OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL - BENEVAP DUAL BV300 SYSTEM AT PRAIRIE BLUFF SECURITY LANDFILL - BENETERRA

 
OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL - BENEVAP DUAL BV300 SYSTEM AT PRAIRIE BLUFF SECURITY LANDFILL - BENETERRA
Operations and Maintenance Manual –
BeneVap Dual BV300 System at Prairie Bluff
Security Landfill

                                                              Revised 2020-02-22

                                                              Produced by

                                                              BENETERRA ENVIRONMENTAL LLC

                                                              VANCOUVER, WASHINGTON
            … land and water stewardship
                                                              USA

                                                              AUTHOR(S) RORY VAN NIEKERK, CHEWY
                                                              HUIZAR, JOHN ZUPANCIC

                                                              Document no. BT-W-O&M-MAN-06

  land & water
  stewardship
                  H1 & H2-BV300 Operations and Maintenance Manual rev 2020-02-22        1
OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL - BENEVAP DUAL BV300 SYSTEM AT PRAIRIE BLUFF SECURITY LANDFILL - BENETERRA
CLIENT: Waste Management

                                                     PROJECT

land and water stewardship                           BeneVap Dual BV300 System at Prairie Bluff Security
                                                     Landfill
BeneTerra Environmental LLC

Vancouver, Washington                                DOCUMENT
USA                                                  Draft Operations and Maintenance Manual

Operations and Maintenance Manual – Dual BV300 System

AUTHOR(S) Rory van Niekerk, Chewy Huizar, John Zupancic

BeneTerra               PROJECT NO.                  DISC      TYPE             DOC NO.

                                                                                BT-W-O&M-MAN-06

                                                     REVISION DATE 2020-02-22

REV   DATE             REASON(S)                                BY         CHK            APR   CLIENT

A     11 Oct 2019      Issued for Draft post commissioning      RVN        SH             RVN
                       for internal and client review

B     15 Jan 2020      Complementary update                     JZ

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OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL - BENEVAP DUAL BV300 SYSTEM AT PRAIRIE BLUFF SECURITY LANDFILL - BENETERRA
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1     Quick start guidelines ........................................................................................................................ 13
    1.1      Pre-start checks ......................................................................................................................... 13
    1.2      Start-up...................................................................................................................................... 13
      1.2.1          Main screen ....................................................................................................................... 13
2     Performance Objectives .................................................................................................................... 14
3     Process Overview .............................................................................................................................. 15
4     Site specific conditions ...................................................................................................................... 15
    4.1      Climate and setting .................................................................................................................... 15
    4.2      Leachate quality ........................................................................................................................ 15
    4.3      Gas quality ................................................................................................................................. 16
5     System Components .......................................................................................................................... 16
    5.1      Pneumatic system ..................................................................................................................... 16
    5.2      Influent train and level control .................................................................................................. 16
      5.2.1          SUPPLY TANK AND INFLUENT VALVE ................................................................................. 16
      5.2.2          INFLUENT PUMP [P-0140] ................................................................................................. 16
      5.2.3          INFLUENT CHECK VALVE [NRV-0140, 1140] ....................................................................... 16
      5.2.4          INFLUENT FLOWMETER [FE-1140, 2140] ........................................................................... 16
      5.2.5          INFLUENT CONTROL VALVE [FV-1142, 2142] ..................................................................... 16
      5.2.6          PRESSURE TRANSMITTERS ................................................................................................. 17
          5.2.6.1        Gas blower pressure sensor [PT-0100] (0-15 psi) .......................................................... 17
          5.2.6.2        Supply tank level transmitter [PT-0140] (0-15 psi) ........................................................ 17
          5.2.6.3 Level control pressure transmitters - LCPT [PT-1120 & 1122/2120 & 2122] (0-5 psi
          sensitivity). .................................................................................................................................... 17
          5.2.6.4        Headspace pressure transmitter - HSPT [PT-1121/2121] (0-1 psi sensitivity) ................ 17
          5.2.6.5        Air pressure transmitter - APT [PT-0150] (0-200 psi sensitivity) .................................... 17
      5.2.7   HI LEVEL SAFETY FLOAT SWITCH AND INTERFACE CARD -FUNCTION CURRENTLY DISABLED
      DUE TO RELIABILITY ISSUES ............................................................................................................... 17
    5.3      Concentration Vessel discharge system .................................................................................... 18
      5.3.1          DISCHARGE VALVE [FV-1151/2151] ................................................................................... 18
      5.3.2          AIR COMPRESSOR [AC-0150] -(optional auxiliary) ............................................................. 18
      5.3.3          WARNING SIREN AND LIGHT ............................................................................................. 18
    5.4      Fuel Supply ................................................................................................................................ 19
      5.4.1          Pilot gas train ..................................................................................................................... 19

