PADDLE CANADA Sea Kayak Program Manual - Version 13.03 - February 2012 Edited by the Sea Kayaking Program Development Committee

 
PADDLE CANADA Sea Kayak Program Manual - Version 13.03 - February 2012 Edited by the Sea Kayaking Program Development Committee
PADDLE CANADA
                Sea Kayak Program Manual
                      Version 13.03 – February 2012
    Edited by the Sea Kayaking Program Development Committee

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Paddle Canada Sea Kayak Program Manual (Version 13.03) ©2012 – All Rights Reserved
Paddle Canada Contact Information
Paddle Canada Pagaie Canada
PO Box 126 Station Main
Kingston, Ontario
K7L 4V6
CANADA

Website:     www.paddlecanada.com
E-mail:      info@paddlecanada.com
Skype:       paddlecanada

Toll free:   888-252-6292
Telephone:   613-547-3196
Fax:         613-547-4880
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  Paddle Canada Sea Kayak Program Manual (Version 13.03) ©2012 – All Rights Reserved
Acknowledgements
The Paddle Canada Sea Kayaking Program is the product of years of commitment by kayak
enthusiasts from across Canada. It was developed through the dedicated efforts of several
individuals interested in the development of a national sea kayaking program. To those
individuals, Paddle Canada extends a sincere “Thank you.”
The process for the development of this program included the review of recreational programs
from the kayaking organizations in Canada, Britain and the United States. The initial draft was
forwarded to interested kayakers across Canada. Upon review of the comments received, the
subsequent draft was also widely circulated. The resulting comments were reviewed before the
final draft was completed by the Kayak Committee and submitted for approval by the Board of
Directors in October 1998.
This edition incorporates the collective experience gained by paddlers, Instructors and Instructor
Trainers since 1998. The Sea Kayaking Program Development Committee continues to work
diligently to refine and clarify the Sea Kayaking Program and this manual.

Disclaimer:
The author/publisher of this book accepts no responsibility for injury, or loss of life while using
the information in this publication. The material presented is for use as reference only; it is the
sole responsibility of the paddler to determine whether or not he/she is qualified to safely
navigate any water situations, trails and road conditions, and to accurately assess present
conditions in relation to published material. Before choosing to navigate any passage you must
evaluate for yourself: water volume, water and air temperature, skills, fatigue,
value/waterproofness of load, isolation, feasibility of rescue and risk to your equipment.

Before starting any sanctioned Paddle Canada course, we encourage all instructors to ensure
they have the most up-to-date manual as minor changes could be implanted throughout the
paddling season. The latest version of the manual can be found at www.paddlingcanada.com.

Please note that the Canadian Coast Guard no longer has any regulatory responsibilities.
Boater safety and regulation is now the sole responsibility of Transport Canada.

Copyright 2012
All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be produced or
used in any form or by any means: graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including taping, or
information retrieval systems, except by a reviewer, without prior permission of the publisher.
Permission is granted to current Paddle Canada instructor members to reproduce all or sections
of this manual for their own use, and for the delivery of a registered Paddle Canada course or
clinic.

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   Paddle Canada Sea Kayak Program Manual (Version 13.03) ©2012 – All Rights Reserved
Table of Contents
Table of Contents .......................................................................................................................................... 3
Program Manual Change Log ....................................................................................................................... 4
Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 6
Overview of Skills Courses ........................................................................................................................... 7
Important Notes for All Courses .................................................................................................................... 8
Evaluation Guidelines for Skill Courses ...................................................................................................... 10
Exemptions from Course Prerequisites ...................................................................................................... 11
Staffing for Courses and Assessments ....................................................................................................... 12
Assistant-Instructors and Apprentice-Instructors ........................................................................................ 13
Suggested Resources ................................................................................................................................. 15
Important Information Regarding Updated Transport Canada Small Vessel Regulations ......................... 16
First Aid Requirements and Standards ....................................................................................................... 19
Introduction to Kayaking Skills Course ....................................................................................................... 21
Level-1 Skills Course: day paddling skills in sheltered waters.................................................................... 25
Level-2 Skills Course: overnight touring and intermediate boat handling ................................................... 30
Level-3 Skills Course: seamanship and leadership in multi-day touring .................................................... 36
Level-4 Skills Course: extended touring along an exposed coast .............................................................. 42
Paddle Canada Sea Kayak Clinics ............................................................................................................. 46
Important Notes for Instructor Courses and Assessments ......................................................................... 48
Mentorship for Certification of Instructors and Instructor Trainers .............................................................. 49
Mentorship Requirements Summary Table ................................................................................................ 50
Instructor Assessment Resources .............................................................................................................. 53
Introduction to Kayaking, Instructor Course ................................................................................................ 60
Level-1 Instructor Course ............................................................................................................................ 62
Level-2 Instructor Course ............................................................................................................................ 68
Level-3 Instructor Mentorship ..................................................................................................................... 75
Level-4 Instructor Mentorship ..................................................................................................................... 76
Instructor Trainer Certification ..................................................................................................................... 77
Introduction to Kayaking, Instructor Trainer Mentorship ............................................................................. 79
Level-1 Instructor Trainer Mentorship ......................................................................................................... 80
Level-2 Instructor Trainer Mentorship ......................................................................................................... 81
Level-3 Instructor Trainer Mentorship ......................................................................................................... 82
Paddle Canada Instructor Certification Clinic ............................................................................................. 83
Maintaining Instructor Certification .............................................................................................................. 85

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    Paddle Canada Sea Kayak Program Manual (Version 13.03) ©2012 – All Rights Reserved
Program Manual Change Log
The following items have been updated in the Paddle Canada Sea Kayaking Program
Manual:

Version 13.03 (February 13, 2012)
    New: A prerequisite for Level-2 Instructor now includes Level-1 Instructor certification.

Version 13.02 (January 21, 2012)
    New: Information about Prior Learning Evaluation (PLE) in Level-2, Level-3 and Level-4
       skills.
    Updated: General formatting and grammar changes throughout.

Version 13.01 (December 4, 2011)
    New: Mentorship Requirements Summary Table
    Updated: General formatting and grammar changes throughout.

