Mapping primary care in Australia - Hal Swerissen and Stephen Duckett

Mapping primary care in Australia - Hal Swerissen and Stephen Duckett

Mapping primary care in Australia Hal Swerissen and Stephen Duckett July 2018

Mapping primary care in Australia - Hal Swerissen and Stephen Duckett

Mapping primary care in Australia Grattan Institute Support Founding members Endowment Supporters The Myer Foundation National Australia Bank Susan McKinnon Foundation Affiliate Partners Medibank Private Susan McKinnon Foundation Senior Affiliates Google Maddocks PwC McKinsey & Company The Scanlon Foundation Wesfarmers Affiliates Ashurst Corrs Deloitte GE ANZ Jemena Urbis Westpac Woodside Grattan Institute Report No. 2018-09, July 2018 This report was written by Hal Swerissen and Stephen Duckett.

Naveen Tenetti and Greg Moran provided research support. We would like to thank the members of Grattan Institute’s Health Program Reference Group for their helpful comments and industry participants and officials for their input.

The opinions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of Grattan Institute’s founding members, affiliates, individual board members or reference group members. Any remaining errors or omissions are the responsibility of the authors. Grattan Institute is an independent think-tank focused on Australian public policy. Our work is independent, practical and rigorous. We aim to improve policy outcomes by engaging with both decision-makers and the community. For further information on the Institute’s programs, or to join our mailing list, please go to: This report may be cited as: Hal Swerissen, Stephen Duckett, and Greg Moran.

(2018). Mapping primary care in Australia. Grattan Institute. ISBN: 978-0-6483311-0-0 All material published or otherwise created by Grattan Institute is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License Grattan Institute 2018 2

Mapping primary care in Australia - Hal Swerissen and Stephen Duckett

Mapping primary care in Australia Overview Strong primary care is central to an efficient, equitable and effective health system. Australia has good-quality primary care by international standards, but this report shows that it can and should be better. Too many poorer Australians still can’t afford to go to a GP when they need to, or a dentist when they should. People in rural and remote areas still find it too hard to get to a pharmacist or medical specialist. Australians’ access to general practice varies according to their means. Two-thirds of Australians are bulk-billed for all their visits to the GP.

But for those who are not, the financial barriers can be high. About 4 per cent of Australians say they delay seeing a GP because of the cost. Individuals or their private health insurer have to pay for the bulk of dental care. As a result, about one in five Australians do not get the recommended level of oral health care. Worse, people on low incomes who can’t afford to pay often wait for years to get public dental services. Access to allied health services such as physiotherapy and podiatry varies significantly according to the patient’s address. Victorians are nearly four times more likely to use Medicare-funded allied health services than people in the Northern Territory.

More broadly, the funding, organisation and management of primary care has not kept pace with changes to disease patterns, the economic pressure on health services, and technological advances. In particular, primary care services are not organised well enough to support integrated, comprehensive care for the 20 per cent of Australians who have complex and chronic conditions. Nor is primary care well organised to prevent or reduce the incidence of conditions such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. Broader community-level functions of primary health care – such as developing self-help groups and promoting healthy environments – are also being neglected.

Primary care in Australia is typically delivered by many thousands of small, private businesses: the local dentist, pharmacist, physiotherapist or GP clinic. Funding and payment arrangements are fragmented and variable. There is insufficient data to properly plan the distribution of services and monitor the quality of care. Governance and accountability are split between various levels of government and numerous separate agencies, making overall management of the system difficult. Primary care policy in Australia is under-done. Neither the Commonwealth nor the states have taken the lead. This report shows new policies are needed: Australia needs a comprehensive national primary care framework to improve patient care and prevention; formal agreements between the Commonwealth, the states and Primary Health Networks to improve system management; and new funding, payment and organisational arrangements to help keep populations healthy and to provide better long-term care for the increasing number of older Australians who live with complex and chronic conditions.

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Mapping primary care in Australia - Hal Swerissen and Stephen Duckett

Mapping primary care in Australia Table of contents Overview ___ 3
1 Introduction ___ 6
2 General practice is central to primary care ___ 10
3 Pharmacists: providers of advice and medication ___ 18
4 Allied health and nursing services ___ 23
5 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health practitioners ___ 30
6 Oral health services ___ 33
7 Community health, maternal and child health, and women’s health services ___ 37
8 Primary care and specialist services ___ 40
9 Primary care policy and organisation ___ 49
10 The challenges facing primary care ___ 53
11 Conclusion: Primary care policy is a renovator’s opportunity ___ 58
A Summary of previous recommendations for primary care reform ___ 60
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Mapping primary care in Australia - Hal Swerissen and Stephen Duckett

