Measuring impact and value

Measuring impact and value

Measuring impact and value

32 The Three Layers of Service Design Impact Craig Cisero, Veronika Ji, Stefania Marcoli, Chiara Diana 46 Designing for Impact and Value Bernadette Geuy, Rachel Hollowgrass, Titta Jylkäs 70 Design Methods for Strengthening Social Cohesion Aran Baker and Valentina Branada t h e j o u r n a l o f s e r v i c e d e s i g n vol 9 no 2 | november 2017 | 18 € Measuring Impact and Value

Measuring impact and value

Touchpoint Volume 9 No. 2 November 2017 The Journal of Service Design ISSN 1868-6052 Published by Service Design Network Publisher Birgit Mager Editor-in-Chief Jesse Grimes Guest Editors Nancy Birkhölzer Stefan Moritz Aviv Katz Erik Roscam Abbing Project Management Cristine Lanzoni Art Direction Jeannette Weber Cover Image Jeannette Weber Pictures Unless otherwise stated, the copyrights of all images used for illustration lie with the author(s) of the respective article Printing Hundt Druck Fonts Mercury G2 Apercu Service Design Network gGmbH Mülheimer Freiheit 56 D-51063 Köln Germany Contact & Advertising Sales Cristine Lanzoni For ordering Touchpoint, please visit

Measuring impact and value

Touchpoint 9-2 3 from the editors Measuring Impact and Value Jesse Grimes, Editor-in-Chief for Touchpoint, has nine years experience as a service designer and consultant. He has worked in London, Copenhagen, Düsseldorf and Sydney and is now based in Amsterdam with Dutch agency Informaat. Jesse is also Vice President of the Service Design Network. Nancy Birkhölzer is IXDS‘ CEO. She enjoys building organisations and teams with a unique spirit and culture. Nancy was recognised as one of the “100 Women of the Future” by Deutschland – Land der Ideen, and chosen as one of the “15 Thought Leaders & Innovators 2015” by WIRED magazine.

Stefan Moritz is an entrepreneur, corporate change-maker and customer experience champion. He is Vice President Customer Experience at Veryday, one of the world’s top-ranking design and innovation consultancies. Aviv Katz is Senior Associate at Innovation Unit. He has coached leaders and led teams, working across health, social care, justice and local government. Erik Roscam Abbing is director Netherlands of Livework, a global service design agency. Erik has consulted and taught globally on topics like design thinking, brand driven innovation and service design.

Birgit Mager, publisher of Touchpoint, is professor for service design at Köln International School of Design (KISD) in Cologne, Germany. She is founder and director of sedes research at KISD and is co-founder and President of the Service Design Network. I’ve been lucky enough to have attended quite a few service design conferences over the years, and heard peers in the community stand on stage and share their advice, techniques, questions and insights. While they all have had value to me, a small handful stand out as offering what I saw as ground-breaking insights at the time. One of these talks took place in 2012, at the SDN’s Global Conference in Paris.

Livework’s Ben Reason took to the stage and explained how his agency had started pairing service designers with in-house business analysts. This partnership provided a role which could speak the language of business people, applying number-crunching skills to both justify investments in service design projects before a project started, and measure results and ROI towards the end. Being able to measure the impact of service design activities has always presented a challenge. Services are often complex, comprised of multiple interactions with multiple touchpoints, over widely varying time spans.

While the re-design of a touchpoint (let’s say a website focussed on sales) can deliver concrete numbers indicating success (e.g. conversion), things get much more complex at a service level, when multiple touchpoints come into play. In this issue of Touchpoint, we have tackled precisely this challenge: How can service design best measure the impact it achieves? Service design must become more mature in justifying itself to decision-makers, both before and after it is applied. I hope the insights and methods herein help you answer that question, when you next sit down to plan or review a service design project.

Jesse Grimes for the editorial board The cover of this issue of Touchpoint is more than meets the eye! We’ve put our own organisation under the microscope, and measured the impact of some of our initiatives, over a time period of five years. It’s rewarding to see visually beautiful proof that the impact of the SDN’s activities shows strong growth year-on-year.

1 SDN members 2 SDGC attendees 3 Social media followers 4 Newsletter followers 5 SDN website page views 6 SDN website visitors 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 1 2 3 4 5 6

