PROGRAMME GUIDE - Meryl-Lynn Pluck - Rainbow Reading

 
PROGRAMME GUIDE - Meryl-Lynn Pluck - Rainbow Reading
PROGRAMME GUIDE

  Mer yl-Lynn Pluck
PROGRAMME GUIDE - Meryl-Lynn Pluck - Rainbow Reading
This edition text and artwork © 2018 Rainbow Reading Programme Ltd.
Design and production by Chameleon Creative, Nelson
Published 2018 by Rainbow Reading Programme Ltd.

PO Box 561, Nelson, New Zealand
www.rainbowreading.org.nz
www.newheightsreading.com
Text Copyright © Rainbow Reading 2018
ISBN 978-1-86974-622-3
PROGRAMME GUIDE - Meryl-Lynn Pluck - Rainbow Reading
Contents
Introduction..................................................................4                                Assessment............................................................... 24
      How to Use This Programme Guide.................................. 5                                            Running Records
How the New Heights Programme Works......................6                                                           Using New Heights Assessment......................................26
      Using the New Heights Programme................................. 7                                             Administering New Heights Assessment....................28
                                                                                                                     Scoring New Heights Assessment
Components of the New Heights Programme................8
                                                                                                                     New Heights Comprehension Check
    Student Titles
                                                                                                               	    Determining the Student’s Instructional Reading
    Audio Support
                                                                                                                     Level..................................................................................................29
    Activities............................................................................................ 9
                                                                                                               	Assessment Using a Simple Count of
    Additional Resources                                                                                             Uncorrected Errors...................................................................31
Features of the New Heights Stages.......................... 10                                                      Assessment Using Cloze Activities
Who Can Use the New Heights Programme?.............. 12                                                        Fluency and the New Heights Programme......................... 32
     Leveling                                                                                                        Assessing Fluency
How to Implement the New Heights Programme........ 13                                                          T he New Heights Programme and English
      Organisation                                                                                              Language Learners.................................................... 34
      Assessing the Student’s Starting Level                                                                           Supporting English Language Learners......................35
      Book Selection                                                                                           Managing the New Heights Programme..................... 36
      Introducing the Student Handbook.................... 14                                                       Time Required for the New Heights Programme
	Using the Orientation and Conferencing Plans... 14                                                                Students Working Outside the Classroom
      Reading Practice............................................... 16                                            Students Working Within the Classroom
      Supported Practice                                                                                            Using Tutors and Volunteers...............................................37
      Independent Practice                                                                                          Managing the Resources and Equipment
	Prompts for Teachers to Use During
      Conferences...................................................... 17                                     Reading at Home with the New Heights Programme.. 38
Deciding What the Student Does Next....................... 18                                                  Frequently Asked Questions....................................... 39
      Teacher-initiated Conferences                                                                            T he Research Base of Audio-facilitated Reading........ 41
      Giving Written Feedback                                                                                   	The Research Base of the
      Activities........................................................... 19                                         New Heights Programme......................................................43
      Using the Progress Graph.................................. 22                                            Overview Charts......................................................... 45
      Using the Record of Students’ Work................... 23                                                 References................................................................ 70
      Recording Students’ Oral Reading
                                                                                                               Acknowledgements.................................................... 71
      Moving On
Introduction
    The New Heights programme is designed to use                                       After an initial orientation with the teacher,
    with students whose reading levels are below                                       students are able to practise with the books
    what is expected for their ages. The students may                                  and accompanying audio support on their own.
    be struggling or reluctant readers, or they may be                                 Activity sheets associated with the books, which
    English language learners.                                                         are on CDs, allow students to consolidate and
    The New Heights programme is designed to                                           further develop the skills they have learned while
    complement rather than replace existing literacy                                   reading.
    programmes. It provides supported reading that                                     The methods used in this programme are
    consolidates skills learned elsewhere.                                             based on extensive research and have been
    Teachers are able to accurately monitor the                                        successfully used by teachers for a number of
    progress of students as their reading skills                                       years. Evaluation in the field has linked audio-
    accelerate, using assessment sheets.                                               assisted reading methods with observable gains
                                                                                       in students’ literacy achievement.
    Teachers can decide whether to implement New
    Heights as a withdrawal programme or to use it
    within the classroom.

    Targeted Support for Struggling Readers
    Valencia and Riddle Buly (2004) conducted research to find out what students who failed standardised
    9 year old reading tests were actually doing. The following chart summarises their findings and shows
    how New Heights can provide support.

     Cluster Descriptors                           Possible Interventions                         New Heights provides:
     Automatic word callers                        •• slow down reading pace and check to see     •• orientations that alert students to meaning before reading
     •• read words quickly and accurately but         if comprehension improves                   •• conferences to check comprehension
        fail to read for meaning                   •• build English vocabulary and                •• activities that require understanding
     •• often second language learners                comprehension
                                                                                                  •• ELL support for every book
                                                                                                  •• audio support that models a correct pace
     Struggling word callers                       •• instruction in decoding, oral language,     •• high-interest texts with audio support
     •• stronger in fluency and word                  and comprehension in a rich, meaningful     •• individually paced instruction at appropriate difficulty levels
        identification than meaning                   context
                                                                                                  •• ELL support, often with instruction in decoding
     •• some difficulty with word identification   •• teacher or peer read-alouds                    and oral language

     Word stumblers                                •• word identification and fluency with        •• introductions to new or challenging vocabulary
     •• slow readers                                  emphasis on reading for meaning             •• audio support and repeated readings
     •• difficulty with word identification        •• repeated reading                            •• activities that support word identification and meaning
                                                   •• audio assistance

