MLA Documentation Guide - Contents

MLA Documentation Guide - Contents

MLA Documentation Guide - Contents

MLA Documentation Guide Contents What is MLA Style . . 3 When and What to Cite . . 3 How to Create In-Text Citations . . 5 Variations on the Standard In-Text Citation . . 5 Source with Two or Three Authors . . 5 Source with Four or More Authors . . 5 Two or More Works in One Citation . . 5 An Internet Document That Does Not Have Numbered Pages . . 5 Works of Literature . . 6 Citing one text throughout the essay . . 6 Citing Two or More Works by One Author . . 6 Referring to the Work as a Whole . . 7 Citing a Source You Found in Another Source . . 7 Block or Set Off Quotations . . 7 How to Create a Works Cited Page .

. 9 In-Text Citations/Works Cited by Source . . 10 The Core Elements of MLA Citation (8th ed . . 10 Books . . 12 1. Book With One Author . . 12 2. Book with Two Authors (or Editors . . 12 3. Book with Three or More Authors . . 13 4. An Edition of a Book . . 13 5. Book with Editor or Translator . . 14 6. Book with Group, Corporate or Entity Author . . 15 7. Book with No Given Author, including the Bible . . 16 8. Book Available Online . . 16 9. Ebook . . 17

Documentation Guide: MLA 2 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation 10. Comic Book . . 18 Sections of Books . . 19 1. One Part of a Book with a Single Author . . 19 2. Article or Chapter in Edited Book in Which There Are Articles/Chapter by a Number of Writers.19 3. Entry in a Reference Book (including Encyclopedia) or Dictionary . . 20 4. Work in an Anthology . . 22 5. Introduction, Preface, Foreword, Afterword . . 23 6. Article, Story, Poem etc. Found in a Course Pack . . 24 Periodicals (in Print and Online . . 25 1. Journal Article in a Journal with Volume Number .

. 25 2. Journal Article in a Journal with Volume and Issue Number . . 27 3. Magazine (Online and Print) Article . . 28 4. Newspaper Article . . 29 5. Editorial or Letter to the Editor . . 31 6. Review (Book, Film, Performance . . 32 Electronic Sources . . 35 1. Page or a Document Found on a Website . . 35 2. Entire Website . . 36 3. A PDF or Other Digital File Podcast . . 36 4. Digital File posted on Blackboard or Other Learning System . . 37 5. Tweet . . 37 6. Facebook Post . . 38 7. Comment on a Website/Online Article/Blog Posting . . 38 8. Podcast . . 38 9. Youtube Video/Clip . . 39 Other Sources (including non-print and electronic .

. 40 1. Lecture, Address or Reading . . 40 2. Work of Art . . 41 3. Film . . 42 4. Television Program . . 43 5. Sound Recording . . 46 General MLA Formatting Guidelines . . 47

Documentation Guide: MLA 3 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation What is MLA Style? MLA is a documentation method based on the guidelines set by the Modern Language Association and laid out in detail in the MLA Handbook, 8th edition (2016). NOTE: This site has been updated to reflect updates to MLA citation requirements, as prescribed by the 2016 release of the MLA Handbook, 8th ed. MLA documentation style is commonly used in the humanities, especially in English literature, and in literatures of other languages, and in cultural studies, native studies, women’s studies, and Canadian studies, for example, when the focus is similar to literature.

In interdisciplinary courses, ask your instructor which style is preferred.

Writing the English Essay: Substance and Style provides help with the essay-writing process specifically for English essays. When and What to Cite In MLA, the citation is composed of parentheses that contain source information. It is not always easy to know what needs to be cited: try to keep in mind the following guidelines. Cite the following:  Someone else’s words (a word-for-word quotation)  Facts (statistics, findings) you learned from primary and secondary sources  Someone else’s ideas or opinions The facts and ideas you come across in your research you may directly quote, but more often you will summarize; remember even summary needs to be cited if you found the content elsewhere.

Citing in Close-Reading-Based Essays Many MLA essays are based on close readings of texts, for example, an English essay on a poem by Wordsworth. The primary source would be the poem, the work in question, and secondary sources are those other sources you might use for information or insight about the poem (books, articles, etc.). For close readings, quote the primary source as evidence for the claims or points you are making. Your supporting evidence may be directly quoted words, phrases, sentences, occasionally several sentences, showing details about character, plot, diction, imagery etc.

Documentation Guide: MLA 4 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation You may end up with an essay with more quotations than other kinds of essays.

Don’t worry; the quoted words from the text are the support for the arguments you are making, and they show that your ideas came from somewhere. Try to keep your quotations as short and pertinent as possible, using the quoted words to support points you are making yourself, not letting the quotations speak for you. Don't cite the following:  Your ideas or opinion.  Common knowledge in the discipline: it takes a while to get the feel for this. Often the original source of “common knowledge” is either unknown, widely known, or inconsequential. Common knowledge in English might be that Shakespeare wrote comedies, tragedies, and histories.

If you are not sure if something qualifies as common knowledge in the discipline, go ahead and cite.

When in doubt, cite.

Documentation Guide: MLA 5 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation How to Create In-Text Citations In the body of your essay, you acknowledge your summarized or quoted material, in parentheses, with the author’s last name and the page number where the information was found in the source. The parenthetical citation is inserted next to the item needing documentation, most often at the end of the sentence or at a comma. Venus and Adonis are a “cosmological allegory” (Ellrodt 78). If the author’s name is already mentioned in the text, only the page number is required in the parenthetical citation.

