenbergia stricta Tall Bluebell Flowering time: Aug-Jan Flower colour: Light blue Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Dainty erect, clumping herb with masses of bell flowers on slender stems. Will tolerate some dryness and looks great in containers or when planted amongst grasses. Lilies Arthropodium strictum Chocolate Lily Flowering time: Sep-Dec Flower colour: Violet Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Flowers emit a pleasant aroma of chocolate in spring.

Long slender stems arise from the plant base during late winter. It is dormant after flowering until the following winter. May be hard to establish but will brighten a garden or natural bush setting.

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Lilies Grasses Bulbine bulbosa Bulbine Lily Flowering time: Sep-Jan Flower colour: Yellow Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Yellow star flowers in spring. It remains dormant after flowering until the following autumn. Prefers moist well drained soils. Burchardia umbellata Milkmaids Flowering time: Sep-Dec Flower colour: White and red Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Attractive honey-scented star flowers in spring-summer. It remains dormant in summer after flowering. Best grown amongst other small plants or in containers in a protected position.

Dianella longifolia Pale Flax-lily or Smooth Flax-lily Flowering time: Aug-Jan Flower colour: Pale blue Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Flax-like leaves and blue flowers in spring-summer followed by purple berries. Berries are a good food source for birds. Makes an attractive garden or container plant in moist well-drained soils. It is a great alternative to the environmental weed Agapanthus.

Dianella revoluta Black-anther Flax-lily Flowering time: Aug-May Flower colour: Blue-whitish Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Long strap like bluish-green leaves with pale blue flowers in spring-summer followed by bright purple berries. Berries are a good food source for birds. It can be grown in containers. Dianella tasmanica Tasman Flax-lily Flowering time: Aug-Feb Flower colour: Blue Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Similar to other Dianella species but has larger leaves. Most showy stage is the production of violet-blue berries after flowering. Prefers a moist and cool position but tolerates some dryness once established.

Looks great in containers.

Grasses Austrodanthonia species Wallaby Grass Flowering time: Oct-Jan Flower colour: Mature fluffy cream coloured flowerheads Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Dense tussock grass with fluffy mature flowerheads. It makes a good alternative to ornamental grasses. Many Austrodanthonia species are available. Food plant for grazing animals. Austrostipa species Spear-grass Flowering time: Sep-Jan Flower colour: White Preferred aspect: Semi sun Features: A medium tufted grass that adds a graceful accent to a bushland garden. Requires hard pruning after flowering to maintain vigor. It makes a good alternative to ornamental grasses.

Many Austrostipa species are available. Food plant for seed eating birds. Eragrostis brownii Common Love-grass Flowering time: Sep-Apr Flower colour: Olive green-grey Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: An elegant open grass, adaptable to most soils. It is a decorative grass for rockeries and is suitable for use as a lawn grass in low use areas.

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Grasses Rushes and Sedges Joycea pallida Silvertop Wallaby-grass Flowering time: Oct-Jan Flowering colour: Straw colour with red anthers Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Attractive grass when in flower. It requires well-drained soils in full sun. Food plant for grazing animals. Microlaena stipoides Weeping Grass Flowering time: Sep-Jan Flower colour: Green along arching stems Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Prefers moist well drained soils and does well in semi shade. Excellent low maintenance lawn grass.

Food plant for seed eating birds and caterpillars. Poa ensiformis Purple Sheath Tussock-grass Flowering time: Sep-Nov Flower colour: Green Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Vigorous tussock grass suited to moist shaded sites. It has a distinctive purple sheath around lower leaves and responds well to pruning. Provides habitat for insects, lizards and birds.

Poa labillardierei Common Tussock-grass Flowering time: Oct-Feb Flower colour: Green / purple Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: A large tufted tussock grass with rough greyish- green leaves. Adaptable to moist or slightly dry soils. It makes a good alternative to ornamental grasses and responds well to pruning. Provides habitat for insects, lizards and birds. Poa morrisii Velvet Tussock-grass Flowering time: Oct-Jan Flower colour: Green Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: An extremely variable and attractive grass with soft grey weeping foliage, which makes a good alternative to ornamental grasses.