Mapping primary care in Australia List of Figures 1.1 Primary Care Services link to all other parts of the health system ___ 6
1.2 Governments pay most of the general practice and community health bill ___ 9
2.1 GP numbers are increasing ___ 10
2.2 Access to GPs is lower in remote areas ___ 11
2.3 GPs work mainly in group private practice ___ 12
2.4 People in very remote areas pay more out-of-pocket for non-bulk billed services ___ 13
2.5 GP visits are increasing again ___ 14
2.6 Older people form a growing share of GP consultations ___ 15
3.1 Older people are the biggest users of prescribed medication ___ 20
3.2 Disadvantaged Australians are more likely to delay filling a prescription ___ 22
4.1 Allied Health practitioners work in a range of settings ___ 26
4.2 Optometry and psychology are the most-used allied health services ___ 27
4.3 People in Victoria use Medicare-funded allied health services most; people in the Northern Territory use them least ___ 28
4.4 People in very remote areas use allied health services least, and the cost to the patient is higher ___ 29
5.1 Most ATSI health practitioners work outside the major cities ___ 30
5.2 Most ATSI health practitioners work in Aboriginal health services ___ 31
6.1 Most oral health workers are dentists ___ 33
6.2 Poorer Australians are less likely to go to the dentist ___ 34
6.3 People in cities have best access to dental services ___ 35
6.4 Individuals contribute most for dental services ___ 36
8.1 Out-of-pocket costs for specialist medical practitioners are highest in very remote area ___ 42
8.2 Lack of care coordination is a problem for many Australians with long-term health conditions ___ 47
9.1 Members are using private health services more ___ 52
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Mapping primary care in Australia - Hal Swerissen and Stephen Duckett

Mapping primary care in Australia 1 Introduction Each year more than 20 million Australians see GPs, pharmacists, dentists and other primary care practitioners. These front-line services are usually our first point of contact with the health system. This report maps these services, traces their relationship with other specialist community-based services (see Figure 1.1), and discusses the key policy issues facing primary care and the options for addressing them. This chapter outlines what primary care is and where it sits in the health system. Primary care spending is growing much faster than the economy.

This chapter outlines how primary care is organised, with responsibility split between the Commonwealth and the States. 1.1 What is primary care?

Primary care is the foundation of health care in the community.1 In Australia, the major primary care services are general practice, allied health, pharmacy, nursing, dentistry, health promotion, maternal and child health, women’s health and family planning. These services vary in the extent to which they are universal and integrated with other services and sectors in the health system. Primary care services aim to promote health and well-being, prevent illness, treat a range of conditions, assist people to rehabilitate and recover, and support people to live at home.2 Primary care is also the pathway to specialist services.

It is central to the management, treatment and support of people with chronic and complex conditions at home and in the community. 1. DoH (2013a).

2. Anastasy et al. (2018); Kringos et al. (2015); and WHO (2010). Figure 1.1: Primary Care Services link to all other parts of the health system Primary Care Services Hospital Allied Health Dentistry Nursing Pharmacy General Practice Other services Specialist Community Based Services Home & Community Alcohol & Drug Mental Health Specialist medical Residential Care Health promotion Other specialist Grattan Institute 2018 6

Mapping primary care in Australia As Figure 1.1 shows, primary care intersects and interacts with hospital care, specialist community-based services and residential care.

Most people who are ill or injured first attend a pharmacy, a general practice or a hospital emergency department. If they need primary care it is usually provided through a general practice. When specialist health care is required, referrals are made to specialist medical practitioners, allied health practitioners, oral health practitioners, or specialist services such as alcohol and drug or mental health agencies.

1.1.1 Primary care and primary health care Primary care is a component of primary health care. Primary health care includes a broader focus on the social, economic and environmental factors that influence health, including housing, education, the distribution of income and wealth, and the physical environment. These factors have a big impact on the health of any community.3 By contrast, primary care provides front-line personal health services to individuals. It has only a limited influence on broader social, economic and environmental factors. However, primary care services can reinforce community action to tackle these broader issues; primary care practitioners often take part in health promotion services that work with schools, workplaces and other community organisations.

1.2 Why is primary care important?

Internationally, the evidence suggests that primary care systems which provide universal access to a comprehensive range of local, community-based services that are well integrated, coordinated and continuous, produce better health outcomes and more efficient health services. Evidence remains limited, but to the extent it is available it 3. Muldoon et al. (2005). suggests stronger primary care cuts the number of avoidable hospital visits, improves population health, ensures better access and reduces inequality.4 1.2.1 Demand for primary care is increasing Life expectancy in Australia has increased dramatically over the past century, from around 50 years to 80 years, particularly as a result of reduced deaths in early life.5 Most Australians will now die of chronic disease in older age.

Health expenditure on people over 65 is about four times higher than for younger people.6 Prevention and management of chronic and complex conditions as the population ages has increased demand for health services, including primary care and specialist community services.

People with chronic and complex conditions increasingly want to live at home and in the community rather than in an institution. Large-scale residential facilities for people with disabilities and mental illness have been closed, residential care for older people scaled back, and length of stay in hospitals reduced. As a result, demand for care, treatment and support at home and in the community has increased dramatically.7 Fortunately, innovation and technological improvements have expanded the range of health conditions that can be treated and managed at home and in the community.8 Information and communication technology has also increased the capacity to provide services at home and in the community.9 4.

Starfield (2012); Cathcart (2007); Rechel and McKee (2009); and De Maeseneer et al. (2007).