Miller concedes, in The Poem’s Two Bodies, that “human beings are…living organisms, whose apprehension of themselves and their world is mediated by the body” (215). Variations on the Standard In-Text Citation Source with Two or Three Authors Include all the authors’ names. (Boyne and Gamache 10) (Boyne, Gamache, and Taylor 15) Source with Four or More Authors Use the first author’s name and “et al.”, which means “and others.” (Armstrong et al. 5) Two or More Works in One Citation Separate the works with a semi-colon. (Paglia 175; Miller 28) An Internet Document That Does Not Have Numbered Pages With no pages, directing the reader to a particular section is made more difficult.

Depending on what you are working with, you can use a paragraph number or a section heading. However, if paragraphs are not numbered and there are no headings, sometimes you cannot direct the reader to a specific section in the parenthetical citation.

Denise Vultee et al. think that it is likely that Blake engraved many of the sketches himself (par. 9).

Documentation Guide: MLA 6 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation An online biography of William Blake claims that "Blake express[ed] contempt for [the] emphasis on color among painters of the Venetian school" (Vultee et al., "Artist and Engraver, 1779-1788"). Vultee et al. think that it is likely that Blake engraved many of the sketches himself. Works of Literature When referring to works of literature, it is often preferable to specify location by some designation other than page number – for example, act, scene, and line for drama, or stanza, canto or book, for long poems.

For many short poems, line designation alone is used. Use Arabic numerals (unless your instructor prefers Roman numerals). In the following example, the citation indicates that the passage quoted appears in act 1, scene 1, line 79 of the play.

How am I glutted with conceit of this! Shall I make spirits fetch me what I please, Resolve me of all ambiguities, Perform what desperate enterprise I will? (Marlowe 1.1.79-82) Citing one text throughout the essay In some literary or philosophy essays, you may only be citing from one text throughout. In that case, for your first citation, include the author’s name. Marlowe (1.1.79-82) In subsequent citations, you don’t need to include the author’s name again: (1.1.79-82) Citing Two or More Works by One Author For the first reference to each work, in the citation, include the author's name, the name of the work (a shortened form is acceptable), and location information.

So, in an essay that refers to two plays by Shakespeare, the first reference to each play would be as follows. Notice that a comma separates the writer's name from the work.

(Shakespeare, JC 1.2.4-5) refers to Julius Caesar (Shakespeare, Ant. 2.3.5-9) refers to Antony and Cleopatra If the essay only refers to these two plays, in subsequent references, the author's name would not be necessary.

Documentation Guide: MLA 7 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation (JC 1.2 4-5) refers to Julius Caesar (Ant. 2.3. 5-9) refers to Antony and Cleopatra See the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Paper Seventh Edition 250-256 for examples of short forms of major works of literature, philosophy and other disciplines.

Referring to the Work as a Whole Sometimes, the citing of page numbers is not necessary if you are referring to or summarizing a work and not particular pages or sections of it. In such cases, include the author’s name in your essay text, and you will not need a parenthetical citation at all.

As Elkin has shown in The Augustan Defence of Satire, satire and satirists were subject to much contemporary attack on their artistic practices. Citing a Source You Found in Another Source When possible, take material from its original source; however, at times you may need to cite a source indirectly. The Christian tradition emphasizes the Logos, the Word of God: “the model, according to which the creature is fashioned, is in the word of God” (Augustine qtd. in Kane 91). The quotation is of Augustine, found in a source by Kane, on page 91. It is the work by Kane that appears in the Works Cited list.

Block or Set Off Quotations If a quotation takes up more than four lines in your essay, it is set off from the text. Start the quotation by beginning a new line, and indent one inch (2.3 cm) from the left margin by pressing the Tab key once. No quotation marks are necessary.

Documentation Guide: MLA 8 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation Don't change your spacing; if you have been double-spacing or using 1.5, continue with it throughout the block quotation. At the end of the quotation, put a period, one space and then the parenthetical citation.

The seminal principles derive from God: For these, which give birth to all the rest, have derived, together with their own origin, seminal principles from the Planter God, even as the female does after impregnation. God, who is greatest and best, and the fulness of all things, contained all in Himself (that we may observe due order), before he had diffused them abroad. (Colet qtd. in Nohrnberg 554)

Documentation Guide: MLA 9 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation How to Create a Works Cited Page In addition to the parenthetical citations, information about your sources is acknowledged at the end of the essay, in a Works Cited list. Every source you cited in your essay text must appear in the Works Cited. Sources that you have consulted but not cited are not included. Follow these guidelines for your Works Cited list. 1. The Works Cited list should be on its own page. This page is numbered in sequence with the pages of the essay. (Occasionally, if your list is short, your professor may allow you to put the Works Cited list on the last page of your essay, four to six spaces down from your last paragraph.

This only works if the entire list will fit on the last page. Get your instructor's permission before doing this.) 2. The title, Works Cited, or occasionally, Work Cited, is centred. The title does not have to put in bold, italics, or underlined.

