Magnoliaceae The Red List of - revised and extended Malin Rivers, Emily Beech, Lydia Murphy & Sara Oldfield - Global Trees Campaign

 
Magnoliaceae The Red List of - revised and extended Malin Rivers, Emily Beech, Lydia Murphy & Sara Oldfield - Global Trees Campaign
The Red List of

Magnoliaceae                       revised and extended

  Malin Rivers, Emily Beech, Lydia Murphy & Sara Oldfield
Magnoliaceae The Red List of - revised and extended Malin Rivers, Emily Beech, Lydia Murphy & Sara Oldfield - Global Trees Campaign
BOTANIC GARDENS CONSERVATION INTERNATIONAL (BGCI)
is a membership organization linking botanic gardens in over 100
countries in a shared commitment to biodiversity conservation,
sustainable use and environmental education. BGCI aims to mobilize
botanic gardens and work with partners to secure plant diversity for the        Published by Botanic Gardens Conservation
                                                                                International Descanso House, 199 Kew Road,
well-being of people and the planet. BGCI provides the Secretariat for          Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3BW, UK.
the IUCN/SSC Global Tree Specialist Group.
                                                                                © 2016 Botanic Gardens Conservation International

                                                                                ISBN-10: 1-905164-64-5
                                                                                ISBN-13: 978-1-905164-64-6

                                                                                Reproduction of any part of the publication for
                                                                                educational, conservation and other non-profit
FAUNA & FLORA INTERNATIONAL (FFI), founded in 1903 and the                      purposes is authorized without prior permission from
world’s oldest international conservation organization, acts to conserve        the copyright holder, provided that the source is fully
                                                                                acknowledged.
threatened species and ecosystems worldwide, choosing solutions that
are sustainable, are based on sound science and take account of                 Reproduction for resale or other commercial purposes
human needs.                                                                    is prohibited without prior written permission from the
                                                                                copyright holder. Recommended citation: Rivers, M.,
                                                                                Beech, E., Murphy, L. and Oldfield, S. (2016). The Red
                                                                                List of Magnoliaceae - revised and extended. BGCI.
                                                                                Richmond, UK.

                                                                                AUTHORS
                                                                                Malin Rivers is the Red List Manager at BGCI.

                                                                                Emily Beech is a Conservation Assistant at BGCI.
THE GLOBAL TREES CAMPAIGN (GTC) is undertaken through a
partnership between BGCI and FFI. GTC’s mission is to prevent all tree          Lydia Murphy is the Global Trees Campaign Intern
species extinctions in the wild, ensuring their benefits for people, wildlife   at BGCI.
and the wider environment. GTC does this through provision of                   Sara Oldfield is the co-chair of the Global Tree
information, delivery of conservation action and support of sustainable         Specialist Group.
use, working with partner organisations around the world.
                                                                                The opinion of the individual authors does not
                                                                                necessarily reflect the opinion of either the authors or
                                                                                Botanic Gardens Conservation International.

                                                                                The authors and Botanic Gardens Conservation
                                                                                International take no responsibility for any
                                                                                misrepresentation of material from translation of this
THE IUCN/SSC GLOBAL TREE SPECIALIST GROUP (GTSG)                                document into any other language.

forms part of the Species Survival Commission’s network of over 7,000           COVER PHOTOS
volunteers working to stop the loss of plants, animals and their habitats.      Front cover: Magnolia ventii in South China Botanical
SSC is the largest of the six Commissions of IUCN – The International           Garden by Yang Keming
                                                                                Back cover: Magnolia coriacea by Weibang Sun
Union for Conservation of Nature. It serves as the main source of advice
to the Union and its members on the technical aspects of species                DESIGN
conservation. The aims of the IUCN/SSC Global Tree Specialist Group             Seascape. www.seascapedesign.co.uk

are to promote and implement global red listing for trees and to act in         Printed on 75% recycled, 25% Mixed Credit FSC
an advisory capacity to the Global Trees Campaign.                              certified paper.
Magnoliaceae The Red List of - revised and extended Malin Rivers, Emily Beech, Lydia Murphy & Sara Oldfield - Global Trees Campaign
The Red List of

Magnoliaceae
             revised and extended

                      March 2016

        Malin Rivers, Emily Beech,
      Lydia Murphy & Sara Oldfield
Magnoliaceae The Red List of - revised and extended Malin Rivers, Emily Beech, Lydia Murphy & Sara Oldfield - Global Trees Campaign
The Red List of Magnoliaceae

cOnTEnTS

Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3           PART 2

Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3     Globally threatened Magnoliaceae species . . . . . . . . . . 21

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4   Magnoliaceae species evaluated as near Threatened . . 42

Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5          Magnoliaceae species evaluated as Data Deficient . . . . 43

Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6     Magnoliaceae species evaluated as Least concern . . . . 46

PART 1                                                                             APPEnDIX 1
                                                                                    Full list of evaluated Magnoliaceae species and
Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7       their number of ex situ collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
 Taxonomic scope and concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
 conservation assessment methodology . . . . . . . . . . 7                         APPEnDIX 2
 Review and evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8              number of Magnoliaceae species in each country . . . 53
 Red List report format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
                                                                                   APPEnDIX 3
case studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9      Additional Magnoliaceae taxa (not included
                                                                                    in analysis) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Red List results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
  Threat status. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12      APPEnDIX 4
  criteria used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12      Participating institutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
  Geographical analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
  Major threats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14      APPEnDIX 5
  Population trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15          IUcn Red List categories and criteria
  comparisons with the 2007 Red List                                                (version 3.1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
  of Magnoliaceae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Ex situ survey of Magnoliaceae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
  Species in ex situ collections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
  number of ex situ collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
  comparison with 2008 ex situ survey . . . . . . . . . . . 18

conclusions and Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
 Policy relevance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

                                                                                   Monitoring of Magnolia in the wild

2
Magnoliaceae The Red List of - revised and extended Malin Rivers, Emily Beech, Lydia Murphy & Sara Oldfield - Global Trees Campaign
The Red List of Magnoliaceae

AcknOWLEDGEMEnTS

T
      o achieve a complete evaluation of     the colombian assessments, cnc Flora        The authors are extremely grateful to
      conservation assessments for           Brazil for the Brazilian assessments,       Fondation Franklinia for supporting BGcI’s
      Magnoliaceae, a wide range of          Álvaro Pérez castañeda for his              red listing work. IUcn kindly provided
people have shared their knowledge and       contributions on the Ecuadorian             financial assistant for this publication,
expertise about this fascinating group of    assessments,     Frank     Arroyo     for   support that was made possible by the
species and the habitats in which they       contributions towards the Peruvian          Environment Agency – Abu Dhabi.
grow. Without their generous assistance,     assessments, and the cuban Plant
this global Red List of Magnoliaceae         Specialist Group for the cuban              Special thanks also go to all the botanic
would not have been possible, and            assessments. In addition, highly valuable   gardens that shared their Magnoliaceae
everyone’s contributions are gratefully      information was sourced at the              collection information and published their
acknowledged.                                International Symposium on neotropical      data on BGcI’s PlantSearch database.
                                             Magnoliaceae in Puyo, Ecuador in July       Pam Hayward (of the RHS Rhododendron,
Members of the IUcn/SSc Global               2015.                                       camellia and Magnolia Group) provided
Tree Specialist Group and the BGcI                                                       invaluable assistance in securing ex situ
network were especially helpful in           At BGcI, in addition to the authors, Lisa   collection information and photographs.
providing information and facilitating the   Wheeler, Sonia khela and Fran               The Magnolia Society has also provided
involvement of additional experts.           culverhouse provided valuable help in       valuable contacts.
Particular thanks go to: Marie-Stéphanie     sourcing reference material, collating
Samain and Esteban Martínez Salas for        information and producing conservation      The provision of beautiful photographs by
their contributions towards the Mexican      assessments and maps. Initial work and      a wide range of talented photographers is
assessments; Eduardo calderón, Alvarez       original maps produced by Daniele           gratefully acknowledged with credits
cogollo and Marcela Serna-González for       cicuzza are also acknowledged.              given alongside each image.