Version 12.05 (July 2, 2011)
    Updated: Copyright information to allow members to make photocopies for courses and
       personal use.
    Updated: Cleaned up the list of wilderness first aid providers.
    Updated: Important Information Regarding Updated Transport Canada Small Vessel
       Regulations section to reflect changes including the removal of the requirement to
       register instructor’s kayaks.
    Updated: Cleaned up the wording slightly to make the section on Assistant-Instructors
       and Apprentice-Instructors a little clearer. No policy changes made.
    Updated: General formatting and grammar changes throughout.
    Updated: Paddle Canada contact information (mailing address and URL).

Version 12.04 (January 3, 2011)
    Updated: References to Canadian Coast Guard required equipment updated to
       Transport Canada as they are now responsible for boater safety and regulations.

Version 12.03 (December 30, 2010)
    Added: Paddle Canada Sea Kayak Clinics

Version 12.02 (December 22, 2010)
    Updated: Minor formatting and grammar changes.
    Added: A healthy dose of awesomeness.
    Updated: Added information related to the 2011 pilot project which allows for a max of
       two Assistant-Instructors or Apprentice-Instructors.

Version 12.01 (December 20, 2010)
    Updated: Several formatting and grammar changes throughout.
    Added: Note regarding minimum skill development to the Introduction page.

Version 12 (December 18, 2010)
    Updated: Paddle Canada contact information (Skype contact).

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  Paddle Canada Sea Kayak Program Manual (Version 13.03) ©2012 – All Rights Reserved
   Updated: Several formatting and grammar changes throughout.
      Addition: General notes to how certification is attained for each level.
      Updated: “Important Notes for All Courses” to reflect some of the updates to Transport
       Canada New Vessel Regulations.
      Addition: New books to the resources section.
      Added: “Important Information Regarding Updated Transport Canada Small Vessel
       Regulations”.
      Added: “Any one course can be listed on only one final assessment for advancement to
       a higher level of certification.” to page the section: Mentorship for Certification of
       Instructors and Instructor Trainers.
      Added: General information on apprenticing to all skills courses.
      Updated the experience sections in all IT course descriptions so it’s clearer.
      Added to the assessment section on the Level-2 IT Mentorship and Level-3 IT
       mentorship. Clarifies what happens if there is only one Mentor registered on the course.

Version 11 (January 2010)
    Experience as an Assistant or Apprentice is included as credit to maintain instructor
       certification.
    The provision to enroll in an Instructor course prior to obtaining the required skill
       certification is limited to the Lv1 Instructor course.
    Various grammar, spelling and vocabulary corrections.
    Some text has been moved into the most appropriate section of the manual.

Version 10 (January 2009)
    Flatwater course renamed “Introduction to Kayaking.”
    A number of writing errors have been corrected, such as Lv1 Instructor Wilderness. First
       Aid now reads “Standard First Aid” and in a reference to contact tow “with a short line,”
       the words “with a short line” have been omitted.
    The requirements and responsibilities of Assistant-Instructors and Apprentice-Instructors
       have been clarified.

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  Paddle Canada Sea Kayak Program Manual (Version 13.03) ©2012 – All Rights Reserved
Introduction
The Paddle Canada Sea Kayaking Program begins with an introduction to paddling in calm
sheltered conditions and progresses to advanced skills for open coastal touring in rough water
conditions. The complete program includes Instructor and Instructor Trainer levels.

                                      Paddle Canada
                                   Sea Kayaking Program
                                                                      Level-3
                                                                 Instructor Trainer
                                            Level-4
                                           Instructor
                                                                      Level-2
                                                                 Instructor Trainer
                                            Level-3
                                           Instructor
                    Level-4
                     Skills                                           Level-1
                                                                 Instructor Trainer
                                            Level-2
                                           Instructor
                    Level-3
                     Skills                                        Introduction to
                                                                      Kayaking,
                                            Level-1              Instructor Trainer
                                           Instructor
                    Level-2
                     Skills

                                         Introduction to
                                           Kayaking,
                    Level-1                Instructor
                     Skills

                 Introduction to
                    Kayaking
                      Skills

   Skill levels are achieved by taking courses.
   Instructor levels, Introductory through Level-2, are achieved by taking courses and may also
    be earned through a process of Mentorship.
   Instructor levels 3 and 4 are achieved through a process of Mentorship.
   Instructor Trainer levels are achieved through teaching experience and a process of
    Mentorship.

Please Note: Skills must develop between the levels. The minimum skill set at a lower level is
likely not to be the minimum skill set necessary for entrance to a course at a higher level.

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Overview of Skills Courses
Introduction to Kayaking: (8 hrs)
Introduces the novice to paddling in enclosed sheltered waters and calm conditions. Skills
covered include a controlled wet exit, forward & turning strokes, assisted re-entry.

Level-1: day paddling skills in sheltered waters (12 hrs)
Provides the theory and skills for a daylong sea kayaking trip in sheltered waters and light
winds. Includes: controlled wet exit, efficient forward & turning strokes, edging, introduction to
bracing, unassisted re-entry, and Eskimo rescue.

Level-2: overnight touring and intermediate boat handling (4 days)
Provides the theory and skills for proficient kayaking at sea in moderate open sea conditions,
including overnight camping. Includes: touring, risk assessment, efficient bracing, sculling for
support, combined strokes, sustained paddling, introduction to rolling, kayak tripping with
overnight camping, moderate winds and sea conditions.

Level-3: seamanship and leadership in multi-day touring (4 days )
Provides the opportunity to develop leadership, risk-assessment, decision-making, judgment,
group management, and general seamanship in the context of a multi-day journey.

Level-4: extended touring along an exposed coast (5 days )
Provides the theory and skills for leadership in kayaking at sea in advanced conditions, open
ocean, during extended periods. Includes overnight camping, rolling at sea, strong wind, ocean
swell, surf landings, and strong current.