     Slow and steady comprehenders                 •• focus on fluency                            •• accuracy, comprehension, and fluency assessments to find
     •• read very slowly                           •• reading high-interest, easy material           appropriate levels
     •• word identification and comprehension         to build automatic word identification      •• repeated readings to build confidence
        relatively strong                             and rate                                    •• audio support to develop pace and meaning
                                                   •• may need explicit instruction in decoding   •• high-interest texts
                                                      multisyllabic words
     Slow word callers                             •• build fluency and meaning                   •• repeated readings with audio support
     •• accurate word callers but lack fluency     •• instruction on maintaining meaning over     •• a gradual increase in word length and text difficulty over
     •• struggle with meaning                         longer texts                                   the stages
                                                   •• extensive independent reading and           •• opportunities to introduce new or challenging vocabulary
                                                      teacher read-alouds

     Disabled readers                              •• in-depth intervention (beyond what most     •• a valuable adjunct to specialist instruction
     •• very low word identification                  classroom teachers can provide)             •• audio support and repeated readings that foster
     •• poor fluency                               •• high-interest texts at students’               confidence and fluency
                                                      instructional level                         •• high-interest, engaging texts
     •• poor comprehension

                                                                                                        Adapted with permission from Valencia and Riddle Buly (2004)

4
How to Use This Programme Guide

The New Heights Programme Guide and CDs
provide planning and teaching support material
for the New Heights titles. They are designed
to help you plan and implement a literacy
programme that meets the individual needs of
older struggling readers or English language
learners.

This Programme Guide contains four main
sections:

  1. Overview of the New Heights Programme
     The first section introduces the contents
     of the programme, outlines how the
     programme works, and describes the
     New Heights learner.

  2. How to Implement the New
     Heights Programme
     The second section provides guidance on
     implementing the programme, assessing
     students, using the programme with
     English language learners, managing the
     programme in the classroom, and involving
     family members in the programme.

  3. Research
     The third section describes the
     methodology of the New Heights
     programme.

  4. Overview Charts
     The fourth section provides Overview
     Charts for each title that describe the skills
     and strategies that can be taught using
     each title.

 Your Road Map
 For detailed instructions on how to
 implement the New Heights programme,
 see pages 13 to 23.
 To learn more about using the activities to
 support New Heights readers, see pages
 19 to 21.
 To find out about assessment, see pages
 24 to 33.
 For information about using the New Heights
 programme with English language learners, see
 pages 34 to 35.

                                                      5
How the New Heights Programme Works

    The New Heights programme is an audio-facilitated
    reading programme. The teacher assesses the
    student to identify their instructional reading level,
    that is, the highest level at which the student can
    read with 90 to 94 percent accuracy (see page 24
    for an explanation of the assessment process).
    Following a brief orientation, the student practises
    reading books at their instructional reading level
    with audio support. The student practises with the
    same book until they can read it easily without the
    audio support. The student requests a conference
    with the teacher, when the teacher checks for
    accuracy, fluency, and a good understanding of
    the text.
    The teacher recommends that the student:
      •• has more practice with the same book or             The student keeps a record of their reading in the
         with a new book at the same level;                  personal Student Handbook. The teacher uses a
      •• does an activity to reinforce and extend the        Progress Graph and a Record of the Students’ Work
         skills learned while reading; or                    to track their progress.
      •• is assessed for promotion to the next               Note: Detailed instructions on how to implement
         reading level.                                      the New Heights programme start on page 13.

6
Using the New Heights Programme

                  1. Build your understanding of the programme by reading
                     all the materials, including this Programme Guide.

                  2. Select a student who is reading below expected levels.

                  3. Assess the student’s starting level using an
                     assessment sheet.

                  4. When an appropriate level has been identified, help
                     the student to choose a book from the correct stage.

                  5. Orientate the student with the book.

                  6. The student reads the book, while listening to the
                     audio support, at least twice a day until they can
                     read the book without support.

                  7. The student keeps a record of their reading in their
                     Student Handbook, including when they have
                     practised with the audio support and when they
                     have read independently.

                  8. The student practises independently, reading the
                     book without the audio support, either silently
                     or aloud.
9a) If the
student reads
well, offer       9. Hold a conference with the student.                      9b) If the
praise and help                                                               student needs
them to choose                                                                more practice,
another book.                                                                 suggest that
                  10. When the student has read a sufficient number           they continue
                      of books with increasing ease and fluency, conduct      reading with
                      an assessment to determine whether they are ready       the audio
                      for promotion.                                          support or give
                                                                              them one of
                                                                              the activities
                                                                              to complete.

                                                                                                7
Components of the New Heights Programme
    The New Heights programme is divided into stages
    with increasing levels of difficulty. Each stage of the
    New Heights programme comprises:
      •• 20 audio-supported titles for the
         students’ use
      •• 2 reading pens that accompany the
         supported titles
      •• 1 CD with printable resources, including
         teacher information and activities for each
         supported title and assessment sheets
      •• 1 Programme Guide

    Student Titles
    Twenty titles are accompanied by audio support
    for the students to use for supported reading.
    The books can also be used for assessment, in
    conjunction with the Assessment sheets provided
    on the CD.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Red Level
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     Audio Support
       The reading pens contain audio files for all           •• A tone change will generally indicate
       supported titles in the programme. They have              a change from narrative to dialogue
       the following features:                                   and vice versa.
        •• The reader introduces the title, the author,       •• The books are read at varying speeds,
           and the illustrator or photographer of the            according to their different levels of difficulty,
           book.                                                 so that the student can easily read along.
        •• The books are read naturally, with clarity         •• There are no distracting noises on the
           and expression. The reader pauses after               audio support. This enables the student to
           phrases so that the student can easily read           concentrate on listening to the words and
           along.                                                following the text in the book.
        •• Punctuation is observed; for example, there
           is a brief pause when a comma occurs in
           the text.

8
Activities (CD)                                        Additional Resources (CD)

Text-related activities accompany each supported       Student Handbook                                                                                                                                                   Student Handbook ne                                                                                                                                                                                     e ghts

student title. The activities present text from the
                                                       The Student Handbook is a personal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Name: ...........................................................................................................................................................

