National Parks Act - Annual Report 2018

National Parks Act - Annual Report 2018

National Parks Act - Annual Report 2018

National Parks Act Annual Report 2018

National Parks Act - Annual Report 2018

The State of Victoria Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning 2018 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International licence. You are free to re-use the work under that licence, on the condition that you credit the State of Victoria as author. The licence does not apply to any images, photographs or branding, including the Victorian Coat of Arms, the Victorian Government logo and the Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning (DELWP) logo. To view a copy of this licence, visit creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Printed by Mercedes Waratah Digital – Port Melbourne ISSN 1839-437X ISSN 1839-4388 (online) Disclaimer This publication may be of assistance to you but the State of Victoria and its employees do not guarantee that the Ëݍ´§ŽØ§Á»
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liability for any error, loss or other consequence which may arise from you relying on any information in this publication.

Further information For further information, please contact the DELWP Customer Service Centre on 136 186 or the Parks Victoria Information Centre on 131 963. Notes
During the year the responsible Minister was the Hon Lily D’Ambrosio MP, Minister for Energy, Environment and Climate Change.
In this report: – the Act means the National Parks Act 1975 – DELWP means the Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning – the Minister means the Minister responsible for administering the Act – PV means Parks Victoria – the Regulations means the National Parks Regulations 2013 – the Secretary means the Secretary to the Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning.

Cover image Anglesea Heath, Great Otway National Park (image: Saul Vermeeren) Accessibility If you would like to receive this publication in an alternative format, please telephone DELWP Customer Service Centre 136 186, email customer.service@delwp.vic.gov.au, or via the National Relay Service on 133 677 www.relayservice.com.au. This document is also available on the internet at www.delwp.vic.gov.au

National Parks Act - Annual Report 2018

1 National Parks Act Annual Report 2018 Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning Foreword This annual report on the working of the National Parks Act 1975 for the year ended 30 June 2018 is provided to the Minister for Energy, Environment and Climate Change, the Hon Lily D’Ambrosio MP, under section 35 of the Act. The Act establishes the statutory basis for the protection, use and management of an outstanding system of more than 100 national and other parks covering approximately 3.46 million hectares. The parks conserve some of Victoria’s most special places and provide a wide range of opportunities for visitors to experience and enjoy the state’s diverse natural environments.

These visits, which, based on the latest visitor statistics in 2016-17, totalled some 42.3 million visits to national and state parks, make 
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economy.

Until 12 September 2018 the Secretary has the statutory responsibility for ensuring that the parks and other areas to which the Act applies are controlled and managed in accordance with the Act. Parks Victoria is responsible for managing those areas on the Secretary’s behalf and works in partnership with DELWP. W¥—Ò—
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12 September 2018 when the Parks Victoria Act 2018 commences, heralding a new era of governance arrangements for the management of Victoria’s parks. Parks Victoria will be re-established as a strengthened and more independent park management agency with clearer lines of accountability to the Minister.

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highlights for the parks system during the year include:
adding some 6360 hectares to existing parks, notably most of the Anglesea Heath (6332 ha) to the Great Otway National Park
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of 10 river red gum national and other parks in northern Victoria
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controlling weeds and pest animals, including marine pests, such as the $1.5 million investment to protect alpine habitats
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including the delivery of more than 214 gigalitres into the Snowy River and more than 110 gigalitres to Hattah Lakes
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and other emergencies
the considerable maintenance work undertaken on the Mount Buffalo Chalet.

I would also like to highlight the work undertaken in conjunction with Traditional Owner Land Management Boards in the development of joint management plans for 10 parks under the Act in Gippsland and north central Victoria. There is an increasing focus on joint management, with negotiations underway with Traditional Owner groups in other parts of the state over the possibility of further joint management arrangements. Working with the community and partner organisations is an increasing feature of park management. I acknowledge the extensive and committed contributions that volunteers and partner organisations – along with Parks Victoria and DELWP staff – made to the protection and management of our parks during the year.