   LIST OF AcROnyMS                                                        IUcn RED LIST cATEGORIES

    BGCI        Botanic Gardens conservation International                  EX       Extinct
     CBD        convention on Biological Diversity                          EW       Extinct in the Wild
      FFI       Fauna & Flora International                                 CR       critically Endangered
    GSPC        Global Strategy for Plant conservation                      EN       Endangered
     GTA        Global Tree Assessment                                      VU       Vulnerable
     GTC        Global Trees campaign                                       NT       near Threatened
    GTSG        Global Tree Specialist Group                                DD       Data Deficient
    IUCN        International Union for conservation of nature              LC       Least concern
     SSC        Species Survival commission                                 NE       not Evaluated

                                                                                                                                 3
Magnoliaceae The Red List of - revised and extended Malin Rivers, Emily Beech, Lydia Murphy & Sara Oldfield - Global Trees Campaign
The Red List of Magnoliaceae

FOREWORD

                                               being identified as the main threats. china   In the Uk, organisations including the
                                               and Latin America (neotropics) are the        Royal Horticultural Society, Plant
                                               two botanical ‘hotspots’ with many            Heritage, RBG kew, The Rhododendron,
                                               organisations involved with specific          camellia and Magnolia Group and the
                                               conservation projects.                        International Dendrology Society all have
                                                                                             substantial collections in their own or their
                                               This was demonstrated when the ‘World         members’ gardens that are open to the
                                               Magnolia center’ was established in the       public. In mainland Europe, both the
                                               South china Botanical Garden (ScBG)           Arboretum Wespelaar in Belgium and
                                               in partnership with Botanic Gardens           Parco Botanico del Gambarogno
                                               conservation International (BGcI) and the     (ParcoEisenhut) in Switzerland hold
                                               Magnolia Society International (MSI) in       significant collections, while the latter is
                                               2009. Such partnerships are key given the     one of the world’s major suppliers of
                                               importance of both in and ex situ             cultivated magnolias. Substantial ex situ
                                               conservation work that is currently being     collections are also found in new Zealand
                                               undertaken around the world. The              and north America while the MSI holds
                                               Magnolia Society International also plays a   the registration page for the International
                                               key role with conservation initiatives        cultivar Registration Authority.
                                               involving threatened species primarily
                                               from the neotropics. This is important        This Red List of Magnoliaceae ably
                                               particularly as c.100 species have been       brought together by BGcI highlights the
Magnolia sieboldii (Arboretum Wespelaar)       discovered over the past 15 years.            huge amount of work that is being carried
                                               An example of this is funding of              out around the world. At the same time, it

M
         agnolias indeed are a plant           the conservation, Propagation and             provides a focus on how many habitats
         ‘passion’ of mine and I have          Restoration of costa Rican species.           are ‘vulnerable’ as magnolias are key
         been extoling their virtues ever      In addition, the First International          constituents of forest habitats. By
since seeing the magnificent Asiatic tree      Symposium on neotropical Magnoliaceae         publishing this, it will publicise the
magnolias in the Valley Gardens at             held in Ecuador (2015) and co-running the     significant amount of work that is being
Windsor in the late 1960’s. Being asked        Third International Symposium in cuba in      undertaken around the world by
to write this Foreword for the Red List is     2016 are key features of the MSI’s work.      passionate people yet at the same time
both an honour and a pleasure as this will                                                   stimulate a wider audience to support this.
highlight how much is known about the          Ex situ conservation too is of significant
family, its taxonomy, distribution and         importance: 50% of species are found in                                  Jim Gardiner
threats thus building on the information       ex situ collections, while 22 species not                   Executive Vice President-
found in the first Red List printed in 2007.   included in 2007 are now safeguarded.                      Royal Horticultural Society
But it also highlights the world-wide          As well as ScBG, there are many                                   President Emeritus-
wealth of knowledge and expertise there        collections of note in china including the               Magnolia Society International
is out there in organisations, societies       kunming Institute of Botany and
and private collectors who are passionate      kunming Botanical Garden. Professor
about this plant family.                       Sun Wei-Bang has been successfully
                                               propagating several species that are
This updated Red List highlights a number      critically Endangered or Endangered
of important facts. 48% of all Magnolia        enabling the reintroduction of Magnolia
species are threatened in the wild, with       decidua and Magnolia sinica in particular
habitat loss due to logging and agriculture    back into their native habitats.

4
Magnoliaceae The Red List of - revised and extended Malin Rivers, Emily Beech, Lydia Murphy & Sara Oldfield - Global Trees Campaign
The Red List of Magnoliaceae

EXEcUTIVE SUMMARy

T
       he evaluation of the conservation
       status of all species in the
       Magnoliaceae has long been a
global conservation priority recognised
by Botanic Gardens conservation
International (BGcI). Since the publication
of The Red List of Magnoliaceae in 2007,
93 new Magnolia species have been
described, additional information on
existing species has been published in
botanical literature, and new threats to
species have emerged. In light of this new
information, and with 93 new species
requiring conservation assessments, we
have compiled an updated and extended
version of The Red List of Magnoliaceae.

The new Red List of Magnoliaceae
contains conservation assessments for
304     Magnoliaceae        species.       All
assessments are also submitted for
publication on the IUcn Red List of              Magnolia biondii (Arboretum Wespelaar)
Threatened Species. These assessments
show that a large proportion of                  due to agriculture and livestock farming.       The Red List of Magnoliaceae aims to
Magnoliaceae species are threatened              Sustainable forestry practices and more         stimulate conservation action for
with extinction in the wild (at least 48%).      protected areas are urgently needed to          Magnolia species under threat. BGcI and
nearly one third of all species are still too    conserve Magnolia in the wild.                  the Global Trees campaign work with
poorly known to make a conservation                                                              botanic gardens and other conservation
assessment. Overall, only one in five            A survey of ex situ Magnoliaceae                partners to enhance ex situ conservation
species of Magnoliaceae is considered            collections was also carried out as part        for globally threatened Magnolia taxa
not threatened.                                  of this conservation assessment. At             where appropriate and to promote in situ
                                                 present, only 43% of threatened                 conservation     planning,    ecological
The main centre of species diversity for         Magnolia species are represented in ex          restoration and sustainable use.
Magnoliaceae is in china, however there          situ collections, falling significantly short
is a second centre of diversity in the           of requirements under Target 8 of the
neotropics where a large number of new           Global Strategy for Plant conservation.
species have been recently described and         The majority of threatened Magnolia
published. The neotropics has the highest        species are only found in a very small
proportion of threatened Magnolia                number of collections (fewer than five).
species; 75% of the neotropical Magnolia         However, considerable progress has
are under threat.                                been made since the last ex situ survey of
                                                 Magnoliaceae in 2008, with 22 species
The main threats to Magnolia are                 that were then absent from ex situ
extensive logging, both selective and            collections now safeguarded in botanic
more general, together with habitat loss         gardens and arboreta worldwide.