                                                                                               Using a Reading Pen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Choose

books in new and refreshing ways. The five kinds
                                                                                               Care                                                                                                                                 • Your teacher will tell you what colour books to start with.
                                                                                               • Look after your reading pen.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Choose a book that interests you.

                                                       booklet for each student. It contains:
                                                                                               • Ask for help if you need it.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Discuss the book with your teacher.
                                                                                               Read
                                                                                               • Press long on the power button to turn on the pen.

of activities are:
                                                                                               • Plug in the earbuds.
                                                                                               • Touch the cover with the pen. (If you touch the pages first,
                                                                                                 the audio won’t work.)
                                                                                               • Now, touch the pages with the pen.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     e ghts
                                                                                               Pause or Stop

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ne
                                                         •• simple instructions on how to use
                                                                                               • A short press on the power button pauses the audio.
                                                                                               • Press long on the power button to stop.

  •• cloze activities, in which the student fills in
                                                            the programme and the reading

                                                                                                                                                                                            Fold
                                                                                      Page 8                                                                                                                                                                                         ne               e ghts © 2017 www.newheightsreading.com                                                                                                    Cover Page

     gaps in text, for assessing and improving
                                                            pens;
     comprehension;
                                                         •• simple information on how to conference
  •• text-sequencing activities, in which the
                                                            with teachers;
     student reads and arranges summaries
     of a text in sequence, for improving                •• a place for you to write helpful advice for the
     comprehension skills;                                  student;

  •• word search activities, in which the student        •• a place for the student to record how many
     locates words that are hidden in grids, for            times they practised reading a book with
     improving spelling and identifying words;              audio support and how many times they
                                                            read independently.
  •• board game activities, in which the student
     plays board games, for practising reading and     Progress Graph
                                                                                                                                                                               Progress Graph
                                                                                                                                                                                     Name: ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

                                                                                                                                                                                     Using the Progress Graph
                                                                                                                                                                                     The progress graph allows you to monitor each student’s progress. To use the graph:

     following instructions;
                                                                                                                                                                                     • Write the student’s name at the top.
                                                                                                                                                                                     • Record the date and the title used for assessment.
                                                                                                                                                                                     • Record the student’s level using:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  to indicate that the student is reading at a frustration level (too hard);

                                                       The Progress Graph enables you to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 to indicate that the student is reading at an instructional level;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  to indicate that the student is reading at an independent level and can be promoted.
                                                                                                                                                                                     • Draw a line between the closed circles                                                                                                            to show progress at an independent level
                                                                                                                                                                                          over time.

                                                                                                                                                                                      11 - 12
  •• writing activities, in which the student uses     record the progress of your students.

                                                                                                                                                                                      10 - 11
                                                                                                                                                                                      9 - 10
                                                                                                                                                                                      8-9
     text as a model and incentive for writing, for

                                                                                                                                                                                      7-8
                                                                                                                                                                                      6-7
                                                                                                                                                                                      5.5 - 6
     improving writing and reading skills.             Record of Students’ Work

                                                                                                                                                                                      5 - 5.5
                                                                                                                                                                     READING LEVEL

                                                                                                                                                                                                Date:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Date:

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Date:

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Date:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Date:

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Date:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Date:
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ne             e ghts © 2017 www.newheightsreading.com

The cloze, text-sequencing, and board game             The Record of Students’ Work allows
activities are designed to:                            you to keep track of which books each student
                                                       has read, how many times they have listened,
  •• reinforce the skills learned while reading the
                                                       when they have independently read the book
     text;
                                                       (without the audio), when they have conferenced,
  •• provide the opportunity to revisit the text in    and which activities they have completed.
     different formats;
  •• provide further practice in reading,              Awards                                                                                                       Awards

     comprehending, and organising text.               The awards provide positive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ne

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 e ghts
                                                       reinforcement for students as they
The word search activities provide:
                                                       progress through the New Heights
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ne

  •• practice in identifying words in a different                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ne
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 e ghts
                                                       programme.
     context;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ne          e ghts © 2017 www.newheightsreading.com

  •• opportunities for searching across words in       Notes for Families                                                                                           Take Home Notes

                                                                                                                                                                       Using the praise, wait, and then tell method
                                                                                                                                                                       When you listen to your child reading, please:                                                                                                                                                                                            ne                        e ghts

     sequence.                                         To enable families to help students
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    when he/she tries hard.
                                                                                                                                                                               PRAISE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    when he/she corrects mistakes.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    when he/she reads with expression.

                                                                                                                                                                               WAIT                                                  to give him/her time to work out problems or self-correct.
                                                                                                                                                                               AND THEN

                                                                                                                                                                               TELL                                                  your child the word that he/she is struggling with and ask him/her
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     to try reading again from the start of the sentence.

                                                       at home, a number of resources
                                                                                                                                                                               REMEMBER                                             Your child should hold the book.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    If your child needs to point to keep his/her place, he/she should not point to every
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    word but should simply slide his/her left hand down the left margin.

The writing activities provide:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    You should not point for him/her.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Ask questions about the book and discuss it so that you can check your child’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     understanding of the story.

                                                                                                                                                                ✄

                                                       have been provided. These include:                                                                           Dear                  .............................................................................................................................................................

                                                                                                                                                                    Your child, ....................................................................., is taking part in the New Heights
                                                                                                                                                                    programme at school to give him/her extra reading practice.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ne                        e ghts

  •• opportunities to link text to writing. This
                                                                                                                                                                    In the New Heights programme, students listen to stories as they silently read along.
                                                                                                                                                                    This programme helps them to improve their reading and comprehension skills as well as
                                                                                                                                                                    their attitude to reading.

                                                         •• a note explaining that their
                                                                                                                                                                    If your child brings home a book and/or a reading pen, please follow the instructions on
                                                                                                                                                                    the bookmark they bring with them.