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5.4.1.1       Propane LPG tank - supply fuel for the pilot flame. ....................................................... 19
      5.4.1.2       Main pilot pressure regulator [PCV-0110] ..................................................................... 19
      5.4.1.3       Secondary LPG pressure REGULATOR [PCV-1111/2111] and gauge .............................. 19
      5.4.1.4       Dual solenoid block valves [FV-1110/2110, FV-1111/ 2111].......................................... 19
      5.4.1.5       Y-strainer pilot gas train [GM-1110/ 2110] .................................................................... 19
      5.4.1.6       Pilot propane flowmeter [FT-0110] ............................................................................... 20
  5.4.2         Main gas supply train......................................................................................................... 20
      5.4.2.1       Main gas non-return valve [NRV-0100] ......................................................................... 20
      5.4.2.2       Gas blower [B-0100] and variable frequency drive [VFD-0100] ..................................... 20
      5.4.2.3       Pressure transmitter [PT-0100] (0-15 psi)...................................................................... 20
      5.4.2.4       Pressure gauge/indicator [PI-01101/2101] .................................................................... 20
      5.4.2.5       HDPE isolation ball valves [FV-1100/ 2100] ................................................................... 20
      5.4.2.6       Pressure relief valve [PSV 1100/2100] ........................................................................... 20
      5.4.2.7       Y-strainer [GM-1100/2100] and manual pressure gauge [PI-1100/2100]...................... 20
      5.4.2.8       Flow transmitter (thermal mass flowmeter [FT-1100/2100]) ........................................ 20
      5.4.2.9       Main gas pressure gauge/indicator [PI-1101/2101] ...................................................... 20
      5.4.2.10         Main gas purge valve [FV-1113/2113] ....................................................................... 20
      5.4.2.11         Main gas safety block valves [FV-1101/2101 & FV-1102/2102] (120 VAC) ................ 20
      5.4.2.12         Hi and Lo pressure switches [PSH-1102/2102 & PSL-1101/2101] .............................. 20
  5.4.3         Burner [B-1150/2150]........................................................................................................ 20
      5.4.3.1       Throttle valve modulator [ZZ-1100/2100] ..................................................................... 21
      5.4.3.2       Dynamic self-checking flame detector [YT-1100/2100] ................................................. 21
      5.4.3.3       Ignitor plug [BL-1100/2100]........................................................................................... 21
  5.4.4         Combustion chamber [CC-1120/2120] - ............................................................................ 21
      5.4.4.1       Exhaust gas sampling port ............................................................................................. 21
      5.4.4.2       Lambda sensor [QT-1100/2100] .................................................................................... 21
      5.4.4.3       CC Exhaust gas ports ...................................................................................................... 21
      5.4.4.4       CC flame temperature sensing thermocouple [TE-1150/2150] ..................................... 21
5.5      Combustion air system .............................................................................................................. 21
  5.5.1         Combustion air fan (CAF) [B-1130/2130] ........................................................................... 21
  5.5.2         Variable frequency drive [VFD-1130/2130] ....................................................................... 21
  5.5.3     Combustion air damper valve [FV-1130/2130] and electric actuator/MODULATOR
  [ZZ - 1130/2130] ................................................................................................................................ 21
  5.5.4         CA flow transmitter (thermal mass flowmeter [FT-1130/2130]) ....................................... 22
  5.5.5         Paddle flow switch [FS-1130/2130] ................................................................................... 22

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OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL - BENEVAP DUAL BV300 SYSTEM AT PRAIRIE BLUFF SECURITY LANDFILL - BENETERRA
5.5.6          Post Purge Timer ............................................................................................................... 22
    5.6       Concentration vessel ................................................................................................................. 22
       5.6.1          Concentration vessel [CV-1120/2120] ............................................................................... 22
       5.6.2          Knife-gate discharge valve [FV-1150/2150] ....................................................................... 22
       5.6.3          Side access ports ................................................................................................................ 22
       5.6.4          Manway ............................................................................................................................. 22
       5.6.5          Exhaust stacks - [FZ-1120 & 1121/FZ-2120 & 2121] .......................................................... 22
    5.7       Instrumentation ........................................................................................................................ 22
       5.7.1          Temperature sensors ......................................................................................................... 22
       5.7.2          Pressure transmitters ........................................................................................................ 23
       5.7.3          Level float switches............................................................................................................ 23
       5.7.4          Lambda O2 sensor .............................................................................................................. 23
       5.7.5          Paddle flow switch ............................................................................................................. 23
       5.7.6          Flowmeters ........................................................................................................................ 23
6      PLC access ......................................................................................................................................... 23
    6.1       General Access .......................................................................................................................... 23
    6.2       Operator Access ........................................................................................................................ 24
    6.3       Technician access ...................................................................................................................... 24
7      Operation instructions ...................................................................................................................... 24
    7.1       Pre-start (safety checks) ............................................................................................................ 24
8      Start-up and control .......................................................................................................................... 24
    8.1       Main screen ............................................................................................................................... 25
    8.2       Clear alarms ............................................................................................................................... 25
    8.3       Fluid control .............................................................................................................................. 26
    8.4       Batch configuration ................................................................................................................... 27
    8.5       Batch Configuration and Discharge ........................................................................................... 28
    8.6       Fuel control ............................................................................................................................... 29
    8.7       Operation mode and CAF .......................................................................................................... 30
    8.8       Anti-foam .................................................................................................................................. 32
9      Shut-Down......................................................................................................................................... 32
10 Alarms ............................................................................................................................................... 33
    10.1      Alarm definitions ....................................................................................................................... 33
    10.2      Alarm set points ........................................................................................................................ 38
    10.3      Alarm log ................................................................................................................................... 38
    10.4      BCU faults and reset .................................................................................................................. 39

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OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL - BENEVAP DUAL BV300 SYSTEM AT PRAIRIE BLUFF SECURITY LANDFILL - BENETERRA
11 Remote access ................................................................................................................................... 39
12 Maintenance ..................................................................................................................................... 40
    Maintenance safety precautions ........................................................................................................... 40
13 Critical spares list............................................................................................................................... 42
14 Troubleshooting ................................................................................................................................ 43
15 Appendix I: Major Components of the BV for H&H ........................................................................... 46
16 Appendix II: Design parameters for Prairie Bluff Security Landfill leachate evaporation .................. 49
17 Appendix V: P&ID for H&H ................................................................................................................ 50

LIST OF FIGURES
1 Quick start guidelines ........................................................................................................................ 13
    1.1       Pre-start checks                                                                                                                       13
    1.2       Start-up                                                                                                                               13
       1.2.1         Main screen                                                                                                                     13
2      Performance Objectives .................................................................................................................... 14
3      Process Overview .............................................................................................................................. 15
4      Site specific conditions ...................................................................................................................... 15
    4.1       Climate and setting                                                                                                                    15
    4.2       Leachate quality                                                                                                                       15
    4.3       Gas quality                                                                                                                            16
5      System Components .......................................................................................................................... 16
    5.1       Pneumatic system                                                                                                                       16
    5.2       Influent train and level control                                                                                                       16
       5.2.1         SUPPLY TANK AND INFLUENT VALVE                                                                                                  16
       5.2.2         INFLUENT PUMP [P-0140]                                                                                                          16
       5.2.3         INFLUENT CHECK VALVE [NRV-0140, 1140]                                                                                           16
       5.2.4         INFLUENT FLOWMETER [FE-1140, 2140]                                                                                              16
       5.2.5         INFLUENT CONTROL VALVE [FV-1142, 2142]                                                                                          16
       5.2.6         PRESSURE TRANSMITTERS                                                                                                           17
          5.2.6.1        Gas blower pressure sensor [PT-0100] (0-15 psi sensitivity)                                                                 17
          5.2.6.2        Supply tank level transmitter [PT-0140] (0-15 psi sensitivity)                                                              17
          5.2.6.3 Level control pressure transmitters - LCPT [PT-1122 & 1120/2122 & 2120] (0-5 psi
          sensitivity).                                                                                                                              17
          5.2.6.4        Headspace pressure transmitter - HSPT [PT-1121/2121] (0-1 psi sensitivity)                                                  17
          5.2.6.5        Air pressure transmitter - APT [PT-0150] (0-200 psi sensitivity)                                                            17