5. AIHW (2017a). 6. Tapper and Phillimore (2014). 7. Ibid. 8. Sorenson et al. (2013). 9. Weisfeld and Lustig (2015). Grattan Institute 2018 7

Mapping primary care in Australia Governments are also seeking to improve primary care to reduce health costs. The demand for and cost of health services continue to increase faster than economic growth. From 1989-90 to 2013-14, Australian health expenditure grew from 6.5 per cent of GDP to 9.7 per cent of GDP.10 Growth in health spending is the biggest element of growth in overall government spending.11 Governments have therefore sought to constrain growth in health spending, particularly in high-cost hospital and residential care, by emphasising the prevention, support and management of chronic disease in primary care and home and community settings.

At the same time as the demand for primary and specialist community care and home and community support has increased, informal community support from family and friends has reduced. Women are much more likely to be in the paid workforce. Families are getting smaller, and family members are much more geographically mobile. As result it is more difficult for families to provide support for relatives with chronic and complex care needs.12 The scope and role of primary care has therefore expanded. The traditional focus on prevention, early intervention and gate-keeping is no longer enough. Primary care is increasingly important in the treatment, management and support of people with complex and chronic conditions at home and in the community.

1.3 Responsibility for primary care in Australia In Australia, the Commonwealth and the state and territory governments have agreed that the Commonwealth has ‘lead responsibility’ 10. AIHW (2016a).

11. Daley et al. (2013). 12. Deloitte Access Economics (2015). for primary care. In practice, the Commonwealth has principal responsibility for the funding, organisation and management of primary medical care. The states and territories provide a range of primary care and specialist community health services, and are primarily responsible for hospital care. Over the five years from 2010-11 to 2015-16, primary care expenditure increased by almost 20 per cent ($32 billion to $38 billion), substantially above the rate of inflation.

In 2015-16, primary care services (other than pharmaceuticals) cost almost $40 billion, almost one quarter of total recurrent health spending.13 About 40 per cent of primary care spending is by the Commonwealth Government, and about one quarter each by state governments and individuals as out-of-pocket payments.

The balance is from private health insurance (7 per cent) and other payers (5 per cent).14 Government and private shares of spending vary across different sectors (see Figure 1.2 on the next page). The Commonwealth Government pays for 84 per cent of the cost of general practice visits, individual’s out-of-pocket payments account for more than half (58 per cent) of the cost of dental services, and states are the dominant funder of community and public health services. 1.4 How this report is organised The rest of this report describes in more detail the state of primary care in Australia.

Chapters 2 to 7 describe and discuss the functions, workforce, organisation, funding and usage of the main primary care services in 13. AIHW (2017b). 14. Strictly speaking, the category is ‘state and local governments’, shortened here to state governments because local government expenditure is trivially small. Grattan Institute 2018 8

Mapping primary care in Australia Australia. For each of these services we consider access, outcomes, quality and efficiency. Chapter 8 describes the interaction between primary care and the main specialist community services, including specialist medical services, home care and support, mental health, and alcohol and drug services.

Chapter 9 discusses the national policy framework for primary care, how this has been implemented by the Commonwealth and the states and territories, and how primary care is managed and organised. Chapter 10 summarises the policy issues, and Chapter 11 discuss the options to address them.

Figure 1.2: Governments pay most of the general practice and community health bill Per cent of expenditure 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 General practice Dental Other health practitioners Community and public health Common wealth Other Individuals Private Health insurance State & local Source: AIHW, Australian health expenditure, 2015-16. Grattan Institute 2018 9

Mapping primary care in Australia 2 General practice is central to primary care GPs are central to primary care. But in Australia, access to GPs varies. It is much better in major cities than remote areas.

About a third of Australians have out-of-pocket costs each year from seeing a GP. Around 4 per cent of Australians delay visiting a GP because of cost. GPs are a gateway to specialist health services, and they have a significant role in coordinating services for people with complex care needs at home and in the community. But GP coordination of complex care could be improved: about a third of people with complex needs have problems with the coordination of their care (see Chapter 9). In particular, there is significant room to improve how GP services address common risk factors including obesity, alcohol use and smoking.

General practice is mainly delivered through numerous small practices owned as partnerships between participating GPs. Most GP remuneration comes from fees-for-service, made up of Commonwealth rebates and patient co-payments. Performance payments are only a minor component of overall GP remuneration. Most of the funding for GPs comes from the Commonwealth. 2.1 Workforce In Australia, general practice is the most commonly used part of the primary care system. Typically, it is Australians’ entry point into the health care system.

GPs, in addition to being a first point of contact, can:
  • Coordinate the care of patients and refer patients to specialist practitioners; Figure 2.1: GP numbers are increasing 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009 2012 2015 GPs per 100,000 (LHS) Non-referred encounters per capita (RHS) Non referred encounters per GP – 1000s (RHS) Source: DoH (2017a). Grattan Institute 2018 10
  • Mapping primary care in Australia
  • Provide comprehensive care, advice and disease prevention and health promotion education to patients over a long period; and
  • Provide general medical care for all diseases and people across the life cycle from birth to death.15 According to the Medical Board of Australia, there are about 25,000 GPs working in Australia.16 As Figure 2.1 on the preceding page shows, the number of GPs grew broadly in line with population for much of the 2000s. But in the late-2000s, GP numbers accelerated.17 There are now concerns that there is an oversupply of GPs in some parts of Australia, and that this leads to increasing levels of GP services and greater costs, for example, from ordering of diagnostic tests.18 Figure 2.1 shows that as GP numbers grew faster over the past decade or so, the number of non-referred encounters with GPs per person also increased. The workload of GPs – the number of non-referred encounters per GP – has fallen over the past decade. The increasing number of GPs has improved access in remote areas, although it remains worse than in inner regional areas and major cities (see Figure 2.2). On a full-time service equivalent (FSE) basis, there are about 110 GPs per 100,000 people in major cities and inner regional areas, but only half as many in very remote areas.19 15. RACGP (2017a).