                                                                                                                                                                    If you would like to know more about the programme or would like to see it working in our

     helps to improve writing and reading and
                                                                                                                                                                    school, please contact me.

                                                                                                                                                                    Signed ..........................................................................................................

                                                            child is taking part in the New                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ne         e ghts © 2017 www.newheightsreading.com

     allows further comprehension checks.
                                                            Heights programme;
Note: For a more detailed discussion of the              •• a note explaining the “praise, wait, and then
different activities, see pages 19 to 21.                   tell” technique;
                                                         •• Bookmarks that explain which kind of
                                                            practice a student needs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9
Features of the New Heights Stages
     The student books are colour-coded to indicate the different reading levels. The text becomes increasingly
     complex, in a variety of ways, as the stages progress. The themes and language of the books have been
     carefully selected to appeal to students at all levels and ages.

      SILVER                         WHITE                           RED                            ORANGE
       ••5 - 5.5 year reading        ••5.5 - 6 year reading          ••6 - 7 year reading           ••7 - 8 year reading
         difficulty level;             difficulty level;               difficulty level;              difficulty level;
       ••limited vocabulary          ••limited vocabulary            ••limited vocabulary           ••high-frequency words
         changes;                      changes within repeated         changes within repeated        used in preference to
                                       sentence structures;            sentence structures;           more difficult vocabulary;
       ••repeated sentence
         patterns;                   ••restricted variation in the   ••some restricted variation    ••interest vocabulary
                                       way the same idea is            in the way the same idea       repeated within varying
       ••consistency in ways ideas     expressed;                      is expressed;                  structures in the text;
         are expressed;
                                     ••punctuated dialogue;          ••punctuated dialogue;         ••limited use of metaphors
       ••punctuated dialogue;                                                                         and similes, clearly
                                     ••few difficult names,          ••some difficult names,          presented;
       ••simple sentences              with the audio support          with the audio support
         containing one idea;          providing a model for           providing a model for        ••repeated sentence
       ••repetition of high-           pronunciation;                  pronunciation;                 structures at times;
         frequency words;            ••simple sentences              ••simple sentences             ••more use of complex
       ••content restricted to         containing one idea             containing one idea            sentences;
         single plot or idea;          except where the story          except where the story
                                       structure is that of            structure is that of a       ••more use of sentences
       ••line breaks support           a cumulative nature;            cumulative nature;             with embedded phrases;
         fluency and                                                                                ••text breaks that keep
         understanding;              ••high-frequency words          ••high-frequency words
                                       used in preference to           used in preference to          phrases intact;
       ••few characters;               more difficult vocabulary;      more difficult vocabulary;   ••a greater variety of better-
       ••careful placement of text   ••content restricted to         ••content restricted to          developed characters;
         on page;                      a single plot, theme,           a single plot, theme,        ••more complex concepts
                                       or idea;                        or idea;                       supported by added
       ••a strong picture–text
         match.                      ••text breaks that keep         ••text breaks that keep          detail;
                                       phrases intact;                 phrases intact;              ••chapter headings, if
                                     ••few characters;               ••few characters;                appropriate;

                                     ••a close picture–text          ••chapter headings, if         ••tables of contents, if
                                       match.                          appropriate;                   appropriate;

                                                                     ••tables of contents, if       ••illustrations that support
                                                                       appropriate;                   the text but do not show
                                                                                                      every aspect.
                                                                     ••a close picture–text
                                                                       match.

10
Features of the New Heights Stages
As the stories have been carefully selected with the needs and interests of older students in mind, the
books can be used with those whose actual ages are higher than their reading ages. The books are
entertaining, informative, and educational. The aim is to provide the students with an assortment of
topics, styles, and genres from a variety of authors.

YELLOW                           GREEN                            BLUE                           VIOLET
 ••8 - 9 year reading            ••9 - 10 year reading            ••10 - 11 year reading         ••11 - 12 year reading
   difficulty level;               difficulty level;                difficulty level;              difficulty level;
 ••interest vocabulary that is   ••compound sentences;            ••specialised language that    ••increasingly difficult text
   increasingly specialised;                                        is explained;                  structure;
                                 ••descriptive language;
 ••some repetitive sentence                                       ••in-depth explanations of     ••specialised language that
   structures;                   ••characters that are more         complex subjects;              is not always explained;
                                   clearly drawn through
 ••compound (two- to three-        dialogue and action;           ••subject matter that is       ••text that requires
   idea) sentences;                                                 more sophisticated and         increased use of
                                 ••topics that are less             even less familiar;            inference, analysis, and
 ••clear paragraphing;             familiar;                                                       evaluation;
                                                                  ••text that requires
 ••concepts that are more        ••more use of similes and          increased use of             ••subject matter, concepts,
   sophisticated;                  metaphors;                       inference;                     and themes that are
 ••stories that require more     ••more use of inference;                                          increasingly sophisticated
                                                                  ••increasingly difficult and     and complex;
   use of inference;                                                unfamiliar concepts,
                                 ••figurative language and
 ••better-developed                wordplay;                        themes, and structures;      ••characters with
   characters and settings;                                                                        multifaceted personalities
                                 ••increasing numbers             ••a rich and varied              and inferred motives;
 ••more complex plots with         of multisyllabic and             vocabulary with increasing
   more characters;                specialised words;               use of specialised           ••descriptive, colloquial,
                                                                    vocabulary;                    and formal language;
 ••illustrations that are        ••little support from
   designed to enhance             repetition, sentence           ••descriptive, colloquial,     ••rich and varied vocabulary
   interpretation but do not       patterns, and illustrations;     and formal language;           including words with
   present new information;                                                                        shades of meaning and
                                 ••clearly defined                ••more complex character         varying connotations;
 ••text breaks that no longer      paragraphing, chapter            development within
   keep phrases intact;            headings, tables of              narratives.                  ••increased text density
                                   contents, and glossaries.                                       with clearly defined
 ••chapter headings,                                                                               paragraphing.
   tables of contents, and
   glossaries, if appropriate.