John Bradley Secretary to the Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning

2 National Parks Act Annual Report 2018 Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning Contents Foreword 1 Contents 2 A representative parks system 3 Areas managed under the Act 3 Changes to areas managed under the Act 3 Management and other planning 4 Managing natural and cultural values 5 Managing natural values 5 Monitoring natural values 8 Researching natural values 9 Managing cultural values 10 ¡
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3 National Parks Act Annual Report 2018 Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning A representative parks system Areas managed under the Act As at 30 June 2018 there were 139 areas with a total area of approximately 3.46 million hectares managed under various provisions of the Act. Appendix 1 lists the areas and Appendix 2 shows their location. The 139 areas comprised:
124 areas listed on various schedules to the Act – 45 national parks (Schedule Two) – 3 wilderness parks (Schedule Two A) – 26 state parks (Schedule Two B) – 5 coastal parks, 3 historic parks, 1 nature conservation reserve, 8 regional parks and Haining Farm (Schedule Three) – 3 marine and coastal parks, 2 marine parks, 1 marine reserve, 1 national heritage park and 1 nature conservation reserve (Schedule Four) – 13 marine national parks (Schedule Seven) – 11 marine sanctuaries (Schedule Eight)
15 non-scheduled areas to which particular provisions of the Act apply.

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particular national parks:
19 wilderness zones (Schedule Five) in 7 national parks (see Appendix 1)
22 remote and natural areas (Schedule Six) in 12 national parks (see Appendix 1)
4 designated water supply catchment areas in the Great Otway, Kinglake and Yarra Ranges national parks. Changes to areas managed under the Act On 15 December 2017 an area totalling 6361 hectares was added to the parks system and an area totalling 0.34 hectares was excised (see Table 1). Of particular note was the addition of most of the Anglesea Heath to the Great Otway National Park.

There were also corrections to the plans of Lower Goulburn National Park and Warrandyte State Park. The name of Mount Eccles National Park was changed in the Act to Budj Bim National Park in ǎÁ¡»§Ø§Á»
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of the Budj Bim area. Table 1 – Changes to parks Park Addition (ha) Excision (ha) Description Croajingolong NP 27 – Addition of area of formerly purchased land (Jingalong) east of Mallacoota Inlet.

Greater Bendigo NP 0.36 0.14 Addition of mostly vegetated government road and excision of cleared powerline easement in the vicinity of Edwards Road.

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several rare and threatened species. Warrandyte SP 0.03 0.02 Adjustment of park boundary in vicinity of Warrandyte Bridge.

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protest against a government in Australia in 1851 and a precursor to the Eureka Rebellion. NHP National Heritage Park NP National Park SP State Park

4 National Parks Act Annual Report 2018 Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning Management and other planning As at 30 June 2018 there were approved management plans for all or parts of 43 national parks, 3 wilderness parks, 25 state parks, 18 other parks and reserves, 13 marine national parks and 11 marine sanctuaries.

The Partnering with Traditional Owners section of the report includes further information on management planning for jointly managed parks. During the year:
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in 2018–19. Finalising the plan involved extensive community consultation and consideration of more than 170 written and online submissions received on the Draft Plan The plan covers more than 215 000 hectares of parks and reserves along the Murray, Goulburn and Ovens Rivers between Wodonga and the South Australian border. These include Gunbower, Hattah-Kulkyne, Lower Goulburn and Warby– Ovens national parks, part of Murray–Sunset National Park, Leaghur State Park and Gadsen Bend, Kings Billabong, Nyah–Vinifera and Murray– Kulkyne parks as well as more than 100 other areas not under the Act.

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Falls to Hotham Alpine Crossing Master Plan – the strategic plan for this multi-day walk through the Ò˗ŽØŽÝ´Î
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Shipwreck Coast Master Plan – precinct planning to support the delivery of stage 1 of the plan was completed.

Amendments were made to the existing management plans for the following parks:
Dandenong Ranges National Park – to allow for cycling and mountain biking in nominated areas
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the ban on dog walking in the park
Lerderderg State Park – to remove camping as an activity at O’Briens Crossing, develop a camping area at Upper Chadwick and outline changes in related facilities.

5 National Parks Act Annual Report 2018 Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning Managing natural and cultural values Managing natural values The basis for setting strategic priorities for environmental management in areas under the Act includes Parks Victoria’s State of the Parks Effectiveness Evaluation Program and relevant conservation action plans. On-ground works are prioritised to protect the highest environmental values at greatest risk. Examples of projects in the various environmental management program areas are provided below.

