Measuring impact and value

Measuring impact and value
vol 9 no 2 | november 2017 | 18 €

          Impact and

32 The Three Layers of Service Design Impact Craig Cisero, Veronika Ji, Stefania Marcoli,
Chiara Diana 46 Designing for Impact and Value Bernadette Geuy, Rachel Hollowgrass,
Titta Jylkäs 70 Design Methods for Strengthening Social Cohesion Aran Baker and
Valentina Branada

the journal of service design
Measuring impact and value
Touchpoint                      Pictures
Volume 9 No. 2                  Unless otherwise stated, the
November 2017                   copyrights of all images used for
The Journal of Service Design   illustration lie with the author(s)
ISSN 1868-6052                  of the respective article

Published by                    Printing
Service Design Network          Hundt Druck

Publisher                       Fonts
Birgit Mager                    Mercury G2
Jesse Grimes                    Service Design Network gGmbH
                                Mülheimer Freiheit 56
Guest Editors                   D-51063 Köln
Nancy Birkhölzer                Germany
Stefan Moritz         
Aviv Katz
Erik Roscam Abbing              Contact & Advertising Sales
                                Cristine Lanzoni
Project Management    
Cristine Lanzoni
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Jeannette Weber

Cover Image
Jeannette Weber
Measuring impact and value
f ro m t h e e d i t o r s

Measuring Impact and Value

I’ve been lucky enough to have attended quite a few service design conferences                      Jesse Grimes, Editor-in-Chief
                                                                                                    for Touchpoint, has nine years
over the years, and heard peers in the community stand on stage and share their
                                                                                                    experience as a service designer
advice, techniques, questions and insights. While they all have had value to me, a                  and consultant. He has worked
small handful stand out as offering what I saw as ground-breaking insights at the                   in London, Copenhagen,
                                                                                                    Düsseldorf and Sydney and is
time. One of these talks took place in 2012, at the SDN’s Global Conference in Paris.
                                                                                                    now based in Amsterdam with
     Livework’s Ben Reason took to the stage and explained how his agency had                       Dutch agency Informaat. Jesse
started pairing service designers with in-house business analysts. This partnership                 is also Vice President of the
                                                                                                    Service Design Network.
provided a role which could speak the language of business people, applying
number-crunching skills to both justify investments in service design projects                      Nancy Birkhölzer is IXDS‘
before a project started, and measure results and ROI towards the end.                              CEO. She enjoys building
                                                                                                    organisations and teams with a
     Being able to measure the impact of service design activities has always                       unique spirit and culture. Nancy
presented a challenge. Services are often complex, comprised of multiple                            was recognised as one of the
interactions with multiple touchpoints, over widely varying time spans. While                       “100 Women of the Future” by
                                                                                                    Deutschland – Land der Ideen,
the re-design of a touchpoint (let’s say a website focussed on sales) can deliver                   and chosen as one of the “15
concrete numbers indicating success (e.g. conversion), things get much more                         Thought Leaders & Innovators
                                                                                                    2015” by WIRED magazine.
complex at a service level, when multiple touchpoints come into play.
     In this issue of Touchpoint, we have tackled precisely this challenge: How can                 Stefan Moritz is an entrepreneur,
service design best measure the impact it achieves? Service design must become                      corporate change-maker and
                                                                                                    customer experience champion.
more mature in justifying itself to decision-makers, both before and after it is
                                                                                                    He is Vice President Customer
applied. I hope the insights and methods herein help you answer that question,                      Experience at Veryday, one of
when you next sit down to plan or review a service design project.                                  the world’s top-ranking design
                                                                                                    and innovation consultancies.

                                                                                                    Aviv Katz is Senior Associate at
                                                                                    1               Innovation Unit. He has coached
                                                                                    2               leaders and led teams, working
                                                                                                    across health, social care,
                                                                                    5               justice and local government.
                                                                                                    Erik Roscam Abbing is director
                                                                                                    Netherlands of Livework, a
Jesse Grimes for the editorial board                                                                global service design agency.
                                                                                                    Erik has consulted and taught
                                                                                                    globally on topics like design
                                                                                                    thinking, brand driven innovation
                                                                                                    and service design.
The cover of this issue of Touchpoint is more than meets        1   SDN members              2013
the eye! We’ve put our own organisation under the               2   SDGC attendees           2014
                                                                3   Social media followers          Birgit Mager, publisher of
microscope, and measured the impact of some of our                                           2015
                                                                4   Newsletter followers
                                                                                                    Touchpoint, is professor
initiatives, over a time period of five years. It’s rewarding   5   SDN website page views
                                                                                             2017   for service design at Köln
to see visually beautiful proof that the impact of the SDN’s    6   SDN website visitors
                                                                                                    International School of Design
activities shows strong growth year-on-year.
                                                                                                    (KISD) in Cologne, Germany.
                                                                                                    She is founder and director of
                                                                                                    sedes research at KISD and is
                                                                                                    co-founder and President of
                                                                                                    the Service Design Network.

                                                                                                              Touchpoint 9-2       3
Measuring impact and value



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                                                                                                                                      7    8. Lodge BAS


                                                                                                                                                                        Ex era

                                                                                                                                      5    7. Sell and buy


                                                                                on                                                    4    6. Begin trading                                   ion
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                                                                                     e                                                                                                    Em
                                                                                                                                      4    5. Set up business fundamentals

                                                                                                                                      3    4. Set up registrations
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                                                                       it y                                                           4    3. Determine business model                               nitio
                                                                                                                                      5    2. Do Research

                                                           Error                                                                      9    1. Have an idea
                                                           Managed                                                                                                                                   Perception

                                                           Efficienc                                                                        Areas for process improvement:

                                                                                                                                            - Inflexibility of process                              Ergono
                                                                 ility                                                                      - Lack of short cuts
                                                                                                                                            - Inability to use existing tools

                                                                        rit                                                                                                    Aes
                                                                      cu                                                                    - Medium to high amount of effort required

                                                                                       it y

                                                                                                                                            - Many steps in the process
                                                                                Co                                                          - Information not reused









    2	imprint                                                                                                                                     ess