Measuring impact and value

Touchpoint 9-2 4 2 imprint 3 from the editors 6 news 10 kerry’s take 10 From Journey Maps to Journey Measurement Kerry Bodine 12 cross-discipline 12 Legal Design: Collaborating with Lawyers to Improve Access to Justice Lieke Beelen, Frederik Westerouen van Meeteren 18 Nudging People to Give Using Behavioural Insights Ine Vassøy, David Wiggins 20 feature: Measuring Impact and Value 22 An Iterative, Experience and Practice-led Approach to Measuring Impact Cat Drew 26 Humanising Frankenstein Jo’Anne Langham 32 The Three Layers of Service Design Impact Craig Cisero, Veronika Ji, Stefania Marcoli, Chiara Diana 38 You Can’t Manage What You Can’t Measure Patrick McGowan, Raven Manocchio 40 Mind the Gap Shaun Gummere, Guy Felder 42 Cracking the Code to Workplace Productivity Matthew Swift, Coby Lerner 46 Designing for Impact and Value Bernadette Geuy, Rachel Hollowgrass, Titta Jylkäs 12 Service P r o d u c t P r o c e s s Cognition Perception Ergonomics Aesthetics A c c e s s i b i l i t y U s e f u l n e s s Aw ar en es s Te m po ra l C o n t e x t C o m p l e t e Com plexity Security Stability Efficiency Error Managed Flexibility Responsive C o m p e t e n c e C o u r t e s y Cr ed ib ili ty Eq ui ty C o - p r o d I n t e r a c t E x p e c t Em otion 1.

Have an idea 2. Do Research 3. Determine business model 4. Set up registrations 5. Set up business fundamentals 6. Begin trading 7. Sell and buy 8. Lodge BAS 7 5 4 4 3 4 5 9 Areas for process improvement: - Inflexibility of process - Lack of short cuts - Inability to use existing tools - Medium to high amount of effort required - Many steps in the process - Information not reused 26

Measuring impact and value

Touchpoint 9-2 5 c ontents 50 Tools and Methods 52 Measuring Design Value of a Differentiated Service Platform Dr Kiwoong Nam, Dr Bruce. W. Carnie, Kevin Sunghoon Cho 58 Meeting Service Sandbox Jane Vita 61 Six Hacks for Service Designers in Agile Settings Jesse Grimes 64 Education and Research 66 Measurement Beyond Surveys… Nahal Tavangar 70 Design Methods for Strengthening Social Cohesion Aran Baker, Valentina Branada 74 Partnering for Service Design Education Holger Fricke 78 profiles 78 Anne Stenros 58 70 82 inside sdn 82 Congratulations to the Service Design Award 2017 Finalists 88 Applying Service Design to the SDN Chapter Foundation Process 90 Service Design Within US: The First SDN National Conference in the U.S.

91 Reflecting on the First SDN U.S. National Conference’s Student Competition 82

Measuring impact and value

Service Design Award 2017 Finalists Announced! We are delighted to share the work by this year’s fourteen Service Design Award 2017 finalists selected by our international jury of service design experts. A warm thank you to the new Head of the Jury, Kerry Bodine, and the international jurors of 2017 who did an amazing job judging over 100 submissions. The shortlisted projects are internationally recognised as benchmarks of world class service design. Congratulations to the nine winning professionals and five winning students for their fantastic work and the contribution they have made to the field of service design! The winners will be announced at the Service Design Global Conference on November 2nd in Madrid, and will present their projects on stage on November 3rd.

We are excited to learn the winners and hope you will join in the celebrations with us at SDGC17! We are also looking forward to show casing the winners and finalists in the first ever publication about the Service Design Award, which will be released by Spring 2018. Make sure to read more about the finalist projects on page 82. Secure Your Official SDN Trainer Accreditation!

Research carried out by the SDN in 2017 showed that an astonishing 90 percent of the respondents expressed a desire for an accreditation programme that provides transparency to available training offerings, and provides a measure of their quality. Based on these results, we have launched the SDN Trainer Accreditation initiative, to help establish a standard and ensure higher quality within a market that’s growing rapidly. SDN Accredited Trainers will enjoy benefits such as an official certificate, a two-year SDN professional membership and the authorisation to award SDN co-branded certificates to training participants.

The accreditation and self-assessment of trainers will be visible to potential clients on our global community website, establishing them as highly qualified trainers. We’re calling all service design trainers to become Accredited Trainers.

Apply for accreditation before 31 December 2017 and get a special 25 percent discount off the regular price! accreditation Join our New Corporate Plus Membership! Want all your employees and colleagues to get the most out of the SDN? Then why not join our flexible Corporate Plus / Academic Plus membership? The new membership enables companies, agencies and academic organisations to have six or more members from anywhere in the world linked to one SDN account. With this membership, your organisation benefits from a fantastic 50 percent discount per person compared to the individual, professional membership.

This is perfect if you are seeking flexibility and would like 10, 20, 30 or even more employees to have access to our great resources. Members are an important part of our international community and attend our events with a special discount. If you are thinking about joining forces with the SDN, don’t hesitate to get in touch for more information or a price quote by contacting: membership@ © Hanna Freres Touchpoint 9-2 6

Measuring impact and value

Congratulations to our Enthusiastic new Chapters: SDN Hungary, SDN Bulgaria, SDN Belgium and SDN Ireland! This autumn, the SDN has been delighted by the enthusiasm and diverse initiatives organised by the newest international Chapters! We have seen SDN Hungary and SDN Bulgaria play a big role in enabling the service design community to connect and grow in Eastern Europe with their Chapter launch events through August and September. SDN Hungary held a highly successful first event in Budapest with over 80 attendees, in which they reflected on the development of the discipline over the last five years with local pioneers such as Telenor Hungary.