                                                                                                                                 11
Who Can Use the New Heights Programme?
 The New Heights programme is specifically             Leveling
 targeted to meet the needs and interests of
 struggling or reluctant readers and English           Books have been leveled and allocated to stages
 language learners. Such students need practice        using a variety of methods, which include:
 at their instructional reading level (the highest
                                                         •• field testing texts with students of the target
 level that they can read with 90 to 94 percent
                                                            reading and chronological age.
 accuracy) to gain confidence and the skills that
 will enable them to reach appropriate levels. Once      •• the Elley noun count. This method assesses
 they have caught up, they need further practice at         the reading difficulty of a text, which is
 their newly acquired level to consolidate the gains        expressed in terms of a suitable age level
 they have made.                                            for readability, such as 8–9 years. Nouns
                                                            were graded according to how frequently
 The New Heights programme is designed for
                                                            they occurred in samples of writing from
 struggling readers who have attained some basic
                                                            children of different ages. A calculation
 reading skills. The students using the programme
                                                            formula was applied and a mean noun
 (including English language learners) must:
                                                            frequency rating obtained (Elley and Croft,
     •• be able to recognise the English alphabet           1989).
        and know how each letter sounds;
                                                         •• the professional judgment of a variety of
     •• be able to recognise the basic high-                teachers, consultants, and publishers.
        frequency words;
                                                       Books are not leveled within stages as many
 With a minimum of organisation, New Heights can       factors, some exclusive to the individual student
 be used as a supplement to the regular reading        such as interest and background knowledge,
 programme with:                                       affect the readability of the books for struggling
     •• individuals;                                   readers and English language learners. You
                                                       should use your knowledge of the students and
     •• groups;                                        the books to guide your recommendation of titles
     •• students from non-English-speaking             to different readers. When students are expected
        backgrounds;                                   to read independently, they should use texts from
                                                       the lower levels. Because of the audio support
     •• students in special programmes with reading
                                                       provided, you can use your discretion to allocate
        support teachers, English language learner
                                                       books flexibly. Some students may simply need
        (ELL) teachers, and special needs teachers.
                                                       more practice, with or without the audio support,
 Such students will make even greater gains in         when books are a little difficult for them.
 their reading when their lessons are reinforced
 by the New Heights programme. As these
 students increase their reading mileage, both         Colour Text Length         Equivalent      Student
 with and without audio support, they practise and            (words)             Reading         Interest
 consolidate the skills they have learned during                                  Difficulty      Level
 reading lessons.
                                                       Silver    100 - 150        5 - 5.5 years   6 years +
 The programme can also be used in regular
                                                       White     130 - 175        5.5 - 6 years   6 years +
 classrooms with the regular teacher.
 Paraprofessionals may be able to assist in            Red       150 - 300        6 - 7 years     7 years +
 implementing the programme, but they will need        Orange    200 - 400        7 - 8 years     8 years +
 to be supervised by a trained teacher who can
 give advice about the students’ starting levels       Yellow    400 - 550        8 - 9 years     9 years +
 and their readiness for promotion.                    Green     500 - 700        9 - 10 years    10 years +

                                                       Blue      650 - 900        10 - 11 years   11 years +

                                                       Violet    900 - 1200       11 - 12 years   12 years +

12
How to Implement the New Heights Programme
                                                     Organisation
                                                     For each student, print out from the CD:
                                                       •• the relevant New Heights Running Record (for
                                                          the teacher’s use, not the student’s);
                                                       •• the Student Handbook;
                                                       •• Bookmarks;
                                                       •• Take-home Notes;
                                                       •• the activities associated with the chosen
                                                          book that you think the student might need.
                                                          (Not all the students will need to do all the
                                                          activities.)
                                                     Note: See pages 36 to 37 for a comprehensive
                                                     discussion of how to manage the New Heights
                                                     programme.

                                                     Assessing the Student’s Starting
The New Heights programme is designed                Level
to supplement rather than replace existing
classroom and special reading programmes.            It is recommended that teachers using the
                                                     programme use Running Records to assess
The New Heights programme is based on the            the appropriate starting level for each student.
following beliefs:                                   However, if you do not feel confident using this
  •• Reading programmes should be student-           procedure, use a New Heights assessment sheet,
     centred.                                        assess students by taking a simple count of
                                                     uncorrected errors, or use the cloze activity. The
  •• Reading for meaning is paramount.               chapter entitled Assessment (pages 24 to 31)
  •• Literacy learning must be worthwhile.           describes these procedures.

  •• Reading and writing are powerful tools
     for learning.
                                                     Book Selection
  •• The best approach to teaching reading and       Help the student to choose a book from the
     writing is a combination of approaches.         appropriate stage that relates to their interests
                                                     and/or prior knowledge.
  •• Careful assessment of students’ literacy
     learning is integral to sound teaching.
  •• Reading and writing flourish in a supportive
     environment.
                        (Reading for Life, page 6)
Underachieving students need more reading
practice than most students, and the New
Heights programme provides many opportunities
for them to read in a supported environment.
Whether a student’s reading programme uses
basal readers, guided reading, or any other
approach, the New Heights programme will be
of immense benefit as it provides high-interest,
supported reading that consolidates skills
learned elsewhere.

                                                                                                         13
Introducing the Student                                                                                                                  Student Handbook
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ne                             e ghts
 Handbook
                                                                                                                                     Name: ........................
                                                             Using a Read
                                                               ing Pen
                                                                                                                                                                   ........................
                                                                                                                                                                                           ........................

     •• Give each student a personalCacopy
                                         re
                                                        of the                                                                                                                                                     ........................
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ........................
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ........................
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ...........