3. The entire list is double-spaced (or in 1.5, if that is what you are using throughout the essay). 4. Each entry is in a format called a "hanging-indent." This means the first line of each entry is flush with the left margin but any subsequent lines are indented five-seven spaces or one Tab. 5. Arrange the entries in alphabetical order by the author's last name. If the author is unknown, alphabetize by the title, ignoring the articles, "A"," An", and "The". 6. If two or more works by the same author are to be listed, alphabetize the works by title, then give the author's name in the first entry.

For additional entries, type three unspaced hyphens and a period instead of the author's name; leave one space and type the title.

Shakespeare, William. Antony and Cleopatra. William Shakespeare: The Complete Works, edited by Alfred Harbage, Penguin, 1969, pp. 930-76. ---. Julius Caesar. William Shakespeare: The Complete Works, pp.1000-1051. Note that in the above example, both plays were from the same anthology. To avoid unnecessary repetition in the Works Cited, the first entry is complete, but the second one cross- references the first. In the second entry, enough information (the title of the anthology) is given so it is clear Julius Caesar came from the same anthology as Antony and Cleopatra. The rest of the information can then be skipped in the second entry, with only the page range of Julius Caesar added.

This document provides detailed information on how to create works cited entries for different sources.

Documentation Guide: MLA 10 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation In-Text Citations/Works Cited by Source The Core Elements of MLA Citation (8th ed.) The MLA Handbook, eighth edition, identifies nine “core elements” (20) that could appear in a works cited entry (not every source will have all nine core elements). The core elements are given below, followed by the punctuation mark that should follow when they appear in the works cited list.

1. Author.

The author refers to the person or entity who produced or created the work. So an editor, translator, producer, director or performer can go here as well. 2. Title of source. The source can be a book, essay, story, poem, article, television series, television series episode, web site etc. 3. Title of container, When the source (see above) is part of a larger whole, the larger whole is the container. Thus, a container can be a book that is a collection of shorter pieces, a periodical, a television series, a web site, a comic book series, a digital platform such as JSTOR, Google Books, or Netflix, etc.

More than one container can enclose a source. For an article, its container is the periodical it was published in. However, this periodical is contained on JSTOR. In such a case, after all the core elements (6-10) have been given for the first container, put a period, and then give the second container title and its core elements. 4. Other Contributors, Some sources have other important contributors besides the author: an editor, adaptor, director, performer(s) or others. Include those contributors who are most relevant to your essay. Before each name put the description of what that person does: edited by, adapted by, directed by, performances by, etc.

5. Version, Version indicates the source has been published in different forms. For example, an edition is a version. A director’s cut of a movie would be considered a version. 6. Number, Some sources are part of a numbered sequence. A number would include a book volume number, a periodical’s volume and issue number, a comic book number, or the season and episode numbers of a television series.

Documentation Guide: MLA 11 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation 7. Publisher, Publishers are the organization that are responsible for producing or making sources available: book publishers, film and television production companies, the many different kinds of organizations that have web sites etc.

8. Publication date, Cite the date that is most relevant to your source, if more than one date is given. Write the full date as the source gives it: if the day and month is given, that is what you should use.

9. Location. A location can be a page number or page range, a URL or web address, permalink or DOI, a disc number for a DVD set, the name of the city where a work of art can be found, an archive number, or the venue and city of a performance or other live presentation. There are also several optional elements, on top of the core nine: 10. Date of original publication. 11. City of publication, 12. Other facts about the source. This could be the following: transcript, lecture, address, total number of volumes in a multivolume publication, title of a book series, or information about original publication.

13. Date of Access.

Date of access can be helpful for online works. We have used these nine core elements, and four optional elements, as the basis for the examples we give here. Basic Book Format: Author’s Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Publisher, Year of Publication.

Documentation Guide: MLA 12 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation Books 1. Book with one author 2. Book with two authors (or editors) 3. Book with three or more authors 4. An edition of a book 5. Book with editor or translator 6. Book with group/corporate author 7.

Book with no given author, including The Bible 8. Book available online 9. Ebook 10. Comic book 1. Book With One Author In-text Citation (Lem 2012) Works Cited Key: Author’s Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Publisher, Year of Publication. Example: Lem, Winnie. Cultivating Dissent: Work, Identity and Praxis in Rural Languedoc. State U of New York P, 1999.

Notice:  When identifying the publisher, abbreviations can be used, for example, U for “University” and P for “Press”. 2. Book with Two Authors (or Editors) In-Text citation Include all the authors' names. Precede the last name with "and." (Arp and Johnson 67) Works Cited Key: First Author’s Last Name, First Author’s First Name, and Second Author’s First Name, Second Author’s Last Name. Title of Book. Number of edition, Publisher, Year of Publication.

Documentation Guide: MLA 13 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation Example: Arp, Thomas R., and Greg Johnson.

Perrine's Sound and Sense: An Introduction to Poetry. 10th ed., Heinle, 2002. 3. Book with Three or More Authors In-Text Citation (Messenger et al. 416) Works Cited Key: First Author's Name, Last Name First, et al. Title of Book. Number of ed., Publisher, Year of Publication. Example: Messenger, William E., et al. The Canadian Writer's Handbook. 4th ed., Oxford UP, 2005. Notice:  The phrase “et al.” is Latin. There is a period after “al.” because the phrase is actually short for “et alii”, which means “and others”. So the second word in the phrase is actually an abbreviation, and therefore is followed by a period.