SDN Bulgaria hosted a Creative Journey Conference in Sofia, successfully introducing service design methods to an audience of over 200 people. SDN Belgium hosted an energetic kick-off event with over 70 participants in Ghent to co-create a vision for the Belgian Chapter. The Irish Chapter ran a series of service design drinks and themed industry talks to link and develop the service US SDN National Conference ‘Service Design Within US’ Chapter Conferences and Diverse Initiatives The summer has been a busy time for our already-existing international Chapters! SDN Netherlands has hosted two topical workshops exploring the cutting-edge themes in different cities.

We were excited to see SDN Canada as a key partner supporting the launch of ‘Converge’, a second national Canadian service design conference to take place on December 1st. In mid-August, the US service design community came together in Chicago to celebrate the very first US SDN National Conference, under the theme ‘Service Design Within US’. The conference was initiated by SDN Chicago and organised collaboratively with the other US Chapters. The event was a great success with over 200 attendees representing over 80 organisations from across the country. Make sure to read more about the event on page 90.

design communities in Dublin and Cork. We can’t wait to see how these ambitious Chapters move forward! Check out upcoming events by your local Chapter: www.service-design- of service design in unusual places and in agile settings. SDN Finland has been expanding the horizons of their community with an ‘Event Canvas’ workshop and book club meeting. SDN Denmark has been strengthening their community by hosting regular meet-ups and events Touchpoint 9-2 7 ne ws

Measuring impact and value

The First Chapter Awards Launched for SDGC17 The first ever SDN Chapter Award Ceremony will take place during the SDGC17 Members Day Event on November 1st 2017 in Madrid. There are now 29 international Chapters with teams of volunteers working hard to raise awareness and grow the market for service design because they passionately believe it is the key to social and economic success in their area. The Awards commend five Chapters for their great work, commitment and achievements when it comes to Chapter events and initiatives. The ceremony at SDGC17 will highlight the value of our Chapters, celebrate their success and raise awareness amongst members about their work.

The winners will have their initiatives showcased as examples of best practice that our community can learn from. We can’t wait to find out who the winners will be! Stay tuned to hear more in the next issue of Touchpoint, at the SDGC17 ceremony and via our global media channels.

LOOKING FORWARD TO A MILESTONE SDGC17 The Service Design Global Conference 2017 has generated huge interest from people worldwide, with main programme and Members Event tickets sold out since late September. We have been overwhelmed with the response and for this reason we’re determined to deliver a great experience through a highly curated programme, which includes 70 speakers from all over the world and many side events for attendees and the general public. With Madrid’s La N@ve and Central de Diseño as our main venues, SDGC17 is aiming to create a great service design atmosphere to accompany Madrid’s local flavours.

We would like to thank our many sponsors for joining us in bringing this 10th anniversary event to life, as well as the local team and volunteers for making it possible. We invite everyone to stay tuned and to follow all our channels to catch up with the latest #SDGC17 news, and after-conference coverage. @SDGC2017 and @SDNetwork servicedesignnetwork ServiceDesignNetwork sdgc/sdgc17 Touchpoint 9-2 8

Measuring impact and value

Nordic Service Design, the Documentary The SDN is excited to announce the launch of the Nordic Chapter initiative ‘Nordic Service Design, The Documentary’. SDN Sweden, SDN Norway, SDN Denmark and SDN Finland collaborated with the Swedish producer LuckyDay to make a documentary which connects, celebrates and promotes Nordic service design. The project involved interviews in all four countries with service design practitioners and leaders to explore what is unique, forward-thinking and relevant about Nordic service design. The documentary also aims to raise awareness about the power of service design whilst showcasing best practice examples on a national and global level.

The launch is taking place in the form of a roadshow during the autumn and winter period of 2017. If you are based in the Nordics don’t miss out on this great opportunity to celebrate Nordic service design!

Take a look at the trailer and stay tuned to find out more: Service Design Impact Report: Health Sector The Service Design Network is proud to announce the publication of the third Impact Report, focusing this edition on the value service design is delivering in the health sector. The worldwide challenges in the health sector today are enormous. Population ageing and the impact of chronic diseases are creating new demands on the quantity and types of care being delivered, while at the same time budgets are under threat and legislative changes to insurance coverage add further complexity.

Furthermore, ethical issues related to scientific and technological advancements must be tackled. In short, the health sector is in need of radical innovation. Service design – with its promise of a human- centred and innovative approach to tackling these challenges with fresh thinking – is helping to re-invent and co-create a better future, delivering value for both healthcare recipients and healthcare providers. It’s design, influencing how technology is applied, as a means to make life better for people!

This publication is valuable for a broad readership. It is a source of insight and inspiration for both those operating in the health sector, as well as the policy-makers and politicians that surround it. Service design practitioners can get up-to- speed with the state of the art in how their discipline is being applied to healthcare challenges, and academics and students will benefit from the best practices contained herein. Download or order your printed copy from November 15th at books-and-reports and follow the community on sdnhealthsector Advertise in Touchpoint Promote your company or institution throughout the world of services, rising interest of future clients, customers and employees! We set up interesting advertising options for you, and SDN members enjoy special discounts.