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Important Notes for All Courses
   All boats and equipment must meet Transport Canada standards.
   All kayaks will be seaworthy and have reserve buoyancy to permit a re-entry and pump out.
   All instructors must carry a waterproofed first aid kit approved by Marine Occupational
    Safety and Health Regulations. Please see page 17 for more information.
   If the water temperature is less than 15ºC, the instructor or guide will ensure that equipment
    is immediately available or that procedures are established to protect the participants from
    the effects of hypothermia or cold shock resulting from swamping, capsizing or falling
    overboard.
   Instructors or guides will conduct, at the start of the course, an overview with all participants
    of all relevant safety and emergency procedures. The safety briefing will be conducted in
    either or both official languages and according to the groups needs.
   Instructors and Guides will develop a float plan and report the number of participants to a
    person on shore who has been designated by the leader to be responsible for
    communicating with search and rescue authorities in case of an emergency. See page 18
    for more information.
   Additional training and certification in first aid and swimming is strongly recommended for all
    levels. Paddlers will be asked to respond to simulated rescue scenarios that include the
    need for first aid training and swimming ability.
   A good knowledge of hypothermia is essential. Participants will be asked to respond to
    simulated scenarios that include first aid care for the symptoms of hypothermia.
   Safety applies to the entire program of courses. Paddlers must demonstrate by attitude and
    action an understanding of the importance of all safety considerations.
   At all times on the water, paddlers will wear an approved PFD.
   Helmets will be worn when paddling in fast moving water, or breaking waves near shore.
   Use warm-up and paddling techniques that help prevent common injuries.
   Level-2 and above will carry towlines with a means of one-handed quick-release.
   Strokes will be performed both left and right-handed.
   All assisted rescues will be performed as both victim and rescuer.
   Capsizes, wet exits, re-entries and all and rescue skills must be performed with confidence
    and control in a timely manner suitable to the level of skill in the course.
   Skills, knowledge and judgment must develop and improve throughout the levels, keeping
    pace with the increasing sea conditions of each higher level.
   Assessment of practical skills will require demonstrated competence in the appropriate
    conditions described for each level.
   During assessment kayaks will be loaded with all gear appropriate for the course, a day trip
    or overnight trip as may apply.
   Skills and knowledge are cumulative. When a paddler is being assessed at one level without
    previously achieving a lower level, the assessment should include the lower levels skills. It
    may be necessary to add time to the course to assess the lower level skills.
   Post-course assessment may occur at the discretion of the Course Director and may be
    undertaken by the Course Director or a designated instructor that holds the appropriate level
    of certification. Re-assessment must occur within one year of the end date of the course.

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   Skills must develop between the levels. The minimum skill set at a lower level is likely not to
    be the minimum skill set necessary for entrance to a course at a higher level.
   In each course it is important to clearly inform paddlers at all levels that before they paddle
    in unfamiliar environments they need to seek good counsel and relevant information.
    Particular attention and care must be paid to open coastal tidal environments, areas with
    fast currents, sea ice, or frequent fog.

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    Paddle Canada Sea Kayak Program Manual (Version 13.03) ©2012 – All Rights Reserved
Evaluation Guidelines for Skill Courses
Evaluation is ongoing throughout each course. Participants can be evaluated through oral test,
practical evaluation, written test and general observation.

The participant will be graded in the following general categories:
    Demonstration of kayaking skills.
    Knowledge relevant to the award.
    Attitude, awareness, and good judgment with regards to issues of safety.
    Self-control in the completion of immersion and rescue activities.
    Participants will be graded Pass, Weak, or Fail in each category.
    “Pass” is required on all categories, but one “Weak” skill may be accepted at the
      discretion of the instructor.
    Reassessment can be conducted by the course instructor or a designate. If re-
      assessment is to conducted by a designated instructor, the designated instructor must
      currently hold the appropriate level of certification.

Scheduling a Course
A course-day includes 8 hours of instruction or assessment activity and will include activities
conducted in the classroom, on the beach, on the water and other appropriate venues. A single
day’s course time can be sub-divided to occur over more than one calendar day. Unless
specified otherwise in the manual, course dates may be adjacent or spread over a longer
period. Courses can be scheduled to feature separate phases for training and final-assessment.
The course lengths shown for each course are the minimums required to complete the course
for well-prepared participants. Additional time must be added to the course length if any of the
following are to be included in the course: preliminary assessment of lower level skills,
substantial review of skills from previous levels, upgrading of weak prerequisite skills.
Prior to conducting any registered courses in Provincial or Federal Parks Instructors are
required to meet minimum certification requirements, safety standards and business permits
that apply. Contact local outfitters, businesses and Parks administration to confirm these
requirements are met prior to conducting courses in Parks.

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Exemptions from Course Prerequisites
The Instructor may conduct assessments as follows:
    In all cases, the Instructor is responsible for the safe and effective conduct of a course
       and may require all participants to fully meet all prerequisite certifications and any
       additional requirements deemed necessary prior to enrolling in a course.
    Where prerequisites for skill courses call for Introductory, Level-1 or Level-2 certification
       or equivalent skill and knowledge, an assessment of those necessary equivalent
       prerequisite skills and knowledge may be conducted at the discretion of the Instructor.
       No certification is issued for this assessment.
    The highest entry level into the Paddle Canada program is Level-3 skills: Level-3 must
       be completed.
    The highest entry level into the Paddle Canada Instructor Program is Level-2 Instructor;
       Level-2 Instructor course or mentorship must be completed.
    The highest entry level into the Paddle Canada Instructor Trainer Program is Level-1
       Instructor Trainer: Level-1 Instructor Trainer must be completed by mentorship.
    With the permission of the Instructor Trainer a participant may enroll in a Level-1
       Instructor course prior to completing their Level-2 skill certification. Certification as a
       Level-1 Instructor is delayed until Level-2 skill certification and all other requirements are
       complete. Passing the Instructor course will be subject to the provision of completing the
       required Level-2 Skill certification and updating the Instructor Course Report within the
       following calendar year.
       Note: This provision applies only to the Level-1 Instructor course and does not apply to
       any other course and does not apply to Apprentices working with a Mentor.
    The following BCU certifications are similar to Paddle Canada levels that can be
       accepted as prerequisites only but do not allow for direct transfer of certification. All
       Paddle Canada certifications must be earned through successful completion of the
       appropriate Paddle Canada course.