        Student Handbook. These should             be
                                     • Look after you       printed
                                                       r reading pen.
                                                                                                                                           Choose
                                     • Ask for help                                                                                       • Your teacher
                                                    if you need it.
        out from the CD (Additional Resources
                                     Read                                                                                                • Choose a boo
                                                                                                                                                         will tell you wha
                                                                                                                                                         k that interests
                                                                                                                                                                           t colour books
                                                                                                                                                                                          to star t with.
                                                                                                                                                                           you.
        folder).                    • Press long on
                                                     the power button
                                                                      to turn on the
                                                                                     pen.
                                                                                                                                         • Discuss the
                                                                                                                                                       book with your
                                                                                                                                                                        teacher.
                                                          • Plug in the ear
                                                                            buds.

     •• Show the student the different parts of the      • Touch the cov
                                                           the audio won
                                                                          er with the pen
                                                                          ’t work.)
                                                                                          . (If you touch the
                                                                                                              pages first,

        handbook, including where to record the          • Now, touch the
                                                                           pages with the
                                                                                            pen.
                                    Pause or Stop
        books read and the number• Aof shortpractices,
                                             press on the pow
                                                              er button pauses
        the information about conferences,               and
                                                                                                                                                                                                         e ghts
                                                                               the audio.

                                                                                                                                               ne
                                   • Press long on
                                                   the pow er button to stop
                                                                             .

        the space where you will write advice after
        conferences.
                                                Page 8

     •• Explain how the student should record their

                                                                                                                              Fold
        practices.
                                                                                                                                                         ne     e ghts © 2017 www
                                                                                                                                                                                 .new                     heightsreading.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          com                                         Cover Page

 In the record of practices, the student writes the
 title of the book. Each time they practise reading                                                                  kind of practice the student is doing and how often
 the book with the audio support, they should                                                                        it is occurring. Most students can manage their
 enter the date. When they practise reading the                                                                      own record keeping. This should be encouraged as
 book without the audio suport, they should write                                                                    it fosters independence and self-management.
 the date and circle it. This will inform you of the

 Using the Orientation and Conferencing Plans
 Before a student practises reading a book, they                                                                         •• pose a question or encourage the student to
 should be orientated to the story by means of a                                                                            make a prediction and then challenge them
 short introduction (up to five minutes). Refer to                                                                          to find the answer during the reading;
 the Orientation and Conferencing Plan (OCP) for                                                                         •• ask the student to formulate questions
 each book. (See the Activities folder on the CD.
                                                                                                                            about the book or topic before, during, and
 The activities for each book are preceded by an
                                                                                                                            after they read. To find the answers, they
 OCP.)
                                                                                                                            should discuss these questions with you or
 An orientation serves to:                                                                                                  others after the reading or refer to the library
     •• activate prior knowledge;                                                                                           or Internet. (Please note: The student asks
     •• foster interest;                                                                                                    the questions silently, noting them on paper
     •• help the student to predict what they are                                                                           if they need to.)
        about to read;                                                                                            When the students are English language learners,
     •• facilitate understanding and enjoyment.                                                                   the orientation could, if possible, be in their first
 Any potentially difficult terms and concepts can be                                                              language. If this is not possible, a more detailed
 discussed during the orientation. The OCPs and                                                                   orientation may be needed to ensure that these
 overview charts often provide specific examples                                                                  students are well familiarised with the terms and
 from each book.                                                                                                  concepts they will meet in the book.
 You read the summary aloud to the student. You                                                                   If time or organisation prevents individual
 should be familiar with the book that is being                                                                   orientation, alternatives may include:
 introduced to the student.
                                                                                                                         •• allowing the student to listen to the audio
 During the orientation:                                                                                                    support while looking at the illustrations
     •• tell the student the title of the book;                                                                             without reading along;
     •• read the book summary;                                                                                           •• asking another student who has read the
     •• talk about the illustrations, including the one                                                                     book to discuss the story with the student.
        on the cover;                                                                                                       Students who tutor others may require
     •• encourage as much conversation from the                                                                             special training in how to do this if the
        student as possible;                                                                                                situation is likely to recur.
14
The OCPs include standard reminders to teachers. Once you are familiar
                     with the procedure, you may not need to refer to the OCPs as often.
                     Material that is unique to each book is indented. All OCPs have the
                     features shown below.

                         Comprehension Questions and Answers to the Comprehension
                         Questions
                         The main points of the story are addressed using open questions. The first
                         three questions require the student to recall information from the story.
                         The next two questions require the student to use the reading strategy of
                         inference.

Book Summary
To be read aloud
to the student
to capture their
interest and let
them know what
the book is about.

Introduction
• A standard
  sentence
  reminding you
  of the main                                                                                         Supporting
  points to be                                                                                        English
  covered during                                                                                      Language
  an introduction.                                                                                    Learners
• A paragraph                                                                                         A dedicated
  specific to each                                                                                    section
  book, giving                                                                                        containing
  background                                                                                          background
  information,                                                                                        information for
  explaining                                                                                          teachers and
  specialised                                                                                         activities that
  vocabulary,                                                                                         will provide
  and/or                                                                                              extra support for
  suggesting                                                                                          English language
  points for                                                                                          learners. (The
  discussion.                                                                                         skills in these
                                                                                                      activities
                                                                                                      correlate to ELL
                                                                                                      standards.)
Conferencing
A standard
reminder of the
procedure to be
followed when
the student has
requested a
conference.