                                                                                                 Magnolia sprengeri (Arboretum Wespelaar)

                                                                                                                                            5
Magnoliaceae The Red List of - revised and extended Malin Rivers, Emily Beech, Lydia Murphy & Sara Oldfield - Global Trees Campaign
The Red List of Magnoliaceae

PART 1
BAckGROUnD                                          Red List                                                           Year published

                                                    The Red List of Magnoliaceae                                             2007*
The magnolia family, Magnoliaceae, is               The Red List of Oaks                                                     2007*
found in temperate and tropical regions of          The Red List of Maples                                                   2009
Eastern and Southeast Asia, and the                 The Red List of Trees of central Asia                                    2009
Americas. The Magnoliaceae consists of              The Red List of Mexican cloud Forest Trees                               2011
over 300 species in two genera –                    The Red List of Rhododendrons                                            2011
Magnolia L. and Liriodendron L. They are            A Regional Red List of Montane Tree Species
evergreen or deciduous trees and shrubs.            of the Tropical Andes                                                    2014
Many species are widely appreciated                 The Red List of Betulaceae                                               2014
around the world as ornamental trees due
                                                    *Published by Fauna & Flora International
to their attractive flowers and foliage. In the
wild, these plants are also widely                Table 1. Summary of Red Lists produced by Botanic Gardens Conservation
appreciated, and used for timber and              International in partnership with Fauna & Flora International and the Global Tree
medicines by local communities as well as         Specialist Group.
in international trade. There are
conservation concerns for many of the
species in the wild due to threats such as            Global Tree Assessment (GTA)
habitat destruction, overharvesting for
timber and medicinal uses, and low                    Despite the importance of trees, many are
natural regeneration. In order to assess              threatened by over-exploitation and habitat
the impact of these threats on the world’s            destruction, as well as by pests, diseases,
Magnoliaceae species, there is a need for             drought and their interaction with global climate change. In order to estimate the
a global assessment of their conservation             impact of such threats to trees there is an urgent need to conduct a complete
status to guide conservation action.                  assessment of the conservation status of the world’s tree species – the Global
                                                      Tree Assessment.
The evaluation of the conservation
status of trees has long been a                       The Global Tree Assessment aims to provide conservation assessments of all
global conservation priority recognised               the world’s tree species by 2020. The assessment will identify those tree species
by Botanic Gardens conservation                       that are at greatest risk of extinction. The goal of the Global Tree Assessment
International (BGcI). BGcI, in partnership            is to provide prioritization information to ensure that conservation efforts are
with Fauna & Flora International,                     directed at the right species so that no tree species becomes extinct.
coordinates the Global Trees campaign
(GTc). GTc is a joint initiative to safeguard         The Global Tree Assessment is an initiative led by BGcI and the IUcn/SSc
the world’s threatened tree species from              Global Tree Specialist Group. Work is ongoing to develop an even more
extinction. Part of the task of GTc is to             extensive global collaborative partnership, involving the coordinated effort of
assess the conservation status of trees in            many institutions and individuals. These steps will enable the Global Tree
the wild and in ex situ collections – and in          Assessment to achieve its 2020 target.
such a way prioritise species in need of
conservation action. BGcI, working with
the IUcn/SSc Global Tree Specialist Group
(GTSG), has for the last eight years been         The first of such Red Lists was The Red       The majority of these are from the
working towards this goal, producing global       List of Magnoliaceae produced in 2007         neotropical region. In the light of this new
conservation assessments of trees both            (cicuzza et al. 2007). Since this             information and new taxa, it is now time
with taxonomic and regional foci (Table 1).       publication, new information on existing      to produce an updated and extended
These tree conservation assessments               taxa has been published and new threats       version of The Red List of Magnoliaceae.
contribute directly to the Global Tree            have emerged. In addition, since 2007,
Assessment (GTA), which aims to have              93 new Magnolia species have been
conservation assessments for all trees by         described and published (IPnI 2015).
2020 (Box 1, newton et al. 2015).

6
Magnoliaceae The Red List of - revised and extended Malin Rivers, Emily Beech, Lydia Murphy & Sara Oldfield - Global Trees Campaign
The Red List of Magnoliaceae

METHODOLOGy

TAXoNomIC SCoPE AND                         Plant authority names followed those
CoNCEPTS                                    from The International Plant names Index
All species in the family Magnoliaceae      (IPnI 2015).
that were published prior to December
2015 were included in this assessment.      CoNSERVATIoN ASSESSmENT
We      focused      on    species-level    mEThoDoLoGY
assessments, as the IUcn Red List of        conservation        assessments     were
Threatened Species only accepts             conducted following the IUcn Red List of
infraspecific conservation assessments      Threatened Species categories and
once a species-level assessment has         criteria version 3.1 (IUcn 2001, Appendix
been carried out. Infraspecific taxa were   5). Assessments were compiled using the
not included, unless the taxonomic          IUcn’s Species Information Service (SIS),   Magnolia jardinensis (Marcela Serna)
concept was unresolved and there were       which is a web-based database for
data indicating that the taxon might be     storing and managing IUcn conservation      A wide range of resources were consulted
considered an accepted species. Hybrids     assessments. Information for each           to gather all the required information.
within Magnoliaceae were not assessed.      species was assembled for a range of        Sources include: national and regional
                                            areas including:                            floras, taxonomic databases, scientific
The taxonomic concepts followed are                                                     papers, published and unpublished
those reflected in The Plant List version   •   Distribution                            reports, expert knowledge, herbarium
1.1 (The Plant List 2013); new species      •   Population                              records and national red lists. In addition,
described since then as well as taxonomic   •   Habitat and ecology                     expert opinions were consulted at the 1st
updates since 2013 were included            •   Threats                                 International Symposium on Neotropical
following the World checklist of Selected   •   Uses                                    Magnoliaceae held in Puyo, Ecuador in
Plant Families (WcSP 2016) and after        •   conservation                            July 2015.
consultation with taxonomic experts.        •   References
                                                                                        Using all the available information, a
                                                                                        conservation category was assigned.
                                                                                        Species were assigned one of nine
                                                                                        categories: Extinct (EX), Extinct in the
                                                                                        Wild (EW), critically Endangered (cR),
                                                                                        Endangered (En), Vulnerable (VU), near
                                                                                        Threatened (nT), Least concern (Lc),
                                                                                        Data Deficient (DD) and not Evaluated
                                                                                        (nE) (Figure 1). cR, En and VU are the
                                                                                        three threatened categories. Taxa that did
                                                                                        not qualify for a threatened category, but
                                                                                        were close to qualifying for, or are likely
                                                                                        to qualify for, a threatened category in the
                                                                                        near future, were assigned to the
                                                                                        category nT. Lc was used for species
                                                                                        that are assessed but are not considered
                                                                                        threatened including widespread species
                                                                                        and rare but stable species. The use of
                                                                                        the category DD is discouraged, but may
                                                                                        be assigned to poorly known taxa.
                                                                                        Species not yet evaluated were classified
                                                                                        as nE. In this report nT and Lc taxa were
Figure 1. Structure of the IUCN Red List Categories (version 3.1) (Credit: IUCN)        considered “not threatened”.