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OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL - BENEVAP DUAL BV300 SYSTEM AT PRAIRIE BLUFF SECURITY LANDFILL - BENETERRA
5.2.7         HI LEVEL SAFETY FLOAT SWITCH AND INTERFACE CARD                                       17
  5.2.8         OVERFLOW VALVE [CKV-1120/2120]                              Error! Bookmark not defined.
5.3     Concentration Vessel discharge system                                                         18
  5.3.1         DISCHARGE VALVE [FV-1151/2151]                                                        18
  5.3.2         AIR COMPRESSOR [AC-0150] -(optional auxiliary)                                        18
  5.3.3         WARNING LIGHT AND SIREN                                                               18
5.4     Fuel Supply                                                                                   19
  5.4.1         Pilot gas train                                                                       19
      5.4.1.1     Propane LPG tank - supply fuel for the pilot flame.                                 19
      5.4.1.2     Main pilot pressure regulator [PCV-0110]                                            19
      5.4.1.3     Secondary LPG pressure REGULATOR [PCV-1111/2111] and gauge                          19
      5.4.1.4     Dual solenoid block valves [FV-1110/2110, FV-1111/ 2111]                            19
      5.4.1.5     Y-strainer pilot gas train [GM-1110/ 2110]                                          19
      5.4.1.6     Pilot propane flowmeter [FT-0110]                                                   20
  5.4.2         Main gas supply train                                                                 20
      5.4.2.1     Main gas non-return valve [NRV-0100]                                                20
      5.4.2.2     Gas blower [B-0100] and variable frequency drive [VFD-0100]                         20
      5.4.2.3     Pressure transmitter [PT-0100] (0-15 psi)                                           20
      5.4.2.4     Pressure gauge/indicator [PI-01101/2101]                                            20
      5.4.2.5     HDPE isolation ball valves [FV-1100/ 2100]                                          20
      5.4.2.6     Pressure relief valve [PSV 1100/2100]                                               20
      5.4.2.7     Y-strainer [GM-1100/2100] and manual pressure gauge [PI-1100/2100]                  20
      5.4.2.8     Flow transmitter (thermal mass flowmeter [FT-1100/2100])                            20
      5.4.2.9     Main gas pressure gauge/indicator [PI-1101/2101]                                    20
      5.4.2.10       Main gas purge valve [FV-1113/2113]                                              20
      5.4.2.11       Main gas safety block valves [FV-1101/2101 & FV-1102/2102] (120 VAC)             20
      5.4.2.12       Hi and Lo pressure switches [PSH-1102/2102 & PSL-1101/2101]                      20
  5.4.3         Burner [B-1150/2150]                                                                  20
      5.4.3.1     Throttle valve modulator [ZZ-1100/2100]                                             21
      5.4.3.2     Dynamic self-checking flame detector [YT-1100/2100]                                 21
      5.4.3.3     Ignitor plug [BL-1100/2100]                                                         21
  5.4.4         Combustion chamber [CC-1120/2120] -                                                   21
      5.4.4.1     Exhaust gas sampling port                                                           21
      5.4.4.2     Lambda sensor [QT-1100/2100]                                                        21
      5.4.4.3     CC Exhaust gas ports                                                                21

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OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL - BENEVAP DUAL BV300 SYSTEM AT PRAIRIE BLUFF SECURITY LANDFILL - BENETERRA
5.4.4.4       CC flame temperature sensing thermocouple [TE-1150/2150]                                                                         21
    5.5      Combustion air system                                                                                                                       21
      5.5.1         Combustion air fan (CAF) [B-1130/2130]                                                                                               21
      5.5.2         Variable frequency drive [VFD-1130/2130]                                                                                             21
      5.5.3     Combustion air damper valve [FV-1130/2130] and electric actuator/MODULATOR
      [ZZ - 1130/2130]                                                                                                                                   21
      5.5.4         CA flow transmitter (thermal mass flowmeter [FT-1130/2130])                                                                          22
      5.5.5         Paddle flow switch [FS-1130/2130]                                                                                                    22
      5.5.6         Post Purge Timer                                                                                                                     22
    5.6      Concentration vessel                                                                                                                        22
      5.6.1         Concentration vessel [CV-1120/2120]                                                                                                  22
      5.6.2         Knife-gate discharge valve [FV-1150/2150]                                                                                            22
      5.6.3         Side access ports                                                                                                                    22
      5.6.4         Manway                                                                                                                               22
      5.6.5         Exhaust stacks - [FZ-1120 & 1121/FZ-2120 & 2121]                                                                                     22
    5.7      Instrumentation                                                                                                                             22
      5.7.1         Temperature sensors                                                                                                                  22
      5.7.2         Pressure transmitters                                                                                                                23
      5.7.3         Level float switches                                                                                                                 23
      5.7.4         Lambda O2 sensor                                                                                                                     23
      5.7.5         Paddle flow switch                                                                                                                   23
      5.7.6         Flowmeters                                                                                                                           23
6     PLC access ......................................................................................................................................... 23
    6.1      Operator Access                                                                                                                             23
7     Operational instructions .................................................................................................................... 24
    7.1      Pre-start (safety checks)                                                                                                                   24
8     Start-up and control .......................................................................................................................... 24
    8.1      Main screen                                                                                                                                 25
    8.2      Clear alarms                                                                                                                                25
    8.3      Fluid control                                                                                                                               26
    8.4      Batch configuration                                                                                                                         27
    8.5      Discharge                                                                                                                                   28
    8.6      Fuel control                                                                                                                                29
    8.7      Operation mode and CAF                                                                                                                      30
    8.8      Anti-foam                                                                                                                                   32