To see your ad in the next Touchpoint, contact us at journal@ Touchpoint 9-2 9 ne ws

Measuring impact and value

Touchpoint 9-2 10 10 Unfortunately, many organisations that are new to service design or customer experience get caught up in artefacts like journey maps and service blueprints, acting like these deliverables are the end goal themselves. I’ve gone on the record multiple times on this topic, and I’ll say it again here: It’s not about the maps. Rather, we need to use journeys as a framework for managing services and experiences — and changing our organisations to better support them.

Now, customer experience practitioners are taking on that challenge and driving a shift in the ways that organisations use journeys. Enter journey analytics: the measurement and analysis of key customer journeys — not just individual touchpoints.

It may seem like common sense to measure how well your organisation supports people as they try to achieve their goals. But the data to support this notion took a long time to surface, as many prime examples stayed hidden and well-guarded behind corporate walls. Fortunately, McKinsey & Company’s anonymised (but published!) data will help you make the case for pivoting your organisation’s measurement strategy.1 Here is my summary (with my major takeaways as the headings): The journey doesn’t equal the sum of its parts A media company looked at the new customer onboarding experience, “a journey that spanned about three months and involved an average of nine phone calls, a home visit from a technician, and numerous web and mail interactions.” Customer satisfaction scores for individual channels each consistently scored over 90 percent.

But satisfaction for the entire end-to-end journey was nearly 40 percent lower. Ouch. Journeys are better predictors of likelihood to recommend McKinsey’s models of customer satisfaction and willingness to recommend both have R-squared values for journeys that hover around 50 percent for the electric utility, health insurance, cable/satellite TV and hotel industries.2 I’d love it if these values were higher, but it’s reasonable to assume that there are other factors that account for about half of customers’ satisfaction scores and referral behaviour.

What’s notable is that depending on the industry, the R-squared scores for journeys range from 56 – 117 percent higher than those for Journeys are central to the discipline of service design. In fact, my definition of service design is: the envisioning of people’s journeys and the organisations required to support them. But in the years since early service designers pioneered this field, journeys have been adopted by other disciplines, as well — most notably, by the field of customer experience.

From Journey Maps to Journey Measurement 1 marketing-and-sales/our-insights/from- touchpoints-to-journeys-seeing-the-world- as-customers-do 2 Ok, I’m gonna have to get a little nerdy on you here, so hang with me.

In statistics land, R-squared values always fall between 0 and 100 percent. An R-squared value of 0 percent means that the model in question — for us, the hypothesis that touchpoints or journeys account for satisfaction or willingness to recommend — explains NONE of the variability in the data. (Think of a bunch of random dots on a graph that you can’t draw a single line through.) A value of 100 percent means that the model in question explains ALL of the variability in the data. (Here, you’d have all the data points aligned perfectly through your line. When does that ever happen?)

Touchpoint 9-2 11 kerry's take 11 touchpoints alone. Ergo, journeys are better predictors of the outcomes you care about. Journeys present more opportunity for differentiation In one (unnamed) industry, McKinsey compared satisfaction with both touchpoints and journeys across companies. The gap between the companies with the best and worst journey performance was 50 percent wider than between those with the best and worst touchpoint performance. And a wider gap equals more potential for you to differentiate from your competitors. Where to start Journey analytics will be the way your organisation measures the value of service design and customer experience in the future.

Here’s how you can get started: 1. Prioritise your most important journeys.

Not all journeys are created equal, so you need to identify those that matter most to your customers and to your organisation. When McKinsey looked at the pay TV and auto insurance industries, it found that average satisfaction with each company’s three key journeys correlated with faster revenue growth. To be specific: “a one-point improvement on a ten- point [satisfaction] scale corresponds to at least a three-percentage-point increase in the revenue-growth rate.” Wow! 2. Create metrics around journeys and journey phases.

It’s no longer enough to measure the efficacy of your web site, your store, an at-home visit, or any other individual interaction.

The people using your service don’t think of what they’re trying to achieve in these channel- or department-based ways, and it’s time for us to adapt to cross-silo metrics that reflect people’s real goals. This, of course, doesn’t mean that you should stop measuring individual touchpoints — but instead, look at those touchpoints within the context of a greater end-to-end journey.

3. Invest in a journey-focused analytics platform. The ‘Voice of the Customer’ vendor landscape is quickly shifting to offer dashboards and measurement frameworks that center on journeys. Look for a platform that can aggregate data from multiple sources like social media, call centers, digital properties, and surveys — and then provide journey-centric views of sentiment, behavioural, operational and financial data. Kerry’s Take If you sensed a theme throughout this article, I hope it’s this: data. Your ability to understand and frame both qualitative and quantitative data within the context of the customer journey will be the make-or-break factor for the success of your current and future service design efforts.

Kerry Bodine is a customer experience expert and the co-author of Outside In. Her research, analysis and opinions appear frequently on sites such as Harvard Business Review, Forbes, and Fast Company. Follow Kerry on Twitter at @kerrybodine.