It is smaller than Poa labillardierei. Food plant for caterpillars and seed eating birds.

Themeda triandra Kangaroo Grass Flowering time: Oct-Feb Flower colour: Glossy brown Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Dense, tussock grass with rusty-red flowers held above the foliage in summer. Adaptable to most soils. It makes a good alternative to ornamental grasses. Provides habitat for insects, lizards and birds. Rushes and Sedges Carex appressa Tall Sedge Flowering time: Aug-Jan Flower colour: Brownish-dull yellow Preferred aspect: Full sun Features: It forms a dense tussock of bright green, sharp- edged leaves and is useful for erosion control on stream banks. It may be used as either an aquatic or bog garden plant and requires ample moisture, tolerating periods of inundation.

Butterfly attracting.

Carex fascicularis Tassel Sedge Flowering time: Oct-Apr Flower colour: Bright green Preferred aspect: Semi sun Features: Common sedge found along watercourses and near swamps with bright green drooping flower heads. It requires moist soil and tolerates inundation. A graceful tussock that looks attractive by pools or ponds. 22 23 live local plant local live local plant local

Shrubs Carex iynx Tussock Sedge Flowering time: Sep-Nov Flower colour: Yellow-chestnut Preferred aspect: Semi sun Features: This coarse tufted sedge forms large clumps and requires moist soil.

It looks attractive in containers or as a mass planting. Lomandra filiformis Wattle Mat-rush Flowering time: Sep-Dec Flower colour: Female flowers-yellow, Male-purplish Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Hardy, rush-like perennial herb with flat, bluish-green leaves with blunt tips. A great long- lived rockery plant, which tolerates well-drained soils and dry shady situations once established. Lomandra longifolia Spiny-headed Mat-rush Flowering time: Sep-Dec Flower colour: Yellow with purple bases Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Much larger than Lomandra filiformis, this large tussock plant tolerates moisture and well-drained soils.

It has bright green strap-like leaves and tall spikes of cream/yellow scented flowers. It is an ideal alternative to the environmental weed Agapanthus. Butterfly attracting.

Shrubs Acacia acinacea Gold Dust Wattle Height (m): 0.5-2.5 Width (m): 2-4 Flowering time: Aug-Nov Flower colour: Bright yellow Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: A small to medium shrub with masses of yellow flowers in spring. Adaptable to dry or moist, well-drained soils and heavy clay. Often self-seeds in the garden. Bird attracting. Acacia genistifolia Spreading Wattle Height (m): 1-3 Width (m): 1-3 Flowering time: Aug-Oct/Jan-May Flower colour: Lemon-cream Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: A small to medium hardy shrub, which provides a prickly refuge for small birds. It has needle-like leaves and perfumed balls of yellow flowers on long and slender stalks.

It is very hardy and tolerates a range of soil types, wet/dry periods and frost. Acacia lanigera Woolly Wattle or Hairy Wattle Height (m): 0.3-2 Width (m): 1-3 Flowering time: May-Oct Flower colour: Bright yellow Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: A showy, adaptable species with sharp, slightly curved leaves. It prefers well-drained conditions and is frost tolerant. Bird attracting.

Acacia paradoxa Hedge Wattle Height (m): 2-4 Width (m): 2-5 Flowering time: Aug-Nov Flower colour: Golden yellow Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: A fast growing, dense spreading medium shrub covered with thorns. It provides a prickly refuge for small birds. Acacia pycnantha Golden Wattle Height (m): 3-10 Width (m): 2-5 Flowering time: Jul-Oct Flower colour: Golden Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: A tall, fast growing shrub which makes a good screen plant. Drought and frost tolerant. It is Australia’s floral emblem. Bird attracting.

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Shrubs Shrubs Acacia stricta Hop Wattle Height (m): 2-5 Width (m): 2-4 Flowering time: May-Oct Flower colour: Pale yellow Preferred aspect: All Features: A fast growing slender shrub with pale green foliage. It prefers moist soil but is drought tolerant. Bird attracting. Acacia verniciflua Varnish Wattle Height (m): 3-5 Width (m): 3-5 Flowering time: Jul-Jan Flower colour: Bright yellow Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: A slightly weeping open shrub with shiny curved leaves. It is fast growing and adaptable, tolerating wet and dry periods. Bird attracting.