16. Medical Board of Australia (2017). It should be noted that estimates of GP population ratios vary depending on whether data for registrations or services are used and whether estimates are adjusted for full-time equivalence. 17. The number of medical students increased significantly, and reliance on overseastrained doctors in rural areas continued. 18. Birrell (2016). 19. DoH (2018a). Figure 2.2: Access to GPs is lower in remote areas Full-time service equivalent per 100 000 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Source: DoH (2017b).

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Mapping primary care in Australia 2.2 Organisation As Figure 2.3 shows, the vast majority of GPs mainly operate in private practice, either in a group practice or by themselves. The remainder principally work in a range of public and private organisations, including hospitals and Aboriginal health services. There is no authoritative source for the number of GP clinics in Australia, but estimates generally put the number at around 7,000.20 This suggests that in addition to the 3,000 solo private practices indicated by the data shown in Figure 2.1, there are about 4,000 group private practices.21 Most general practices are small, locally based, privately owned business.

The survey data in Table 2.1 suggest about 70 per cent of GPs work in practices of fewer than 10 GPs. Ownership models for group practices differ. Some practices are owned by GPs as equal partners, some have a GP as principal with other GPs as associates, and some have corporate ownership with GPs as employees or contractors.22 The ‘corporatisation’ of general practice has been a trend in Australia since the late-1990s.23 Australia’s three largest corporate chains currently manage around 5 per cent of practices and employ about 15 per cent of GPs.24 20. IBISWorld (2018a) estimates there were 7,185 GP ‘establishments’ in 2014-15.

Erny-Albrecht and Bywood (2016) reported a figure of 7,035 practices in 2010-11 based on surveys of the then Divisions of General Practice. 21. IBISWorld (2018a).

22. Joyce et al. (2016). 23. DoHA (2012). 24. Erny-Albrecht and Bywood (2016). Figure 2.3: GPs work mainly in group private practice 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 Other Locum private practice Aboriginal Health services Hospital Solo private practice Group private practice Source: DoH (2017b). Table 2.1: Most GP practices are small Number of GPs in the practice Per cent of surveyed GPs 1 8.3 2-4 24.3 5-9 38.6 10-14 17.9 15+ 10.9 Source: BEACH (2017). Grattan Institute 2018 12

Mapping primary care in Australia 2.3 Usage In 2015-16, around 86 per cent of the population made a non-referred visit to a GP.

There were 145 million non-referred encounters in total.25 About 85 per cent of non-referred visits were bulk billed.26 However, only 65 per cent of people who saw a GP in 2016-17 had all their services bulk billed.27 For those services that weren’t bulk billed, the average patient’s contribution was $34. In 2016-17, about 4 per cent of patients reported delaying seeing a GP because of costs.28 On average, people made about five non-referred visits to a GP in 2015-16. As Figure 2.4 shows, people in remote and very remote areas made the least number of visits. On average, people in very remote locations made about half the number of non-referred visits to a GP than did people in major cities.

The proportion of bulk-billed services is about the same for people in major cities, inner regional and outer regional areas. The proportion of bulk-billed services increases for people in very remote areas, but the average out-of-pocket payment for non-bulk billed services increases from $34 in major cities to $38 in very remote areas (see Figure 2.4). Surveys show that the proportion of patients who felt they had to wait longer than was acceptable to see a GP was marginally higher in outer regional and remote areas than in cities.29 As Figure 2.5 shows, the average number of non-referred visits to a GP is higher now than in the mid-1990s, after dipping in the early-to-mid 2000s.

The share of non-referred visits that were bulk-billed followed a similar trend.

25. DoH (2017c). 26. Ibid. 27. Senate Community Affairs Committee 2017 (2017). 28. ABS (2017). 29. Ibid. Figure 2.4: People in very remote areas pay more out-of-pocket for nonbulk billed services Services per person dollars 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Major city Inner regional Outer regional Remote Very remote Bulk bill per person (LHS) Average out of Pocket (RHS) Services per person (LHS) Source: DoH (2017d). Grattan Institute 2018 13

Mapping primary care in Australia Figure 2.5 also shows that before the early-2000s, non-referred visits to a GP that were claimed through Medicare were almost entirely consultation items in Medicare Benefits Schedule groups A1 and A2.