4. An Edition of a Book In-Text citation Include both authors' names. Precede the second name with "and." (Arp and Johnson 67) Works Cited Key: First Author’s Last Name, First Author’s First Name, and Second Author’s First Name, Second Author’s Last Name. Title of Book. Number of edition, Publisher, Year of Publication. Example: Arp, Thomas R., and Greg Johnson. Perrine's Sound and Sense: An Introduction to Poetry. 10th ed., Heinle, 2002.

Documentation Guide: MLA 14 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation 5. Book with Editor or Translator In-Text Citation (Gilman 19) (Cervantes 302) Works Cited - Editor Key: Author's Last Name, First Name.

Title of Book. Edited by Editor’s Name, Publisher, Year of Publication. Example: Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. Herland and Selected Stories. Edited by Barbara H. Solomon, Signet Classics, 1992. Works Cited - Translator Key: Author's Name, Last Name First. Title of Book. Translated by Translator Name, Edited by Editor’s Name (not all translated books will also have an editor), Publisher, Year of Publication. Example: Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de. The History and Adventures of the Renowned Don Quixote. Translated by Tobias Smollett, Edited by Robin Chapman, The Folio Society, 1995.

Notice:  The names of the editor or translator are put in the usual order, first name followed by surname.  The second example shows a book with both a translator and an editor. The translator comes before the editor. Reference to Editor or Translator Sometimes you may wish to refer to the edited material of a book, or to the comments of the translator. In such cases, follow the examples given below. In-Text Citation (Solomon, xv) (Smollet xxxix) (Chapman xv)

Documentation Guide: MLA 15 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation Works Cited Solomon, Barbara.

H., editor. Herland and Selected Stories. By Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Signet Classics, 1992. Smollet, T., translator. The History and Adventures of the Renowned Don Quixote. By Miguel do Cervantes Saavedra. Edited by Robin Chapman. The Folio Society, 1995. 6. Book with Group, Corporate or Entity Author Often, the group author and the publisher are the same. In that case, list the title first; then list the group author as the publisher. Sometimes, the group author and the publisher are different. In that case, put the group author at the beginning of the entry. In-Text Citation When the group author and the publisher are the same, the entry begins with the title, which is what appears in the in-text citation: (MLA Handbook 20) When the group author and the publisher are different, the entry begins with the group author, which is what appears in the in-text citation: (American Allergy Association 30) Works Cited Group author and publisher the same Key: Title of Book.

Number of ed., Publisher, Year of Publication. Example: MLA Handbook. 8th ed., The Modern Language Association of America, 2016. Group author and publisher different Key: Group Author's Name. Title of Book. Publisher, Year of Publication. Example: National Audubon Society. Field Guide to African Wildlife. Knopf, 1995. Notice:  A group author may include an organization, commission, committee, government agency, or any entity that does not give individual authors on its title page.

Documentation Guide: MLA 16 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation 7. Book with No Given Author, including the Bible For the in-text citation, put the title where you would usually put the author’s last name, followed by a space and then the page number. You may shorten the title if it is long. For the Bible, include the version, followed by a comma and then, instead of the page number, put book, chapter, verse. In-Text Citation (The Holy Bible. King James Version, Gen. 1.31) Works Cited Key: The basic entry is as follows: Title. Publisher, Year of Publication.

Example: The Holy Bible. King James Version, Penguin, 1974. For The Bible, the title is followed by the version, then a comma, and then the publisher. Notice:  The full title, if brief, or an abbreviated version goes in the parenthetical in-text citation, followed by page number or other identification. There is usually no comma between the title and the page number or other identification. As the example is from the Bible, the version, followed by a comma, the book (title abbreviated), chapter and verse are given.

 When abbreviating, start with the word under which the title is alphabetized in the works cited list, in this example: "Holy."  The full title name goes in the works cited list; however, alphabetize excluding "a" "an" or "the." The example would go under "H" not "T."  Editions of the Bible are based on named versions of the text. The name of the version, in this example, the King James Version, follows the title. 8. Book Available Online In-Text Citation Often a book found online has no stable numbered pages. If the work is divided into stable numbered sections, such as chapters, then use these sections with a label to indicate what it is: for example, us “ch.” to indicate “chapter.” (Montgomery, ch.1)

Documentation Guide: MLA 17 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation Works Cited Key: Author’s Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Publisher, Year of Publication. Title of Website, URL, or permalink. Example: Montgomery, L.M. Anne of Green Gables. L.C. Page & Co., 1908. Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org/files/45/45-h/45-h.htm#link2HCH0001. If your source offers a stable URL or permalink, use that. If a doi is available, use that over a URL or a stable URL. For the URL, https:// is not necessary.

9. Ebook An ebook does not have a URL and requires an ebook reader such as Kindle or Kobe or software to read on a computer or other electronic device.

According to the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook, an ebook is a “version” in the template of core elements. More and more ebooks are using stable page numbers (the page numbers remain the same despite change in device, screen size or font size), over location numbers on reflowable pages. In-Text Citation If the ebook has stable page numbers, the citation will look the same as a citation for a print book: (Austen 45). If the ebook has reflowable pages, do not use these location numbers. Instead, cite the section or chapter if possible, or cite the whole work: (Ludovici, 4. The Danger) (Austen, ch.