If you’re not a data hacker yourself, that’s ok. Just make sure your team hires someone who loves getting hands-on with data.

Touchpoint 9-2 12 Lieke Beelen is service designer and founder of Visual Contracts. In 2015 she won the Hague Innovators prize, together with lawyer Janneke Boerman. Since then she worked on legal design and legal innovation. Frederik Westerouen van Meeteren is the founder of Anything Connected, which focuses on the Internet of Things. He is part of the Visual Contracts community and is developing new applications based on user data, without acting unlawfully or making customers feel uncomfortable.

“The law is meant to create order in society and exists to prevent and solve conflicts in a just way.” This is what Dutch law students are taught in their first year of law school.1 However, if we look at how law is applied, one could question if this is really happening effectively. After all, it seems as if we are maintaining the status quo. One of the main reasons for this is the language in which the law is written. Legal language is difficult for everyday people to comprehend, and it is currently not effective at supporting the practice of law itself.

Legal Design: Collaborating with Lawyers to Improve Access to Justice Bringing human-centred innovation to the legal sector We can start with an example: A privacy statement should inform people about how companies deal with the data they collect from their customers. But how many people actually read those documents? Most people just fill in a form and click ‘I agree’. Moreover, those that do read those documents often discover that they were written by and for lawyers, instead of for themselves.

This is the challenge I took on in 2015, after winning The Hague Innovators Prize, together with lawyer Janneke 1 Inleiding in het Nederlands Recht – Mr.

J.W.P. Verheugt, Uitgeverij de Zuidas, Amsterdam, 2015w

Touchpoint 9-2 13 cross-discipline Because this project was limited by the funds we were awarded, we only were able to test the first prototypes in order to explore how text and visuals can be combined in legal documents and how design can support greater awareness of privacy issues. We weren’t able to determine long-term behavioural effects, or how it could further be integrated into the service. These would be logical next steps to explore. On this topic, a recent PhD thesis by Stefania Passera has demonstrated that visual structures improve efficiency and comprehension when reading contracts.3 Based on my experience with the Facebook privacy design project, I founded Visual Contracts, in which I am further exploring how legal design methods can improve access to justice.

In the process of starting up I also came across challenges in selling ethical (service) design, such as creating transparent privacy statements and convincing companies to make people more aware about their privacy.

As designers we can and should motivate our client businesses to make ethical choices, just as sustainable business practices have become widely valued. Similarly, human rights should be addressed and integrated into the philosophy of doing business. While social enterprises are addressing this right now, big corporate firms must also follow suit if we want to reach the levels of equality stated in several of the UN’s sustainable development goals by 2030.4 A lack of human-centred legal innovation Current innovations in the legal sector are aimed at making the law more efficient or less costly, mostly from a technical perspective.

In addition, legal tech innovation is seeing the development of tools that apply artificial intelligence and blockchain technology. While these are important developments to make the law accessible and 2 3 Beyond the wall of contract text - Visualizing contracts to foster understanding and collaboration within and across organizations, Stefania Passera, Aalto University publication series DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS, 134/2017 4 UN Sustainable Development Goals: An example post for Facebook was used to trigger people to think about their privacy.

Boerman. The project would lead me on into the field of legal design. In our project, we used Facebook’s privacy statement in order to explore how we could make the abstract topic of privacy more tangible, therefore encouraging consumers to read privacy statements (and, ideally, to actively take steps to safeguard their privacy). Applying a context mapping approach, we mapped the needs and perception people have about privacy with regards to their Facebook usage.2 From these insights we defined a design vision in which we tried to trigger people to learn more about privacy-related issues on Facebook, and in turn to lead them through the whole privacy statement.

From a legal perspective, a company must inform its customers about how it deals with customer data before those customers begin to use the service itself. This is called ‘informed consent’, and it is currently receiving a lot of attention. In our project, we sought to learn which situations triggered the greatest interest in privacy and translated them into posts that we could share on Facebook. For example, one of our posts explained what happens with your data when you post a picture on Facebook, and what data Facebook learns about you.

Touchpoint 9-2 14 affordable for everyone, they don't really improve access to law, or at least don’t put the law into user’s context. Legal topics and issues are more often considered as a ‘necessary evil’, rather than something that can empower citizens in practicing their rights. This represents an opportunity for service designers and design thinkers to contribute to the legal industry with their knowledge and skills, starting with using empathy to solve these legal access challenges.

This represents an opportunity - if not a need - for service designers to contribute to legal innovation by helping lawyers to create more empathy with laymen.

While some law firms already have 'legal service designers', they may not have the design research skills (amongst others) as those in the service design community. There is a significant opportunity to equip those in the legal field with the tools and skills applied by service designers. To create a profound understanding we need more service designers working in this rising field of innovation.