                                                                                                                                  7
Magnoliaceae The Red List of - revised and extended Malin Rivers, Emily Beech, Lydia Murphy & Sara Oldfield - Global Trees Campaign
The Red List of Magnoliaceae

In order to assess whether a species
belongs to a threatened category (cR, En,
VU), the species were evaluated in relation
to five criteria: A) Population reduction; B)
Geographic range; c) Small population
size and decline; D) Very small or restricted
population; and E) Quantitative analysis.
The criteria are based on a set of
thresholds and subcriteria. Extensive
guidelines available to facilitate the
process for the conservation assessors
were consulted (IUcn Standards and
Petitions Subcommittee 2014). In
practice, most assessments were based
on population size and/or range size,
either observed, estimated, projected,
inferred or suspected. Assessors are
encouraged to evaluate taxa using all five
criteria, but a taxon only needs to fulfil one
of the five criteria to qualify for a            Magnolia macrophylla (Arboretum Wespelaar)
threatened category. When several criteria
were met resulting in different status           All assessments in this report were           All other information (including synonyms,
assessments, the precautionary principle         assessed on a global scale. Assessments       full distribution information, habitat,
was applied and the most threatened              carried out by national red list efforts,     ecology, conservation measures, threats
category was assigned (IUcn 2001).               were only included if species were            and uses) can be found on the website for
Once completed and reviewed, the                 country endemics (i.e. the national           the IUcn Red List of Threatened Species
assessments were sent for publication to         assessment covered the full geographical      (IUcn       2015,    www.iucnredlist.org).
the IUcn Red List of Threatened Species          distribution).                                Distribution maps have also been
(IUcn 2015).                                                                                   submitted to IUcn.
                                                 REVIEW AND EVALUATIoN
                                                 Wherever possible, expert opinions were       The threatened (cR, En, VU) species are
                                                 sought for all species assessed.              listed in alphabetical order in Part 2,
                                                 Sometimes experts carried out the             followed by the near Threatened species,
                                                 conservation assessment for their own         the Data Deficient species and the Least
                                                 species (assessors), and sometimes they       concern species.
                                                 contributed data for the conservation
                                                 assessment to be carried out                  In this report assessors are only listed for
                                                 (contributors). In accordance with IUcn       the threatened species, and when the
                                                 Red List regulations, all assessments         assessors were not the authors of
                                                 were also reviewed by a member of the         this report, BGcI staff or interns. For
                                                 GTSG (reviewer).                              full details of the assessors, contributors
                                                                                               and reviewers, see the IUcn Red
                                                 RED LIST REPoRT FoRmAT                        List of Threatened Species website
                                                 This report lists all species with their      (www.iucnredlist.org).
                                                 authors, country distribution and
                                                 conservation assessment ratings. The          A full list of species with their ex situ
                                                 threatened species are also listed with the   collections is found in Appendix 1.
Magnolia dawsoniana (Arboretum Wespelaar)        rationale for the conservation assessment.

8
The Red List of Magnoliaceae

cASE STUDIES

CASE STUDY 1: INTEGRATED                      M. wolfii. This species is only known from      seedlings were transferred to Marcella
CoNSERVATIoN ACTIoN FoR                       a single location, in the Risaralda             Botanical Garden which is close to the
Magnolia wolfii IN CoLomBIA                   department in west colombia, where the          location of the only known wild
                                              population is down to fewer than ten            population. Botanists have carried out
nearly all of colombia’s 33 Magnolia          mature trees.                                   repopulation trials to evaluate the species'
species, many of which are endemic, are                                                       growth responses under different habitat
threatened with extinction, as a result of    Despite its critically Endangered               and light conditions. This work has
habitat loss and extraction for their high-   conservation status, however, work              involved the cooperation of local farmers,
quality timber. BGcI has been working         carried out by BGcI and its in-country          with 5,000 saplings of M. wolfii and other
with in-country partners Jardín Botánico      partners is ensuring that M. wolfii will have   Magnolia species planted on their land.
de Medellín Joaquín Antonio Uribe             a more secure future. Propagation               During the trial plantings, farmers and
(JAUM) and Jardín Botánico Universidad        material collected from the wild population     protected area staff participated in
Tecnológica de Pereira (JBUTP) to             has been used to establish ex situ seed         workshops providing vital training in
counteract the impact of these threats        and living plant collections of M. wolfii at    collection, propagation and recovery
through a series of integrated in situ and    five botanic gardens in colombia. During        techniques for Magnolia species. A
ex situ conservation measures.                these surveys, project staff discovered         broader education campaign at JBUTP
                                              another three mature M. wolfii trees – a        communicated         colombia’s      unique
Since 2013, work has focused on               vital boost to the species’ tiny population.    Magnoliaceae diversity and the need for
Magnolia hernandezii, Magnolia gilbertoi,                                                     its conservation to the 10,000 visitors it
Magnolia jardinensis, Magnolia silvioi and    In addition to building up ex situ              receives at its botanic garden each year.
Magnolia wolfii. All these species have       collections, work has been underway to
restricted distributions and extremely        reinforce existing wild populations of M.       At the same time, JAUM succeeded in
small populations, but none more so than      wolfii. In 2013, 400 nursery-grown              securing the inclusion of a 140ha area of
                                                                                              tropical forest, located on the eastern
                                                                                              slopes of colombia’s Western cordillera,
                                                                                              within the colombian Association of civil
                                                                                              Society natural Reserves. This area was
                                                                                              identified during field surveys as a
                                                                                              hotspot for Magnolia species, and it is
                                                                                              hoped that its designation will continue
                                                                                              to encourage local participation in
                                                                                              developing        and       implementing
                                                                                              conservation measures for M. wolfii and
                                                                                              colombia’s other threatened Magnolia.

Fruit of Magnolia wolfii

                                                                                                                                        9
The Red List of Magnoliaceae

CASE STUDY 2: CONSERVATION                    specifically for cultivation purposes.            out as requiring the most urgent
OF THREATENED Magnolia                        Building local capacity in horticultural          conservation action as it currently
sinostellata IN ZHEJIANG                      techniques will reduce their dependence           comprises just 3-5 individuals, and is the
PROVINCE, CHINA                               on wild populations of M. sinostellata,           most genetically distinct population of the
                                              and allow the species to recover.                 three. Mount yandang is also a popular
Since Magnolia sinostellata was first                                                           tourist destination, and provides an ideal
described in 1989, this highly attractive     As well as reducing human pressure on M.          opportunity to publicise the project and
species has become a popular                  sinostellata, plans are also in place to          raise awareness of M. sinostellata
horticultural plant. Its popularity has       reinforce wild populations with individuals       conservation. Meanwhile, monitoring of the
proved to be its undoing, however, as         grown in ex situ collections. Efforts will        health and status of all three wild
widespread harvesting of specimens            focus on a population located on Mount            populations will continue, along with
from wild populations for use in              yandang in the south-east of Zheijang             surveys to identify any new, as yet
commercial nurseries has seen the             province. This population has been singled        undocumented populations of this species.
species rapidly decline. Today only three
small populations of M. sinostellata
remain in the wild, in the mountains of
Zhejiang province, south-east china.
These populations are all showing signs
of poor reproductive performance, which
is further accelerating the species’
decline and limiting the genetic diversity
of each population.