                  Paddle     Introduction
                                             Level-1      Level-2
                  Canada     to Kayaking

                    BCU         Star-1        Star-2       Star-3

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Staffing for Courses and Assessments

Staffing for Skills Courses and Assessments
Minimum staffing levels for Skills courses and assessments.
    Introduction to Kayaking Skills assessment requires one Introduction to Kayaking
      Instructor.
    Level-1 Skills assessment requires one Level-1 Instructor.
    Level-2 Skills assessment requires one Level-2 Instructor.
    Level-3 Skills assessment requires one Level-3 Instructor.
    Level-4 Skills assessment requires one Level-3 Instructor and one Level-4 Instructor.

Staffing for Instructor Courses and Assessments
Minimum staffing levels for Instructor courses and assessments.
    Introduction to Kayaking Instructor assessment requires one Introduction to Kayaking
      Instructor Trainer (Instructor Trainer).
    Level-1 Instructor assessment requires one Level-1 Instructor Trainer.
    Level-2 Instructor assessment requires one Level-1 Instructor Trainer and one Level-2
      Instructor Trainer.
    Level-3 Instructor assessment requires two Level-2 Instructor Trainers.
    Level-4 Instructor assessment requires one Level-2 Instructor Trainer and one Level-3
      Instructor Trainer.

Staffing for Instructor Trainer Assessments
Minimum staffing levels for Instructor Trainer assessments.
    Introduction to Kayaking Instructor Trainer assessment requires one Level-1 Instructor
      Trainer.
    Level-1 Instructor Trainer assessment requires one Level-2 Instructor Trainer.
    Level-2 Instructor Trainer assessment requires two Level-2 Instructor Trainers.
    Level-3 Instructor Trainer assessment requires a minimum of one Level-2 Instructor
      Trainer and one Level-3 Instructor Trainer.

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  Paddle Canada Sea Kayak Program Manual (Version 13.03) ©2012 – All Rights Reserved
Assistant-Instructors and Apprentice-Instructors
Assistant-Instructor
An Assistant-Instructor is defined as an Instructor certified one level lower than required to teach
the course. Assistant-Instructors must be supervised at all times by the Instructor in charge.
Assistant-Instructors provide aid in the activities in the classroom and on the water. The
Instructor holds the responsibility to conduct all instructional activities; it is the Assistant-
Instructor’s role to aid the instructor in these activities. The experience gained in the role of an
Assistant-Instructor is not creditable to a Mentorship for instructor certification.
The number of participants in a course can only be increased by two (beyond the class size
established by the instructor:student ratios) with the addition of two suitably certified Assistant-
Instructors listed on the course registration. For example: a Level-1 Skills course normally
requiring a ratio of 1:6 can be run with two extra participants (for a total of 8) with one Level-1
Instructor and a maximum of two Introduction to Kayaking Instructors working as the Assistant-
Instructors. Please note that the addition of a second Assistant-Instructor does allow the
addition of more than two participants beyond the original instructor:student ratios.
Assistant-Instructors are in addition to the minimum staffing levels as outlined in the descriptions
of each course and summarized above. Where two instructors are required assistants would be
the third or fourth instructors on staff.
The Instructor(s) on record are responsible for all matters of safety and the assessment of
participants.
For 2011 Paddle Canada has established a pilot project to increase the number of Assistant-
Instructors or Apprentice-Instructors to a maximum of two (2) on any one course. This will be
evaluated at the end of the paddling season and your feedback to the Program Development
Committee is requested.

Assistant-Instructor Trainer
The same provisions apply, as above, for Instructor Trainers working as Assistant-Instructor
Trainer on Instructor courses. Refer to the page on Mentorship for further details.

Apprentice-Instructor
Apprentice-Instructors differ from Assistant-Instructors in that the Apprentice-Instructor is
working with an Instructor Trainer and they are specifically working toward an Instructor
certification and are specified on the course registrations as an Apprentice-Instructor.
Furthermore, Apprentice-Instructors hold Instructor certification at one level below the required
level of Instructor for the skill course being taught and also hold the prerequisite skill certification
and first aid certification for the level of instructor being apprenticed. Apprentice-Instructors may
provide aid in the activities in the classroom and on the water.
The Instructor Trainer has the sole responsibility to supervise all instructional activities. The
Apprentice-Instructor as an Instructor in training can conduct instructional activities under the
direct supervision of the Instructor Trainer. It is the Instructor Trainer’s responsibility to both
supervise the Apprentice-Instructor and provide the Apprentice-Instructor with feedback and
assessment on their progress and achievement towards earning an Instructor certification. The
experience gained in the role of an Apprentice-Instructor is creditable to a mentorship and
earning an instructor certification.

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   Paddle Canada Sea Kayak Program Manual (Version 13.03) ©2012 – All Rights Reserved
For 2011 Paddle Canada has established a pilot project to increase the number of Assistant-
Instructors or Apprentice-Instructors to a maximum of two (2) on any one course. This will be
evaluated at the end of the paddling season and your feedback to the Program Development
Committee is requested.

The following certifications are required prior to Apprenticing with a Mentor.

     Apprentice level                   Required certifications
     Level-1 Apprentice-Instructor      Level-2 skills. (Introduction to Kayaking, Instructor
                                        recommended)
     Level-2 Apprentice-Instructor      Level-3 skills and Level-1 Instructor.
     Level-3 Apprentice-Instructor      Level-4 skills and Level-2 Instructor.
     Level-4 Apprentice-Instructor      Level-4 skills and Level-3 Instructor.

Apprentice-Instructors are in addition to the minimum staffing levels as outlined in the
descriptions of each course. Where two instructors are required an Apprentice-Instructor would
be a third instructor on staff.
A maximum of two Apprentice-Instructors are permitted in any one course.
Refer to the page on Mentorship for further details.

Apprentice-Instructor Trainer
Similar provisions apply for Apprentice-Instructor Trainers working as apply for Apprentice-
Instructors.
Refer to the specific page for each level for a list of certifications and experience required prior
to apprenticing on a mentorship for Instructor Trainer certification.
Refer to the page on Mentorship for further details.