    3    from the editors

    6	news
                                      20 feature:                                                        38	You Can’t Manage What
    10	kerry’s take
                                         Measuring Impact                                                          You Can’t Measure
    10	From Journey Maps              	and Value                                                                   Patrick McGowan, Raven
         to Journey Measurement                                                                                    Manocchio
         Kerry Bodine                 22 An Iterative, Experience
                                         and Practice-led Approach                                       40 Mind the Gap
                                         to Measuring Impact                                                       Shaun Gummere, Guy
    12   cross-discipline
                                         Cat Drew                                                                  Felder
    12	Legal Design: Collaborating
         with Lawyers to Improve      26	Humanising Frankenstein                                         42	Cracking the Code to
         Access to Justice               Jo’Anne Langham                                                           Workplace Productivity
         Lieke Beelen, Frederik                                                                                    Matthew Swift, Coby Lerner
         Westerouen van Meeteren      32	The Three Layers of
                                         Service Design Impact                                           46	Designing for Impact and
    18   Nudging People to Give          Craig Cisero, Veronika Ji,                                                Value
         Using Behavioural Insights      Stefania Marcoli, Chiara                                                  Bernadette Geuy, Rachel
         Ine Vassøy, David Wiggins       Diana                                                                     Hollowgrass, Titta Jylkäs

4   Touchpoint 9-2
Measuring impact and value
c ontents



                                   64 Education and Research

                                   66 Measurement Beyond
                                                                    82	inside sdn
50	Tools and Methods                  Nahal Tavangar                82	Congratulations to the
                                                                         Service Design Award 2017
52 Measuring Design Value of       70	Design Methods for                 Finalists
     a Differentiated Service         Strengthening Social
     Platform                         Cohesion                      88 Applying Service Design
     Dr Kiwoong Nam, Dr Bruce.        Aran Baker, Valentina              to the SDN Chapter
     W. Carnie, Kevin Sunghoon        Branada                            Foundation Process
                                   74	Partnering for Service        90 Service Design Within US:
58 Meeting Service Sandbox            Design Education                   The First SDN National
     Jane Vita                        Holger Fricke                      Conference in the U.S.

61   Six Hacks for Service                                          91   Reflecting on the First SDN
                                   78 profiles
     Designers in Agile Settings                                         U.S. National Conference’s
     Jesse Grimes                  78 Anne Stenros                       Student Competition

                                                                                    Touchpoint 9-2     5
Measuring impact and value
Service Design Award 2017                 Secure Your Official SDN Trainer            award SDN co-branded certificates to
                 Finalists Announced!                      Accreditation!                              training participants. The accreditation
                                                                                                       and self-assessment of trainers will be
                 We are delighted to share the work        Research carried out by the SDN             visible to potential clients on our global
                 by this year’s fourteen Service           in 2017 showed that an astonishing          community website, establishing them
                 Design Award 2017 finalists               90 percent of the respondents               as highly qualified trainers.
                 selected by our international             expressed a desire for an                      We’re calling all service design
                 jury of service design experts. A         accreditation programme that                trainers to become Accredited
                 warm thank you to the new Head            provides transparency to available          Trainers.
                 of the Jury, Kerry Bodine, and the        training offerings, and provides
                 international jurors of 2017 who did      a measure of their quality. Based
                 an amazing job judging over 100           on these results, we have launched
                 submissions. The shortlisted projects     the SDN Trainer Accreditation                 Apply for accreditation
                 are internationally recognised as         initiative, to help establish a standard      before 31 December 2017
                 benchmarks of world class service         and ensure higher quality within a            and get a special 25 percent
                 design. Congratulations to the nine       market that’s growing rapidly.                discount off the regular price!
                 winning professionals and five               SDN Accredited Trainers will enjoy
                 winning students for their fantastic      benefits such as an official certificate,     accreditation
                 work and the contribution they have       a two-year SDN professional
                 made to the field of service design!      membership and the authorisation to
                 The winners will be announced at
                 the Service Design Global Conference
                 on November 2nd in Madrid, and            Join our New Corporate Plus
                 will present their projects on stage      Membership!
                 on November 3rd. We are excited
                 to learn the winners and hope             Want all your employees and
                 you will join in the celebrations         colleagues to get the most out of the
                 with us at SDGC17! We are also            SDN? Then why not join our flexible
                 looking forward to show casing the        Corporate Plus / Academic Plus
                 winners and finalists in the first ever   membership? The new membership
                 publication about the Service Design      enables companies, agencies and
                 Award, which will be released by          academic organisations to have six
                 Spring 2018. Make sure to read more       or more members from anywhere
                 about the finalist projects on page 82.   in the world linked to one SDN              have access to our great resources.
                                                           account. With this membership,              Members are an important part of our
                                                           your organisation benefits from a           international community and attend
                                                           fantastic 50 percent discount per           our events with a special discount. If
                                                           person compared to the individual,          you are thinking about joining forces
                                                           professional membership. This               with the SDN, don’t hesitate to get in
© Hanna Freres

                                                           is perfect if you are seeking               touch for more information or a price
                                                           flexibility and would like 10, 20,          quote by contacting: membership@
                                                           30 or even more employees to      

                 6   Touchpoint 9-2
Measuring impact and value
ne ws

Congratulations to our                 first event in Budapest with over 80    design communities in Dublin and
Enthusiastic new Chapters:             attendees, in which they reflected      Cork. We can’t wait to see how these
SDN Hungary, SDN Bulgaria,             on the development of the discipline    ambitious Chapters move forward!
SDN Belgium and SDN Ireland!           over the last five years with local     Check out upcoming events by your
                                       pioneers such as Telenor Hungary.       local Chapter: www.service-design-
This autumn, the SDN has been          SDN Bulgaria hosted a Creative
delighted by the enthusiasm and        Journey Conference in Sofia,
diverse initiatives organised by the   successfully introducing service
newest international Chapters! We      design methods to an audience of
have seen SDN Hungary and SDN          over 200 people. SDN Belgium hosted
Bulgaria play a big role in enabling   an energetic kick-off event with over
the service design community to        70 participants in Ghent to co-create
connect and grow in Eastern Europe     a vision for the Belgian Chapter. The
with their Chapter launch events       Irish Chapter ran a series of service
through August and September. SDN      design drinks and themed industry
Hungary held a highly successful       talks to link and develop the service

Chapter Conferences and                of service design in unusual places     in different cities. We were excited
Diverse Initiatives                    and in agile settings. SDN Finland      to see SDN Canada as a key partner
                                       has been expanding the horizons         supporting the launch of ‘Converge’,
The summer has been a busy time for    of their community with an ‘Event       a second national Canadian service
our already-existing international     Canvas’ workshop and book club          design conference to take place on
Chapters! SDN Netherlands has          meeting. SDN Denmark has been           December 1st. In mid-August, the
hosted two topical workshops           strengthening their community by        US service design community came
exploring the cutting-edge themes      hosting regular meet-ups and events     together in Chicago to celebrate
                                                                               the very first US SDN National
                                                                               Conference, under the theme ‘Service
                                                                               Design Within US’. The conference
                                                                               was initiated by SDN Chicago and
                                                                               organised collaboratively with the
                                                                               other US Chapters. The event was a
                                                                               great success with over 200 attendees
                                                                               representing over 80 organisations
                                                                               from across the country. Make sure to
                                                                               read more about the event on page 90.