Acacia verticillata Prickly Moses Height (m): 2-5 Width (m): 3-5 Flowering time: Jun-Dec Flower colour: Light yellow Preferred aspect: Semi sun Features: A fast growing medium size shrub which provides a prickly refuge for small birds and possums.

It is hardy in well-drained soils. Banksia marginata Silver Banksia Height (m): 1-10 Width (m): 1-5 Flowering time: Sep-Apr Flower colour: Pale-bright yellow Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: A slow growing shrub with yellow flowers and narrow leaves which are white underneath. It requires good drainage. Butterfly/bird attracting, Bursaria spinosa Sweet Bursaria Height (m): 2-6 Width (m): 2-3 Flowering time: Dec-Mar Flower colour: Creamy white Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: A tall, spiny shrub with masses of sweet smelling cream flowers and clusters of bronze seed capsules following flowering.

Food plant for Eltham Copper Butterfly. Callistemon sieberi River Bottlebrush Height (m): 3-10 Width(m): 2-6 Flowering time: Nov-May Flower colour: Cream/pink Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: An attractive, open to dense weeping shrub with bottlebrush flowers. It is very adaptable but prefers moist-wet conditions. Pruning encourages prolific flowering. Butterfly/bird attracting. Cassinia aculeata Common Cassinia or Dogwood Height (m): 2-4 Width (m): 1-2 Flowering time: Nov-Mar Flower colour: White Preferred aspect: Semi sun Features: A medium size shrub with showy clusters of small flowers that last for a long period of time.

An effective screen plant which often colonises a disturbed area. Cassinia arcuata Drooping Cassinia Height (m): 1-3 Width (m): 1-2 Flowering time: Nov-Feb Flower colour: Pale brown Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: A medium size shrub with attractive dropping branchlets of small flowers. Leaves have a spicy aroma. It often colonises a disturbed area and is very adaptable to shallow soils. 26 27 live local plant local live local plant local

Shrubs Shrubs Cassinia longifolia Shiny Cassinia or Cauliflower Bush Height (m): 2-4 Width (m): 2-3 Flowering time: Nov-Mar Flower colour: White Preferred aspect: Semi sun/full shade Features: Erect medium size shrub with with sticky and aromatic leaves (longer and broader than Cassinia aculeata). It is fast growing and prefers moist well-drained soils. Correa glabra Rock Correa Height (m): 1-3 Width (m): 1-3 Flowering time: May-Aug Flower colour: Pale green Preferred aspect: All Features: An attractive small to medium shrub with dark green leaves and bell-shaped flowers. It is easily grown in well-drained soil.

Bird attracting.

Correa reflexa Common Correa Height (m): 0.3-2 Width (m): 1-2 Flowering time: Mar-Sep Flower colour: Light green/red Preferred aspect: All Features: An attractive upright to spreading medium shrub with bell flowers. It is excellent for dry shady positions under trees. It is important to plant local form. Bird attracting. Daviesia latifolia Hop Bitter-pea Height (m): 1-3 Width (m): 1-2 Flowering time: Sep-Dec Flower colour: Yellow/brown Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: A medium size broad-leaved shrub with showy pea-shaped flowers. It is a useful screen plant and looks effective when mass planted.

28 Daviesia leptophylla Narrow-leaf Bitter-pea Height (m): 1-2 Width (m): 1-2 Flowering time: Sep-Oct Flower colour: Yellow/red Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Open erect shrub, covered in yellow and red pea flowers in spring. It benefits from annual pruning after flowering. Dillwynia cinerascens Grey Parrot-pea Height (m): 0.6-1.5 Width (m): 0.5-1.5 Flowering time: Jul-Nov Flower colour: Yellow/orange Preferred aspect: Semi sun Features: Attractive small shrub with a display of showy pea flowers and greyish leaves. It is suited to a shady, dry position and benefits from annual pruning after flowering.