Parks Victoria’s State of the Parks program evaluates the condition of the parks network and the effectiveness in meeting park management goals for nature conservation, culture and heritage, visitor җÎ槎—ÒŇ
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stakeholder and community knowledge, Traditional Owners, state and corporate data sets and park manager assessments.

In 2017–18 assessments were completed for all parks under the Act. The information collected will be used to highlight achievements as well as current and emerging threats and issues, to inform and adapt park management programs, and to report to the community on management outcomes. Parks Victoria is developing conservation action plans for each of its 16 planning landscapes to guide investment in environmental protection, improvement and restoration of the public land conservation estate, including areas under the Act. W¥—Ò—
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strategies and activities that can be implemented, monitored and adapted.

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and Gippsland Plains and Strzelecki landscapes.

Managing threatened species and communities Parks Victoria and DELWP continued to work with the community and key partner agencies to manage threatened species. This work included programs delivered as part of managing invasive species (e.g. fox control) or habitat restoration (e.g. the Victorian Alpine Peatland Protection Program).

The government’s Biodiversity On-ground Action Program, including Regional Landscapes and Targeted Action projects, supported several projects in parks. Examples of activities during the year relating to the management of threatened species and communities include:
alpine communities – the protection of alpine bogs and fencing to protect the long-term monitoring plots
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community to herbivore management in HattahKulkyne, Murray-Sunset and Wyperfeld national parks
Mallee Emu-wren – a trial translocation of 40 birds from Hattah-Kulkyne and Murray-Sunset national parks to Ngarkat Conservation Park in South Australia to increase the dispersal of self-sustaining populations and reduce the risk of losing the Ηº ¡
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—æ—»ØŌ Managing invasive species Managing invasive species is vital to protecting our parks and is a key delivery area in the management of natural values.

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invasive species. The federal government also contributes funding to some projects. Developing improved approaches to the management of feral horses and deer was a key focus during the year and involved comprehensive Ò؁²—¥Á´“—Î § » ؗ΁¡—»Ží
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strategic plan to guide the management of feral horses in the Alpine National Park was developed by Parks Victoria and approved for implementation by the Minister.

Landscape-scale programs included those summarised in Table 2 as well as the long-term Eden and Ark programs, which include various parks within their scope:
Eden programs – aim to control high-threat invasive plants – Central Highlands Eden (Baw Baw and Yarra Ranges national parks and Bunyip and Moondarra state parks) – Glenelg Eden (Cobboboonee, Lower Glenelg and Mount Richmond national parks, Cape Nelson State Park and Discovery Bay Coastal Park) – Otway Eden (Great Otway and Port Campbell national parks)
Ark programs – aim to control foxes to protect small native mammals

6 National Parks Act Annual Report 2018 Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning – Central Highlands Ark (Lake Eildon and Yarra Ranges national parks and Cathedral Range State Park) – Glenelg Ark (Cobboboonee, Lower Glenelg and Mount Richmond national parks and Discovery Bay Coastal Park) – Grampians Ark (Grampians National Park and Black Range State Park) – Otway Ark (Great Otway and Port Campbell national parks) – Southern Ark (Alfred, Alpine (part), Coopracambra, Croajingolong, Errinundra, Lind and Snowy River national parks, Lake Tyers State Park and Cape Conran Coastal Park).

Parks Victoria continued to work with the Australian Deer Association and the Sporting Shooters Association of Australia (Victoria) using volunteer hunters to help control deer, feral goats, feral pigs and foxes. Projects included those in the following national parks: Alpine (sambar deer), Barmah (feral pigs), Dandenong Ranges (sambar deer), Grampians (feral goats and red deer), Murray-Sunset (feral goats) and Wilsons Promontory (hog deer). This collaborative program is increasingly focusing on the impacts of deer in parks.

The Managing marine values section of the report contains information on the control of marine pests. Table 2 – Landscape invasive species control programs PV region / program Activity Multi-region Good Neighbour Program This program seeks to control invasive species on the public-private land interface. Environment and agricultural weeds, including blackberry, boneseed, broom, cape tulip, gorse, Patterson’s curse, serrated tussock and St John’s wort, were controlled in high priority areas. Established pest animals including rabbits, foxes, goats and pigs were managed to reduce their impacts and contain populations.