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OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL - BENEVAP DUAL BV300 SYSTEM AT PRAIRIE BLUFF SECURITY LANDFILL - BENETERRA
9      Shut-Down......................................................................................................................................... 32
10 Alarms ............................................................................................................................................... 33
    10.1      Alarm definitions                                                                                                                         33
    10.2      Alarm set points                                                                                                                          38
    10.3      Alarm log                                                                                                                                 38
    10.4      BCU faults and reset                                                                                                                      39
11 Remote access ................................................................................................................................... 39
12 Maintenance ..................................................................................................................................... 40
    Maintenance safety precautions                                                                                                                      40
13 Critical spares list............................................................................................................................... 42
14 Troubleshooting ................................................................................................................................ 43
15 Appendix I: Major Components of the BV for H&H ........................................................................... 46
16 Appendix II: Design parameters for Prairie Bluff Security Landfill leachate evaporation .................. 49
17 Appendix V: P&ID for H&H ................................................................................................................ 50

List of Figures

Figure 1 H1 main screen at startup ........................................................................................................... 14
Figure 2 Major components of BeneVap ................................................................................................... 19
Figure 3 Alarms screen for Hazel -H1 ........................................................................................................ 26
Figure 4 Fluid control screen for both machines ....................................................................................... 27
Figure 5 Batch Configuration screen for both machines ........................................................................... 28
Figure 6 Discharge screen for both machines ........................................................................................... 29
Figure 7 Fuel control screen for both machines ........................................................................................ 30
Figure 8 Combustion air screen for both machines ................................................................................... 31
Figure 9 Anti-foam control screen for both machines ............................................................................... 32
Figure 10 Alarm screen for H1 showing all alarms .................................................................................... 33
Figure 11 Alarm screen for H2 ................................................................................................................... 34
Figure 12 Alarm set points ........................................................................................................................ 38
Figure 13 Alarm log ................................................................................................................................... 39
Figure 14 Maintenance and alarm setup screen ....................................................................................... 40
Figure 15 Top view of H2 ........................................................................................................................... 46
Figure 16 Leachate supply tank and containment ..................................................................................... 47
Figure 17 Electric valve to leachate supply - fails closed on loss of power ................................................ 47
Figure 18 Chevron mist eliminator access drawer..................................................................................... 47
Figure 19 Chevron mist eliminator ............................................................................................................ 47
Figure 20 Exhaust ports at bottom of combustion chamber and scale on floor ........................................ 48
Figure 21 Scale collected upon chevron mist eliminator ........................................................................... 48
Figure 22 View of H2 from drone depicting combustion air train and top access ..................................... 48
Figure 23 CV level sensing ports with flush valves .................................................................................... 48

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OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL - BENEVAP DUAL BV300 SYSTEM AT PRAIRIE BLUFF SECURITY LANDFILL - BENETERRA
List of Tables

Table 1 Example of min / max CA damper positions ................................................................................. 31
Table 2 Alarms cause and effect matrix for BeneVap system.................................................................... 35
Table 3 Maintenance schedule.................................................................................................................. 41
Table 4 Critical spares list .......................................................................................................................... 42
Table 5 Troubleshooting - problems and solutions .................................................................................. 43
Table 6 Design parameters ........................................................................................................................ 49

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ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

AF             anti-foam
AFR            air fuel ratio
AFER           air fuel equivalency ratio
AFV            air fuel ratio expressed as vol/vol
BCU            burner control unit aka BMS
BMS            burner management system aka BCU
BT             BeneTerra
BV             BeneVap
cm             centimeter
CA             combustion air
CAF            combustion air fan
CAV            combustion air volume
CC             combustion chamber
CH4            methane
CV             concentration vessel
CSG            coal seam gas
EHS            environment health and safety
EC             electrical conductivity
EWL            effective water level
EWR            energy water ratio
FFRT           flame failure response time
gpm            gallons per minute
gph            gallons per hour
h              hour
HSPT           headspace pressure transmitter
in             inch
inWC           inches water column
ISV            influent solenoid valve
JSEA           Job Safety and Environment Analysis
L/h            liters per hour
LCPT           level control pressure transmitter
LLCPT          lower level control pressure transmitter
LFG            landfill gas
LPG            liquid propane gas
m              meter
MG             main gas
mm             millimeter
mmWC           millimeters water column
min            minute
mS/cm          milliSiemens per centimeter
NMOC           non-methane organic carbon
PLC            programmable logic controller
PT             pressure transmitter or transducer

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PTW            permit to work
s              second
scf            standard cubic feet
scfm           standard cubic feet per minute
scm            standard cubic meters
scmh           standard cubic meters per hour
SG             specific gravity
t              ton(s)
TR             turndown ratio
ULCPT          upper level control pressure transmitter
UV             ultraviolet
µS/cm          microSiemens per centimeter
VFD            variable frequency drive aka VSD
VFA            volatile fatty acid
VOC            volatile organic carbon
VSD            variable speed drive aka VFD
WC             water column
yr             year

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1 QUICK START GUIDELINES

1.1 PRE-START CHECKS
Before starting up the machine, it is crucial to perform the following:

    •   Ensure power is switched on at CA fan
    •   Ensure all E-Stops in safe position
    •   Ensure all lock-out tags and locks are removed
    •   Ensure main power is on in the control room and the PLCs to both H1 & H2 are running with no
        alarms listed.