What is ‘Legal Design Thinking’? At Visual Contracts, we see ‘Legal Design Thinking’ as a crossover area of legal thinking, Design Thinking and service design, visual thinking and user experience (UX) design. So we look at legal design from several different angles. Because legal topics are often abstract and difficult to relate to, we create accessible and engaging legal documents as a tangible entry point to understanding the principles, restrictions and relations of Triggering people to explore the full visual privacy statement5 1. What does Facebook know about you when you upload a picture? 3.

With whom do they share your data?

2. What do they do with that data? 4. Facebook knows much more! Explore now in the full visual privacy statement.

Touchpoint 9-2 15 cross-discipline focuses on improving the quality of people’s lives. While the law tries to drive societal behaviour by determining the ‘guidelines for good behaviour’ and ‘punishment of misbehaviour’, Design Thinking uses empathy and design research techniques to relate to people’s perceptions in individual situations. For this reason there is also a big overlap in what legal systems aim to accomplish, and the purpose of Design Thinking does, particularly focussed on ethical outcomes.

Finally, as an innovation in the legal world itself, we use UX design to build the bridge elements within these documents. Doing so helps bridge the gap between the legal world and laypeople. Legal documents could and should be a means to create sustainable customer relationships. We use visual thinking combined with design research to simplify and visualise legal documents, to brainstorm and create (shared) mental models, and explain complex stories in an engaging way. We also believe that lawyers can apply visual thinking to communicate with their clients. More holistically, we look at the whole service experience a company offers, starting with an inside-out perspective to understand and empathise with the legal profession, in order to understand what legal content they want and need to convey.

Moreover, in our vision, Design Thinking has great potential impact within the practice of law, because it Two screenshots of the full visual privacy statement5 5 Clickable prototypes Facebook Visual Privacy Statement (in Dutch): ‘What happens with your data when you upload a picture’ https:// and full visual privacy statement https://

Touchpoint 9-2 16 between current innovations and the still largely paper- based practice of law, by creating engaging online user experiences and meaningful solutions for websites and applications. These techniques combined result in what we call ‘Legal Design Thinking’ - understanding the context and needs of people interacting with law and being able to apply improvements based on these insights to make justice accessible for everyone. Entry points for service designers Significant opportunities exist for service designers to co-create with lawyers. In our work, we have identified some general guidelines to keep in mind when working on a design project with lawyers: Legal Design Thinking Visual Thinking Design Thinking Legal Thinking UX Design Figuring out the relations within a complex story and visualising them Understanding human needs to design solutions that enhance quality of life Creating order in society and preventing and solving conflicts Understanding the context of use of law and needs of people interacting with law Understanding the basic principles and restrictions (of relations of elements) within legal documents Create engaging online user experiences A framework for legal design thinking —  Lawyers are trained in systems thinking - They are good in solving mazes and identifying obstacles.

—  Lawyers are trained in ‘getting it right’ - They focus on the risks certain details could imply. This typically makes it harder to brainstorm together, because they will evaluate every idea for potential risks. —  Lawyers tend to think more in ownership of ideas - This relates to protecting intellectual property and their competitive advantage.

This last point especially can introduce some challenges. One of the first rules of brainstorming is to build upon each other’s ideas. Going further, thinking out of the box, and then developing an idea into a more realistic concept is something designers are trained in. However, a lawyer will need to open their mind to this way of thinking. Source:

Touchpoint 9-2 17 cross-discipline 2. Use your empathy skills to step into the shoes of the lawyer and not just the lawyer’s client. Help them to show different perspectives out of legal boundaries.

3. Use ‘right’ and ‘left’ thinking games to warm up and break the ice with anyone and act as energisers. 4. When structuring a legal document, a mind-map will help provide a helicopter perspective, and represents a familiar tool (most lawyers are familiar with flowcharts and mind-maps). Sections of the document can be written, keeping it short and structured. The challenge is then to first identify what sections are related, when you look from a client’s or layman’s perspective. This can be a huge advantage because most lawyers tend to brainstorm by writing rather than in a visual manner.

These are just the first findings in collaborating from a legal design thinking perspective. There is much more to explore and improve. With this first introduction I hope to inspire service designers to collaborate with lawyers and create access to justice and empower people to practice their rights. If you would like to keep updated on the developments in legal design,join the SDN Legal Design group on LinkedIn. In addition, prototyping with lawyers introduces some challenges. Lawyers are accustomed to evaluating documents based on their final version. So when a designer draws sketches of a concept or builds a model, the lawyer tends to perceive and evaluate it as an end result.

Because they are trained to focus on the details, they are more resistant to reaching out to clients to test a certain concept or prototype.

How to overcome challenges in collaboration? There are methods to overcoming the challenges mentioned above. Here are four techniques to get you started: 1. Align your communication and use visual thinking to identify different viewpoints. Make it concrete, especially because details catch a legal expert’s attention. The law tries to drive societal behaviour by determining the ‘guidelines for good behaviour’ and ‘punishment of misbehaviour’.

Touchpoint 9-2 18 Ine Vassøy is a Lead Service Designer at Spotless, a London-based service design agency founded in 2004 that transforms businesses through innovation.