In 2015, BGcI and staff from Fairy Lake
Botanical Garden, Shenzen, initiated a
project to bring M. sinostellata back from
the brink. The project is taking an
integrated approach, with plans to
establish ex situ living collections and to
reinforce wild populations of the species.
By the end of 2015, project staff had
already successfully propagated 2,800
M. sinostellata individuals, bolstering the
species’ limited seed output with grafting
and cutting techniques.

A key part of the project is to continue
enabling local people to harness the
horticultural and economic value of M.
sinostellata without further endangering
wild populations. To this end, 2015 saw
the launch of a series of workshops and
training courses designed to train local
people and forest agency staff in
propagation and cultivation techniques
for M. sinostellata, with more workshops
planned for 2016. Work is also underway
to develop two cultivars of M. sinostellata   Magnolia sinostellata sapling in a nursery (Shouzhou Zhang)

10
The Red List of Magnoliaceae

CASE STUDY 3: MAGNOLIA                        ecosystem service is vital to the
CUBENSIS SSP. ACUNAE:                         sustainability of the local coffee industry,
A FLAGShIP SPECIES FoR ThE                    but with the disappearance of much of the
RESToRATIoN oF CUBAN CLoUD                    native cloud forest, such systems are at
FoRESTS                                       risk of breaking down altogether.

Magnolia cubensis ssp. acunae is              Since 2009, BGcI has been working with
endemic to the montane rainforests of         in-country partners the national Botanic
cuba’s Guamuhaya mountains. Forest            Gardens Havana and the cuban
clearance has destroyed much of its           Botanical Society to address the decline       Magnolia cubensis ssp. acunae
habitat, with most of its former range now    in coverage and quality of the cloud
occupied by coffee plantations, shaded        forests in Guamuhaya. As a previously          plantations, project staff and local farmers
by non-native invasive tree species. All      dominant structural cloud forest species       have been able to reinforce wild
remaining populations of M. cubensis          which is classified as critically              populations of M. cubensis ssp. acunae
ssp. acunae are located in highly             Endangered, and a highly attractive tree       through planting out nursery-grown trees
fragmented or degraded habitat. The           valued locally for its timber, M. cubensis     on the coffee plantations, in place of the
largest population lies outside any           ssp. acunae acts as a strong flagship          non-native tree species.
protected area boundaries, which puts it      species for this project.
at permanent risk of clearing for further                                                    In addition to practical interventions to
coffee plantations.                           Extensive field surveys have been carried      restore M. cubensis ssp. acunae, project
                                              out to map the full distribution of M.         partners have worked hard to raise
The rapid decline of M. cubensis ssp.         cubensis ssp. acunae and to collect            awareness among local communities of
acunae and other local trees also has wider   propagation material for establishing the      the benefits of conserving native tree
repercussions for local ecosystems and the    first ex situ collections for the species. A   species and cloud forest habitats. In
communities living within them. The           major challenge in establishing ex situ        August 2013, an environmental festival
Guamuhaya cloud forests, of which M.          collections of cloud forest species such       “Del Monte Soy” was held in Topes de
cubensis ssp. acunae was once a major         as M. cubensis ssp. acunae is that they        collantes to celebrate the relationship
component, play an important regulating       require very different conditions to those     between humans and plants, highlight the
role, capturing rainwater and humid air and   found in established botanic gardens in        value of the local flora, and to
thus controlling soil erosion, run-off and    cuba. However, the project partners            communicate the threatened conservation
flooding further down the watershed. This     came up with a way of establishing ex          status of many native plants in the region,
                                              situ collections of M. cubensis ssp.           including M. cubensis ssp. acunae. One
                                              acunae that also facilitated the species’      of the key focuses of the training
                                              conservation in the wild.                      workshops held with coffee farmers was
                                                                                             also the importance of native tree species
                                              With the cooperation of local farmers,         and habitats for local communities.
                                              native plant nurseries have been
                                              established on coffee farms, with training     Work to conserve M. cubensis ssp.
                                              given to coffee farmers and farm workers       acunae and its native habitat is set to
                                              to enable them to propagate and grow           continue into the future. One of the latest
                                              M. cubensis ssp. acunae and other              developments has been the provision of
                                              threatened native trees. The programme         toolkits to coffee farmers to help them to
                                              has expanded rapidly, and by 2013,             manage their native tree nurseries
                                              propagation efforts of 12 local nurseries      independently. Two project workers
                                              had raised over 1,500 individuals of M.        continue to be available to provide advice,
                                              cubensis ssp. acunae. Having started the       but it is the farmers and their communities
                                              process of controlling and eradicating         who will lead the work to conserve M.
Magnolia cubensis ssp. acunae                 non-native invasive trees from coffee          cubensis ssp. acunae into the future.

                                                                                                                                     11
The Red List of Magnoliaceae

RED LIST RESULTS

ThREAT STATUS                                                                                     Ten species, published recently were not
All species in the family Magnoliaceae                                                            evaluated (nE), as no information on
published prior to December 2015 are                                                              these species (including the papers
included in this Red List assessment,                                                             where the species were described) could
totalling 304 species, which makes                                                                be accessed (Appendix 3b).
this Red List of Magnoliaceae the most
comprehensive analysis of the family.                                                             CRITERIA USED
                                                                                                  In order to list a species as threatened all
Globally, 147 species were considered                                                             five criteria should be used, although only
threatened.      Sixty     species       were                                                     a single criterion needs to be met for a
considered not threatened (Least                                                                  species to be considered threatened.
concern and near Threatened). The                                                                 However, for many plant species there
remaining species, (97) were Data                Liriodendron chinense (Philippe de Spoelberch)   are not sufficient data available to allow
Deficient (Figure 2). Data Deficient                                                              all the criteria to be used. Most (77%)
species may be either threatened or not                                                           threatened species were assessed using
threatened when a full assessment                  IUCN Red                         Number        criterion B, i.e. listed as threatened due
is possible. The recommendation for                List category                   of species     to their restricted geographic range (Table
reporting this uncertainty is to give a range,                                                    3). A quarter (26%) of threatened species
which means that the proportion of                 Extinct                              0         used criteria c and D, which are based
threatened species is between 48-80%.              critically Endangered               37         on small or restricted population size.
                                                   Endangered                          84         Only 9% of threatened species were
More detailed summary results are found            Vulnerable                           26        listed using criterion A, which shows that
in Table 2. none of the species were               Data Deficient                       97        population reductions (and generation
considered Extinct, although two species           near Threatened                      13        length) are difficult to calculate for these
were considered possibly extinct (Magnolia         Least concern                        47        long-lived taxa. no species were
dixonii and Magnolia emarginata). Among            not Evaluated                        10        evaluated using criterion E (quantitative
the 60 not threatened species, there were          Total                               314        analysis of extinction risk).