Table 2.2 on page 17 shows the individual item numbers included in each of these groups. A previous Grattan Institute report highlighted the fact that there is limited data on the quality of these encounters.30 GPs are often the gateway to other services. The Medicare rules effectively require a GP referral before patients can obtain rebates for specialist medical and allied health services. Similarly, access to pharmaceuticals, diagnostic imaging and radiology require GP (or other medical practitioner) prescriptions and referrals. About 16 per cent of GP consultations result in a referral.31 About 60 per cent of referrals are made to medical specialists, and the remainder to other specialist (allied health) services.

The most common reasons for referral to a medical specialist are skin or skeletal problems or sleep disturbance. The most common reasons for referral to allied health services are mental health, diabetes and musculoskeletal complaints.

2.4 Patient characteristics Unsurprisingly, older people are more likely to see a GP. Almost all (95 per cent) of people over the age of 65 saw a GP in 2016-17. Seventy-five per cent of people aged between 15 and 24 saw a GP.32 People over 65 now account for 26 per cent of item 23 (standard consultation less than 20 minutes) consultations, up from 18 per cent 20 years ago (see Figure 2.6).33 This reflects both usage and demographics. Older people are having standard consultations with 30. Swerissen et al. (2016).

31. BEACH (2017). 32. ABS (2017, Table 5.1). 33. DoH (2017d). Figure 2.5: GP visits are increasing again Visits to GP 1994 1996 1998 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 Other groups and items not listed A22 GP after-hours attendances to which no other item applies A20 GP mental health care A15 GP care plans and multidisciplinary case conferences A11 Urgent attendances after hours A2 Other non-referred attendances to which no other item applies A1 GP attendances to which no other item applies Source: DoH (2017d).

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Mapping primary care in Australia their GP more often. The number of item 23 consultations for over-65s has increased from 6.1 per person to 6.4 over the past 20 years, whereas it has fallen for other ages. Over the same period, the over-65 share of the population increased from 12 per cent to 15 per cent. GP visits typically involve the management of a single problem. In 2015-16, GPs managed a single problem in 61 per cent of visits, two problems in 26 per cent of visits, three in 9 per cent, and four in 3 per cent of visits. On average, patients gave 1.5 reasons for their encounter with a GP. At least one chronic problem was managed in about half of all visits.34 2.5 Patient experience and outcomes About a quarter of GP patients reported that the GP did not always listen to them carefully, and did not spend enough time with them.35 A fifth of patients reported that the GP did not always show them respect. As discussed in Grattan Institute’s May 2017 report, Building better foundations for primary care, there is currently no publicly available and consistent data set on outcomes for general practice patients. The limited data that is available suggests there is considerable scope to improve the quality of treatment and care in general practice. The BEACH data set (2015-16) provides information on the reason for and nature of GP visits, but little on the health outcomes for patients as a result of those visits. For example, the BEACH data indicate that on average for every 100 encounters, GPs:
  • Prescribed 82 medications and supplied nine;
  • Advised purchase of 11 over-the counter medications; 34. BEACH (2017).

35. ABS (2017, Table 5.2). Figure 2.6: Older people form a growing share of GP consultations Proportion of GP consultations 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1995/96 2005/06 2015/16 0-34 35-64 65+ Source: DoH (2017c). Grattan Institute 2018 15

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  • Provided 39 clinical treatments and performed 18 procedures;
  • Made 10 referrals to medical specialists and six to allied health services; and
  • Placed 48 pathology and 11 imaging test orders. Yet there are no data on whether treatments provided or put in train made patients better. Some limited information on outcomes is available from the Practice Incentives Program (PIP). In part, the PIP provides incentive payments for GPs who achieve agreed performance criteria for the management of asthma, diabetes, cervical screening and indigenous health.36 Only practices accredited against the Royal Australian College of General Practice standards for general practice are eligible for PIP payments.37 About 90 per cent of general practices are accredited.38 In 2016-17, GPs received incentive payments for providing appropriate care for about 280,000 people with diabetes and 65,000 with asthma. In total, there are about 1.2 million people with diabetes and 2.5 million people with asthma in Australia.39 Grattan Institute’s March 2016 report, Chronic failure in primary care, analysed Medical Director data and concluded that there was considerable room for improvement in clinical outcomes for people with a range of chronic conditions in general practice. That report also examined hospital admissions that can potentially be prevented by primary care interventions. These include conditions 36. The PIP also provides incentives for after-hours care, e-health, aged care, quality prescribing, teaching and rural care.

37. RACGP (2017b). 38. RACGP (2017c) states that ‘over 6300’ practices are accredited. If we assume that there are 7000 practices as stated previously, then about 90 per cent of general practices are accredited. 39. ABS (2015). that can be prevented by vaccination, as well as acute conditions and chronic conditions. In 2015-16 there were more than 678,000 potentially preventable hospital admissions, accounting for 6.4 per cent of all hospital admissions. Poorer people, indigenous people and people who live outside metropolitan areas see the GP less, and have more preventable hospital admissions and worse overall health outcomes.40 2.6 Payments GPs are paid a fee for each service they provide, and patients are eligible for a rebate through the Commonwealth Medicare Benefits Schedule (see Table 2.2 on the next page).