                                                                                                                    15
Reading Practice
 Supported Practice                                        •• Write the date on the table in their handbook
                                                              alongside the book title each time they
 After a student has been orientated to a new
                                                              practise with the audio support.
 story, they take the book and audio support to the
 reading area for supported reading practice.              •• Write the date and circle it each time they
                                                              practise independently without the audio
 The student follows the steps as outlined in the
                                                              support.
 Student Handbook.
 The student should:                                    Independent Practice
  •• Listen to the story and read along with their
                                                        Once the student decides that they are able to
     eyes (not voice) at least twice a day until they
                                                        read the story well without audio support (typically
     feel they can read it alone.
                                                        after four to 10 practices), they read independently
       –– Reading at this stage should be silent        without the audio support, either silently or aloud,
         so that the audio support can be heard         and then decide whether to:
         clearly.
                                                          •• do more practice with or without the audio
       –– Pointing to each word or covering any text         support;
         should be discouraged as these interfere
                                                          •• complete an activity; or
         with fluency, rereading, or reading on. A
         finger of the left hand moving down the          •• request a conference with the teacher.
         left margin could be used as an interim
         measure to help the student follow the text.

  Conferences
  Conferences are usually informal meetings in which          to allow them time to solve problems
  the student reads all or part of the book they have         independently;
  been practising to you in a private situation. The       •• praise if the student does solve a problem
  student also answers questions that demonstrate             independently or employs a useful strategy to
  their understanding of the book. Conferences may            help solve the problem;
  be initiated by the student or you.
                                                           •• check for accuracy (by counting mistakes) and
  Typical conferences:                                        fluency.
     •• last between three and six minutes;             If the student can’t solve a problem after five
     •• are positive and rewarding for the student;     seconds, you should:
     •• are long enough for you to hear the student        •• discern which kind of problem the student is
        read the entire book when they are reading            experiencing;
        shorter texts at the lower reading levels;         •• decide which kind of prompt would be useful;
     •• are long enough for you to hear parts of the       •• prompt the student. (See page 17.)
        longer books. With these books at the higher
                                                        When the student has finished reading the book,
        levels, the student chooses a piece to read,
                                                        check for understanding by:
        and then you select a piece. To minimise
        confusion, it is advisable for the student to      •• asking the comprehension questions provided
        start reading at the beginning of the text.           on the OCP (and any others that seem
        You will need to summarise or question the            necessary);
        student to bridge the gap between where they       •• asking the student to retell the story in their
        finish reading and where you want the next            own words;
        reading to begin.                                  •• asking questions about and discussing
  While the student reads the book, you:                      aspects of the story, such as theme, plot,
                                                              main ideas, sequence, and characters;
     •• praise occasionally for fluent reading and
                                                           •• confirming predictions made during the
        using strategies appropriately and well;
                                                              orientation.
     •• pause when the student makes an error

16
Prompts for Teachers to Use                           Prompts for Syntax and Structure
During Conferences                                    A student may need prompting if they make an
                                                      error in syntax and structure. If what the student
You should always remain as detached as               reads is syntactically incorrect, for example,
possible so that students solve problems              they read “My dad drive a truck” instead of “My
independently. Do not give any comment or prompt      dad drives a truck,” they have used a word level
until a student has had time to make an attempt       strategy and possibly meaning. You will then
or to self-correct. Your role is to encourage the     need to help them use what they know about
student to attend to the cues they have missed so     the English language (possibly from hearing it on
that they begin to cross-check and integrate cues     the audio support). That is, the student needs to
for themselves. Avoid repeating the student’s error   attend to syntax and/or structure. The prompts
as this will be what they remember and correction     used in this instance might include:
will become more difficult. After two unsuccessful      •• “Did that sound right?”
prompts, tell the student the word.
                                                        •• “Is that how we say it in English?”
                                                        •• “Try that again and think about what would
“Try That Again” Prompt
                                                           sound right.”
A useful prompt is the “try that again” prompt.
                                                        •• “Try that again and think about how we say it
Use this when you think the student has become
                                                           correctly.”
confused and you consider they may be able to
solve the problem by rerunning their reading from
the beginning of the sentence. “Try that again”
                                                      Prompts for Visual Cues
gives minimal help, but it signals to the student     Students may need prompts that encourage them
that something is wrong and it would be advisable     to attend to visual (graphophonic) cues. If the
to make another attempt by rereading.                 student’s error makes sense and is grammatically
                                                      correct, for example, they read “My dad drives
“Try that again” can also be used with the
                                                      a van” instead of “My dad drives a truck,” help
following prompts, cuing the student to try again
                                                      them attend to the visual aspects of the text or to
and suggesting that it would be advisable to
                                                      use their knowledge of letter–sound relationships
attend to meaning, structure, and/or visual cues.
                                                      by using prompts that focus on the way the word
                                                      looks. The prompts used might include:
Prompts for Meaning
                                                        •• “Does that look right?”
A student may need prompting if they make an
error in meaning. For example, if the student reads     •• “Try that again and think what word would
“My dad drives a track” instead of “My dad drives          look right.”
a truck,” they have used a word level strategy          •• “Try that again and make sure this word
and possibly syntax. You will then need to help            looks right.”
them make sense of the sentence based on the
context. That is, the student needs to attend to      Prompt for Cross-checking and Using
meaning.                                              Multiple Cue Sources
Some prompts might include:                           The prompt that encourages cross-checking and
  •• “Did that make sense?”                           paying attention to more than one source of cues
  •• “Is that really what the dad drives?”            is: “Try that again and think about what would
                                                      sound right and look right.”
  •• “Try that again and think about what the dad
     drives.”
For English language learners, you could say “Try
that again and think about how it was said on
the reading pen” or simply “In English, we say
‘My dad drives a truck’” as the student may not
have enough knowledge of English to work it out
independently. These points also apply to prompts
for syntax and structure.