Northern Victoria Recovering Rangelands: Mallee Bounceback Landscape-scale rabbit management in the Mallee parks (including HattahKulkyne, Murray-Sunset and Wyperfeld national parks) continues to be delivered »“
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and to minimise the damage that rabbits can cause to Aboriginal cultural heritage.

Eastern Victoria Alps Intensive Management Program This program again treated blackberry, broom, willow and several other species in the Alpine National Park and included wild horse control and monitoring. Hawkweed Eradication Program Volunteers again participated in this program aimed at detecting and eradicating the three highly invasive and state-prohibited hawkweed species (King-devil, Mouse-ear and Orange) from the Bogong High Plains (Alpine National Park) and the adjoining Falls Creek Alpine Resort.

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and public land managers, including Parks Victoria.

It supports projects in Melbourne’s peri-urban areas that protect key environmental values on public land from high threat weeds, including, in 2017–18, in Churchill, Dandenong Ranges, Kinglake, Organ Pipes and Point Nepean national parks as well as Arthurs Seat and Warrandyte state parks.

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native species occurring in French Island, Port Phillip Heads and Yaringa marine national parks and the neighbouring French Island National Park.

7 National Parks Act Annual Report 2018 Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning Managing native animals Long-term programs to manage the impact of overabundant kangaroo and koala populations continued in several parks.

Excessive numbers threaten habitats and can result in animal welfare issues. The programs are underpinned by established species management plans developed with the support of key stakeholders, including technical advisory committees. Red and Western Grey Kangaroos were again controlled in Hattah-Kulkyne, Murray-Sunset and Wyperfeld national parks as part of managing the total grazing pressure on the parks from kangaroos, goats and rabbits to protect regenerating woodland habitats.

Overabundant koalas in Budj Bim National Park continued to be managed through the use of contraceptive implants. On French Island, 141 female koalas were treated with contraceptive implants, with the aim of managing the population to a sustainable level and protecting associated koala habitat on private land and within the national park. Koalas were again translocated from private land on Cape Otway to the Great Otway National Park. Managing habitat restoration Programs during the year to restore habitat through the control of invasive weeds, pest animals and over-abundant native animals included:
Hattah-Kulkyne, Murray-Sunset and Wyperfeld national parks – further revegetation in the semi-arid woodlands to enhance natural regeneration enabled by grazer control, in areas 祗Η
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Alpine and Dandenong Ranges national parks – control of deer to reduce the impacts of deer on wet forests and alpine peatlands
Budj Bim and French Island national parks – the management of koalas (see Managing native animals)
Wilsons Promontory National Park – continuation of the program to restore coastal grassy woodlands, including further development of a management approach to exotic and native grazers in the park.

The Victorian Alpine Peatland Protection Program, established in 2013, is a partnership between Parks Victoria, the East Gippsland, North East and West Gippsland catchment management authorities and the Australian Government. Projects were undertaken to reduce the threats to peatlands from pest plants and animal invasion and to improve peatland resilience. These included weed control, peatland rehabilitation and deer control. &—Ø “
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in the Grampians and Great Otway national parks (Anglesea Heath). There was pre-burn monitoring of habitat structure and camera surveys for small mammals prior to autumn mosaic burning.

Managing environmental water Following the wet year of 2016–17, much of the state experienced generally drier than average climatic conditions in 2017–18. This meant that many of the wetlands which were inundated in the previous year í
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events, the largest volume of water ever released from Lake Jindabyne to the Snowy River in one year The releases aim to support ecological processes in the river below Jindabyne Dam and improve the physical attributes of the river by scouring and depositing sediment and limiting the growth of riparian plants within the channel.
Barmah National Park – a new approach to regulator operation was trialled which saw most regulators in Barmah Forest open between July »“
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National Park) and watering at Lindsay-MulcraWalpolla islands (Murray-Sunset National Park). Managing marine values Marine invasive species are a serious threat to the integrity of Victoria’s marine ecosystems across all state waters, including in protected areas. These include exotic species that harm the health of marine ecosystems as well as overabundant native Ò˗Ž§—Ò
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impacted on important habitats.