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   Paddle Canada Sea Kayak Program Manual (Version 13.03) ©2012 – All Rights Reserved
Suggested Resources
The materials listed below express an appropriate point of view, level of knowledge and level of
skill for each course. Instructors are encouraged to use these or alternate resources that suit the
needs of paddlers and environmental conditions found in their local region.

 Level-1        The Essential Sea Kayaker, David Seidman
                Sea Kayak Handling, Doug Cooper
                Sea Kayak Rescues, Roger Schumann & Jan Shriner
                Sea kayak Strokes, Doug Alderson

 Level-2        Complete Sea Kayak Touring, Jonathan Hanson
                The Complete Guide to Sea Kayaking, Shelley Hanson
                Sea Kayak Navigation Simplified, Lee Moyer
                Sea Kayak Rescues, Schumann & Shriner
                Sea Kayak Strokes, Doug Alderson
                Ultimate Guide to Sea Kayaking DVD, Ken Whiting & Alex Matthews
                Eastern Arctic Kayak-History, Design, Technique, John D. Heath
                Rolling a Kayak, Ken Whiting

 Level-3        Sea Kayak-A Manual for Intermediate & Advanced Sea Kayakers, Gordon
                Brown
                Complete Sea Kayak Touring, Jonathan Hanson
                Handbook of Safety and Rescue, Doug Alderson & Michael Pardy
                Sea Kayak Navigation Simplified, Lee Moyer
                Living with Weather, Owen Lange
                Deep Trouble, Matt Broze and George Gronseth
                Navigation, Sea State, and Weather: A Paddler's Manual: Volume 1 of the
                Freedom of the Seas, by Michael Pardy, JF Marleau, Andrew Woodford and
                Piper Harris
 Level-4        Handbook of Safety and Rescue, Doug Alderson & Michael Pardy
                Fundamentals of Kayak Navigation, David Burch
                Living with Weather, Owen Lange

                British Canoe Union Coaching Handbook (Pesda Press)
 Instructor
                NOLS Wilderness Guide, Mark Harvey
 Training
                Marine Weather Hazards Manual – West Coast, Environment Canada
                Wind, Weather, and Waves – Great Lakes, Environment Canada
                Where the Wind Blows – Atlantic Canada, Environment Canada
                Canoe and Kayak Handbook, British Canoe Union
                The Art of Teaching Adults, Peter Renner
                Adapted Canoeing and Sea Kayaking for People with Disabilities, Roy Wilheim
                Outdoor Leadership, John Graham
                Canoe Games, Dave Ruse
                Kayak Touring Instructor Manual, SKILS
                AMC Guide to Outdoor Leadership, Alex Kosseff

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   Paddle Canada Sea Kayak Program Manual (Version 13.03) ©2012 – All Rights Reserved
Important Information Regarding Updated Transport Canada Small
Vessel Regulations
In April 29, 2010 Transport Canada updated the Small Vessel Regulations with changes that
reflect current minimum practices in the paddling community. The basic standards for Human-
Powered Pleasure Craft have not changed however; there are changes which impact many
instructors, guides, trip leaders, clubs, and municipalities in Canada. The biggest change
pertains to “guided excursions” for canoes and kayaks. Please note that by “guide” Transport
Canada is referring to any paid or unpaid leader of a group of people on the water.

The new Small Vessel Regulations states, “a guided excursion means a non-competitive
outdoor recreational activity or excursion led by a person in charge of the activity or excursion
during which the participants use a human-powered vessel.” (See the Small Vessel Regulations
paragraph 300.(1).)

If you are leading or guiding a trip, teaching a course, or on the water in any type of leadership
position (volunteer or paid) the vessel is considered not a pleasure craft, as defined in the
Canada Shipping Act, 2001, you are now classified as being on a “guided excursion” and thus
fall under the new regulations.

This may include, but not limited to: instructors, guides, teachers, paddling schools, club
volunteers, boy scouts, girl guides, church groups, camps, outfitters, or any other commercial or
non-profit organized group on the water. Note that these new regulations only come into effect
when you are leading an organized activity on the water. You are not classified as a “guided
excursion” if you are on the water with family or close friends where you are not looked upon as
the leader, guide or instructor. Please contact Transport Canada directly with any questions if
you

Note the following information is for Guided Excursions. If the activity is a “pleasure craft outing”
the requirements are different and you should refer to Transport Canada Small Vessel
Regulations, Pleasure Craft Guidelines, for the complete list.

Guided Excursions:

Required Equipment for Canoes and Kayaks of Leaders of Guided Excursions
Under the new Transport Canada regulations, if you are operating a canoe or kayak as a leader
in a guided expedition are required to carry the following equipment below.

1. Personal Lifesaving Appliances
(a) one lifejacket or PFD for each person on board
(b) one buoyant heaving line at least 15 m (49’3”) long
(Note: See Small Vessel Regulations, section 310. When on class 3 or above waters, a helmet
of an appropriate size must also be worn.)

2. Vessel Safety Equipment
(a) a bailer or a manual bilge pump; or
(b) bilge-pumping arrangements
(Note: See Small Vessel Regulations sub-section 311.(1) item 1. in table.)

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3. Navigation Equipment
(a) a pea-less whistle or other sound-signaling appliance that meets the requirements of the
Collision Regulations;
(b) if the canoe or kayak is operated after sunset or before sunrise or in periods of restricted
visibility, a watertight flashlight or three pyrotechnic distress signals other than smoke signals
(Note: Pyrotechnic distress signals are not a substitute for navigation lights); and
(c) a magnetic compass if the canoe or kayak is navigating out of sight of navigation markers.
(Note: Compass is required in all cases when the vessel is more than 8 metres (26’) in length.
See Small Vessel Regulations section 311.(1) item 2. in table.)

Required Equipment for Canoes or Kayaks (longer than 6 m/19.5’)
A reboarding device is required, unless the vertical height that must be climbed in order to
reboard the vessel is not more than 0.5 meters. (Note: See the Small Vessel Regulations
paragraph 310.(1)(b) item 1. in table.)

