New Zealand Schools Report Ngā Kura o Aotearoa 2014
New Zealand Schools Report Ngā Kura o Aotearoa 2014
2 New Zealand Schools Report Ngā Kura o Aotearoa 2014 This Government has a vision for a country where all our young people have access to effective education and the ability to achieve at a high standard, academically and otherwise. New Zealand Schools Ngā Kura o Aotearoa 2014 Ministry of Education National Office 45−47 Pipitea Street, Thorndon Private Bag 1666, Wellington 6011 Telephone: (04) 463 8000 Fax: (04) 463 8001 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org © Crown copyright 2015 Permission to reproduce: The copyright authorises reproduction of this work, in whole or in part, so long as no charge is made for the supply of copies and the integrity and attribution of the work as a publication of the Ministry of Education is not interfered with in any way.
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Enquiries should be made to the Ministry of Education. ISSN 1173–1773–1982
New Zealand Schools Report Ngā Kura o Aotearoa 2014 3 Contents Foreword . . 6 Overview . . 8 Highlights of 2014 . . 9 Introduction . . 11 Schools in 2014 . . 11 Investing in Educational Success . . 12 Expectations of schools in 2014 . . 13 Strategies to improve Māori achievement . . 14 Māori language in education . . 14 Strategies to improve Pasifika achievement . . 16 Resourcing . . 19 Government funding to schools . . 19 Financial performance of New Zealand schools . . 22 2014 decile recalculation .
. 25 Digital technologies for teaching and learning . . 26 Foundation skills . . 29 Reading literacy in primary schooling . . 29 Reading literacy in secondary schooling . . 33 Mathematics literacy in primary schooling . . 35 Mathematics literacy in secondary schooling . . 38 Science in secondary schooling . . 40 Student outcomes . . 43 Proportion of 18-year-olds with NCEA Level 2 or equivalent qualification . . 43 School-leaver qualifications . . 44 Student participation and engagement with learning . . 49 Student transience . . 49 Retention of students in secondary schooling . . 50 Early leaving exemptions .
. 51 Attendance at school . . 53 Stand-downs and suspensions from school . . 55 Initiatives . . 59 Positive Behaviour for Learning . . 59 PB4L School-Wide . . 59 Success for All: Every School, Every Child . . 60 Youth Guarantee . . 61 Social Sector Trials . . 62 Quality teaching and education providers . . 65 Teacher numbers . . 66 Professional learning and development . . 67 Community representation by school trustees . . 69 Appendix 1 . . 73 Plans to address pressures on school capacity . . 73 References . . 94
4 New Zealand Schools Report Ngā Kura o Aotearoa 2014 Figures Figure 1: Schooling options for young people of compulsory school attendance age . 11 Figure 2: Nominal and real operational grants to schools, 2004–2014 . 20 Figure 3: Teacher salary funding to state and state-integrated schools, 2004–2014 . 21 Figure 4: Direct property funding to schools, 2004–2014 . 21 Figure 5: Percentage of Year 1-8 students meeting the National Standard for Reading, 2012–2014 . 31 Figure 6: Percentage of Year 1-8 students meeting the National Standard for Writing, 2012–2014 . 31 Figure 7: Percentage of students meeting Ngā Whanaketanga Reo, 2014 .
32 Figure 8: Percentage of 15-year-old students who met the literacy and numeracy requirements for NCEA Level 1, 2010-2014 . 33 Figure 9: Percentage of 15-year-old students meeting NCEA Level 1 literacy and numeracy requirements, by ethnicity, 2010-2014 . 34 Figure 10: Percentage of 15-year-old students meeting the NCEA Level 1 literacy requirements, by gender, 2010-2014 . 35 Figure 11: Percentage of students meeting the National Standard for Mathematics, 2012–2014 . 36 Figure 12: Percentage of students meeting Ngā Whanaketanga Pāngarau, 2014 . 37 Figure 13: Percentage of 15-year-old students meeting NCEA Level 1 numeracy requirements, by ethnicity, 2010–2014 .