    ●   Ensure the gas blower skid is online and ready for startup.
    ●   Ensure the pilot gas supply train has pressure at each unit
    ●   Ensure the influent supply tank level is above 8 ft (H1 main screen) and the influent tank
        isolation valve is open
    ●   Ensure influent supply ball valve below flowmeter on each BV unit is in open position
    ●   Ensure sufficient anti-foam agent is available in barrels for the anti-foam systems
    ●   Ensure adequate volume is available in the discharge tank
    ●   Clear all alarms

1.2 START-UP
1.2.1 Main screen
After ensuring all pre-checks are okay, the operator must log in and push the green START button. Then
he should monitor the start-up sequence to ensure that the following occurs:

    •   Alarms are cleared
    •   Gas pressure is adequate
    •   Concentration vessel (CV) fills to start-up set point
    •   Combustion air fan (CAF) starts and 60 second purge occurs
    •   Pilot ignites (voltage reading from flame sensor near bottom screen should increase)
    •   Main gas lights (flame appears on screen)
    •   Observe rise in combustion chamber (CC) temperature
    •   Both CV and stack temperature begins to rise
    •   Headspace pressure reacts to turbulence in CV, anti-foam pump will appear green on screen if
        level reaches setpoint

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Figure 1 H1 main screen at startup

2 PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES
BeneVap (BV) machines employ submerged combustion technology to vaporize and evaporate landfill
leachate. Water vapor is driven off through direct contact with hot, gaseous products of combustion
that are forced into the leachate. As the water is driven off, the solution concentrates to a targeted
level. The target concentration is based upon the volume reduction goal and water chemistry. At this
site, the target is designed to concentrate to a point just before scaling occurs or smoke appears from
burning of organics in the leachate. The concentrate is discharged either in small increments (minor
discharge) throughout an extended batch to maintain the concentration below the target or it is
discharged in a single full discharge once the target is reached.

This BeneVap system at Prairie Bluff employs two BV300 machines working individually or jointly. These
are co-located upon an elevated, steel structure placed inside a concrete containment. They are fed
from a common leachate supply tank and pump. Landfill gas (LFG) is supplied from a common gas
blower. The maximum evaporative capacity of each machine is 12,500 gallons per day (532 gallons per
hour). This requires a gas supply of approximately 5.9 MBtu per hour. The process can only be turned
down to about 60% of maximum as it is important to maintain enough air flow to splash fluid to cool the
combustion chamber (CC).

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3 PROCESS OVERVIEW
Each unit (Hazel-H1 and Helga-H2) is controlled by a separate programmable logic controller [PLC].and
burner control unit [BCU]. PLC-1 controls the common shared components – i.e. the influent control
valve, influent pump and the gas blower. PLC-1 must be active when either unit is in operation.

The Honeywell burner control units (BCU) ensure safe start-up and operation. They protect the system
by assuring that all permissives are cleared before startup and by shutting down the system if certain
malfunctions or faults occur.

Influent leachate is supplied to the concentration vessel (CV) to the prescribed fill level (Appendix) and is
maintained at the prescribed operational level as it evaporates. Level control is managed by a pressure
transmitter that measures pressure head (inWC) above the exhaust outlets of the CC. This approach
concentrates the leachate and accounts for changes in specific gravity (or density) of the concentrate
which affects backpressure on the combustion air fan (CAF). It is important to maintain the prescribed
CV level head to allow the CAF to blow liquid to the top of the CC.

The leachate concentrates until it reaches a predetermined threshold. To control over concentration,
concentrate is discharged into the discharge tank using the discharge valve with minor discharges
periodically (small amount released) or full discharges (at the end of a batch cycle). After discharges
fresh leachate is added to the CV to the level set point. Over concentration will cause scaling within the
CV and blue smoke in the vapor. The discharge tank is emptied as required and the concentrate is
returned to the landfill.

  4 SITE SPECIFIC CONDITIONS

4.1 CLIMATE AND SETTING
Prairie Bluff Security Landfill is in Houston, Mississippi (33.9670 N, -89.0002W). Elevation is 374 feet above
sea level. It is in a sub-tropical climate zone and receives an average of 58 inches rainfall annually.
Freezing temperatures occur in winter.

The BV system is located near a flare and an LFG electrical generator in the northeast corner of the
landfill property. The landfill lies to the west and there is a forest running north and south about 30
yards directly east of the BV facility.

A 130,000-gallon leachate tank sets within a steel containment wall. The BV system sets upon nearby
steel platform located inside a concrete containment facility. Rainwater and spilled leachate can be
pumped into the leachate collection tank.

4.2 LEACHATE QUALITY
The leachate has a high potential for scaling. It has a light brown appearance. It is generally alkaline but
occasional samples of weakly acidic leachate have been observed in the past. It is influenced by the
calcareous cover material excavated from the Prairie Bluff formation.

Scale forming ions – calcium, iron, phosphate, bicarbonate and silica – are found in this leachate. The
salinity is moderately high with an electrical conductivity between 22 and 27 mS/cm and total dissolved
solids around 15,000 mg/L.

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Ammonium-nitrogen content varies from 300 to 600 mg/L. Boron content is high, exceeding 200 mg/L.

4.3 GAS QUALITY
Landfill gas (LFG) quality at Prairie Bluff has historically been better than average LFG. It typically carries
about 54% methane, 45% carbon dioxide and 1% nitrogen. The calorific value used for calculating
energy potential is 540 Btu/scf. The LFG is supplied from an array of gas wells and pipelines distributed
within the landfill cells. It carries liquid condensate, much of which is removed in two knockout cylinders
located near the flare. Wet gas can be problematic when air temperatures decline. Occasionally the gas
is contaminated with oxygen (O2), usually less than 1% by volume.

  5 SYSTEM COMPONENTS

          5.1 PNEUMATIC SYSTEM
The discharge valves are the only pneumatically operated equipment on the BV units. Air is supplied by
the large compressor located inside the nearby shed. It is likely that a smaller supplemental air
compressor will be installed for times when the large compressor is not operating.

          5.2 INFLUENT TRAIN AND LEVEL CONTROL
             5.2.1 SUPPLY TANK AND INFLUENT VALVE
A 130,000-gallon tank 30 feet tall supplies the influent. A pressure transmitter [PT-0140] is linked to the
PLC to indicate tank level. The tank receives leachate from pumps situated in the landfill. There is a 6-in
manual butterfly valve on the drain port followed by a 2-in electrically actuated butterfly valve [FV-
0144]. This valve is opened only when the influent pump is running. It is designed to fail in a closed
position upon loss of power.

              5.2.2 INFLUENT PUMP [P-0140]
A Grundfos electric pump (480 VAC 3-phase) transfers influent from the supply tank into the CVs. It is
designed to run continuously. It is controlled by a VFD wired to PLC-1 in the control room. PLC-1
dictates the VFD output according to the expected demand – i.e. filling and topping up. A small return
line allows for continuous recirculation to the landfill leachate supply line to keep the pump cool. The
manual ball valve [FV-0141] can be adjusted to modulate recirculation rate and the check valve [NRV-
0141] prevents backflow of leachate from the landfill leachate supply line.