During the year, a marine pest initiative focused on preventing the spread of pests, particularly from Port Phillip Bay to other areas of the state, as well as responding to new and emerging issues. The control of overabundant Black-spined Sea Urchins was a focus in Cape Howe Marine National Park and Beware Reef Marine Sanctuary. In South Gippsland’s Nooramunga Marine and Coastal Park, overgrazing by the Purple Sea Urchin has created large vegetation-free barrens in seagrass habitats while, in Port Phillip Bay, the same Ò˗Ž§—Ò
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species on reefs in Jawbone and Point Cooke marine sanctuaries.

Working in partnership with research partners, volunteers, Victorian Fisheries Authority ÒØ “
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has been undertaking sea urchin culling trials using an adaptive management approach, including removing approximately 17 000 Purple Sea Urchins from Point Cooke Marine Sanctuary. Monitoring natural values Monitoring is a fundamental part of good park management. It is essential for understanding the state of our natural values and the things that threaten them, as well as evaluating how effectively these threats and the conservation and protection of Victoria’s special places are being addressed.

This leads to ongoing improvement in effectiveness by highlighting where we are doing well and where we can improve.

Terrestrial environments Monitoring natural values in areas under the Act included monitoring the following:
the condition and rehabilitation of threatened alpine peatlands in the Alpine National Park
the condition of vegetation in Kara Kara National Park, including threatened and depleted vegetation communities
the condition of grassland habitat and populations of threatened grassland fauna in Terrick Terrick National Park
the assemblages of ground-dwelling mammals at Wilsons Promontory National Park.

Monitoring environmental threats in areas under the Act included monitoring the following:
exotic weeds and invasive native plants in the Dandenong Ranges and Grampians national parks
the responses of foxes to landscape baiting programs through various Ark projects, including in Cobboboonee, Coopracambra, Croajingolong, Grampians, Great Otway, Lower Glenelg, Snowy River and Yarra Ranges national parks.

These projects also monitor threatened mammal species which are subject to fox predation
the occurrence of foxes and feral cats in HattahKulkyne, Little Desert, Murray-Sunset and Wyperfeld national parks, in conjunction with the Victorian Mallefowl Recovery Group. DELWP’s Victorian Forests Monitoring Program provides a platform to assess and monitor the health and condition of Victoria’s public forests, support policy and management decisions, and meet its reporting obligations. As at 30 June 2018 the program had measured 683 permanent monitoring plots located in State forest and forested parks and conservation reserves.

These include a ÝÎØ¥—Î
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year in areas under the Act.

9 National Parks Act Annual Report 2018 Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning The program also derives information related to the state and trends of forest areas from remote sensing products using aerial photography and satellite imagery. This analysis facilitates observations of disturbance dating back to 1988 and has the capacity to produce state-wide mapping layers of forest biometrics including biodiversity, carbon and indicators associated with forest health. Marine environments Improved monitoring programs are being implemented by Parks Victoria for Point Addis and Port Phillip Heads marine national parks.

The new program uses standard diver-based methods as well as new technology including drones, towed video, baited remote underwater video stations and multibeam sonar surveys. The program runs in partnership with industry and university collaborations.

Researching natural values Research authorisations Research, study and investigation in areas on the schedules to the Act are authorised under section 20 or 21A of the Act, sometimes in conjunction with a permit under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988, the Reference Areas Act 1978 or the Wildlife Act 1975. A total of 279 research permits were issued during the year: 181 were new permits and 98 were renewed permits. These permits enabled research to be carried out in 111 parks (a permit may cover more than one park) or in all parks if required (23 permits). The parks for which 10 or more permits were issued (in addition to the ‘all parks’ permits) were: Alpine (34), Croajingolong (13), French Island (12), Grampians (15), Greater Bendigo (10), Great Otway (28), Mornington Peninsula (10), Mount Buffalo (12), Murray-Sunset (14), Point Nepean (10), Snowy River (11), Wilsons Promontory (21) and Yarra Ranges (20) national parks, Gippsland Lakes Coastal Park (10) and Port Phillip Heads Marine National Park (16).

Research authorised under the permits included:
multiple national and other parks along the coast, marine national parks and marine sanctuaries, from Port Campbell National Park to Croajingolong National Park – research to quantify carbon sequestered by coastal ecosystems
Murray-Sunset and Wyperfeld national parks – research into the accuracy, performance and utility of remote area fuel hazard assessment techniques
Great Otway National Park – collection of seeds and individuals of the Tall Astelia and establishment of a new population to mitigate the risk of climate change on this threatened rainforest herb
Warby-Ovens National Park – research to ǎÁ»ÒØÎݎØ
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of the Ovens River through the examination of sediment cores from wetlands
Wilsons Promontory National Park – investigations at Kanowna Island into the breeding and foraging ecology of diving petrels and fairy prions in Bass Strait.