38 Figure 14: Percentage of school leavers participating in 14 or more credits at Level 1 or above in the sciences | pūtaiao learning area, by ethnicity, 2010-2014 . 40 Figure 15: Percentage of school leavers participating in 14 or more credits at Level 1 or above in the sciences | pūtaiao learning area, by gender, 2010-2014 . 41 Figure 16: Better Public Service target: required and actual attainment rates of 18-year-olds with at least a Level 2 qualification, by ethnicity, 2011–2017 . 43 Figure 17: Proportion of school leavers with NCEA Level 1 or above, by ethnic group 2009–2014 . 44 Figure 18: Proportion of school leavers with NCEA Level 2 or above, by ethnic group 2009–2014 .
45 Figure 19: Proportion of school leavers with NCEA Level 3 or above, by ethnic group 2009–2014 . 46 Figure 20: Transients per 1,000 enrolled students, 2009 to 2014 . 50 Figure 21: Retention rate: proportion of school leavers aged 17 or above, by ethnicity, 2009–2014 . 50 Figure 22: Early leaving exemption application approval and decline rates, 2004–2014 . 52 Figure 23: Early leaver exemption rates per 1,000, by ethnicity, 2004–2014 . 52 Figure 24: Absence rates, by gender and current year level, 2014 . 54 Figure 25: Age-standardised stand-down rates, by ethnicity, 2000–2014 . 56 Figure 26: Age-standardised stand-down rates, by ethnicity and school quintile, 2014 .
57 Figure 27: Age-standardised suspension rates, by ethnicity, 2000–2014 . 57 Figure 28: Number of schools expected to have at least one Māori board member versus proportion of schools with fair Māori representation, 2000–2014 . 70 Figure 29: Number of schools expected to have at least one Pasifika board member versus proportion of schools with fair Pasifika representation, 2000–2014 . 71
New Zealand Schools Report Ngā Kura o Aotearoa 2014 5 Tables Table 1: All students involved in Levels 1–4a of Māori-language education, 2006–2014 . . 15 Table 2: School revenue, 2011–2014 . . 22 Table 3: Expenditure of state and state-integrated schools, by main expenditure category, 2011–2014 . . 23 Table 4: Percentage of schools with an operating surplus, 2012–2014 . . 24 Table 5: Percentage of schools in different working capital ratio bands, 2014 . . 24 Table 6: Public equity trends, 2012–2014 . . 25 Table 7: Percentage of schools with an increase in public equity, 2014 . . 25 Table 8: Teacher loss rates, by school type, May 2007/2008 to May 2013/14 .
. 67 Table A1.1: Schools with enrolment schemes in place for part of or all of 2014 . . 76
6 New Zealand Schools Report Ngā Kura o Aotearoa 2014 Foreword New Zealand has a good education system and it is getting better. As the information in this report shows, achievement levels are rising for our secondary school pupils, we are doing a better job of delivering culturally relevant education to Maori and Pasifika students, student suspensions are falling, fewer students are seeking to leave school early and the proportion of Year 1 – 8 students at or above the National Standard for reading, writing and mathematics is increasing.
However, this report also shows that a significant number of students are still leaving school without the minimum qualification considered necessary for full participation in adult life (NCEA Level 2).
A disproportionate number of them are Maori, Pasifika, come from poorer families or have special needs. That is not acceptable. This is a Government that is ambitious for every kid. We want every New Zealand student to have the chance to achieve their potential and the chance to play a full part in the life of their community. That is why we have embarked on a programme of educational reform to raise achievement levels for all students. Key components of that programme are: National Standards which help teachers to identify and target student needs at an early age The challenging Better Public Service targets we have set to focus ourselves and the education sector on raising achievement levels for all students Trades Academies which are re-engaging the interest of students at risk of disengaging from the education system Public Achievement Information showing how the sector, regions and individual schools are performing; and the $359 million Investing in Educational Success programme.
We know what makes a difference in classrooms and we know what makes a difference outside classrooms and the changes we have made are lifting student achievement by targeting the things that make the greatest difference. IES, which is being rolled out across the country now, will add to that momentum. By involving parents and communities in the setting of common achievement challenges for the new Communities of Learning it is fostering parental engagement and raising community expectations. These are the two things research tells us have the greatest out-of-school influence on student learning.