                                                 Table 2. Summary of conservation                 Most species were listed using a single
                                                 assessments for species of Magnoliaceae.         criterion, but 16 (11%) threatened
                                                                                                  species had multiple criteria applied.
                                                 13 species assessed as near Threatened
                           20%
                                                 (nT), these were species that nearly fall into
          32%                                    a threatened category. One example is              criterion A              13 (9%)
                                                 Liriodendron chinense this species is under        criterion B            113 (77%)
                                                 pressure across its range from a                   criterion c             14 (10%)
                                                 combination of factors including habitat           criterion D             24 (16%)
                       48%
                                                 decline, degradation and fragmentation, as         criterion E                 0
                                                 well as issues resulting from hybridisation        Total               164 (147 species)
                                                 and poor regeneration, with subsequent
                                                 population reduction.                            Table 3. The number of threatened
            Threatened                                                                            Magnoliaceae conservation assessments
            Data Deficient                       Eleven infraspecific taxa were also              using the five different Red List criteria,
            not Threatened                       assessed, but not included in the                and the percentage of threatened species
                                                 species-level analysis (Appendix 3a).            assessed under each criterion.
Figure 2. Summary of the threatened,             More information on these can be found
Data Deficient and not threatened                on the IUcn Red List of Threatened
species of Magnoliaceae.                         Species website (www.iucnredlist.org).

12
The Red List of Magnoliaceae

GEoGRAPhICAL ANALYSIS                        having a very high number of Magnolia        Panama, El Salvador and nicaragua),
Magnoliaceae species were found in 47        species. nearly two thirds (198) of          more than 50% of their Magnolia species
countries (Figure 3, Appendix 2). The        species were single country endemics.        were considered threatened.
country with the most species was china
with 108 species (33 threatened),            When comparing the proportion of             As a whole, 75% of the neotropical
followed by Vietnam with 45 species          threatened species, the neotropics           Magnolia were considered under threat;
(14 threatened). Seven of the ten most       (Mexico, colombia and many of the            and the neotropics have more than two
species-rich countries were located          caribbean islands) showed a very high        thirds of the world’s most threatened
in East and Southeast Asia. Another          proportion of threatened species (Figure     Magnolia species – those found in
centre of diversity was in the neotropics,   4). For most countries in the neotropics,    categories critically Endangered and
with colombia, Mexico and Ecuador            with only a few exceptions (Brazil,          Endangered.

Figure 3. Magnoliaceae species richness per country.

Figure 4. The percentage of Magnoliaceae species for each country that are threatened (excluding Data Deficient species)

                                                                                                                              13
The Red List of Magnoliaceae

mAjoR ThREATS
The majority of Magnoliaceae species
were found in subtropical or tropical
forests, with a few species found in
temperate climates. A range of threats
have been recorded, associated both
with the species as well as the habitat in
which they grow. The threats were
recorded using the IUcn threat
classification scheme (IUcn 2012).

The most common threats to
Magnoliaceae are shown in Figure 5.
Logging/wood harvesting was the most
significant threat to all Magnoliaceae
species, both threatened and not
threatened. It impacted nearly half (44%)
of all species. Impacts from agriculture
(annual and perennial non-timber crops)
accounted for the second biggest threat
and was identified as a significant factor
in over one third of all species (36%).
Habitat loss due to livestock farming and     Magnolia grandiflora (Peter Timmermans)
human development were also significant
factors. Other threats included collections
of wild plant material and climate change.
                                                                  Logging & wood harvesting

                                                          Annual & perennial non-timber crops

                                                                 Livestock farming & ranching

                                                                       Housing & urban areas

                                                                         Wild plant collection

                                                            climate change & severe weather

                                                                            Roads & railroads

                                                                           Mining & quarrying

                                                                       Fire & fire suppression

                                                                     Wood & pulp plantations

                                                                commercial & industrial areas

                                                Problematic species/disease of unknown origin

                                                                   Tourism & recreation areas
                                                                                                           number of threatened species
                                                                      Ecosystem modification               number of non-threatened species
                                                              Dams & water management/use

                                                                                                 0   20   40   60     80    100    120    140

                                              Figure 5. Major threats to threatened and non-threatened Magnoliaceae species, using
Magnolia obovata (Arboretum Wespelaar)        the IUCN threat classification system.

14
The Red List of Magnoliaceae

PoPULATIoN TRENDS
The population trend for each assessed
Magnoliaceae species was also recorded
as part of the conservation assessment                  Decreasing                                               128
process. These data showed that less than
5% of species have a stable or increasing
                                                   Stable/Increasing       13
population; 42% of species have a
documented decreasing population (Figure
6). For more than half of the species                     Unknown                                                            163
assessed, the population trend was not
known. This lack of information on
population trends can lead to species                                  0    20   40   60   80    100       120   140   160         180

being assessed as Data Deficient.
                                                Figure 6. Population trends of Magnoliaceae species.
ComPARISoNS WITh ThE 2007
RED LIST oF mAGNoLIACEAE
The Red List of Magnoliaceae (cicuzza et                                                     2016                       2007
al. 2007) included 151 Magnoliaceae
taxa, of which 120 were species-level             Threatened                           147 species (152)           95 species (112)
assessments (Table 4). This new Red List          Data Deficient                        97 species (92)             9 species (10)
update contains 304 species. 107                  not threatened                        60 species (62)            16 species (29)
species from the original publication were        Total species evaluated              304 species (315)          120 species (151)
assessed again. The 13 species which
were not evaluated again are now                Table 4. Comparison of conservation assessments in The Red List of Magnoliaceae in
considered synonyms, and the accepted           2016 and 2007. Numbers in brackets include infraspecific taxa.
name has been listed instead.

Of the 107 reassessed species, most (78
species) had the same conservation
assessment category. However, 29 had
a different rating: 12 species were given a
higher category of threat, while ten
species were moved from Data Deficient
to another conservation rating. Seven
species were categorised as less
threatened (i.e. a lower category of
threat), but none of these species fell out
of a threatened category.

compared to the 2007 publication, the
2016 Red List of Magnoliaceae lists 52
additional species that have been
identified as at risk of extinction. There
are also 44 additional species that have
been identified as not at risk of extinction,
and, worryingly, 88 species that have
insufficient information to assess their
conservation status.                            Magnolia laevifolia

                                                                                                                                         15
The Red List of Magnoliaceae

Ex situ SURVEy OF MAGnOLIAcEAE

In addition to the conservation
assessments, we also carried out an ex                        PlantSearch
situ survey to assess the representation
of Magnoliaceae species in ex situ                            BGcI’s PlantSearch database is the only global database of plants in cultivation.
collections of botanic gardens, arboreta                      It is available online, and it is free to contribute to and access. PlantSearch
and seed banks around the world.                              connects around 2,000 researchers and horticulturists to collections every year.
                                                              Locations and gardens are not publicly revealed and requests can be made via
All    Magnoliaceae         records     were                  blind email messages. PlantSearch is an easy way for ex situ collection holders
downloaded from BGcI’s global                                 to contribute to broader ex situ assessments, such as this survey. By uploading
database of plants in cultivation -                           a taxa list to PlantSearch, collection holders can connect their collections to the
PlantSearch (Box 2) (as of 26 January                         global botanical community and find out the conservation value of their taxa,
2016). In addition, lists of ex situ Magnolia                 including the number of locations each taxon is known from globally and its
collections sent to us from specialist                        current global conservation status. It is important for institutions with ex situ
collections not on PlantSearch and the                        collections to share accurate data and keep it updated, and PlantSearch relies
chinese checklist of ex situ cultivated                       on collection holders to upload up-to-date taxa lists on an annual basis to
flora (Huang 2014) were consulted.                            ensure accuracy and enhance usability of the data.