9) (Austen) Works Cited Ebook Reader such as Kindle, Kobe, iPAd, EPUB Key: Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Year of Original Publication If Book Republished (optional). Version, Publisher, Year of Publication. .

Example: Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. 1813. Kindle ed., W.W. Norton, 2000.

Documentation Guide: MLA 18 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation Notice:  As the example is a republished book, the date of the original publication can be put before the publication information. This information is considered optional, according to MLA 8th edition.  For version, Kindle file is also correct. 10. Comic Book In-Text Citation (Classics Comic Store and Charles Dickens 6) Works Cited Comic books are often part of a series.

Both the title of the comic and the title of the series are italicized. If the comic and the series have the same name, it just needs to be stated once followed by a period.

Key: Author's Last Name, Author’s First Name. Title of Comic Book. Title of Series, Series number, Publisher, Year of Publication. Example: Classics Comic Store and Charles Dickens. Oliver Twist. Classics Illustrated, no. 23, Eisner & Iger, 1945.

Documentation Guide: MLA 19 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation Sections of Books 1. One part of a book by single author 2. Article or chapter in edited book 3. Article or entry in a reference book (print and online) 4. Work in an anthology 5. Introduction, preface, foreward, afterword 6.

Article, story, poem found in coursepack 1. One Part of a Book with a Single Author In-Text Citation (Garrett-Petts 63) Works Cited Key: Author's Last Name, Author’s First Name. "Article or Chapter Title." Title of Book, Publisher, Year of Publication, pp. Page Range.

Example: Garrett-Petts, W.F. "Writing the Critical Essay: Form and the Critical Process." Writing about Literature: A Guide for the Student Critic, Broadview, 2000. pp. 57-86. 2. Article or Chapter in Edited Book in Which There Are Articles/Chapter by a Number of Writers In-Text Citation (Lacombe 126) Works Cited Key: Author's Last Name, Author’s First Name. "Article or Chapter Title." Title of Book, edited by Editor's Name(s), Publisher, Year of Publication, pp. Page Range.

Example: Lacombe, Michele. "The Cybor Identities of Oryx and Crake." Margaret Atwood: The Open Eye, edited by John Moss and Tobi Kozakewich, U of Ottawa P, 2006, pp.

117-36. Cross Referencing Articles Found in One Book Sometimes, you may cite several articles by different authors from one edited book. MLA now indicates that you may “cross reference” within your Works Cited list, so you don’t have to write out the full publication information for every article you cite. To cross reference, you would include in the Works Cited, an entry for the entire collection under the editor’s name, plus an entry for each article you are citing, under each author’s

Documentation Guide: MLA 20 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation name, with abbreviated publication information. So, if you are citing two articles from one edited book, you would end up with three entries, one under the editor, plus two more, under each author: Entire Collection: Murphy, Christina, and Byron L. Stay, editors. The Writing Center Director’s Resource Book. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 2006. Each Article: Lerner, Neal. "Time Warp: Historical Representations of Writing Center Directors." Murphy and Stay, pp. 3-12.

Simpson, Jeanne.

"Managing Encounters with Central Administration." Murphy and Stay, pp. 199-214. Each item appears in the Works Cited list in alphabetical order. 3. Entry in a Reference Book (including Encyclopedia) or Dictionary 3a. Reference Book/Encyclopedia Article In-Text Citation ("Chile") (Popham) Works Cited - Print No Authors Given for Articles Key: "Reference/Article Title." Title of Reference Book. Year of edition. Example: "Chile." The Encyclopedia Americana. 2004. Authors Given for Articles Key: Author's Last Name, First Name. "Article title." Title of Reference Book. Edited by Editor's Name.

Number of edition, Year of Publication.

Example: Popham, Elizabeth. "Arcadian Fiction." The Spenser Encyclopedia. Edited by A.C. Hamilton. 2nd ed, 2006.

Documentation Guide: MLA 21 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation Works Cited – Online Author Given for Article Key: Author's Last Name, Author’s First Name. “Reference Book Article." Title Reference Book, Number of edition if given, URL, permalink or doi. Accessed Day Month Year (optional – best to give it if not using a permalink or doi). Example: Pigliucci, Massimo. "Stoicism." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Edited by James Fiesser and Bradley Dawden, www.iep.utm.edu/stoicism/.

27 Oct. 2016.

If your source offers a stable URL or permalink, use that. If a doi is available, use that over a URL or a stable URL. No Author Given for Article Key: “Reference Book Article." Title Reference Book, Number of edition if given, Any Editor, Publication, and Date Created if given, URL, permalink or doi. Accessed Day Month Year (optional – best to use it if not using a permalink or a doi). Example: “Halloween." Encyclopaedia Britannica, 30 Oct. 2015, www.britannica.com/topic/Halloween. Accessed 27 Oct. 2016.

If your source offers a stable URL or permalink, use that. If a doi is available, use that over a URL or a stable URL.

Notice:  When no author is given and you are using the article title in the in-text citation, you may shorten a longer title. When no author is given for the encyclopedia entry, the title of the entry begins the Works Cited list entry. Do not use Anonymous or Anon. Alphabetize the entry using the title. 3b. Dictionary Entry In-Text Citation ("Sickle") ("Sepulchre") Works Cited - Print Source Key: "Dictionary Entry." Title of Dictionary. Edited by Editor's Name. Year of Publication. Example: "Sickle." The Canadian Oxford Dictionary. Edited by Katherine Barber. 2001.