            5.2.3 INFLUENT CHECK VALVE [NRV-0140, 1140]
A swing check valve keeps the vertical influent line and flowmeter full of water between fill events.

            5.2.4 INFLUENT FLOWMETER [FE-1140, 2140]
H1 and H2 each have an ultrasonic meter that measures flow into the CV and reports to the PLC with a
4-20 mA signal.

            5.2.5 INFLUENT CONTROL VALVE [FV-1142, 2142]
H1 and H2 each have an electrically modulated valve (24 VDC) that allows influent into the CV and
prevents overfilling when there is no demand. The PLC causes it to be opened between 0% and 100% for

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fill-up and top-up. Upon loss of system power, the uninterruptible power supply (UPS) powers the
actuator to close these valves.

             5.2.6 PRESSURE TRANSMITTERS
The total system has multiple pressure transmitters associated with it.

5.2.6.1 Gas blower pressure sensor [PT-0100] (0-15 psi)
Measures gas pressure created by gas blower and provides feedback to VFD to maintain setpoint
pressure between 4.0 – 5.2 psi.

5.2.6.2 Supply tank level transmitter [PT-0140] (0-15 psi)
Supply tank level transmitter [PT-0140] measures the head pressure in the supply tank and the PLC-1
reports that in 1/10th foot increments.

5.2.6.3 Level control pressure transmitters - LCPT [PT-1120 & 1122/2120 & 2122] (0-5 psi sensitivity).
The upper LCPTs (PT-1122 and 2122) are located in a CV port flange located 12 inches above the lower
LCPT of each unit. The lower LCPTs (PT-1120 and 2120) are located in a CV port flange at approximately
the same height as the top of the CC exhaust discharge holes.

The LCPTs measure liquid pressure head, expressed as inWC above the top of CC exhaust ports.

The calculated level is used with a variety of set points to control fluid level during startup and
operation. Pressure head changes with evaporation, increased specific gravity (SG) of the concentrate
and increased headspace pressure due to foaming. This method of water level control adjusts the level
in the CV by maintaining the desired pressure head as the leachate concentrates. This in turn keeps the
backpressure on the CAF relatively constant. Set points in the PLC dictate the initial CV fill level, while
the target CV operating levels account for the displacement of fluid from the CC once the CAF is
operating.

Redundant pressure transmitters [PT-1122/2122] have been installed as a safety precaution against
overfilling should the lower level control transmitters fail or become clogged. If the difference between
the upper and lower PT exceeds the differential setpoint a critical alarm occurs, and the BV shuts down.

5.2.6.4 Headspace pressure transmitter - HSPT [PT-1121/2121] (0-1 psi sensitivity)
The HSPT is located on the roof of the CV on both H1 and H2 as an indicator of foaming within the CV. It
measures the headspace pressure between the top of the concentrated fluid and the CV roof. This
pressure is used to trigger the anti-foam pump when the set point is exceeded. It can also be factored
into the fluid level calculation by the PLC.

5.2.6.5 Air pressure transmitter - APT [PT-0150] (0-200 psi sensitivity)
The air pressure transmitter is located on the compressed air supply which provides air to control the
pneumatic operation of the discharge valve [FV-1151/2151] and the CV level PT cleaning plungers.
When the compressed air pressure drops below the desired set point the BV units will shut down.

             5.2.7   HI LEVEL SAFETY FLOAT SWITCH AND INTERFACE CARD -FUNCTION CURRENTLY
                     DISABLED DUE TO RELIABILITY ISSUES
A float switch [LSHH-1120/2120] placed between the CV operating level and the CV roof (Hi-Hi) plus PT-
1120/2120 link to separate interface cards/relay modules in the main panels.

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The normally closed Hi-Hi float switch prevents overflow of the CV and shuts down the BV in case the
LCPT [PT-1120/2120] fails and the liquid level in the CV gets too high. The LSHH-1120/2120 HiHi float
switch is hard-wired in series with the airflow switch [FS-1130/2130] to the BCU run interlock circuit.
The float switch [LSHH-1120/2120] is closed when the float is hanging down. If it rises with high water
level the circuit is broken and the BCU shuts down the BV.

Additionally, an interface card is located in the main control panel and is essentially relay logic working
off the input from PT-1120/2120. A Hi-Hi and Lo-Lo setting are programmed into the relay and through
the BCU to shut the BV unit down when these set points are reached after the specified on-delay timer
setting.

         5.3 CONCENTRATION VESSEL DISCHARGE SYSTEM
              5.3.1 DISCHARGE VALVE [FV-1151/2151]
A spring-return, fail-safe, pneumatically operated, knife-gate valve attached to a 6-in flange on the CV
discharge port. It is opened and closed by a pneumatic actuator. It fails in closed position if power or air
pressure is lost. It is controlled by the PLC to discharge either the full contents of the CV if in batch
mode or small amounts at regular intervals in continuous mode.

             5.3.2 AIR COMPRESSOR [AC-0150] -(optional auxiliary)
A small electric (120 VAC single phase) air compressor and accumulator designed to supply pneumatic
control to the discharge valve in case the main compressed air supply is unavailable.

             5.3.3 WARNING SIREN AND LIGHT
Amber strobe light and pulsing siren [YL-1150/2150] triggered shortly before and while discharging hot
concentrate.

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Figure 2 Major components of BeneVap

          5.4 FUEL SUPPLY
              5.4.1      Pilot gas train

5.4.1.1   Propane LPG tank - supply fuel for the pilot flame.

5.4.1.2 Main pilot pressure regulator [PCV-0110]
The main pilot pressure regulator sets the primary maximum pilot gas train pressure and has a manual
pressure gauge.

5.4.1.3 Secondary LPG pressure REGULATOR [PCV-1111/2111] and gauge
Indicates maximum gas pressure available to overcome combustion air pressure and light the pilot as
well as protect downstream equipment. PCV-1111/2111 also has an over pressure shut off (OPSO)
device to protect downstream equipment from excessive pressures in the line.