                                                                               US SDN National Conference
                                                                               ‘Service Design Within US’

                                                                                                      Touchpoint 9-2   7
Measuring impact and value
The First Chapter Awards
Launched for SDGC17

The first ever SDN Chapter Award
Ceremony will take place during
the SDGC17 Members Day Event on
November 1st 2017 in Madrid. There
are now 29 international Chapters
with teams of volunteers working
hard to raise awareness and grow the
market for service design because
they passionately believe it is the
key to social and economic success
in their area. The Awards commend
five Chapters for their great work,
commitment and achievements
when it comes to Chapter events and
initiatives. The ceremony at SDGC17
will highlight the value of our         LOOKING FORWARD TO A MILESTONE         as well as the local team and
Chapters, celebrate their success and   SDGC17                                 volunteers for making it possible. We
raise awareness amongst members                                                invite everyone to stay tuned and to
about their work. The winners will      The Service Design Global              follow all our channels to catch up
have their initiatives showcased as     Conference 2017 has generated huge     with the latest #SDGC17 news, and
examples of best practice that our      interest from people worldwide,        after-conference coverage.
community can learn from. We can’t      with main programme and
wait to find out who the winners        Members Event tickets sold out
will be! Stay tuned to hear more in     since late September. We have been
the next issue of Touchpoint, at the    overwhelmed with the response and
SDGC17 ceremony and via our global      for this reason we’re determined to          @SDGC2017 and
media channels.                         deliver a great experience through           @SDNetwork
                                        a highly curated programme,
                                        which includes 70 speakers from
                                        all over the world and many side
                                        events for attendees and the general
                                        public. With Madrid’s La N@ve                ServiceDesignNetwork
                                        and Central de Diseño as our main
                                        venues, SDGC17 is aiming to create           sdgc/sdgc17
                                        a great service design atmosphere to
                                        accompany Madrid’s local flavours.
                                        We would like to thank our many
                                        sponsors for joining us in bringing
                                        this 10th anniversary event to life,

8   Touchpoint 9-2
Measuring impact and value
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Nordic Service Design,                   Service Design Impact Report:
the Documentary                          Health Sector

The SDN is excited to announce           The Service Design Network is proud
the launch of the Nordic Chapter         to announce the publication of the
initiative ‘Nordic Service Design,       third Impact Report, focusing this
The Documentary’. SDN Sweden,            edition on the value service design
SDN Norway, SDN Denmark and              is delivering in the health sector.
SDN Finland collaborated with            The worldwide challenges in the
the Swedish producer LuckyDay            health sector today are enormous.
to make a documentary which              Population ageing and the impact
connects, celebrates and promotes        of chronic diseases are creating new
Nordic service design. The project       demands on the quantity and types
involved interviews in all four          of care being delivered, while at the
countries with service design            same time budgets are under threat          This publication is valuable for
practitioners and leaders to explore     and legislative changes to insurance     a broad readership. It is a source
what is unique, forward-thinking         coverage add further complexity.         of insight and inspiration for both
and relevant about Nordic service        Furthermore, ethical issues related      those operating in the health sector,
design. The documentary also aims        to scientific and technological          as well as the policy-makers and
to raise awareness about the power       advancements must be tackled. In         politicians that surround it. Service
of service design whilst showcasing      short, the health sector is in need of   design practitioners can get up-to-
best practice examples on a national     radical innovation. Service design       speed with the state of the art in how
and global level. The launch is taking   – with its promise of a human-           their discipline is being applied to
place in the form of a roadshow          centred and innovative approach to       healthcare challenges, and academics
during the autumn and winter             tackling these challenges with fresh     and students will benefit from the
period of 2017. If you are based in      thinking – is helping to re-invent and   best practices contained herein.
the Nordics don’t miss out on this       co-create a better future, delivering       Download or order your printed
great opportunity to celebrate Nordic    value for both healthcare recipients     copy from November 15th at
service design!                          and healthcare providers. It’s 
                                         design, influencing how technology       books-and-reports and follow the
                                         is applied, as a means to make life      community on
                                         better for people!                       sdnhealthsector

                                         Advertise in Touchpoint                  you, and SDN members enjoy special
                                         Promote your company or institution         To see your ad in the next
                                         throughout the world of services,        Touchpoint, contact us at journal@
Take a look at the trailer and stay      rising interest of future clients,
tuned to find out more:                  customers and employees! We set up                     interesting advertising options for