Documentation Guide: MLA 22 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation Works Cited - Online Source Key: "Dictionary Entry." Title of Dictionary. Any Editor, Publication, and Date Created Information Given, URL, permalink or DOI. Accessed Day Month Year. Example: "Sepulchre." OED Online, Oxford University Press, December 2016, www.oed.com/view/Entry/176261?rskey=zxKqzl&result=1#eid. Accessed 19 Jan. 2017. Notice:  If your source offers a stable URL or permalink, use that over a URL.  When citing encyclopedias, dictionaries or other reference books, you do not need to give full publication information, as shown in the first example.

 Because the second example (from The Spenser Encyclopedia) is not widely-used, but more specialized in topic, full publication information is given in the works cited list.  Page numbers in both the parenthetical citations and works cited entry are omitted when the reference book is arranged alphabetically.

4. Work in an Anthology 4a. Short Work (eg. Poem, Short Story) in an Anthology In-Text Citation (Dickinson 6) Works Cited Key: Author's Name: Last Name First. "Short Work (Poem) Title." Title of Anthology, edited by Editor's Name, Publisher, Year of Publication, p. Page or pp. Page Range. Example: Dickinson, Emily. "You Cannot Make Remembrance Grow." The Poems of Emily Dickinson: Reading Edition, edited by R.W. Franklin, Belknapp P of Harvard U, 1999, p. 1536. 4b. Longer Work (eg. Play, Novel) in an Anthology In-Text Citation (Shakespeare 1.2.26-30) Works Cited Key: Author's Name: Last Name First.

Title of Short Work Previously Published on Its Own (Play). Title of Anthology, edited by Editor's Name, Publisher, Year of Publication, p. Page or pp. Page Range.

Documentation Guide: MLA 23 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation Example: Shakespeare, William. Antony and Cleopatra. William Shakespeare: The Complete Works, edited by Alfred Harbage, Penguin, 1969, pp. 930-76. Notice:  Because the first in-text citation is for a poem, 6 refers to a line instead of a page number; a page number is used for a short story or an article.  As the first works cited example shows, titles of short poems, short stories, essays or other works that have probably not been previously published on their own are enclosed in quotation marks.

 Because the second in-text citation is for a play, 1.2.26-30 refers to act, scene and line numbers.  In the second works cited example, the work in the anthology is a play, which, like a novel or a long poem, has probably been previously published on its own. Therefore, the title of this work, as well as the title of the anthology, is put in italics. When in doubt, use quotation marks. 5. Introduction, Preface, Foreword, Afterword In-Text Citation (McGlinn viii) Works Cited Key: Last Name of the Author of the Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword, First Name. Introduction. Title of Book, by Author's Name, Publisher, Year of Publication, pp.

Page Range.

Example: McGlinn, Margeurite. Introduction. The Trivium: The Liberal Arts of Logic, Grammar, and Rhetoric, by Sister Miriam Joseph, Paul Dry Books, 2002, pp. vii-xi. Notice:  The name of the part being cited, Introduction, Preface, Foreword, Afterword, etc. is in capitals, but not put in italics or enclosed in quotation marks.  Sometimes, the writer of the Introduction, Preface, Foreword, Afterword, etc is the same as the author of the complete work. In that case, write the author’s last name only after the word “by” in the entry.

 Sometimes, an Introduction is paginated in Roman Numerals.

If so, use the Roman Numerals to indicate the page range of the Introduction, as is done here.

Documentation Guide: MLA 24 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation 6. Article, Story, Poem etc. Found in a Course Pack In-Text Citation (Rossetti 55) Works Cited MLA does not provide information on citing course packs. We suggest you treat sources found in course packs in a similar way you would treat a source found in an anthology. Key: Author's Name: Last Name First. "Short Work (Poem) Title." Title of Course pack, edited by Editor's Name, Department, Publisher, Year of Publication, p. Page or pp. Page Range. Example: Rossetti, Christina. "Goblin Market." English 1000: Introduction to English Literature, Trent University Department of English Literature, Canadian Scholar's Press, 2009, pp.

52-57. Notice:  The author's name is followed by the title of the work in the course pack, in this example, a poem, followed by the title of the course pack.

 If the title is for a longer work, use italics not quotation marks.  The editor and the department of the course pack follows the title. If no person is given, simply put the department, in this case, the English literature department at Trent University.  Course pack publisher and date are followed by the page range. Some course packs are paginated continuously, some are not but include page numbers found on the work. Use what you have. If you have both, we suggest you use the continuous pagination of the whole course pack.

Documentation Guide: MLA 25 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation Periodicals (in Print and Online) 1.

Journal article in journal with volume number 2. Journal article in journal with volume and issue number 3. Magazine article 4. Newspaper article 5. Editorial or letter to editor 6. Review (book, film, performance) 1. Journal Article in a Journal with Volume Number 1a. Print Journal In-Text Citation (Bailey 96) Works Cited Key: Author's Last Name, First Name. "Article Title." Title of Journal, volume number, Year of Publication, pp. Page Range.