5.4.1.4 Dual solenoid block valves [FV-1110/2110, FV-1111/ 2111]
These operate simultaneously via the BCU which signals these to open allowing pilot gas flow to the
burner. The BCU is wired for INTERMITTENT or continuous pilot operation but the PLC breaks the circuit
after a set point time period post pilot ignition.

5.4.1.5 Y-strainer pilot gas train [GM-1110/ 2110]
Collects debris from gas supply. Protects brass needle valve located at the burner.

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5.4.1.6 Pilot propane flowmeter [FT-0110]
Tracks propane usage for both machines combined

             5.4.2       Main gas supply train

5.4.2.1 Main gas non-return valve [NRV-0100]
The main gas supply non-return valve is located upstream of the gas blower to prevent gas being pulled
out of line by the flare or engine plant.

5.4.2.2 Gas blower [B-0100] and variable frequency drive [VFD-0100]
Supplies LFG to the burners. It is controlled by PLC-1 (Hazel H1).

5.4.2.3 Pressure transmitter [PT-0100] (0-15 psi)
Located in the 6- in main line is used to control gas blower output pressure. It is connected to PLC-1
(Hazel H1).

5.4.2.4 Pressure gauge/indicator [PI-01101/2101]
Measures gas train supply pressure.

5.4.2.5 HDPE isolation ball valves [FV-1100/ 2100]
Two valves located on 3-in HDPE pipes leading to H1 and H2.

5.4.2.6 Pressure relief valve [PSV 1100/2100]
Pressure relief valves set at 4.3 psi relieving elevated pressures in the main gas lines.

5.4.2.7 Y-strainer [GM-1100/2100] and manual pressure gauge [PI-1100/2100]
Y-strainers on the main gas train to strain the gas supply. Pressure indicators on the main gas to visually
check pressure.

5.4.2.8 Flow transmitter (thermal mass flowmeter [FT-1100/2100])
Main gas flow meter – thermal mass meter, measuring standard temperature and pressure flow rate for
the supply gas.

5.4.2.9   Main gas pressure gauge/indicator [PI-1101/2101]

5.4.2.10 Main gas purge valve [FV-1113/2113]
Removes water in main gas line. Wired to main panel and plumbed but not connected to PLC or
functional currently.

5.4.2.11 Main gas safety block valves [FV-1101/2101 & FV-1102/2102] (120 VAC)
Two BCU actuated solenoid valves operate simultaneously to allow main gas flow to burner. They are
spring loaded and shut down if there is a loss of power. The second valve has a proof of closure switch
[ZSC-1100/2100] to confirm physical closure with the BCU via an interlock.

5.4.2.12 Hi and Lo pressure switches [PSH-1102/2102 & PSL-1101/2101]
Indicate under and over pressure status of main gas train to BCU via an interlock.

              5.4.3 Burner [B-1150/2150]
Housing - a cast metal housing with ports for combustion air, pilot gas and main gas supply. Attached
are a throttle valve modulator [ZZ-1130/2130], ultraviolet flame sensor [YT-1100/2100] and ignitor plug
[BL-1100/2100].

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5.4.3.1 Throttle valve modulator [ZZ-1100/2100]
Spring return actuator controlled by PLC to modulate main gas flow.

5.4.3.2 Dynamic self-checking flame detector [YT-1100/2100]
Runs on 120 VAC, 1.4 to 5.5 microamps (nominal) amplified to 1.25-5.0 volts with BCU amplifier card.

5.4.3.3 Ignitor plug [BL-1100/2100]
A spark plug that ignites the pilot gas controlled by the BCU. Energized by an ignitor box having 120 VAC
input x 8,000 VAC output, 20 mA output.

              5.4.4 Combustion chamber [CC-1120/2120] -
Designed to shape, mix air and gas and allow extension of flame length while exhausting under pressure
into the liquid within the CV.

5.4.4.1 Exhaust gas sampling port
A tube that directs exhaust gas from the CC into a chamber where exhaust gases are sampled by the
lambda O2 sensor [QT-1100/2100]. There is a T-piece off the top of this tube above the CV roof that
feeds an emissions testing point to analyze dry combustion exhaust gases.

5.4.4.2 Lambda sensor [QT-1100/2100]
(Operating at 12 VDC input, 0-5 VDC wideband linear output on a scale of 0.68-1.36 AFER values).
Samples exhaust gas for excess oxygen content. It serves as an indicator of burning efficiency and air
emissions quality. It provides an alternate means of automatic control using air to fuel equivalence
ratio. This is necessary for operating in “AUTO AFER” mode.

5.4.4.3 CC Exhaust gas ports
Holes at distal end of CC [CC-1120/2120] that allow air and exhaust gases to exit into the liquid solution
as hot gas bubbles.

5.4.4.4 CC flame temperature sensing thermocouple [TE-1150/2150]
Type B thermocouples sensing CC flame temperature. This is the primary instrument used in automation
control of the H1 and H2 units running in “Auto CC Temp Control” mode.

         5.5 COMBUSTION AIR SYSTEM
            5.5.1 Combustion air fan (CAF) [B-1130/2130]
Requires 480 VAC 3-phase 25 kW (33.9 HP). Supplies combustion air to burner through a 6-in pipe.

            5.5.2 Variable frequency drive [VFD-1130/2130]
Controls CAF to achieve the target CC flame temperature that is set in the PLC.

             5.5.3  Combustion air damper valve [FV-1130/2130] and electric actuator/MODULATOR
                    [ZZ - 1130/2130]
Opens when the START button is pressed and the CAF is running and closes to protect the CAF from
water vapor and fluid inundation when the CAF is not operating. It is used to modulate the flow of air
from the CAF to adjust the air/fuel mixture to achieve the CC temperature set point.

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5.5.4 CA flow transmitter (thermal mass flowmeter [FT-1130/2130])
CA flow meter – thermal mass meter, measuring standard temperature and flow rate for the
combustion air.

             5.5.5 Paddle flow switch [FS-1130/2130]
Located downstream of the butterfly CA damper valve [FV-1130/2130] and is used as a proof of
combustion air flow during operation. It is a normally open switch that is closed when there is CA flow
from the CAF. It is wired to a BCU interlock to activate when the circuit is open. If the switch gets stuck
in the closed position the CAF will not start until the circuit is open.