Dillwynia phylicoides Small-leaf Parrot-pea Height (m): 0.5-1.5 Width (m): 1-2 Flowering time: Sep-Dec Flower colour: Yellow/red Preferred aspect: Semi sun Features: A very hardy and ornamental small shrub which bears clusters of pea flowers and twisted narrow leaves. It responds well to pruning.

Dodonaea viscosa ssp spatulata Wedge-leaf Hop-bush Height (m): 1-3 Width (m): 1-3 Flowering time: Aug-Nov Flower colour: Inconspicuous flowers followed by red-brown seedpods. Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: An open to dense medium size shrub with wedge- shaped leaves and showy red, blackish-brown capsules with papery wings. It is hardy but requires well-drained soil. An effective screen plant. 29 live local plant local live local plant local

Shrubs Shrubs Einadia hastata Saloop Saltbush or Berry Saltbush Height (m): 0.1-0.2 Width (m): 0.2-0.5 Flowering time: Dec-Feb Flower colour: Cream Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Small saltbush with insignificant cream flowers and succulent red berries following flowering.

The berries provide a food source for birds. Light pruning promotes dense bushy growth. It requires well-drained soils. Epacris impressa Common Heath Height (m): 0.5-1 Width (m): 0.5-1 Flowering time: Mar-Nov Flower colour: White, pink or red Preferred aspect: Semi sun Features: A slender wiry shrub with prickly, sharp-pointed leaves and tubular flowers. It makes an attractive rockery plant, particularly when planted in groups. It is Victoria’s floral emblem. Bird attracting. Goodenia ovata Hop Goodenia Height (m): 1-2.5 Width (m): 1-2 Flowering time: Aug-Feb Flower colour: Yellow Preferred aspect: All Features: Fast growing small-medium shrub with ovate leaves and sprays of yellow flowers.

It prefers damp soil and tolerates water logging. It also responds well to pruning. Goodia lotifolia Clover Tree Height (m): 1-1.5 Width (m): 1-5 Flowering time: Sep-Dec Flower colour: Yellow with red markings Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: A vigorous, fast growing suckering shrub with clover-like foliage and showy pea flowers. It requires well-drained soils and pruning to encourage bushiness and suckering. Gynatrix pulchella Hemp Bush Height (m): 2-4 Width (m): 1.5-3 Flowering time: Aug-Oct Flower colour: Greenish white Preferred aspect: Semi sun Features: An open woody shrub with heart-shaped leaves and profuse flowers.

It prefers well-drained moist soils and requires regular pruning to maintain vigor. Hakea sericea Bushy Needlewood Height (m): 2-5 Width (m): 1-3 Flowering time: May-Sep Flower colour: Pink Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: A fast growing tall shrub with needle-like leaves and masses of small fragrant flowers. It provides a good low screen and responds well to hard pruning. Bird attracting. Hakea ulicina Furze Hakea Height (m): 1-3 Width (m): 1-2 Flowering time: Jul-Nov Flower colour: White - cream Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Similar to other Hakea species, with sharp pointed leaves and clusters of flowers.

It prefers well drained, dry to moist soils. Bird attracting.

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Shrubs Shrubs Hymenanthera dentata Tree Violet Height (m): 2-4 Width (m): 1-2.5 Flowering time: Sep-Nov Flower colour: Cream Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Covered in tiny scented cream coloured bell shaped flowers during spring. This variable plant, ranges from lush, small trees in gullies/on riverbanks to stunted shrubs on more exposed sites. It has violet coloured berries and provides excellent habitat for birds and possums. Indigofera australis Austral Indigo Height (m): 1-2 Width (m): 1-2 Flowering time: Sep-Dec Flower colour: Mauve, pink/white Preferred aspect: All Features: An attractive small-medium shrub with striking purple pea flowers and blue-green leaves.

It needs regular pruning to retain vigor and is adaptable to well-drained soils. Butterfly attracting.