First Aid Kit
A first aid kit required by these Regulations shall be packed in a waterproofed case capable of
being tightly closed after use. There are several different options for first aid kits. You can
purchase one that meets the standards for the Marine Occupational Safety and Health
Regulations or one that meets your provincial Occupational Health and Safety Board. For
example, St. John’s Ambulance makes a first aid kit starting at approximately $20.

If you purchase a commercial kit, a resuscitation face mask and two pairs of examination gloves
must be included in the kit if they are not already.

You can also build your own first aid kit using a list of items provided in the Transport Canada
regulations.

(See the Small Vessel Regulations paragraph 8.(1)(b).)

Helmets and PFD/Lifejacket Wearing
A person responsible for an enterprise that conducts guided excursions (the manager of ABC
Kayak Tours Inc.) and the leader of a guided excursion shall ensure that:
“Every participant in the excursion wears the following safety equipment:
       (i) a personal flotation device or lifejacket of an appropriate size, and
       (ii) when on class 3 or above waters, a helmet of an appropriate size”

In other words, the business owner or manager is ultimately responsible for ensuring that the
clients are actually wearing the proper safety equipment instead of just carrying it.

Please note that Paddle Canada requires all Instructors and participants to wear their PFD/life
jackets on all sanctioned courses and helmets must be worn on all Class II and above
waterways.

(See the Small Vessel Regulations paragraph 303.(1)(a).)

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Safety
“A person responsible for an enterprise that conducts guided excursions and the leader of a
guided excursion shall ensure that any equipment or material that is carried on board the vessel
and that is not being used is secured in place when the vessel is moving.”

This is also the responsibility of the leader of a guided excursion. (See the Small Vessel
Regulations paragraph 303.(1)(b).)

Cold Water
“If the water temperature is less than 15ºC, the “person responsible for an enterprise that
conducts guided excursions and the leader of a guided excursion" will ensure that equipment is
immediately available or that procedures are established to protect the participants from the
effects of hypothermia or cold shock resulting from swamping, capsizing or falling overboard.”
(See the Small Vessel Regulations paragraph 303.(2).)

Safety Briefing
“A person responsible for an enterprise that conducts guided excursions and the leader of a
guided excursion shall, before the beginning of the excursion, ensure that all participants are
briefed in either or both official languages, according to their needs, on the safety and
emergency procedures relevant to the guided excursion.” (See the Small Vessel Regulations
paragraph 304.(1).)

Float Plan
“The leader of a guided excursion shall, before the beginning of the excursion, report the
number of participants in the excursion to a person on shore who has been designated by the
leader to be responsible for communicating with search and rescue authorities in case of an
emergency.”

“If the guided excursion takes place in a remote area and it is not possible to report the number
of participants to a person on shore, the leader of the excursion shall leave a record of the
number of participants and the area of operation in a known location on shore that is accessible
to search and rescue authorities.” (See the Small Vessel Regulations paragraph 305.(2).)

Paddle Canada recommends Clubs/organizations develop trip schedules/plans (websites,
online or offline, etc), if they haven’t already done so, with mechanisms for sanctioning these
trips, and determining reporting (pre-trip and post trip) that mirrors a Float Plan. There should
also be a risk management plan set up for club/organization trips.

Vessel Registration
The Minister made an announcement on March 17, 2011 that registration is no longer required
for human-powered vessels, small sailing vessels and small vessels that are equipped with a
motor less than 10 horsepower.

Note:
Paddle Canada encourages Instructors, organizations and guides to document the procedures
they follow to meet these requirements. Paddle Canada also encourages individuals to read
thoroughly the Transport Canada’s Small Vessel Regulations for Pleasure Crafts and Guided
Excursions and to know what equipment is needed and what the requirements are for each.
Furthermore, regular training should occur to ensure procedures are followed consistently.
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First Aid Requirements and Standards
Defining first aid prerequisites for outdoor leaders is a challenge. There are a number of course
providers across North America and courses with similar lengths have contents that vary widely.
Any prerequisite first aid training must be measured against the expected environmental, social,
and health conditions a leader is likely to encounter. There is no nationally accepted
standard for first aid training. The closest we have are as follows:
Urban First Aid
    Personal – St. John and Red Cross.
    Commercial – OFA, St. John.

Wilderness First Aid
Widely accepted Standards are set by the U.S. Wilderness Medical Society (www.wms.org )
      WFA (16 hour)
      WAMA (36 hour)
      WFR (70 hour)

    8 + hours         16 + hours              36 + hours                    70 + hours

 Red Cross          CWMT WFA           CWMT Advanced WFA            CWMT Wilderness First
 Emergency                                                          Responder
                    Red Cross          Wilderness Alert Explorer
                    Standard                                        Wilderness Alert Adv.
 OFA 1 St. John                        Slipstream Essential
                                                                    Backcountry & Adv. Med.
 Standard           Sirius
                                       WMA WAFA
                    Wilderness                                      Slip Stream Adv.
                                       Sirius WFA for Leaders
                    St John Med.                                    WMA WFR
                      First            Red Cross First Resp.
                                                                    St John Adv. Med. 2
                      Responder        Red Cross Adv. Wild.
                                                                    OFA 3
                                       St John Adv. Med. 1
                                       OFA 2

Canadian Wilderness Medical Training        www.cwmt.ca
Red Cross                                   www.redcross.ca
Rocky Mountain Adventure Medicine           www.adventuremed.net
Sirius                                      www.siriusmed.com
Slipstream First Aid                        www.wildernessfirstaid.ca
St. John Ambulance                          www.sja.ca
Wilderness Alert                            www.wildernessalert.com
Wilderness Medical Associates               www.wildmed.com

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The prerequisites below are minimum standards. Higher levels of training may be required in
more remote locations and/or for individuals that have special medical needs. It is the
responsibility of the leader to ensure they have adequate training and equipment to meet any
first aid contingencies on their courses.