               5.5.6 Post Purge Timer
CAF run time after STOP is pressed. PLC controlled and set at 15 seconds to match the BCU post purge
timer. The butterfly CA damper valve [FV-1130/2130] is closed when power is removed from the CAF,
i.e. after system STOP and post purging.

         5.6 CONCENTRATION VESSEL
              5.6.1 Concentration vessel [CV-1120/2120]
Cylindrical vessel where water is processed and concentrated. It has a sloped bottom with a 6-in
discharge port. It has numerous ports for instrumentation, combustion chamber, discharge, sampling,
inspection, etc.

            5.6.2 Knife-gate discharge valve [FV-1150/2150]
A 6-inch pneumatically actuated knife gate valve with spring return to fail closed. Can be manually
opened with a button on the solenoid if there is compressed air available.

            5.6.3 Side access ports
These ports are located near the base of the CV and the top of the CV wall for inspection and
maintenance purposes.

           5.6.4 Manway
Allows worker access for cleaning and maintenance inside the CV.

             5.6.5 Exhaust stacks - [FZ-1120 & 1121/FZ-2120 & 2121]
Each unit has an assemblage of two stacks, 28-inch diameter. The lower stack attaches to the CV base
flange and a chevron drawer is sandwiched between that and the upper stack. Each chevron drawer
contains one chevron-type mist eliminator.

         5.7 INSTRUMENTATION
             5.7.1    Temperature sensors
                     ●   CV concentrate temperature [TE-1120/2120] (Type T thermocouple).
                     ●   Stack temperature [TE-1121/2121] (Type T thermocouple)
                     ●   CC temperature [TE-1150/2150] (Type B thermocouple) – used for automatic
                         control of the H1 and H2 units.
                     ●   Ambient air temperature [TE-1130/2130] (Type T thermocouple)

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5.7.2    Pressure transmitters
                    ●   Lower CV level control pressure transmitter -LLCPT [PT-1120/2120]
                    ●   Upper CV level control variation pressure transmitter -ULCPT [PT-1122/2122]
                    ●   Headspace pressure transmitter [PT-1121/2121] for anti-foam system
                    ●   Leachate tank level pressure transmitter [PT-0140]
                    ●   Gas pressure transmitter [PT-0100]
                    ●   Air pressure transmitter [PT-0150]

            5.7.3    Level float switches
                    ●   Hi-Hi CV float switch [LSHH-1120/2120] normally closed switch linked to the
                        BCU. It protects the CV from operating at levels that are too high or overflowing.

            5.7.4    Lambda O2 sensor
                    ●   O2 sensor [QT-1100/2100] (Operating voltage = 9-20 VDC input, 0-5 VDC
                        wideband linear output on a scale of 0.68-1.36 AFER values) measures excess
                        oxygen content of combustion exhaust products. Data used by PLC to adjust CAF
                        speed to achieve a set point AFER in “auto AFER” mode for a specific set point
                        fuel flow rate. Electric valve FV1103/2103] protects sensor from getting wet at
                        startup. Remains closed until BCU RUN condition achieved.

            5.7.5    Paddle flow switch
                    ●   CA paddle flow switch [FS-1130/2130] - when closed indicates airflow from CAF
                        to burner. It is an interlock requirement for the BCU.

            5.7.6       Flowmeters
                        ●   Propane thermal mass flowmeter [FT-0110]
                        ●   Influent flowmeter [FE-1140/2140] (ARAD Octave ultrasonic meter 4-20 mA).
                        ●   Gas flow meter [FT-1100/2100] (Kurz 454 FTB-WGF 10 to 30 VDC input - 6 W
                            max, 4-20 mA output).
                        ●   Combustion air flowmeter [FT-1130/2130] (Programmable Fox FT1, 10 to 30
                            VDC input - 6 W max, 4-20 mA output).

 6 PLC ACCESS
There are two levels of access to the PLC – Operator and BV Technician.

         6.1 GENERAL ACCESS
Anyone with access to the control room may view the main screen and can shut down the machines by
pushing the red STOP button on the main screen. .

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6.2 OPERATOR ACCESS
The operator log in first. He must enter his name as well as the company password. The operator login
button is on the “main” screen.

Operator logged on allows the following:

    ●   Main - Start/stop and Log out.
    ●   Fluid control - Allow to view only and enter “discharge” screen.
    ●   Discharge – Manually activate minor purge.
    ●   Fuel control – Adjust “fuel run set point” and access “combustion air”.
    ●   Combustion air – Adjust min and max CA flow control valve positions (not the time windows).
    ●   Burner control – Allow view only and reset BCU and “combustion air” access.
    ●   Alarms – Allow reset each alarm, “reset all alarms” and reset BCU.
    ●   Alarm log button - allow to view only.
    ●   Alarm set points - allow to view only.
    ●   System & Comms – Allow view only and “daily, batch and project statistics” view only.

         6.3 TECHNICIAN ACCESS
BeneVap technicians have separate login credentials with access to certain critical functions that affect
safety and performance of the machines. That login button is on the “SYSTEM & COMMS” screen. The
technician has access to all screens and setpoints.

  7 OPERATION INSTRUCTIONS

7.1 PRE-START (SAFETY CHECKS)
    •   Before starting up the machine, it is crucial to perform the following safety checks.
    •   Ensure main power is on in the control room and the PLCs to both H1 & H2 are on and running
        and no alarms are present.
    •   Ensure E-STOPS not engaged
    •   Ensure power is switched on at CA fan

    ●   Ensure the gas blower skid is online and ready for startup. Supply pressure is at set point
        between 4.0 and 5.2 psi depending upon conditions.
    ●   Ensure the pilot gas supply train has pressure at each unit.
    ●   Ensure the influent supply tank level is adequate and the influent pump is running.
    ●   Ensure influent supply ball valve below flow meter on each BV unit is in open position.
    ●   Ensure sufficient anti-foam agent is available for the anti-foam systems.

  8 START-UP AND CONTROL
Follow the steps below and screenshots of the PLC to start each BV unit.

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