                                                                                                      Touchpoint 9-2   9
Measuring impact and value
From Journey Maps                                                                      months and involved an average of
                                                                                       nine phone calls, a home visit from
to Journey Measurement                                                                 a technician, and numerous web
                                                                                       and mail interactions.” Customer
                                                                                       satisfaction scores for individual
                                                                                       channels each consistently scored
                                                                                       over 90 percent. But satisfaction for
                                                                                       the entire end-to-end journey was
Journeys are central to the discipline of service design.                              nearly 40 percent lower. Ouch.
In fact, my definition of service design is: the envisioning
                                                                                          Journeys are better predictors of
of people’s journeys and the organisations required                                       likelihood to recommend
to support them. But in the years since early service                                  McKinsey’s models of customer
                                                                                       satisfaction and willingness to
designers pioneered this field, journeys have been
                                                                                       recommend both have R-squared
adopted by other disciplines, as well — most notably,                                  values for journeys that hover around
by the field of customer experience.                                                   50 percent for the electric utility,
                                                                                       health insurance, cable/satellite
                                                                                       TV and hotel industries.2 I’d love it
Unfortunately, many organisations        supports people as they try to                if these values were higher, but it’s
that are new to service design or        achieve their goals. But the data to          reasonable to assume that there are
customer experience get caught           support this notion took a long time          other factors that account for about
up in artefacts like journey maps        to surface, as many prime examples            half of customers’ satisfaction scores
and service blueprints, acting like      stayed hidden and well-guarded                and referral behaviour.
these deliverables are the end goal      behind corporate walls. Fortunately,              What’s notable is that depending
themselves. I’ve gone on the record      McKinsey & Company’s anonymised               on the industry, the R-squared
multiple times on this topic, and I’ll   (but published!) data will help you           scores for journeys range from 56 –
say it again here: It’s not about the    make the case for pivoting your               117 percent higher than those for
maps. Rather, we need to use journeys    organisation’s measurement strategy.1
as a framework for managing services        Here is my summary (with my
                                                                                       2 Ok, I’m gonna have to get a little nerdy on
and experiences — and changing our       major takeaways as the headings):               you here, so hang with me. In statistics land,
organisations to better support them.                                                    R-squared values always fall between 0 and
   Now, customer experience                The journey doesn’t equal the sum             100 percent. An R-squared value of 0 percent
                                                                                         means that the model in question — for us,
practitioners are taking on that           of its parts
                                                                                         the hypothesis that touchpoints or journeys
challenge and driving a shift in         A media company looked at the new               account for satisfaction or willingness
the ways that organisations use          customer onboarding experience,                 to recommend — explains NONE of the
                                                                                         variability in the data. (Think of a bunch of
journeys. Enter journey analytics:       “a journey that spanned about three
                                                                                         random dots on a graph that you can’t draw
the measurement and analysis of                                                          a single line through.) A value of 100 percent
key customer journeys — not just                                                         means that the model in question explains
individual touchpoints.                                                                  ALL of the variability in the data. (Here, you’d
                                           marketing-and-sales/our-insights/from-        have all the data points aligned perfectly
   It may seem like common sense to        touchpoints-to-journeys-seeing-the-world-     through your line. When does that ever
measure how well your organisation         as-customers-do                               happen?)

10 Touchpoint 9-2
k e rr y ' s ta k e

touchpoints alone. Ergo, journeys are      2. Create metrics around journeys          If you’re not a data hacker yourself,
better predictors of the outcomes you      and journey phases.                        that’s ok. Just make sure your team
care about.                              It’s no longer enough to measure             hires someone who loves getting
                                         the efficacy of your web site, your          hands-on with data.
  Journeys present more                  store, an at-home visit, or any other
  opportunity for differentiation        individual interaction. The people
In one (unnamed) industry,               using your service don’t think of
McKinsey compared satisfaction           what they’re trying to achieve in
with both touchpoints and journeys       these channel- or department-based
across companies. The gap between        ways, and it’s time for us to adapt to
the companies with the best and          cross-silo metrics that reflect people’s
worst journey performance was 50         real goals. This, of course, doesn’t
percent wider than between those         mean that you should stop measuring
with the best and worst touchpoint       individual touchpoints — but instead,
performance. And a wider gap             look at those touchpoints within
equals more potential for you to         the context of a greater end-to-end
differentiate from your competitors.     journey.

  Where to start                           3. Invest in a journey-focused
Journey analytics will be the way          analytics platform.
your organisation measures the           The ‘Voice of the Customer’ vendor
value of service design and customer     landscape is quickly shifting to
experience in the future. Here’s how     offer dashboards and measurement
you can get started:                     frameworks that center on journeys.
                                         Look for a platform that can
  1. Prioritise your most important      aggregate data from multiple sources
  journeys.                              like social media, call centers, digital
Not all journeys are created equal, so   properties, and surveys — and then
you need to identify those that matter   provide journey-centric views of
most to your customers and to your       sentiment, behavioural, operational
organisation. When McKinsey looked       and financial data.
at the pay TV and auto insurance
industries, it found that average           Kerry’s Take
                                                                                      Kerry Bodine is a customer
satisfaction with each company’s         If you sensed a theme throughout             experience expert and the
three key journeys correlated with       this article, I hope it’s this: data. Your   co-author of Outside In.
faster revenue growth. To be specific:   ability to understand and frame both         Her research, analysis and
                                                                                      opinions appear frequently
“a one-point improvement on a ten-       qualitative and quantitative data            on sites such as Harvard
point [satisfaction] scale corresponds   within the context of the customer           Business Review, Forbes,
to at least a three-percentage-point     journey will be the make-or-break            and Fast Company.

increase in the revenue-growth rate.”    factor for the success of your current       Follow Kerry on Twitter at
Wow!                                     and future service design efforts.           @kerrybodine.

                                                                                                              Touchpoint 9-2        11
Legal Design: Collaborating
                                   with Lawyers to Improve
                                   Access to Justice
                                   Bringing human-centred innovation to the legal sector

Lieke Beelen is service
designer and founder of
Visual Contracts. In 2015 she
won the Hague Innovators
prize, together with lawyer
Janneke Boerman. Since then
she worked on legal design         “The law is meant to create order in society and exists to prevent
and legal innovation.
                                   and solve conflicts in a just way.” This is what Dutch law students
                                   are taught in their first year of law school.1 However, if we look at
                                   how law is applied, one could question if this is really happening
                                   effectively. After all, it seems as if we are maintaining the status
                                   quo. One of the main reasons for this is the language in which the
                                   law is written. Legal language is difficult for everyday people to
Frederik Westerouen van
                                   comprehend, and it is currently not effective at supporting the
Meeteren is the founder of
Anything Connected, which
                                   practice of law itself.
focuses on the Internet of
Things. He is part of the Visual
Contracts community and is         We can start with an example: A privacy     were written by and for lawyers, instead
developing new applications        statement should inform people about how    of for themselves.
based on user data,
                                   companies deal with the data they collect      This is the challenge I took on in 2015,
without acting unlawfully
or making customers feel           from their customers. But how many          after winning The Hague Innovators
uncomfortable.                     people actually read those documents?       Prize, together with lawyer Janneke
                                   Most people just fill in a form and click
                                   ‘I agree’. Moreover, those that do read     1 Inleiding in het Nederlands Recht – Mr. J.W.P.
                                   those documents often discover that they      Verheugt, Uitgeverij de Zuidas, Amsterdam, 2015w