The Schedule lists all services subsidised by the Australian Government, ranging from surgical procedures to general practice consultation items (attendances).41 Since the early-2000s several items have been added to the Medicare Benefits Schedule. The three most commonly utilised new groups relate to care coordination and planning (A15), mental health care (A20) and after-hours attendances (A22). These items now comprise an important share of non-referred encounters. The use of these items has been growing rapidly and accounts for most of the growth in expenditure on general practice (see Figure 2.5).

Groups A15 and A20 reflect the growing challenge of chronic disease management, which requires planning and coordination rather than just one-off consultations.42 These new items allow GPs to assign and claim for the time that is required to diagnose, discuss and plan treatment for diseases that are more complex and likely to persist. A proportion of GP remuneration from the Commonwealth also comes from Practice Incentive Payments. In part, these payments encourage 40. AIHW (2017c); and Greenfield et al. (2016). 41. DoH (2018b).

42. Swerissen et al. (2016); and Duckett et al. (2017). Grattan Institute 2018 16

Mapping primary care in Australia adherence to agreed standards of practice for a limited range of priority conditions and prevention activities.43 2.7 Funding The Commonwealth Government provides most of the funding for general practice. In 2015-16 it provided $9.1 billion for ‘unreferred medical services’, which were mainly provided through general practice.44 Smaller sources of non-Medicare, Commonwealth funding include benefits provided by the Department of Veterans’ Affairs and various workers’ and accident compensation schemes.

In 2015-16 individuals contributed 6.3 per cent ($741 million) of funding for GP services, mainly due to the 14 per cent of consultations that were not bulk-billed.45 Other sources, including insurance schemes (e.g. workers compensation), contributed a further $1.1 billion for unreferred medical services.46 State and territory governments provide very little funding to general practice, and private health insurance is prohibited by law from funding primary medical care. Part of GP remuneration comes for the treatment of chronic disease. GPs receive Chronic Disease Medicare payments for preparing management plans for patients, coordinating team care, participating in multidisciplinary planning, and reviewing planning and coordination of care.

As Figure 2.5 shows (item A15), the number and cost of these services has increased substantially. In 2016-17 these services cost the Commonwealth $853 million.47 43. s/ medicare/practice-incentives-program .

44. DoH (2017c). 45. Ibid. 46. AIHW (2017b). 47. DoH (2017c). Table 2.2: The main Medicare Benefits Schedule groups used by GPs Group Name Item Numbers A1 GP attendances to which no other item applies 3, 4, 20, 23, 24, 35, 36, 37, 43, 44, 47, 51 A2 Other non-referred attendances to which no other item applies 52, 53, 54, 57, 58, 59, 60, 65, 92, 93, 95, 96 A11 Urgent attendances after hours 597, 598, 599, 600 A15 GP care plans and multidisciplinary case conferences 721, 723, 729, 731, 732, 735, 739, 743, 747, 750, 758 A20 GP mental health care 2700, 2701, 2712, 2713, 2715, 2717, 2721, 2723, 2725, 2727 A22 GP after-hours attendances to which no other item applies 5000, 5003, 5010, 5020, 5023, 5028, 5040, 5043, 5049, 5060, 5063, 5067 Source: Commonwealth Medical Benefits Schedule.

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Mapping primary care in Australia 3 Pharmacists: providers of advice and medication Pharmacists’ main role in the primary care sector is to deliver medicines and advice to the public. Pharmacists are qualified to prepare, dispense and provide advice on medicines. One of their key roles is to provide medicines prescribed by medical practitioners, including medicines covered by the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS). Pharmacists also provide a range of over-the-counter medication that does not require prescription. In addition, they provide health checks, advice and information on appropriate over-the-counter medications for a range of common illnesses and health conditions.

Pharmacies are central to the delivery of medicines to Australians. Although pharmacies are widely distributed, people who live in metropolitan centres have much better access to a pharmacy than people in remote areas. Out-of-pocket costs cause a significant proportion of people, especially poorer people, to delay filling a prescription. Pharmacists also provide advice and education. As argued in a previous Grattan Institute report, their role could be expanded to include providing vaccinations and repeat prescriptions. They could also help with the introduction of a new category of health worker, the ‘physician assistant’, to provide front-line health services, particularly in remote areas.48 There is insufficient data on patient outcomes from pharmaceutical use.

There are indications that prescribing rates are too high for some pharmaceuticals.

The industry is highly regulated, and the sector has strongly resisted attempts to change the way it is organised and regulated. But the industry is shifting from smaller independent pharmacies to franchised operations and big box discounters. 48. Duckett (2013). 3.1 Workforce and industry organisation There are about 30,000 pharmacists registered in Australia, though the number actually working as pharmacists is closer to 23,000.49 As Table 3.1 shows, most work in clinical roles in community pharmacies. There are around 5,500 community pharmacies in Australia.50 Table 3.1: Job roles and settings for pharmacists Job role and setting Per cent of all pharmacists Clinician in community pharmacy 62 Clinician in hospital 18 Administrator in community pharmacy 3 Clinician in community health care service 2 Administrator in hospital 2 Clinician in medical centre 1 Clinician in private practice 1 Other 10 Source: DoH (2017b).