Kunzea ericoides Burgan Height (m): 2-5 Width (m): 1-2 Flowering time: Nov-Feb Flower colour: White Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: A fast growing dense to weeping shrub with masses of white flowers in late spring. It often colonises in wetter, cleared or disturbed sites. Butterfly attracting. Leptospermum continentale Prickly Tea-tree Height (m): 1-4 Width (m): 1-2 Flowering time: Oct-Mar Flower colour: White Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: A medium size erect shrub with prickly, narrow leaves. Adaptable and hardy, it also tolerates moisture. Butterfly attracting. Leptospermum lanigerum Woolly Tea-tree Height (m): 2-5 Width (m): 1-3 Flowering time: Sep-Jan Flower colour: White Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: A dense shrub to small tree with attractive grey foliage and masses of white flowers in spring.

It is useful screen plant that responds well to pruning and prefers moist soil. Butterfly attracting. Leptospermum obovatum River Tea-tree Height (m): 2-4 Width (m): 1.5-2 Flowering time: Nov-Jan Flower colour: Creamy white Preferred aspect: Semi sun Features: A medium to large dense shrub with creamy white flowers. It prefers moist soil and is frequently found by streams. It is an effective screen plant. Butterfly attracting. Lomatia myricoides River Lomatia Height (m): 2-5 Width (m): 1-3 Flowering time: Dec-Feb Flower colour: Cream Preferred aspect: Semi sun/full shade Features: A slow-growing shrub with long dull-green leaves and perfumed cream coloured flowers in summer.

It requires moist, well-drained soil. Bird attracting. 32 33 live local plant local live local plant local

Shrubs Shrubs Melaleuca ericifolia Swamp Paperbark Height (m): 2-9 Width (m): 3 Flowering time: Oct-Nov Flower colour: Cream Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: A medium-large shrub with flowers in spikes like bottlebrushes. It is adaptable but prefers moist or wet fertile soils. Responds well to pruning. Butterfly/bird attracting. Olearia erubescens Moth Daisy-bush Height (m): 0.3-0.5 Width (m): 0.5 Flowering time: Sep-Nov Flower colour: White/pink with yellow centres Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: A small shrub with dark green leaves. It looks good if planted amongst other shrubs in well-drained soil.

Can tolerate dryness once established.

Olearia lirata Snowy Daisy-bush Height (m): 2-5 Width (m): 2-3 Flowering time: Sep-Dec Flower colour: White Preferred aspect: Semi sun/full shade Features: Attractive open shrub with masses of white daisy flowers. It is fast growing and tolerates dryness once established. Prune after flowering to encourage bushiness. Olearia myrsinoides Silky Daisy-bush Height (m): 0.3-1.5 Width (m): 1 Flowering time: Oct-Feb Flower colour: White with yellow centre Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Small spreading shrub with shiny, dark green leaves. It has profuse clusters of daisy flowers and requires well-drained soils.

Pruning promotes bushiness. Olearia phlogopappa Dusty Daisy-bush Height (m): 1-3 Width (m): 1-2 Flowering time: Aug-Jan Flower colour: White pink, mauve or blue with yellow centres Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Fast growing, large dense shrub with grey-green leaves and masses of long-stalked daisy flowers. Responds well to pruning.

Ozothamnus ferrugineus Tree Everlasting Height (m): 2-6 Width (m): 1-3 Flowering time: Nov-Feb Flower colour: White Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: Medium size shrub that prefers moist well drained soils. Prune in late winter to encourage bushiness. Ozothamnus obcordatus Grey Everlasting Height (m): 1-2 Width (m): 1 Flowering time: Oct-Jan Flower colour: Yellow Preferred aspect: Full/semi sun Features: A medium size showy shrub with long lasting clusters of mustard coloured daisy flowers. Useful in a dry difficult spot. Pomaderris aspera Hazel Pomaderris Height (m): 3-10 Width (m): 2-4 Flowering time: Oct-Dec Flower colour: Yellow-green Preferred aspect: Semi sun/full shade Features: A medium to large shrub with masses of yellow- green flowers in late spring.

It requires moist, well-drained shady conditions.

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