By creating new teaching and leadership roles IES is enabling the most effective teachers and principals to share their knowledge and expertise across multiple schools. This will raise the quality of teaching and leadership – the two things we know have the greatest in-school impact on student learning. IES is also giving teachers a genuine choice between going into management and staying in the classroom. Meanwhile the new Principal Recruitment Allowance is incentivising some of our best principals to go where their skills will make the greatest difference.
These changes are equipping teachers, principals, parents, whānau and the wider community with the information and tools they need to raise student achievement.
New Zealand Schools Report Ngā Kura o Aotearoa 2014 7 This report shows we are making progress, but there is more to be done. The students of today will be the adults of tomorrow upon whom we and our grandchildren will depend. I am pleased to present to Parliament New Zealand Schools Ngā Kura o Aotearoa – 2014. Hon. Hekia Parata Minister of Education
8 New Zealand Schools Report Ngā Kura o Aotearoa 2014 Overview Data, research and a wider range of information is increasing our understanding about what is happening in and across New Zealand schools.
As we continue to better understand our Public Achievement Information and how it can contribute to raising the achievement of our young people, we are more effectively identifying and focusing on areas of change that will make the biggest difference. Research shows that, within schools, the quality of teaching and school leadership has the biggest influence on whether students succeed. In 2014 the Government introduced Investing in Educational Success (IES) to help lift student achievement and to provide new career opportunities for teachers and principals. IES has been designed so that children benefit from the skills and knowledge of great teachers from across a whole group of schools.
With schools working together it is easier for children to move through the educational system. The Government is investing an extra $359million in funding over four years, and $155million per year after that to help raise student achievement.
The New Zealand schooling system is increasingly diverse with a total of 2,532 schools in 2014. These include 1,961 primary schools, 167 contributing schools and 366 secondary schools. This total can also be broken by 2,108 state schools, 331 state-integrated schools, 88 independent schools and 5 Partnership Schools. We also have Kura dedicated to teaching te reo, special schools supporting children’s needs with specialised help, area schools serving our rural community, and many different faith-based schools serving the needs of different communities. In 2014 Partnership Schools were introduced into the New Zealand education system, focused on improving educational outcomes for those groups of students whom the system has not served well.
The most significant difference between Partnership Schools and state schools is that they have greater freedom and flexibility to innovate and engage with their students, in return for stronger accountability for improving educational outcomes. Completion of upper secondary education is associated with a range of economic and social benefits both in New Zealand and across the OECD1. Research shows that a formal qualification at NCEA Level 2 or above is the benchmark that young adults need to achieve as a basic prerequisite for future work or training. Qualifications outcomes for our school leavers continued to improve in 2014, with a reduction in the percentage of students leaving school with no qualifications.
To boost skills and employment the Government has set a Better Public Service target that 85% of 18-year-olds will have achieved NCEA Level 2 or an equivalent qualification in 2017. While we have seen a big improvement in the number of kids achieving NCEA Level 2 there is still more to be done for those that have traditionally been left behind by the system. Māori and Pasifika students have the lowest rates of attainment of NCEA Level 2 or equivalent, but at the same time they have made the greatest improvements since 2009. Initiatives such as Achievement Retention Transitions (ART), work in partnership with schools to identify young people at risk of not achieving their NCEA Level 2, with a particular focus on Māori and Pasifika students.
There is no clear evidence that levels of literacy in our school-aged population are improving, particularly in mathematics. International studies have shown that we are not improving in basic literacy and numeracy skills and lag behind the top-performing countries. National Standard results for mathematics show that in 2014 just under a third of students in Year 8 were below the National Standard.
In terms of student disengagement, the 2014 attendance survey shows truancy levels are slightly higher than the previous year and the rate continues to be higher for secondary school students. 1 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
New Zealand Schools Report Ngā Kura o Aotearoa 2014 9 Student retention and engagement, however, have been consistently improving. More kids are staying at school until at least their 17th birthday and the number of early leaving exemptions has decreased by around 90% since 2006. Stand-downs and suspensions were at their lowest rate in 15 years and there has been a significant reduction in the number of Māori or Pasifika students being stood-down or suspended.