The pharmacy sector is highly regulated. Although community pharmacies are typically privately-owned businesses, they can be thought of as ‘agents’ of the Commonwealth Government because they supply PBS medicines.51 To supply PBS medicines, a pharmacy must be approved under section 90 of the National Health Act 1953.52 49. Data from the Pharmacy Board of Australia gives the number of pharmacists registered in Australia, while the survey data collated through the Health Workforce Dataset indicates that the number of pharmacists ‘employed in Australia working in registered profession’ was around 23,000 in 2015.

50. King et al. (2017) says 5,511 as of June 2015. A PGA fact sheet says 5,587 as of November 2016. Richardson (2018, Key statistics) says 5,577 in 2015-16. 51. King et al. (2017, p. 58).

52. DHS (2018a). Grattan Institute 2018 18

Mapping primary care in Australia Remote-area Aboriginal Health Services can supply PBS medicines under section 100 of the National Health Act 1953. The conditions under which pharmacies supply PBS medicines are determined by five-year Community Pharmacy Agreements between the Commonwealth Government and the Pharmacy Guild of Australia. The Pharmacy Guild represents around 4,000 community pharmacies, who employ about 20,000 registered pharmacists and 60,000 staff. Community Pharmacy Agreements set out remuneration arrangements for dispensing PBS medicines, cover professional programs, and establish a funding pool of pharmaceutical wholesalers.53 The Agreements also set out rules that restrict the locations where new pharmacies can be established and existing pharmacies can be moved.

These rules were originally instituted to reduce concentration of pharmacies and to ensure all Australians had a reasonable level of access to PBS medicines.54 But the location rules restrict competition, especially in metropolitan areas, and appear mainly to be for the benefit of pharmacy owners rather than consumers.55 Community pharmacies are subject to ownership restrictions at state and territory level. Typically, ownership is restricted to registered pharmacists. There are also limits on the number of pharmacies that a pharmacist may own.56 Separately-owned pharmacies can operate under common brand names, such as Chemist Warehouse and Amcal.57 These brands are, in turn, typically owned by larger corporate groups – currently, four such groups account for around 60 per cent of market revenue.58 About 53.

King et al. (2016, p. 8). 54. Ibid. (p. 28).

55. Duckett and Banerjee (2017); and Duckett and Romanes (2016). 56. Richardson (2018). 57. Ibid. 58. King et al. (2017, p. 12). 2,700 pharmacies, or just under half the total, are not aligned to major corporate groups. The industry landscape is dynamic. Franchised, ‘big box’ discounters are on the rise, at the expense of smaller, independent pharmacies.59 Yet new entrants continue to arrive, and consolidation continues to occur. There have been significant mergers in recent years, involving Terry White Chemists and Chemmart, and SmarterPharm and Pharmacy Alliance. At the same time, Ramsay Health Care has begun establishing a network of pharmacies, many located near its hospitals.60 A 2014 report by KordaMentha described the transition:61 Over the past 50 years, the community pharmacy landscape has evolved from small, independent pharmacies located on street corners and in small suburban shopping centres, to sophisticated franchise and banner groups.

More recently, the dramatic rise of big box discount pharmacies has driven further change. These developments are a response to a range of competitive pressures. PBS pricing reforms have reduced pharmacies’ dispensing revenues.62 On average, pharmacies receive around 80 per cent of their revenue from selling medicines that are only available in pharmacies, and 20 per cent from general retail.63 Pharmacies in shopping strips and medical centres rely more on dispensing revenue, while those in shopping centres typically have more retail sales.64 Of course, the retail component of revenue is 59.

Ibid. (p. 11).

60. Richardson (2018). 61. KordaMentha (2014). 62. King et al. (2017, p. 12). 63. Richardson (2018, Products & Markets). 64. King et al. (2016, p. 7). Grattan Institute 2018 19

Mapping primary care in Australia also subject to competition, not least from department stores and supermarkets. The significant change in industry structure (small independents to franchise to big box) has not been accompanied by commensurate regulatory change – pharmacy regulation remains in the horse-and-buggy age of the independent pharmacies. 3.2 Usage Prescriptions are the fundamental driver of demand for pharmacy services.

Almost 70 per cent of people over the age of 15 had a medicine prescribed by a GP in 2015-16.65 About 217 million prescriptions were dispensed for the PBS and Repatriation Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (RPBS) in 2015.66 The Pharmacy Guild says the average Australian visits a pharmacy 14 times a year.67 Older people use pharmacy services most. As Figure 3.1 shows, the proportion of people who have at least one medicine prescribed over a year increases markedly with age. People over the age of 45 contribute around two-thirds of total pharmacy revenue.68 Australians in major cities generally have good access to pharmaceuticals through community pharmacies.

But the further they live from a major city the further they have to travel to a pharmacy.69 Australians in the most disadvantaged SES group are more than twice as likely as people in the least disadvantaged group to have avoided or delayed getting a prescribed medication due to cost.70 Overall, 7 per 65. ABS (2017). 66. Mabbott and Storey (2016). 67. The Pharmacy Guild of Australia (2017). 68. Richardson (2018, Products & Markets). 69. King et al. (2017).