Research programs Parks Victoria’s highly successful Research Partners Panel facilitates collaborative research to answer important questions and improve park management. During 2017–18, 17 new projects were initiated in areas under the Act, and many other multi-year projects continued to address critical knowledge gaps. This work was in addition to the hundreds of research projects facilitated and supported by Parks Victoria each year through the research permit system. Research Partners Projects cover a diverse range of issues and involve expert researchers and students from the partner institutions.

Projects involving terrestrial environments during the year included:
Alpine National Park – partnering with the Arthur Rylah Institute to assess feral horse impacts on fragile alpine peatlands and other environmental values on the Bogong High Plains to help support the Feral Horse Strategic Action Plan
Barmah National Park – working with the [»§æ—ÎÒ§Øí
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Great Otway National Park – continued collaboration with Deakin University to understand the status of endangered mammal species in the heathlands of the park, including new research to identify key habitat refuges
Wilsons Promontory National Park – a new project with La Trobe University to investigate the causes of decline in Banksias.

10 National Parks Act Annual Report 2018 Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning Projects involving marine environments included:
continuing the monitoring of marine biodiversity of inshore reefs at priority marine national parks, including Point Addis, Port Phillip Heads and Wilsons Promontory
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Managing cultural values Managing Aboriginal heritage Parks Victoria continued to actively manage Aboriginal cultural heritage values across the state.

Key projects undertaken during the year included:
continuing a collaborative project in northern Victoria to undertake Traditional Owner-led on-ground protection of Aboriginal ancestral remains and cultural heritage places, including – constructing rabbit-proof fencing at Lindsay Island (Murray-Sunset National Park) – capping roads in Hattah-Kulkyne National Park and at Wallpolla Island (Murray-Sunset National Park) – surveying an estimated 900 registered Aboriginal places in Hattah-Kulkyne National Park
considerable work in relation to conserving rock art, including – commencing an audit of the condition of rock art to determine the issues and risks to rock art so that these can be prioritised for restoration and protection with Traditional Owner groups – detailed cataloguing and recording of rock art shelters, including in Black Range and Kooyoora state parks – protection works at several rock art shelters in the Grampians National Park.

Managing historic heritage The management of historic heritage in parks during the year included:
works undertaken to protect the Mount Buffalo Chalet – major maintenance works to repair and revitalise Ø¥—
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windows and doors, repair of external stonework, replacement of weatherboards and painting of internal rooms and external walls
repairs to the machinery shed at Glenample Homestead.

Parks Victoria also worked to improve the way in which it manages historic heritage in parks through the development of a Heritage Asset Management App to document the condition of the fabric of substantial heritage assets (buildings) and to estimate the cost of repairs and catch-up maintenance.

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conditions over winter and spring, followed by average rain through the summer months.

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which burnt an area of 18 417 hectares.

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this year in areas under the Act was lightning.

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suppression tactics (e.g. minimal use of bulldozers).

Planned burning Dry conditions in early autumn delayed the start of the autumn planned burning program. Following rain in late March, conditions improved but were variable across the state in 2017–18. There were 67 completed burns undertaken in areas under the Act, treating a total area of nearly 21 300 hectares. This area included burns in the following national parks: Burrowa-Pine Mountain (approximately 1000 ha), Grampians (3600 ha), Murray-Sunset (2700 ha), Little Desert (2100 ha) and Yarra Ranges (just over 2300 ha) as well as in Mount Lawson State Park (3700 ha). Also included were several burns totalling approximately 450 hectares in the Great AØçí
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to some coastal communities along the Great Ocean Road.

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Activities completed in areas under the Act again included works on fuel breaks, upgrading roads and Ø΁Ž²Ò
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behaviour and community education.

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to establish 2200 sites in native vegetation on public land by 2025. In addition, there were four ecosystem resilience projects undertaken, one in each of four Parks Victoria regions (Table 3). The outputs from these MER projects will be used to inform improved ÒØ΁Ø
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