12 Touchpoint 9-2
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Boerman. The project would lead me on into the field of            Because this project was limited by the funds we were
legal design.                                                      awarded, we only were able to test the first prototypes in
   In our project, we used Facebook’s privacy statement in         order to explore how text and visuals can be combined
order to explore how we could make the abstract topic of           in legal documents and how design can support greater
privacy more tangible, therefore encouraging consumers             awareness of privacy issues. We weren’t able to determine
to read privacy statements (and, ideally, to actively take         long-term behavioural effects, or how it could further be
steps to safeguard their privacy). Applying a context              integrated into the service. These would be logical next
mapping approach, we mapped the needs and perception               steps to explore. On this topic, a recent PhD thesis by
people have about privacy with regards to their Facebook           Stefania Passera has demonstrated that visual structures
usage.2 From these insights we defined a design vision             improve efficiency and comprehension when reading
in which we tried to trigger people to learn more about            contracts.3
privacy-related issues on Facebook, and in turn to lead               Based on my experience with the Facebook privacy
them through the whole privacy statement.                          design project, I founded Visual Contracts, in which I am
   From a legal perspective, a company must inform its             further exploring how legal design methods can improve
customers about how it deals with customer data before             access to justice. In the process of starting up I also came
those customers begin to use the service itself. This is           across challenges in selling ethical (service) design,
called ‘informed consent’, and it is currently receiving a         such as creating transparent privacy statements and
lot of attention. In our project, we sought to learn which         convincing companies to make people more aware about
situations triggered the greatest interest in privacy              their privacy.
and translated them into posts that we could share on                 As designers we can and should motivate our client
Facebook. For example, one of our posts explained what             businesses to make ethical choices, just as sustainable
happens with your data when you post a picture on                  business practices have become widely valued. Similarly,
Facebook, and what data Facebook learns about you.                 human rights should be addressed and integrated into the
                                                                   philosophy of doing business. While social enterprises are
                                                                   addressing this right now, big corporate firms must also
                                                                   follow suit if we want to reach the levels of equality stated
                                                                   in several of the UN’s sustainable development goals by

                                                                      A lack of human-centred legal innovation
                                                                   Current innovations in the legal sector are aimed at
                                                                   making the law more efficient or less costly, mostly from
                                                                   a technical perspective. In addition, legal tech innovation
                                                                   is seeing the development of tools that apply artificial
                                                                   intelligence and blockchain technology. While these are
                                                                   important developments to make the law accessible and

An example post for Facebook was used to trigger people to think
about their privacy.                                               3 Beyond the wall of contract text - Visualizing contracts to foster
                                                                     understanding and collaboration within and across organizations,
                                                                     Stefania Passera, Aalto University publication series DOCTORAL
                                                                     DISSERTATIONS, 134/2017
2    4 UN Sustainable Development Goals:

                                                                                                                       Touchpoint 9-2 13
1. What does Facebook know about you when you upload a picture?   2. What do they do with that data?

3. With whom do they share your data?                             4. Facebook knows much more! Explore now in the full visual
                                                                  privacy statement.

Triggering people to explore the full visual privacy statement5

affordable for everyone, they don't really improve access           There is a significant opportunity to equip those in
to law, or at least don’t put the law into user’s context.        the legal field with the tools and skills applied by service
Legal topics and issues are more often considered as a            designers. To create a profound understanding we need
‘necessary evil’, rather than something that can empower          more service designers working in this rising field of
citizens in practicing their rights. This represents an           innovation.
opportunity for service designers and design thinkers to
contribute to the legal industry with their knowledge and            What is ‘Legal Design Thinking’?
skills, starting with using empathy to solve these legal          At Visual Contracts, we see ‘Legal Design Thinking’
access challenges.                                                as a crossover area of legal thinking, Design Thinking
   This represents an opportunity - if not a need - for           and service design, visual thinking and user experience
service designers to contribute to legal innovation by            (UX) design. So we look at legal design from several
helping lawyers to create more empathy with laymen.               different angles. Because legal topics are often abstract
While some law firms already have 'legal service                  and difficult to relate to, we create accessible and
designers', they may not have the design research skills          engaging legal documents as a tangible entry point to
(amongst others) as those in the service design community.        understanding the principles, restrictions and relations of

14 Touchpoint 9-2
c ro s s - d i s c i p l i n e

                       Two screenshots of the full visual privacy statement5

elements within these documents. Doing so helps bridge        focuses on improving the quality of people’s lives. While
the gap between the legal world and laypeople.                the law tries to drive societal behaviour by determining
   Legal documents could and should be a means to create      the ‘guidelines for good behaviour’ and ‘punishment of
sustainable customer relationships. We use visual thinking    misbehaviour’, Design Thinking uses empathy and design
combined with design research to simplify and visualise       research techniques to relate to people’s perceptions in
legal documents, to brainstorm and create (shared) mental     individual situations. For this reason there is also a big
models, and explain complex stories in an engaging way.       overlap in what legal systems aim to accomplish, and the
We also believe that lawyers can apply visual thinking        purpose of Design Thinking does, particularly focussed
to communicate with their clients. More holistically, we      on ethical outcomes. Finally, as an innovation in the
look at the whole service experience a company offers,        legal world itself, we use UX design to build the bridge
starting with an inside-out perspective to understand and
empathise with the legal profession, in order to understand
                                                              5 Clickable prototypes Facebook Visual Privacy Statement (in Dutch):
what legal content they want and need to convey.
                                                                ‘What happens with your data when you upload a picture’ https://
   Moreover, in our vision, Design Thinking has great  and full visual privacy statement https://
potential impact within the practice of law, because it

                                                                                                                 Touchpoint 9-2 15
Visual Thinking                                                                                            Design Thinking

                                    Figuring out the relations     Understanding human
                                    within a complex story         needs to design solutions
                                    and visualising them           that enhance quality of life

                                    Legal Design Thinking
                                Understanding                             Understanding the context
                                the basic principles                      of use of law and needs of

                                and restrictions (of                      people interacting with law
                                relations of
                                elements) within
                                 legal documents                        Creating order in
                                                                        society and preventing
                                                                        and solving conflicts
                                               Create engaging online
                                               user experiences

             UX Design                                                                                    Legal Thinking

A framework for legal design thinking

between current innovations and the still largely paper-           Lawyers are trained in systems thinking - They are
based practice of law, by creating engaging online user                good in solving mazes and identifying obstacles.
experiences and meaningful solutions for websites and            — Lawyers are trained in ‘getting it right’ - They focus
applications.                                                          on the risks certain details could imply. This typically
   These techniques combined result in what we call                    makes it harder to brainstorm together, because they
‘Legal Design Thinking’ - understanding the context                    will evaluate every idea for potential risks.
and needs of people interacting with law and being able             Lawyers tend to think more in ownership of ideas -
to apply improvements based on these insights to make                  This relates to protecting intellectual property and
justice accessible for everyone.                                       their competitive advantage.
                                                                    This last point especially can introduce some challenges.
   Entry points for service designers                               One of the first rules of brainstorming is to build upon
Significant opportunities exist for service designers to            each other’s ideas. Going further, thinking out of the box,
co-create with lawyers. In our work, we have identified             and then developing an idea into a more realistic concept
some general guidelines to keep in mind when working                is something designers are trained in. However, a lawyer
on a design project with lawyers:                                   will need to open their mind to this way of thinking.