70. ABS (2017). Figure 3.1: Older people are the biggest users of prescribed medication Proportion of age group with prescription in a year 20 40 60 80 100 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75-84 85 plus Source: ABS (2017). Grattan Institute 2018 20

Mapping primary care in Australia cent of people who received a prescription in 2016-17 delayed filling it or did not fill it. Prescription rates of a number of medicines, including antibiotics,71 analgesics,72 and anti-depressants are questionably high.73 As with the general practice, there is insufficient patient outcomes data for pharmaceuticals.74 3.3 Funding As noted earlier, about 80 per cent of pharmacy revenue is from selling medicines that are only available in pharmacies.

Most of this revenue is effectively funded by the Commonwealth Government under the PBS. This funding is formalised in remuneration arrangements set out in the five-year Community Pharmacy Agreements. These arrangements involve the Government paying pharmacy fees that cover procurement and handling of PBS medicines and the services involved in dispensing them, and additional fees such as those relating to dangerous drugs.75 In 2015-16 the Commonwealth spent $9.4 billion on the PBS and RPBS schemes, and individuals contributed $1.4 billion.76 The Commonwealth gathers data on the price at which manufacturers sell pharmaceuticals, and adjusts the price it is willing to pay accordingly.

Price disclosure and increasing competition have placed increasing pressure on the viability of community pharmacies, compounded by the emergence of online pharmacies and robotic dispensing machines. PBS medicines attract a co-payment for general and concessional patients. Pharmacies have discretion in the amount they charge, but 71. Goff et al. (2017).

72. Blanch et al. (2014). 73. OECD (2015). 74. King et al. (2016, p. 41). 75. King et al. (2017, p. 18); and The Pharmacy Guild of Australia (2017). 76. AIHW (2017b). cannot exceed the co-payment limits set by the Commonwealth. The price of medicines therefore varies from one pharmacy to another. In more remote areas where there is less price competition, co-payments are generally higher than in major cities.77 The PBS has a safety net scheme which caps annual patient payments depending on whether a person qualifies as a general or concessional patient. In 2017 the general safety net threshold was $1521.80, after which people could purchase most PBS medications for the co-payment of $6.40.

The concessional safety net threshold was $384, after which people could get benefits free of charge. Despite the safety net, poorer Australians are more likely than others to avoid or delay filling a prescription due to cost (see Figure 3.2). 77. King et al. (2017).

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Mapping primary care in Australia Figure 3.2: Disadvantaged Australians are more likely to delay filling a prescription Proportion of adults who either delayed getting or did not get prescribed medication due to cost, 2015-16 10 most disadv 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile least disadv Source: ABS (2017). Grattan Institute 2018 22

Mapping primary care in Australia 4 Allied health and nursing services Team work, involving GPs, pharmacists, nurses and allied health professionals, is central to better-integrated care, particularly for people who are at risk, or have complex and chronic conditions.78 But organisational, clinical governance, payment and reporting arrangements for team care are under-developed.

The largest allied health professions are physiotherapists and psychologists. The most-used services (both in number of services and health insurance benefit payments) are psychology and optometry. There is little information on the characteristics or problems of people using the services of allied health professionals and nurses. There is little or no information on the types of services provided or the effectiveness of these services. Similarly, there is little information on allied health services and nursing for the primary care services funded by state governments.

4.1 Workforce The scope and role of allied health and nursing in primary health is not yet well defined or governed.79 Historically, allied health professions emerged as specialised adjuncts to support medical practice, beyond the generalist support provided by nursing. But their roles now vary considerably. Some allied health professionals such as sonographers and orthoptists provide support services for medical practitioners. Others such as physiotherapists and psychologists provide services either directly to patients or on referral from a medical practitioner. Still others such as 78. Vision 2020 Australia (2015).

79. DoH (2013b). chiropractors and osteopaths are relatively independent of medical practitioners. Contemporary allied health includes a broad range of professionals and technicians, assistants and support workers. Allied Health Professionals Australia has 22 professional associations as members.80 They include professions which are:
  • well-developed and accepted, with a strong evidence base, established professional associations and which engage in a range of relatively autonomous practice (e.g. speech pathology, optometry)
  • relatively specific and technical, providing support services in close conjunction with medicine, dentistry and other health professions (e.g. sonography, perfusion, orthoptics, prosthetics, orthotics)
  • emerging, with a relatively under-developed evidence base and professional organisation and regulation, and variable practice patterns and acceptance by the public and other health professions (e.g. art therapy, exercise and sports science) 80. Audiology Australia, Australasian Podiatry Association, Australasian Society of Genetic Counsellors, Australasian Sonographers Association, Australasian and New Zealand College of Perfusionists, Australian Association of Social Workers, Australian Music Therapy Association, Australian Orthotic Prosthetic Association, Australian Physiotherapy Association, Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy, The Australian and New Zealand Arts Therapy Association, The Australian Psychological Society, Chiropractors’ Association of Australia, Dietitians Society of Australia, Exercise & Sports Science Australia, Occupational Therapy Australia, Optometry Australia, Orthoptics Australia, Osteopathy Australia, Rehabilitation Counselling Association of Australasia, The Society of Hospital Pharmacists of Australia, Speech Pathology Australia.

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