David Wiggins is a Product Manager at BT, with over 25 years’ experience in customer service environments. BT is a leading provider of global communications services and solutions, whose purpose is to use the power of communications to make a better world. More info at Spotless team: Ine Vassøy, Kayleigh Thompson, André van Heerden, Andy Walker, Richie Kennedy and John Anthony.

In the UK, giving to charity is a popular and respected gesture, and many online platforms have recently emerged to facilitate that generosity. When BT found that its commission-free online fundraising service, MyDonate, was being passed over in favour of paid platforms, they wanted to know how they could improve their service. Why were people opting to pay more? What factors were dissuading donors, and how could MyDonate adapt to encourage more donations? Donating to charity is often seen as a simple act of generosity done by those who can afford it, but in fact, the amount we donate is not directly correlated with our ability to give, or even to our benevolence.

A number of factors play into the web of reasons we may or may not choose to donate in any given situation. Nudging People to Give Using Behavioural Insights To answer these questions, we took a cross-disciplinary approach, pulling in principles and tools from behavioural economics to help guide our service design. The well known principle of ‘anchoring’, for example, helped us determine an effective starting amount to display on the fundraising pages, nudging users to give just a little extra. We studied how these kinds of nudges could be used to increase donations, attract more users, improve retention and reduce customer support needed.

Touchpoint 9-2 19 We learned that people who saw a photo of their chosen fundraiser while deciding on the amount of contribution, for example, were more likely to follow through with the process, and actually ended up donating more. When we tested a feature that encouraged donors to write personal messages to recipients, people said they felt a stronger bond to the fundraiser. We also introduced other features such as the timeline, to strengthen the community of donors, fundraisers and charities. But while many people value this personal bond with the recipient, that does not necessarily mean they want to broadcast their generosity to their entire social network.

Most donors tend to donate without being signed in which led to their donation being initially marked as anonymous. This was frustrating for the fundraisers because they wanted to know who was donating to their cause. By adding a privacy adjustment option in the donation flow that allowed donors to show their identity to only the fundraiser, we were able to facilitate deeper investment in the community on both sides, without pushing away those who wished to stay anonymous. In this project, we gained deep empathy with users by applying behavioural economics techniques. Our designs are under development to be implemented, after which we plan to measure the longer term effects of our design decisions.

By understanding the seemingly irrational rationales behind people’s actions, we were able to give MyDonate the confidence to make radical changes to the donation platform.

To learn more about our methods visit Exploratory research with donors, fundraisers and charity employees led us to five design principles that guided us through our process: 1. Give clear direction through simplicity 2. Be human and use social cues to guide behaviour 3. Create loyalty through community 4. Appeal to self-image and personalisation 5. Engage at the right time and place Our key goals were to increase the number and value of donations through the website. After observing customers and listening to support centre calls, we believed many frustrations could be resolved by simplifying the user interface.

We stripped away irrelevant content and created a more personalised experience for the users that were logged in. We also created an ‘invisible’ sign up process to encourage users to log in. Our hypothesis was that these changes would minimise users’ impatience and frustration, which would improve customer retention and free up resources by reducing the number of calls to the support centre. When we tested this hypothesis, the effect of the new designs was clearly positive. These simple changes had great effect on user retention, as people were no longer opting out of the experience due to confusion.

When it came to donation quantity and value, however, these simple changes did not have the big effect we had hoped for. The real focus needed to be on timing, community and reputation.

sp onsored c ontent MyDonate ecosystem Design concepts for a donor’s donation journey

Title fe at ure Measuring Impact and Value fe at ure

22 Touchpoint 9-2 Cat Drew is Delivery Director at UK-based Uscreates. Previously, Cat has been Head of Projects at the UK Government's Policy Lab, and worked in other policy roles in No.10, Cabinet Office, GDS and the Home Office. Cat has written and spoken widely on the role of data and design, including at TedX Westminster. it will). As designers, we also measure impact formatively, to reflect on and improve the service we are designing, as well as the process for designing it.

Table 1 shows that by expanding the groups of people that use these two approaches can lead us to different forms and functions of impact measurement.

In 2017, at the Measured Summit in New York, experts and students came together to discuss how to measure the impact of design. At the follow-up event in London, six months later, we were still discussing the basics: why are we measuring impact, and for whom? Traditionally, in the non- design world (of our clients), impact has been measured through evaluation, to prove something has worked (or to argue Measuring the impact of service design in a world of public sector management metrics has always been tricky. Social outcomes take a long time to be realised. Proxy ‘output’ measures often tell us what is happening rather than why it is happening, and can drive perverse behaviours.

Problems that service design addresses sit within complex systems, and it is often difficult to isolate a specific intervention from changing elements or innovations surrounding it. There is a growing recognition that services are never fully (re)designed and need constant evaluation to evolve and improve. Impact measurement needs to reflect this. Rather than something measured at the end of the project, it needs to be iterative and become part of continuous service development. And rather than relying on purely quantitative data, it needs to become more experience and practice-led, with frontline staff and service users empowered and supported to use it to make continuous improvements in the service they deliver, or their own behaviours.