The ex situ survey identified 9,918 records                   www.bgci.org/plant_search.php
of Magnoliaceae from 490 institutions
(Table 5). This number represents the
presence of a single taxon in a collection
within an institution and does not take into
account the number of accessions or                                        Species reported in ex situ collections    Species not reported in ex situ collections

individuals. Only species records were                                60
included in the analysis; records of                                                                                                                      55

cultivars or infraspecific taxa were                                  50                           48
excluded. In total 4,476 records matched
                                                                                                                                     40              42
with Magnoliaceae species included in
                                                  number of species

                                                                      40
                                                                                              36
this Red List or with synonyms.
                                                                      30
SPECIES IN EX SITU CoLLECTIoNS                                                     23
Exactly half of all Magnoliaceae species                              20
(152 of 304 species) are found in ex situ                                     14                              13 13
collections. However, species in ex situ                              10                                               7                     7
                                                                                                                                6
collections are often (82 of 152) those
listed as Least concern or Data Deficient                              0
(Figure 8). Only 43% (63 of 147) of                                             cR              En              VU         nT           Lc             DD
threatened Magnolia species (critically
Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable)          Figure 7. Presence and absence of Magnoliaceae species in ex situ collections per
are found in ex situ collections (Figure 7),    IUCN Red List Category.
well below Target 8 of the Global Strategy
for Plant conservation which calls for 75%                                                                             Table 5. Summary statistics for the
                                                                                                          2016
of threatened plants to be held in ex situ                                                           ex situ survey    ex situ survey of Magnoliaceae.
collections (cBD 2012).
                                                  number of records                                       9918
Fifty-nine percent of the critically              number of institutions                                   490
Endangered and Endangered Magnolia                number of countries                                       61
species (71 out of 121 species) are not

16
The Red List of Magnoliaceae

reported in ex situ collections and these
                                                  Species                                            Country
should be prioritised to be brought into
collections. Species that are not in an           Magnolia calimaensis                               colombia
ex situ collection have no safeguard in           Magnolia canandeana                                Ecuador
the event their wild populations are              Magnolia cararensis                                colombia
lost. Twenty-three critically Endangered          Magnolia cespedesii                                colombia
species not found in collections are listed       Magnolia chimantensis                              colombia
in Table 6 together with their country of         Magnolia coronata                                  colombia
occurrence; of these, 20 are endemic to           Magnolia dixonii                                   Ecuador
the neotropics. Successful efforts have           Magnolia domingensis                               Haiti, Dominican Republic
been made by BGcI to target threatened            Magnolia ekmanii                                   Haiti
Magnolia species in these regions                 Magnolia emarginata                                Haiti
previously (See case Studies 1 and 3).            Magnolia faustinomirandae                          Mexico
Further efforts should be made to bring the       Magnolia gustavii                                  India, Myanmar, Thailand
remaining critically Endangered species           Magnolia lacandonica                               Mexico
into collections as soon as possible.             Magnolia manguillo                                 Peru
                                                  Magnolia mayae                                     Mexico
NUmBER oF ex situ                                 Magnolia narinensis                                colombia
CoLLECTIoNS                                       Magnolia ofeliae                                   Mexico
Sixty-two percent (39 of 63 species) of           Magnolia pleiocarpa                                India
threatened Magnolia species are found in          Magnolia sanchez-vegae                             Peru
a very small number of collections (fewer         Magnolia tiepii                                    Vietnam
than five collections), with the majority         Magnolia vallartensis                              Mexico
only found in a single collection (Figure 8).     Magnolia virolinensis                              colombia
Species found in only a few collections           Magnolia wendtii                                   Mexico
do not have sufficient protection against
stochastic events or loss from natural          Table 6. Critically Endangered Magnolia species not in ex situ collections.
causes. Furthermore, small collection
numbers are unlikely to capture sufficient
genetic diversity to enable the collections         35
to be used in restoration or reintroduction                                                          non threatened          Threatened
programmes.                                         30

                                                    25

                                                    20

                                                    15

                                                    10

                                                     5

                                                     0
                                                              1     2-5     6-10   11-20   21-30   31-50   51-100     100+   200+

                                                Figure 8. Number of collections of Magnoliaceae species.
Magnolia sprengeri (Arboretum Wespelaar)

                                                                                                                                          17
The Red List of Magnoliaceae

In contrast, some species are
                                                  Species                                ex situ collections   Red List Category
widespread among botanic gardens and
arboreta around the world (Table 7).              Liriodendron tulipifera                           255               Lc
These species are generally considered            Magnolia grandiflora                              225               Lc
not threatened, one exception being               Magnolia kobus                                    211               DD
Magnolia stellata, which is listed as             Magnolia stellata                                 206               En
Endangered in the wild and is present in          Magnolia tripetala                                159               Lc
over 200 ex situ collections and is also          Magnolia acuminata                                157               Lc
widespread in general horticulture. The           Magnolia virginiana                               152               Lc
quality of ex situ Magnolia collections, in       Magnolia sieboldii                                148               Lc
terms of size of collections and genetic          Magnolia denudata                                 145               Lc
diversity, is not included in the remit of        Magnolia obovata                                  136               Lc
this survey. It will be important to consider     Liriodendron chinense                             134               nT
these two factors when bringing new               Magnolia macrophylla                              121               Lc
species into collections, to maximise the         Magnolia wilsonii                                 111               nT
conservation value of the ex situ                 Magnolia figo                                     103               Lc
collection. Further work on the genetic           Magnolia campbellii                               103               Lc
components and relevance of ex situ
collections have been carried out for           Table 7. Species in over 100 ex situ collections.
Magnoliaceae (cires et al. 2013), and in
more detail for other groups (i.e. Griffith
                                                  Taxon Names                            ex situ collections   Red List Category
et al. 2015).
                                                  Magnolia colombiana                                1                cR
ComPARISoN WITh 2008 ex situ                      Magnolia dandyi                                   15                Lc
SURVEY oF mAGNoLIACEAE                            Magnolia duperreana                                1                DD
A comparison of the results from this             Magnolia espinalii                                 1                cR
survey with those of an ex situ survey of         Magnolia henaoi                                    1                En
Magnoliaceae carried out in 2008 (BGcI            Magnolia katiorum                                  1                cR
2008) show an increase in the number of           Magnolia lanuginosa                               13                DD
records of Magnoliaceae in ex situ                Magnolia lenticellata                              1                En
collections of 7,644. This is due in part to      Magnolia longipedunculata                          1                cR
data being provided from a further 252            Magnolia macclurei                                20                Lc
institutions from 14 additional countries.        Magnolia mahechae                                  1                En
But importantly Magnoliaceae species              Magnolia nilagirica                                1                VU
are now better conserved in ex situ               Magnolia pallescens                                1                En
collections. In addition, there are 22            Magnolia platyphylla                               1                DD
species that were not present in                  Magnolia pugana                                    1                En
cultivation in 2008 that are now available        Magnolia rajaniana                                 1                VU
in ex situ collections (Table 8). This shows      Magnolia sabahensis                                1                Lc
the impact and importance of the Red              Magnolia sambuensis                                9                nT
List assessments and the subsequent ex            Magnolia striatifolia                              1                En
situ survey highlighting and prioritising         Magnolia urraoensis                                1                En
conservation action.                              Magnolia utilis                                    1                DD
                                                  Magnolia vrieseana                                 1                DD

                                                Table 8. Species unreported from ex situ collections in 2008 now present in ex situ
                                                collections.