16 Touchpoint 9-2
c ro s s - d i s c i p l i n e

  In addition, prototyping with lawyers introduces             2. Use your empathy skills to step into the shoes of the
some challenges. Lawyers are accustomed to evaluating             lawyer and not just the lawyer’s client. Help them to
documents based on their final version. So when a                 show different perspectives out of legal boundaries.
designer draws sketches of a concept or builds a model,        3. Use ‘right’ and ‘left’ thinking games to warm up and
the lawyer tends to perceive and evaluate it as an end            break the ice with anyone and act as energisers.
result. Because they are trained to focus on the details,      4. When structuring a legal document, a mind-map will
they are more resistant to reaching out to clients to test a      help provide a helicopter perspective, and represents
certain concept or prototype.                                     a familiar tool (most lawyers are familiar with
                                                                  flowcharts and mind-maps). Sections of the document
                                                                  can be written, keeping it short and structured. The
The law tries to drive societal behaviour                         challenge is then to first identify what sections are
by determining the ‘guidelines for                                related, when you look from a client’s or layman’s
                                                                  perspective. This can be a huge advantage because
good behaviour’ and ‘punishment of
                                                                  most lawyers tend to brainstorm by writing rather
misbehaviour’.                                                    than in a visual manner.

                                                               These are just the first findings in collaborating from a
   How to overcome challenges in collaboration?                legal design thinking perspective. There is much more to
There are methods to overcoming the challenges                 explore and improve. With this first introduction I hope
mentioned above. Here are four techniques to get you           to inspire service designers to collaborate with lawyers
started:                                                       and create access to justice and empower people to
1. Align your communication and use visual thinking            practice their rights.
   to identify different viewpoints. Make it concrete,
   especially because details catch a legal expert’s           If you would like to keep updated on the developments in legal
                                                               design,join the SDN Legal Design group on LinkedIn.

                                                                                                                  Touchpoint 9-2 17
Nudging People to Give
                               Using Behavioural Insights

                               Donating to charity is often seen as a simple act of generosity done
                               by those who can afford it, but in fact, the amount we donate
                               is not directly correlated with our ability to give, or even to our
                               benevolence. A number of factors play into the web of reasons we
                               may or may not choose to donate in any given situation.
Ine Vassøy is a Lead Service
Designer at Spotless, a
London-based service design
agency founded in 2004
that transforms businesses
through innovation.

David Wiggins is a Product
Manager at BT, with over
25 years’ experience
                               In the UK, giving to charity is a popular        To answer these questions, we took a
in customer service
environments. BT is a          and respected gesture, and many online        cross-disciplinary approach, pulling in
leading provider of global     platforms have recently emerged to            principles and tools from behavioural
communications services and
solutions, whose purpose
                               facilitate that generosity. When BT found     economics to help guide our service
is to use the power of         that its commission-free online fundraising   design. The well known principle of
communications to make a       service, MyDonate, was being passed           ‘anchoring’, for example, helped us
better world. More info at
                               over in favour of paid platforms, they        determine an effective starting amount to
                               wanted to know how they could improve         display on the fundraising pages, nudging
Spotless team: Ine Vassøy,     their service. Why were people opting to      users to give just a little extra. We studied
Kayleigh Thompson, André
van Heerden, Andy Walker,      pay more? What factors were dissuading        how these kinds of nudges could be used
Richie Kennedy and John        donors, and how could MyDonate adapt to       to increase donations, attract more users,
Anthony.                       encourage more donations?                     improve retention and reduce customer
                                                                             support needed.

18 Touchpoint 9-2
s p o n s o re d c o n t e n t

                                                               We learned that people who saw a photo of their
                                                            chosen fundraiser while deciding on the amount of
                                                            contribution, for example, were more likely to follow
                                                            through with the process, and actually ended up donating
                                                            more. When we tested a feature that encouraged donors
                                                            to write personal messages to recipients, people said they
                                                            felt a stronger bond to the fundraiser. We also introduced
                                                            other features such as the timeline, to strengthen the
                                                            community of donors, fundraisers and charities.
                                                               But while many people value this personal bond with
                                                            the recipient, that does not necessarily mean they want to
                                                            broadcast their generosity to their entire social network.
                                                            Most donors tend to donate without being signed in
                                                            which led to their donation being initially marked as
                                                            anonymous. This was frustrating for the fundraisers
MyDonate ecosystem                                          because they wanted to know who was donating to their
                                                            cause. By adding a privacy adjustment option in the
  Exploratory research with donors, fundraisers and         donation flow that allowed donors to show their identity
charity employees led us to five design principles that     to only the fundraiser, we were able to facilitate deeper
guided us through our process:                              investment in the community on both sides, without
                                                            pushing away those who wished to stay anonymous.
1. Give clear direction through simplicity
2. Be human and use social cues to guide behaviour
3. Create loyalty through community
4. Appeal to self-image and personalisation
5. Engage at the right time and place

Our key goals were to increase the number and value
of donations through the website. After observing
customers and listening to support centre calls, we
believed many frustrations could be resolved by
simplifying the user interface. We stripped away
irrelevant content and created a more personalised
experience for the users that were logged in. We also
created an ‘invisible’ sign up process to encourage users
to log in. Our hypothesis was that these changes would      Design concepts for a donor’s donation journey
minimise users’ impatience and frustration, which would
improve customer retention and free up resources by            In this project, we gained deep empathy with users by
reducing the number of calls to the support centre.         applying behavioural economics techniques. Our designs
   When we tested this hypothesis, the effect of the new    are under development to be implemented, after which
designs was clearly positive. These simple changes had      we plan to measure the longer term effects of our design
great effect on user retention, as people were no longer    decisions. By understanding the seemingly irrational
opting out of the experience due to confusion. When it      rationales behind people’s actions, we were able to give
came to donation quantity and value, however, these         MyDonate the confidence to make radical changes to the
simple changes did not have the big effect we had hoped     donation platform.
for. The real focus needed to be on timing, community          To learn more about our methods visit
and reputation.                                   