Example: Bailey, Suzanne. "'His Centre is not in the Middle': Reading Browning, Genius, and ADHD." Studies in Browning and His Circle, vol. 27, 2006, pp. 91-110. 1b. Journal Found Online (article may be also available in print) If the journal is also available in print, it will have a page range. In-Text Citation (Jones 98) Works Cited Journal Found in an Online Database, Digital Library or Subscription Service such as JSTOR, LexisNexis, ProQuests, ScienceDirect, Wiley Online Library Key: Author's Last Name, First Name. "Article Title." Title of Journal, vol. number, Year of Publication, pp.

Page Range. Name of Online Database, URL, permalink or doi. Accessed Day Month Year (optional).

Example: Jones, Steven Swann. "On Analyzing Fairy Tales: 'Little Red Riding Hood' Revisited." Western Folklore, vol. 46, 1987, pp. 97-114. JSTOR, doi: 10.2307/1499927.

Documentation Guide: MLA 26 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation If your source offers a stable URL or permalink, use that. If a doi is available, use that over a URL or a stable URL. Journal Found Online but not in an Online Database Key: Author's Last Name, First Name. "Article Title." Title of Journal, vol. number, Year of Publication, pp.

Page Range, URL, permalink or doi. Accessed Day Month Year (optional – best to give it if not giving permalink or doi).

Example: Jones, Steven Swann. "On Analyzing Fairy Tales: 'Little Red Riding Hood' Revisited." Western Folklore, vol. 46, 1987, pp. 97-114, documentslide.com/documents/steven-swan-jones- little-red-riding-hood.html. If your source offers a stable URL or permalink, use that. If a doi is available, use that over a URL or a stable URL. 1c. Journal Only Available Online Some scholarly journals only exist in electronic form; they are published on the Web and do not exist in print form. An article in such a journal may not have page numbers. In-Text Citation If you do not have page numbers, try not to use any parenthetical citations at all by including the author’s last name in your essay text: “As Buckland argues “ If you choose not to include the author’s last name in your essay text, don’t give paragraph numbers or page numbers from the print preview function in the parenthetical citation: (Buckland) Works Cited Key: Author's Last Name, Author’s First Name.

"Article Title." Title of Journal, vol. Number, Year of Publication, URL, permalink or doi. Accessed Day, Month, Year (optional – best to give it if not using permalink or doi).

Example: Buckland, Adelene. ""Pictures in the Fire': The Dickensian Hearth and the Concept of History." Romanticism and Victorianism on the Net, vol. 53, 2009, www.erudit.org/revue/ravon/2009/v/n53/029902ar.html. Accessed 20 October 2016. If your source offers a stable URL or permalink, use that. If a doi is available, use that over a URL or a stable URL.

Documentation Guide: MLA 27 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation 2. Journal Article in a Journal with Volume and Issue Number 2a. Print Journal In-Text Citation (Chivers 31) Works Cited Key: Author's Last Name, First Name.

"Article Title." Title of Journal, vol. number, issue number, Year of Publication, pp. Page Range. Example: Chivers, Sally. "'Move! You're in the Way!' Disability and Age Meet on Screen.” Canadian Journal of Film Studies: Revue Canadienne D'Etudes Cinematographique, vol. 17, no. 1, 2008, pp. 300-43.

2b. Journal Found Online (article may be also available in print) In-Text Citation (Thickstun 172) Works Cited Key: Author's Last Name, First Name. "Article Title." Title of Journal, vol. number, issue number, Year of Publication, pp. Page Range, URL, permalink, or doi. Accessed Day Month Year Example: Thickstun, Margaret. "Resisting Patience in Milton's Sonnet 19." Milton Quarterly, vol. 44, no. 3, 2010, pp. 168-80, doi: 10.1111/j.1094-348X.2010.00239.x. Notice:  Date is optional; give it if not using permalink or doi.  If your source offers a stable URL or permalink, use that. If a doi is available, use that over a URL or a stable URL.

2c. Journal Article Only Available Online Some scholarly journals only exist in electronic form; they are published on the Web and do not exist in print form. An article in such a journal may not have page numbers. In-Text Citation If you do not have page numbers, try not to use any parenthetical citations at all by including the author’s last name in your essay text: “As Dolby argues “ Don’t give paragraph numbers or page numbers from the print preview function.

Documentation Guide: MLA 28 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation Works Cited Key: Author's Last Name, Author’s First Name.

"Article Title." Title of Journal, vol. Number, Year of Publication, URL, permalink, or doi. Accessed Day Month Year Example: Eyers, Tom. "The Perils of the 'Digital Humanities': New Positivisms and the Fate of Literary Theory.” Postmodern Culture: Journal of Interdisicplinary Thought on Contemporary Cultures, vol. 23, no. 2, 2013, www.pomoculture.org/2015/07/08/the-perils-of-the- digital-humanities-new-positivisms-and-the-fate-of-literary-theory/. Accessed 20 October 2016.

Notice:  Date is optional; give it if not using permalink or doi.  If your source offers a stable URL or permalink, use that. If a doi is available, use that over a URL or a stable URL. 3. Magazine (Online and Print) Article 3a. Magazine Article Accessed Online with no page numbers In-Text Citation: If you do not have page numbers, try not to use any parenthetical citations at all by including the author’s last name in your essay text: “As Campbell argues “ If you choose not to include the author’s last name in your essay text, don’t give paragraph numbers or page numbers from the print preview function in the parenthetical citation: (Campbell) Works Cited Key: Author's Last Name, First Name.