18
The Red List of Magnoliaceae

cOncLUSIOnS AnD REcOMMEnDATIOnS

PoLICY RELEVANCE                                                                            • Assess the extent to which species
This new Red List of Magnoliaceae                                                             are included in protected areas.
contributes directly to Target 2 of the                                                     • Develop integrated conservation
Global Strategy for Plant conservation of                                                     action plans for the most threatened
the convention on Biological Diversity,                                                       species.
which calls for “an assessment of the
conservation status of all known plant                                                      Raise awareness and build capacity
species, as far as possible, to guide                                                       locally and internationally:
conservation action” by 2020 (cBD 2012).                                                    • Empower and inform communities
In addition, an assessment of threatened                                                       about the uniqueness and
species is also needed to ensure that                                                          importance of the Magnoliaceae
Target 8 of the Global Strategy for Plant                                                      species found in their local
conservation is met. This target calls for                                                     environment.
“at least 75 per cent of threatened plant                                                   • Use local plant nurseries and planting
species in ex situ collections, preferably in                                                  schemes to enhance the status of
the country of origin, and at least 20 per      Magnolia acuminata (Arboretum Wespelaar)       the most threatened Magnolia
cent available for recovery and restoration                                                    species in the wild.
programmes” (cBD 2012).                         improve the conservation status for         • Build horticultural capacity of
                                                Magnoliaceae, a number of conservation         in-country partners and local
The Red List of Magnoliaceae aims to            measures are recommended:                      communities, including protocols for
stimulate conservation action for                                                              collection, propagation and cultivation.
Magnolia species under threat. The aim          Collect more information on Data
is for these conservation assessments for       Deficient species:                          There has been significant progress since
Magnoliaceae to guide conservation              • More information is needed on the         the last Red List of Magnoliaceae was
action and policy decisions for the very          large proportion of species for which     produced in 2007: more Magnolia
rare and threatened species. The priority         there was not enough data to assess       species have been discovered and
is to protect Magnolia in their natural           their conservation status (listed as      described, more Magnolia species have a
habitats. Many of the most threatened             Data Deficient).                          conservation assessment, and more
species are still absent from ex situ           • Report any known information on           Magnolia species are now conserved in
collections, and should also be prioritised       these species to redlist@bgci.org to      ex situ collections. nevertheless, much
for targeted collection efforts.                  allow a full assessment to take place.    more needs to be done in order to save
                                                • Target fieldwork and data collection      many Magnolia species from extinction.
BGcI and the Global Trees campaign                for priority regions where these          Future work should focus on the
work with botanic gardens to enhance ex           species occur.                            recommendations above, and use the
situ conservation for globally threatened                                                   information gathered in this publication to
Magnolia taxa where appropriate and to          Ensure threatened species of                effectively prioritise conservation action.
promote in situ conservation planning,          magnoliaceae are conserved in situ
ecological restoration and sustainable          and ex situ:
use. More information about these               • Develop ex situ conservation
projects     are     available      online        collections for the threatened
(www.globaltrees.org/projects).                   Magnoliaceae species not yet
                                                  represented in any ex situ collections.
RECommENDATIoNS                                 • Wherever possible, house ex situ
The Red List of Magnoliaceae is a step            collections in more than one
towards the Global Tree Assessment (GTA)          institution and location.
which will provide information on the threat    • Ensure genetic diversity is taken into
status of all the world’s trees. In order to      account when building ex situ
achieve the GTA and, more specifically,           collections.                              Magnolia equatorialis (Alvaro Perez)

                                                                                                                                   19
The Red List of Magnoliaceae

REFEREncES

                                            Griffith, m.P., Calonje, m., meerow,         IUCN (2013) Rules of Procedures IUCN
                                            A.W., Tut, F., Kramer, A.T., hird, A.,       Red List Assessment Process 2013-
                                            magellan, T.m. & husby, C.E. (2015)          2016. International Union for
                                            can a Botanic Garden cycad collection        conservation of nature and natural
                                            capture the Genetic Diversity in a Wild      Resources. Available from:
                                            Population?. International Journal of        http://cmsdocs.s3.amazonaws.com/key
                                            Plant Sciences, 176(1): 1–10.                documents/Rules%20of%20Procedure
                                                                                         %20for%20Red%20List_2013-2016.pdf
                                            huang, hongwen (2014) A checklist of         (accessed: 18 September 2015).
                                            ex situ cultivated flora of China. Science
                                            Press, Beijing.                              IUCN Standards and Petitions
                                                                                         Subcommittee (2014) Guidelines for
                                            IPNI (2015) The International Plant          Using the IUCN Red List Categories
                                            Names Index. Royal Botanic Gardens,          and Criteria. Version 11. Prepared by
                                            kew, Uk. Available from:                     the Standards and Petitions
                                            http://www.ipni.org/ (accessed: 20           Subcommittee. Available from:
                                            August 2015).                                http://www.iucnredlist.org/documents/R
                                                                                         edListGuidelines.pdf (accessed: 20
                                            IUCN (2001) IUCN Red List Categories         August 2015).
                                            and Criteria: Version 3.1. IUcn Species
Magnolia wilsonii (Arboretum Wespelaar)     Survival commission. IUcn. Gland,            IUCN (2015) The IUCN Red List of
                                            Switzerland and cambridge, Uk.               Threatened Species, version 2015.4.
BGCI (2008) Global Survey of Ex situ                                                     International Union for conservation of
Magnoliaceae Collections. Botanic           IUCN (2012) IUCN –CMP Unified                nature and natural Resource. Available
Gardens conservation International.         Classification of Direct Threats.            from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Richmond, Uk. Available from:               International Union for conservation of      (accessed: December 2015).
http://www.bgci.org/files/Worldwide/glo     nature and natural Resources. Available
bal_survey_of_ex_situ_magnoliaceae_c        from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/            Newton, A., oldfield, S., Rivers, m.,
ollections.pdf (accessed: 18 September      documents/Dec_2012_Guidance_Threa            mark, j., Schatz, G., Tejedor
2015).                                      ts_classification_Scheme.pdf                 Garavito, N., Cantarello, E., Golicher,
                                            (accessed: 3 February 2016).                 D., Cayuela, L. & miles, L. (2015)
Cicuzza, D., Newton, A. & oldfield, S.                                                   Towards a Global Tree Assessment.
(2007) The Red List of Magnoliaceae.                                                     Oryx, 49: 410-415.
Fauna & Flora International. cambridge,                                                  doi:10.1017/S0030605315000137.
Uk.
                                                                                         The Plant List (2013) The Plant List
Cires, E., De Smet, Y., Cuesta, C.                                                       version 1.1. Royal Botanic Gardens,
Goetghebeur, P. Sharrock, S., Gibbs,                                                     kew, Uk. Available from:
D., oldfield, S., Kramer, A. & Samain,                                                   http://www.theplantlist.org/ (accessed:
m-S. (2013) Gap analyses to support ex                                                   20 August 2015).
situ conservation of genetic diversity in
Magnolia, a flagship group. Biodiversity                                                 WCSP (2016) World Checklist of
and Conservation 22(3): 567-590.                                                         Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by
                                                                                         the Royal Botanic Gardens, kew.
CBD (2012) Global Strategy for Plant                                                     Available from:
conservation: 2011-2020. Botanic                                                         http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ (accessed:
Gardens conservation International.                                                      28 January 2016).
Richmond, Uk.                               Trunk of Magnolia (Lou Jost)

20
You can also read