Some of these improvements can be attributed to the Positive Behaviour for Learning initiative, which is a long-term approach to improving the behaviour and well-being of children and young people. The final evaluation of this initiative found it is supporting positive changes to school culture and increased consistency in approaches to behaviour.
Highlights of 2014 Implementation of the National Standards continued in 2014. The proportions of students achieving at or above the National Standards for reading (78.0%), writing (71.1%) and mathematics (75.2%) have increased in each of the last two years since the introduction of National Standards. The Government has set a target of increasing the proportion of 18-year-olds with an NCEA Level 2 or equivalent qualification to 85% by 2017, attained either through school or through tertiary study. In 2014, 81.2% of 18-year-olds had attained this level, an increase from 78.6% in 2013 and 77.2% in 2012.
This suggests that we are on track to reach the 2017 target.
Age-standardised rates of stand-downs (20.0 per 1,000) and suspensions (3.7 per 1,000) were at the lowest rate in 15 years. In 2014, 83.2% of students remained in school until at least their 17th birthday, an increase from 79.3% in 2009.
New Zealand Schools Report Ngā Kura o Aotearoa 2014 11 Introduction Schools in 2014 n July 2014 there were 2,532 schools in New Zealand (including 22 Teen Parent Units), with 767,258 students. A further 5,555 students were home-schooled.
The schooling system is loosely divided into two parts: primary education for students aged 5–12 (Years 1–8) and secondary education for students aged 13–18 (Years 9–13). The schooling options are displayed below. Figure 1 also includes the year level of students and, in senior secondary school, the qualification level that most students study towards.
Figure 1: Schooling options for young people of compulsory school attendance age The New Zealand education system does not make distinctions between academic and vocational/technical programmes. The design of The New Zealand Curriculum (Ministry of Education, 2007), Te Marautanga o Aotearoa (Ministry of Education, 2008b) and the National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) qualifications enables students to select from a range of courses (including industry-based qualifications) in the senior years of secondary school (Years 11–13).
12 New Zealand Schools Report Ngā Kura o Aotearoa 2014 New Zealand provides a free education system through state-owned and operated schools.
However, both state- integrated and private options exist. State-integrated schools are part of the state system but retain their special character. Partnership Schools/Kura Hourua are a new type of school in the New Zealand education system, focused on improving educational outcomes for those groups of students the system has not served well. This includes Māori and Pasifika students, students with special education needs and, students from low socio-economic backgrounds. The most significant difference between Partnership Schools and state schools is that they have greater freedom and flexibility to innovate and engage with their students, in return for stronger accountability for improving educational outcomes.
Partnership Schools/Kura Hourua give parents increased choice about the type of school their child attends, and bring a wider range of educational options into the schooling network. We expect that there will be future opportunities to adopt successful and innovative practices from Partnership Schools for use in state schools. The first five Partnership Schools opened in 2014 and there are currently nine. Investing in Educational Success Investing in Educational Success (IES) is a Government initiative, announced in early 2014, to help lift student achievement. It is also intended to provide new career opportunities for teachers and principals.
Research shows that, within schools, the quality of teaching has the biggest influence on whether students succeed. IES has been designed with this in mind and is intended to help raise achievement by: improving teaching practice across New Zealand enabling teachers to work together and benefit from each other’s knowledge and experience helping all children benefit from the skills and knowledge of great teachers from across a group of schools helping schools work together so that it is easier for children to move through the education system A total of $359million funding is available over the first four years of the programme, and $155million annually after that.
Communities of Learning Communities of Learning are groups of schools and kura that come together to raise achievement for children and young people by: sharing expertise in teaching and learning supporting each other forming around students’ usual pathway from primary to secondary school. These Communities set achievement challenges based on information about their students’ educational needs, and work together to achieve them. Communities of Learning are being rolled out over four years starting from late 2014. Communities in Blenheim and Mid-Bays (Auckland) have already signed off achievement challenges to lift their students’ achievement in areas such as reading, writing and maths.
42 Communities of Learning have currently been approved, which represent 333 schools and just a shade over 120,000 kids.