First aid recommendations for skill certifications

  I.K. skill              nil

  Level-1 skill           nil

  Level-2 skill           16 hour with CPR A recommended

  Level-3 skill           16 hour with CPR C recommended
                          VHF restricted radio operators license recommended.

  Level-4 skill           36 hour with CPR C recommended
                          VHF restricted radio operators license recommended.

First aid requirements for Instructor certifications

  Introduction to         8 hour with CPR
  Kayaking, Instructor
  Level-1 Instructor      16 hour with CPR A
  Level-2 Instructor      16 hour with CPR C
                          VHF radio operators license strongly recommended
                          Bronze Medallion Recommended

  Level-3 Instructor      36 hour with CPR
                          VHF radio operators license strongly recommended
                          Bronze Medallion recommended

  Level-4 Instructor      36 hour with CPR
                          VHF radio operators license strongly recommended
                          Bronze Medallion recommended

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Introduction to Kayaking Skills Course
Aim
Introduction to Kayaking introduces the novice to paddling a kayak in calm sheltered water.
Rescue techniques at this level incorporate the use of a paddling partner and it is essential for
all Introduction to Kayaking certified paddlers to travel on the water with others who have been
trained in the techniques of assisted rescues.
Prerequisites
None.
Course length
8 hours minimum.
Class ratio
1 instructor: 6 participants.
Location
Enclosed and sheltered with easy landing options immediately present.
This course can be conducted in a pool.
Conditions
Wind calm (< 8 knots) Sea state calm to rippled.

Assessment
Activities focus on individual safety and comfortable paddling along a calm shoreline. While
there is a great deal to learn at this level, the activities should concentrate on personal progress
and an awareness of the need for future learning. Paddlers should leave the course encouraged
to continue their learning and aware of their individual limitations.
Overview

    Rescue skills                 Paddling skills                Knowledge
         Wet Exit                     Lifting and carrying a        Boat design
         Retrieving a swamped          kayak.                        Boat outfitting
          kayak                        Forward and reverse           Clothing
         Assisted Rescue               paddling.
                                                                      Safety Equipment
         Rafting                      Forward and reverse
                                                                      Paddles
                                        sweep strokes.
                                                                      Injury prevention
                                       Draw stroke
                                                                      Equipment care
                                       Low brace
                                                                      Kayaking resources

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Introduction to Kayaking Skills

Rescue skills
Rescue skills concentrate on the safety of the individual paddler while paddling near shore with
easy uninterrupted landing opportunities.

Retrieving a swamped kayak
Participants should be able to swim out 25m to a swamped kayak and swim it back to shore.

Wet exit
Capsize, tuck forward, reach around boat, bang side of boat three times, move hands back and
forth along the hull, pull spray skirt cord, easily come out of the boat and surface comfortably.
The paddler must show confidence and control.

Assisted Rescue
In deep water, wet-exit and re-enter the kayak with assistance from another paddler. The
capsize must be natural with spray deck in place. Rescue is complete when the excess water is
removed from the cockpit, the swimmer is back in the boat, the spray-skirt is attached and the
paddler has regained sufficient stability to paddle effectively. The participant will demonstrate as
both swimmer and rescuer.

Rafting
Raft up in a group to form a stable platform.

Paddling skills
Introduce an understanding of the essentials of manoeuvring and control of the kayak.
Successful completion of this course indicates competence to paddle a sea kayak along an
enclosed and sheltered shore in the company of a more skilled partner.
     Lifting and carrying the kayak in a safe and appropriate manner.
     Entering / Exiting the kayak, with the kayak in the water, with the kayak out of the water
       (beach launch).

Forward and reverse strokes
Paddle forward 100 meters in a straight line.
Paddle in reverse for 20 meters in a straight line.

Sweep stroke
Use a sweep stroke to pivot turn in both directions.

Draw Stroke
Use a draw stroke to move the kayak sideways 3 metres.

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Introduction to Kayaking Skills

Low Brace
Simulate a capsize and demonstrate proper low brace technique.

Edging
Paddle 5 meters forward with the kayak tilted on edge.

Knowledge
Participants should be familiar with:
    Parts of the kayak, different boat shapes and their effect on the kayak in the water.
    Basic outfitting of a kayak for personal fit, control and safety.
    Clothing appropriate for paddling in different water temperatures and weather conditions.
    The proper use of basic safety equipment required for kayaking.
    The diverse selection and attributes of various paddles.
    Different warm-up procedures that can prevent common injuries
    Proper care of the paddle, PFD and kayak.

Kayaking resources
Be aware of sources of information such as: Provincial Paddling Associations, books, videos,
web sites, local clubs and outfitters.

Journeying and Seamanship
Developing good judgment is fundamental and should be encouraged at all levels. The
participant in the Introduction to Kayaking course an engage in a guided exercise of judgment
and decision-making prior to going out paddling. Typically this can be accomplished in 15
minutes. Concerns of judgment at this level provide more questions than answers and because
the participant’s lack of practical experience they must be advised to err on the side of
considerable caution. Discussions related to journeying and seamanship need to focus on
general patterns, accepted rules and emphasize the need for continued training and additional
experience.

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Introduction to Kayaking Skills

Navigation
Participants should be introduced to the fundamental concepts of time, distance, speed and
direction as it pertains to their paddling environment. Charts or maps may be introduced as
necessary to supplement observations of terrain and weather.
Participants should engage in a guided-exercise to develop awareness of:
    Their own abilities.
    The present paddling conditions in the near vicinity.

Participants should engage in a guided-exercise to:
    Assess the local environment.
    Access local weather information and forecast.
    Identify other locations suitable for calm water paddling.
    Determine personal needs.
    Choose necessary equipment.
    Prepare equipment for departure.
    Determine the need for a Paddling Plan.

Possible open ended questions to stimulate discussion:
    Where does good judgment come from?
    What tools do we have available to aid in our awareness of the environment?
    What senses do we have to help our judgment?
    Why do we need to be aware of our environment?
    What are the environmental conditions we can observe?
    What information is provided by our 5 senses?
    What are the psychological conditions we are experiencing?
    Are we prepared for what could happen in these waters?
    What resources are available to help with our decisions?
    How should we decide to go or stay?
Participants should be encouraged to consciously participate in these judgments every time
they consider going out paddling.