"Article Title." Magazine, Day Month Year, URL, permalink, or doi. Accessed Day Month Year.

Example: Campbell, Meagan. "How a Plan to Sell New Brunswick Caviar Went So Wrong." Maclean's, 25 Oct. 2016, www.macleans.ca/news/how-a-plan-to-sell-new-brunswick-caviar-went-so- wrong. Accessed 2 Nov. 2016. Notice:  Date is optional; give it if not using permalink or doi.  If your source offers a stable URL or permalink, use that. If a doi is available, use that over a URL or a stable URL.

Documentation Guide: MLA 29 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation 3b. Article in Print Magazine or Magazine Accessed Online with Page Numbers In-Text Citation: (Steyn 70) (Johnson 64) Works Cited Key: Author's Last Name: First Name.

"Article Title." Magazine Title, Day Month Year, pp. Page Range. Example: Steyn, Mark. "The People vs. Ex-Generalissimo Blair." Maclean's, 15 Feb. 2010, pp. 70-71. 3c. Print magazine published every month or every two months Give the month, or the months (Nov.-Dec.) and the year: Key: Author's Last Name, First Name. "Article Title." Magazine Title, Month Year, pp. Page Range. Example: Johnson, Jessica. "Dances with Werewolves." The Walrus, Dec. 2009, pp. 62-65. Notice:  The names of months can be abbreviated, (except for May, June and July). 4. Newspaper Article 4a. Article in Newspaper Accessed Online In-Text Citation If you do not have page numbers, try not to use any parenthetical citations at all by including the author’s last name in your essay text: “As Stacey points out “ If you choose not to include the author’s last name in your essay text, don’t give paragraph numbers or page numbers from the print preview function in the parenthetical citation: (Stacey) Works Cited Key: Author's Last Name, First Name.

"Article Title." Newspaper Title, Day Month Year, URL, permalink, or doi. Accessed Day Month Year (optional – best to give it if not using permalink or doi).

Documentation Guide: MLA 30 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation Example: Stacey, Megan. "Ontario Nurse Charged with Eight Counts of First Degree Murder in Nursing Home Deaths.” National Post, 25 Oct. 2016, http://news.nationalpost.com/news/ canada/former-ontario-nursing-home-worker-focus-of-multi- jurisdictional-death- investigation-company-says. Accessed 25 Oct. 2016. Notice:  Date is optional; give it if not using permalink or doi.  If your source offers a stable URL or permalink, use that. If a doi is available, use that over a URL or a stable URL.

4b. Article in Print Newspaper In-Text Citation (Douglas 4) (El Akkad A5) ("Trent Vegetable Gardens" 6 ) Works Cited Key: Author's Last Name, First Name. "Article Title." Newspaper Title, Day Month Year, p. Page or pp. Page Range. Example: Douglas, Matt. "Student Centre Construction Brings Changes to Trent’s Parking." Arthur, 22 Aug. 2016, p. 4. No Author Given: Key: "Article Title." Newspaper Title, Day Month Year, p. Page or pp. Page Range. Example: "Trent Vegetable Gardens: Growing Something Good." Arthur, 22 Aug. 2016, p. 6. Notice:  Use the name as it appears on the masthead, excluding introductory articles such :"A" "An" and "The": for example Globe and Mail, not The Globe and Mail .

 If an article has no author given, as in the last example, begin the works cited entry with the article title. Include "A" "An" and "The" but ignore them when putting in alphabetical order.

Documentation Guide: MLA 31 Academic Skills Centre Trent University www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation  Use the article title in the in-text citation in place of the author's last name. Give the full title if it is short, but you may shorten longer ones. Make sure the short form starts with the same word that starts the works cited list entry, excluding "A" "An" or "The." 5. Editorial or Letter to the Editor Cite as you would any article in a newspaper, magazine or other periodical. Include "Editorial" or "Letter" to identify the type of work it is. The following examples have all been taken from newspapers.

5a. Editorial In-Text Citation ("Ontario’s Sickening Mistreatment") – in this example there is no page number as the editorial is from a newspaper accessed online. (Cosh) – in this example there is no page number as the editorial is from a newspaper accessed online. Works Cited If editorial is unsigned, begin with the headline instead and then add description. Key: "Editorial Headline." Description. Newspaper, Day Month Year, URL, permalink, or doi. Accessed Day Month Year Example: "Ontario’s Sickening Mistreatment of Adam Capay." Editorial. Globe and Mail, 24 Oct. 2016, www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/editorials/ontarios-sickening-mistreatment- of- adam-capay/article32498319/.

Accessed 25 Oct. 2016.

If editorial is signed, begin with author's or letter writer’s name. Key: Author's or Letter Writer’s Last Name, First Name. "Editorial or Letter Headline." Description. Newspaper, Day Month Year, URL, permalink, or doi. Accessed Day Month Year Example: Cosh, Colby. "The Muskrat Falls Fiasco: Maybe you’d Be Protesting, Too.” Editorial. National Post, 24 Oct. 2016, news.nationalpost.com/full-comment/the-wolf-of-muskrat-falls. Accessed 25 Oct. 2016. Notice:  Date is optional; give it if not using permalink or doi.  If your source offers a stable URL or permalink, use that. If a doi is available, use that over a URL or a stable URL.

For the URL, https:// is not necessary.