An Iterative, Experience and Practice-led Approach to Measuring Impact

Touchpoint 9-2 23 me a suring impac t and value delivered. Metrics are quite often driven by what the organisation deems is important rather, rather than what users value (e.g. train passenger surveys about punctuality and price, rather than anxiety or stress experienced during the journey). And these practices can also lead to perverse service behaviours. In the UK, the police’s ‘Offences Brought to Justice’ target drove the police to target young people (so-called ‘low hanging fruit’) rather than more dangerous criminals, in order to drive up their impact measurements. —  Social challenges are part of bigger systems; specific interventions do not take place in isolation.

For example, a service-level intervention to prevent homelessness will be affected by rent price increases or changes to the benefit or welfare system. Place-based approaches to health will be affected by the particular physical (buildings, transport, environmental) and human (communities, services, politics) elements in that place. Some new types of innovation are The challenges around evaluating design are well documented.

—  Social outcomes often take a long time to appear, particularly where the approach is preventative. For example, you might only see the impact of increasing financial self-management on homelessness figures five or ten years later. —  As a result of the previous challenge, organisations have created output or proxy metrics to measure more immediate impact, which can be useful. For example, primary school assessments of childhood obesity give a more current indicator of early intervention initiatives that will reduce Type II diabetes in the longer term. However, these tend to be either an existing interaction measure (e.g.

GP visits or waiting times) or an easily-quantifiable measurement (e.g. an annual weight measurement). They capture what is happening, rather than why and how people feel. This is where much of the value of service design is Why do we measure impact, and for whom? Evaluative/summative: to prove something works Formative: to learn and iteratively improve something For the public, to understand if/how their money has been spent effectively.

For commissioners, to understand what initiatives to further invest in; to make the case for funding initiatives; and to be accountable to the public for spending their money in an effective manner. For designers, to make the case for further design work, and/or make the case for the value of design. For users, to self-reflect on what their data is telling them about themselves, and to make a change. For staff, to learn and reflect on what is working, and improve processes and ways of working (getting positive and negative feedback).

For designers (again), to reflect and learn about how well the design process is working, improve it and create best and next practice.

Touchpoint 9-2 24 also identify a wide variety of metrics and indicators that can track interim progress. Colleagues from the agency Nile and the Royal Bank of Scotland, presenting their redesign of the Scottish £5 note at the SDN conference in London in 2016, explained how they measured the ripple effects of design throughout the process as well as the large splash at the end. These can take many forms: output data, surveys, responses to cultural probes, feedback and customer insight. Digital data provides a world of new possibilities, allowing people to track activity and behaviour as it happens, follow how people are using digital services, (e.g.

trend research and social media listening), as well as real-time forums for posing questions and surveys. For example, Uscreates developed a ‘Children’s Centre in a Box’ for the UK’s Children’s Society, by messaging parents each week to measure how they were using the activities provided within the Box, and using this to measure which ones were most valuable, and which ones needed improvement.

—  What is interesting about this data is that it is much more qualitative, behavioural and experiential than traditional proxy measures. By experience and practice-led, I mean both valuing qualitative feedback and insight from users, as well as the tacit knowledge and opinions of frontline staff on whether an idea is working or not. There is a debate on the value of ‘intuition’ in professional decision making. It is clearly resisted in the scientific world of reason. However, where it is based on cognitive experience and is combined with other metrics, it provides another valuable, sense-making measure.

—  Supporting frontline staff to have a more central role in assessing whether something is working or not offers wider value for how services and policy are continuously improved. Getting user feedback is fairly standard for service designers. But if we are to promote the use of practice-led judgments of value, we also need to support frontline staff to widen the cognitive sources on which they are basing their assessments, including listening to users. We also need to help people make sense of unstructured qualitative data. actively encouraging this complexity. ‘Combinatorial innovation’, as it is being trialled in the UK through the NHS test-bed programme, deliberately tests a number of technological innovations at the same time, or alongside other new approaches, which means setting a control is impossible.

Traditional evaluation frameworks are scientifically grounded with control groups and a small number of quantitative variables. But these function less well in the messier world of social challenges, where it is difficult to dissect the effect of a specific change from other parts of the system that are swirling around it.

This calls into question not only the usefulness but indeed validity of traditional, evaluative, end-of-test impact measurement alone. As a civil servant, I have been guilty of writing “we are going to pilot ] with a view to rolling it out nationally” in various strategies. It means that pilot programmes are set up to succeed rather than to be allowed to fail, even if the experiment proves not to work. There are examples of expensive trials that were set on a course to succeed by their political masters, despite evidence to the contrary.1 Instead, I would argue for an iterative, experience and practice-led approach.

—  By iterative, I mean plotting a series of proxy measures that give a sense of how you are moving towards outcomes (and using this data to pivot throughout). Theories of change are useful in helping to think through how an action results in an outcome. By mapping the causal links and assumptions, one can In a constantly evolving world, a service re-design is never complete and impact measurement is part of delivering a constantly-improving service. 1 Nina Holm Vohnsen (2011) Absurdity and the sensible decision