Heritage
Discuss the legacy of arctic peoples on modern sea kayaking.

Environment
    Demonstrate through discussion an awareness of the potential for negative
      environmental impacts from sea kayaking.

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Level-1 Skills Course: day paddling skills in sheltered waters
Aim
Level-1 provides the skill and knowledge necessary for day-long sea kayaking trips in sheltered
waters (non-wilderness areas). Successful completion of Level-1 indicates competence to
paddle a sea kayak within a sheltered bay in the company of one or more paddlers with Level-1
or greater skill and knowledge.

Prerequisites
Paddle Canada Introduction to Kayaking Skills certification or equivalent skill and knowledge.

Course Length
12 hours minimum.

Class ratio
1 instructor: 6 participants.

Location
Sheltered waters with uninterrupted easy landing options.

Conditions
Light winds (0-11 knots) Current (0-0.5 knots) Sea state calm to light chop.

Assessment
Activities focus on safety and gaining paddling skills for a day trip within a large bay or sheltered
shoreline. Issues of mutual safety between paddling partners and judgements of sea conditions
throughout the day and out of sight along the shore are included. Paddlers will deal with the
concerns for packing a kayak and the gear necessary for a comfortable day trip and solving
problems in the field. Paddlers should leave the course encouraged to continue their learning
and awareness of their limitations.

Overview

   Rescue skills                    Paddling skills              Knowledge

         Eskimo rescue                  Forward stroke              Equipment
         Unassisted re-entry            Brace low/high              Journeying and
         Assisted re-entry              Sweep                        seamanship
         Towing                         Draw                        Safety
         Communication/signals          Stern rudder                Kayaking resources
                                         Edge control

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Level-1 Skills

Rescue skills
Eskimo rescue
Demonstrate a confident capsize and attract attention by banging on the hull. The rescuer will
move in from 5 metres away but should not approach at right angles to where the hands or body
are located. The victim must show confidence and control; bow, stern, side or paddle
presentation may be used.

Assisted Rescues
In deep water, wet-exit and re-enter the kayak with assistance from another paddler. The
capsize must be natural with spray deck in place. Rescue is complete when the excess water is
removed from the cockpit, the swimmer is back in the boat, the spray-skirt is attached and the
paddler has regained sufficient stability to paddle effectively. The participant will demonstrate as
both swimmer and rescuer. Participants should have the opportunity to practice both the T-
rescue and the raft, re-enter and pump techniques.

Unassisted re-entry
Wet exit and re-enter a kayak in deep water. Aids such as a paddle float may be used.

Contact tow
Demonstrate a simple contact tow without the use of a towline.

Paddling skills
It is important to master the skills for calm water in this level before moving on to the open water
conditions to be found in Level-2.

Lift and carry
Use proper body mechanics to prevent injury while moving a kayak.

Launching & landing
Demonstrate launching and landing in sheltered conditions off a beach or dock.

Forward paddling
Demonstrate efficient forward paddling, with good speed and control over 100 metres. Show
good upright posture, torso rotation, extended front arm.

Stopping
Travel at a moderate speed then stop the kayak within 2 strokes (count one side).

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Level-1 Skills

Reverse paddling
Demonstrate controlled reverse paddling while looking back for a clear and safe route. Show
good torso rotation.

Sweep strokes
From a static start, turn the kayak 360 degrees. Use a combination of forward and reverse
sweep strokes. Show efficient placement of the paddle and unwinding of the trunk. While
moving forward at good speed, turn the kayak with a forward sweep stroke and edging.

Edge control
The paddler will demonstrate beginnings of good edging control that assists turning.

Draw stroke
From a static start, move the kayak sideways 2 metres, using the draw stroke and the sculling
draw stroke.
While moving forward, move the kayak sideways using a draw stroke.

Low & high brace
The paddler will demonstrate an understanding of correct technique to prevent a capsize with a
low and a high brace.

Stern rudder
Use the stern rudder stroke to turn the kayak in calm conditions.

Knowledge
The extent of knowledge required for safe paddling at this level is governed by the conditions
within a sheltered bay. The following list is not exhaustive and is provided here as a guide to the
nature and extent of knowledge necessary for safe and enjoyable paddling in a level-1
environment.

Equipment
Demonstrate basic knowledge of the features and attributes of equipment, including:
   Transport Canada equipment requirements
   Sea kayak, paddle and spray skirt designs
   Bailing devices
   PFD and clothing
   Rescue Equipment

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Level-1 Skills

Kayaking resources
    Be aware of sources of information such as: Provincial Paddling Associations, books,
      videos, web sites, local clubs and outfitters.

Journeying & Seamanship
Developing good judgment should be encouraged and prior to going paddling participants
should engage in guided exercises that develop judgment and decision-making.
    Demonstrate judgment as appropriate for daylong trips in level-1 conditions.
    Understand the differences between open coastal paddling and paddling in sheltered
       water.
    Identify several safe locations and routes for level-1 paddling.

Navigation
When planning a day long excursion, participants should use the fundamental concepts of time,
distance, speed and direction as needed for a safe trip. Charts or maps are to be used to
supplement observations of terrain and weather.
Weather information such as wind direction and speed should be related to navigation and
possible effects on sea state throughout the day and along the route.

Engage in guided risk-assessment exercises appropriate to day-long excursions that:
    Determine the abilities of themselves and the group.
    Anticipate the present and future needs for themselves and the group.
    Anticipate the present paddling conditions in the near vicinity and the anticipated
     paddling conditions at a proposed destination.
    Determine safe proximity of paddlers for group safety and communication.
    Determine the need for a Paddling Plan and an Emergency Response Plan.

Typical questions to stimulate discussion
    How accurate is your awareness of your skills and the demands of the trip?
    What is your current physical, emotional and mental state?
    What is your role and responsibility within the group?
    What are the responsibilities of the group toward the individuals?
    What are your personal objectives?
    What are the group objectives?
    Are you comfortable with the trip plan?
    Have the objectives and roles been discussed within the group?

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