                                                                                                             Touchpoint 9-2 19
f e at u re   f e at u re

Title         Measuring
              Impact and
An Iterative, Experience and
                                  Practice-led Approach to
                                  Measuring Impact
                                  Measuring the impact of service design in a world of public sector
                                  management metrics has always been tricky. Social outcomes take
                                  a long time to be realised. Proxy ‘output’ measures often tell us
                                  what is happening rather than why it is happening, and can drive
                                  perverse behaviours. Problems that service design addresses sit
Cat Drew is Delivery Director     within complex systems, and it is often difficult to isolate a specific
at UK-based Uscreates.
Previously, Cat has been          intervention from changing elements or innovations surrounding
Head of Projects at the UK
Government's Policy Lab,
                                  it. There is a growing recognition that services are never fully
and worked in other policy
                                  (re)designed and need constant evaluation to evolve and improve.
roles in No.10, Cabinet Office,
GDS and the Home Office.          Impact measurement needs to reflect this. Rather than something
Cat has written and spoken
widely on the role of data        measured at the end of the project, it needs to be iterative and
and design, including at TedX
Westminster.                      become part of continuous service development. And rather than
                                  relying on purely quantitative data, it needs to become more
                                  experience and practice-led, with frontline staff and service
                                  users empowered and supported to use it to make continuous
                                  improvements in the service they deliver, or their own behaviours.

                                  In 2017, at the Measured Summit in New       it will). As designers, we also measure
                                  York, experts and students came together     impact formatively, to reflect on and
                                  to discuss how to measure the impact of      improve the service we are designing, as
                                  design. At the follow-up event in London,    well as the process for designing it. Table
                                  six months later, we were still discussing   1 shows that by expanding the groups of
                                  the basics: why are we measuring impact,     people that use these two approaches can
                                  and for whom? Traditionally, in the non-     lead us to different forms and functions of
                                  design world (of our clients), impact has    impact measurement.
                                  been measured through evaluation, to
                                  prove something has worked (or to argue

22 Touchpoint 9-2
m e a s u ri n g i m pa c t a n d va l u e

                 Why do we measure impact, and for whom?

                 Evaluative/summative:       For the public, to understand if/how their money has been spent
                 to prove something works    effectively.

                                             For commissioners, to understand what initiatives to further invest
                                             in; to make the case for funding initiatives; and to be accountable to
                                             the public for spending their money in an effective manner.

                                             For designers, to make the case for further design work, and/or
                                             make the case for the value of design.

                 Formative:                  For users, to self-reflect on what their data is telling them about
                 to learn and iteratively    themselves, and to make a change.
                 improve something
                                             For staff, to learn and reflect on what is working, and improve
                                             processes and ways of working (getting positive and negative

                                             For designers (again), to reflect and learn about how well the design
                                             process is working, improve it and create best and next practice.

The challenges around evaluating design are well                      delivered. Metrics are quite often driven by what the
documented.                                                           organisation deems is important rather, rather than
— Social outcomes often take a long time to appear,                 what users value (e.g. train passenger surveys about
     particularly where the approach is preventative. For             punctuality and price, rather than anxiety or stress
     example, you might only see the impact of increasing             experienced during the journey). And these practices
     financial self-management on homelessness figures                can also lead to perverse service behaviours. In the
     five or ten years later.                                         UK, the police’s ‘Offences Brought to Justice’ target
 — As a result of the previous challenge, organisations             drove the police to target young people (so-called ‘low
     have created output or proxy metrics to measure more             hanging fruit’) rather than more dangerous criminals,
     immediate impact, which can be useful. For example,              in order to drive up their impact measurements.
     primary school assessments of childhood obesity               Social challenges are part of bigger systems; specific
     give a more current indicator of early intervention              interventions do not take place in isolation. For
     initiatives that will reduce Type II diabetes in the             example, a service-level intervention to prevent
     longer term. However, these tend to be either an                 homelessness will be affected by rent price increases or
     existing interaction measure (e.g. GP visits or waiting          changes to the benefit or welfare system. Place-based
     times) or an easily-quantifiable measurement (e.g.               approaches to health will be affected by the particular
     an annual weight measurement). They capture what                 physical (buildings, transport, environmental) and
     is happening, rather than why and how people feel.               human (communities, services, politics) elements
     This is where much of the value of service design is             in that place. Some new types of innovation are

                                                                                                                      Touchpoint 9-2 23
actively encouraging this complexity. ‘Combinatorial               also identify a wide variety of metrics and indicators
   innovation’, as it is being trialled in the UK through             that can track interim progress. Colleagues from the
   the NHS test-bed programme, deliberately tests a                   agency Nile and the Royal Bank of Scotland, presenting
   number of technological innovations at the same time,              their redesign of the Scottish £5 note at the SDN
   or alongside other new approaches, which means                     conference in London in 2016, explained how they
   setting a control is impossible. Traditional evaluation            measured the ripple effects of design throughout the
   frameworks are scientifically grounded with control                process as well as the large splash at the end. These
   groups and a small number of quantitative variables.               can take many forms: output data, surveys, responses
   But these function less well in the messier world of               to cultural probes, feedback and customer insight.
   social challenges, where it is difficult to dissect the            Digital data provides a world of new possibilities,
   effect of a specific change from other parts of the                allowing people to track activity and behaviour as it
   system that are swirling around it.                                happens, follow how people are using digital services,
                                                                      (e.g. trend research and social media listening), as well
                                                                      as real-time forums for posing questions and surveys.
In a constantly evolving world, a service                             For example, Uscreates developed a ‘Children’s Centre
re-design is never complete and impact                                in a Box’ for the UK’s Children’s Society, by messaging
                                                                      parents each week to measure how they were using
measurement is part of delivering a
                                                                      the activities provided within the Box, and using this
constantly-improving service.                                         to measure which ones were most valuable, and which
                                                                      ones needed improvement.
                                                                 — What is interesting about this data is that it is much
This calls into question not only the usefulness but                  more qualitative, behavioural and experiential than
indeed validity of traditional, evaluative, end-of-test               traditional proxy measures. By experience and
impact measurement alone. As a civil servant, I have                  practice-led, I mean both valuing qualitative feedback
been guilty of writing “we are going to pilot [...] with a            and insight from users, as well as the tacit knowledge
view to rolling it out nationally” in various strategies. It          and opinions of frontline staff on whether an idea
means that pilot programmes are set up to succeed rather              is working or not. There is a debate on the value of
than to be allowed to fail, even if the experiment proves             ‘intuition’ in professional decision making. It is clearly
not to work. There are examples of expensive trials that              resisted in the scientific world of reason. However,
were set on a course to succeed by their political masters,           where it is based on cognitive experience and is
despite evidence to the contrary.1                                    combined with other metrics, it provides another
                                                                      valuable, sense-making measure.
Instead, I would argue for an iterative, experience and            Supporting frontline staff to have a more central role
practice-led approach.                                                in assessing whether something is working or not
— By iterative, I mean plotting a series of proxy measures          offers wider value for how services and policy are
    that give a sense of how you are moving towards                   continuously improved. Getting user feedback is fairly
    outcomes (and using this data to pivot throughout).               standard for service designers. But if we are to promote
    Theories of change are useful in helping to think                 the use of practice-led judgments of value, we also
    through how an action results in an outcome. By                   need to support frontline staff to widen the cognitive
    mapping the causal links and assumptions, one can                 sources on which they are basing their assessments,
                                                                      including listening to users. We also need to help
1 Nina Holm Vohnsen (2011) Absurdity and the sensible decision        people make sense of unstructured qualitative data.

24 Touchpoint 9-2
m e a s u ri n g i m pa c t a n d va l u e

   In short term this can be done by supporting them to       and making decisions. Rather, gathering feedback and
   code/assess it, and in the longer term by using AI to      data and relaying it back to users (on its own, as a self-
   quantify sentiment from video and text responses,          quantified visualisation or with additional tailored
   freeing up staff to create ideas for improvements.         advice) can be part of the service offer itself. The act
                                                              of recording data about your health can prompt you
Therefore iterative, experience and practice-led              to adapt healthier living behaviours. Research and
measurement belies a different type of culture and            implementation are intertwined through apps like
mindset around how we continually develop and improve         ‘mappify’ that pulse checks people’s health, or ‘Colour
services. Our work with organisations wishing to move         in City’ which used digital technology to collect people’s
to a more preventative and early intervention approach        experiences of their city, prompting behaviour change.
has highlighted a need to move from a culture where               The idea that a service is static - is designed,
frontline staff are gatekeepers of a service at the time of   evaluated and stays the same - looks increasingly out
crisis - following process and activity/time targets - to     of date. Services, both their digital and face-to-face
one where frontline staff are problem-solvers, doing          components, need to change and evolve with the
what they feel is best to achieve the right outcome for       systems that surround them. As well as designing the
the person. In the latter world, frontline staff have         service, designers need to upskill frontline staff to lead
control over their service, using impact data and their       this iterative change. Perhaps more importantly than
own trusted feedback to see how it is working and being       summative evaluation (proving that something works)
empowered to change and improve it. In a constantly           is formative evaluation (learning what works and
evolving world, a service re-design is never complete and     improving what doesn’t). In traditional frameworks,
impact measurement is part of delivering a constantly-        evaluation comes at the end of the process. Instead, we
improving service.                                            need to see impact measurement as part of the delivery
   But it is not that easy to roll back decades of public     of the service itself, with frontline staff and users looking
sector management and create a mindset that the RSA           at the variety of iterative measures, reflecting on how
calls ‘think like a system, act like an entrepreneur’.2       well things are working, and shifting their behaviour and
Leaders need to promote a reflective and learning             making changes if they are not.
culture so frontline staff can actively look for feedback
from users, be trusted to give it themselves, and make
improvements to the service they deliver. Service design,
through its involvement of staff in the design process,
and the artefacts it creates (e.g. a problem solving
conversation guide rather than tick-box forms) is a
powerful vehicle for the culture change.
   And what of users? They are also included in the
audience in Table 1. As well as developing and improving
services, iterative impact measurement can be part of
their delivery. A preventative approach also requires
greater self-awareness and resilience-building within
users. Impact measurement should not be seen as a
one-way stream, with organisations sucking up data

2 Burbridge, I (2017) The System Entrepreneur

                                                                                                            Touchpoint 9-2 25
Humanising Frankenstein
                                Measuring and improving citizen experiences

                                Insufficient attention has been paid to developing a systematic
                                method for evaluating the effectiveness of the experiences
                                created by public sector service design. Citizen experiences
                                are at times monstrous: rambling, fragmented and frightening.
                                This paper describes research used to assess the experience of
Jo’Anne Langham has             starting a small business in Australia as a pilot study for a larger
22 years of experience in
service design and in leading   research program for evaluating effectiveness. This research
user-centred design teams.
During her work in industry     study applies the theoretical model for Experience Effectiveness
she established research
and design teams and lead
                                (XE), a framework with metrics to compare, evaluate and improve
large scale public sector
design projects. Jo’Anne was
                                government-citizen services. Our aim is to tame the Frankenstein
awarded the prestigious ATO     of service design: public sector services.
Commissioner’s Scholarship
in 2010.
                                   What is a successful citizen             An experience must facilitate compliance
                                   experience?                              and protect the citizen from accidental or
                                A good citizen experience relates to the    unforced errors.
                                successful completion of tasks to meet an      Government authorities are also
                                obligation or receive a benefit from the    increasingly aware of the value of well-
                                government. Such experiences encompass      designed services for citizens, such as the
                                a wide variety of government services at    prefilling of tax return data, digital visas
                                all levels. Examples include: completing    and streamlining health insurance claims
                                a tax return, receiving welfare benefits,   at point of sale. In these cases, a great deal
                                attending public education, receiving       of supporting activity occurs behind the
                                healthcare, paying taxes or obtaining       scenes with little or no intervention from
                                a licence. If a citizen fails to comply,    citizens. However, many services cannot
                                there are consequences, such as fines or    be fully automated and require citizens
                                penalties which must be paid regardless     to control or manage their obligations.
                                of whether the non-compliance was           Assessing these self-directed experiences
                                accidental or deliberate. Therefore, the    is exceptionally difficult. Services
                                achievement of compliance is a primary      are assigned by the government to be
                                goal for successful citizen experiences.    administered by multiple departments.

26 Touchpoint 9-2
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