                                                                                                           17
Deciding What the                                        Although most conferences do not involve formal
                                                          assessment, you may choose to occasionally use

 Student Does Next                                        an Assessment sheet on the CD (Assessment
                                                          folder) in order to assess:
                                                            •• accuracy
 At the end of the conference, advise the student
 what to do next and write a comment in their               •• self-correction rate
 handbook.                                                  •• cues used and neglected
     •• If the student reads easily and fluently            •• comprehension.
        with good comprehension, offer praise and
        help them to choose another story from            In this case, you should request the conference
        the current stage. The easy, conferenced          before the student has listened to the audio
        books can now be used in the classroom or         support of the book many times. (Sometimes it
        taken home by the student for independent         will be before the student has listened at all.)
        reading.                                          No teaching should take place during an
     •• If the student does not read easily and           assessment conference until the assessment is
        fluently, give positive advice and ask them to    complete.
        continue practising with the same book (and       Use the orientation and conferencing information
        maybe the audio support) for a little longer      provided on the OCPs.
        before returning for another conference.
     •• If fluency and/or comprehension are poor,
        further discussion and practice should take       Giving Written Feedback
        place. Alternatively, you could recommend         The Student Handbook contains a page for you to
        the text-related activities to a student who      write helpful advice after a conference. Examples
        needs to work further on the text. The cloze      of comments include:
        activities, text-sequencing activities, and         •• “Great reading. Interesting voice. When it
        board games give the students additional               doesn’t sound right, try to fix it up yourself.
        opportunities to work on different formats of          Have one more practice without the reading
        the text.                                              pen.”
     •• If the student’s fluency when reading is poor,      •• “Well done – you are noticing when you
        then you should recommend further practice             make a mistake, and you are correcting
        with the audio support. Students with poor             yourself. Choose a new book from the same
        fluency should be instructed to read “like the         stage.”
        voice on the reading pen” or to make their
        reading “sound like talking.”                       •• “You’re doing well. Listen one more time and
                                                               do the cloze activity. This will help you to
                                                               think about what makes sense.”
 Teacher-initiated Conferences                              •• “Your reading is really improving. Do the
 From time to time, you’ll want to know how a                  word search to help you read some of the
 student is managing a text before it has been                 tricky words.”
 thoroughly practised in order to:                          •• “Fantastic! You’ve listened once, and it was
     •• find out the kind of miscues the student               easy. Try reading another book without the
        is making;                                             reading pen. Tomorrow, we will check how
                                                               well you can read a book from the next
     •• find out what cues the student is attending
                                                               stage.”
        to;
                                                          A template for award certificates is provided on
     •• find out what strategies the student is using
                                                          the CD (Additional Resources folder). Good times
        on a book they have not yet mastered;
                                                          to present these include when a student has
     •• teach skills or strategies in which you believe   worked consistently well, moved to a new level, or
        the student is not yet proficient.                achieved a personal goal.

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Activities                                         Cloze Activities
Students learn to read by reading, and no          “Cloze” activities, in
activity can substitute for the valuable skills    which the student fills
learned from interaction with meaningful           gaps in a text, are
text. Some activities can, however, extend         useful for improving
and enrich the skills learned during reading.      comprehension. You
The activities in the New Heights programme        may use copies of
have been designed for maximum educational         the activities for
advantage, but it is not intended that every       assessment purposes,
student should complete every activity for         and students may use
every book. Activities can be used:                them for reading practice.
  •• for practice in the classroom and at          The first part of each New Heights title (enough
     home; or                                      to allow for 25 gaps in the text) is featured. After
  •• when you believe that the student needs       the first sentence, every fifth word is deleted for
     further practice with the text but they are   the students to fill in. Proper nouns (such as Drew,
     reluctant to read the book again.             Sarah, Francisco) and words that are difficult to
                                                   predict are excluded from this procedure, and a
There are five kinds of activities:
                                                   neighbouring word has been deleted instead. In
  •• cloze                                         Silver level, there are fewer gaps in the text and
  •• text sequencing                               additional picture support is provided.

  •• word search                                   Cloze activities can be used in a variety of ways,
                                                   for various purposes, as described below. This is
  •• board game                                    not a copying exercise, so the student should not
  •• writing.                                      have access to the corresponding book.
The layout of the text on the activity sheets
                                                   Comprehension Check
differs from the corresponding books, where
text size, pictures, and layout are appropriate      •• Use cloze activities after reading as a
to the different reading levels. Because of             comprehension check that will assist
these differences, for other reading-based              with diagnosing the student’s strengths
activities, students should read from the               and weaknesses in using semantics and
books and not from the activity sheets.                 structure cues when reading. By analysing
                                                        the kinds of answers the student gives, you
Activity sheets are provided in the Activities          will be able to make decisions about what
folder on the CD.                                       they need to learn and the books they can
Note: If you copy the text-sequencing sheets            read in the future that might help to address
and games onto colored card stock and/or                those needs. See page 31 for a detailed
laminate them, they can be used many times.             discussion of how to use cloze activities for
                                                        assessment.

                                                   Practice
                                                     •• Use cloze activities to encourage the
                                                        student to use meaning and structure cues
                                                        and to predict language structure, using
                                                        context cues, when reading. Group work
                                                        can be beneficial, with discussion enabling
                                                        low-achieving students to hear more able
                                                        readers explain how they use context as an
                                                        aid to understanding a text.

                                                                                                          19
Text-Sequencing Activities                          Word Search Activities
 Text-sequencing                                     Word search activities
 activities feature                                  require the student
 text from the                                       to locate words that
 titles presented                                    have been hidden in
 in summary                                          a grid of letters. This
 form for the                                        provides practice in:
 student to read                                       •• recognising
 and arrange in                                           words in
 sequence. These                                          a different
 activities provide                                       context;
 a powerful means
 for developing                                        •• spelling words;
 and checking                                          •• searching for
 comprehension and                                        words in
 reading for meaning.                                     a sequence.
 To prepare the activity, copy the self-checking     Words from the titles have been hidden in grids
 message on the back, cut the sheet along the        of different sizes that correlate with the reading
 marked lines. Present the pieces as an activity     levels of the books. The word search activities
 to the students after they have practised reading   have the following features:
 the corresponding book.
                                                       •• Because the student needs to remember
                                                          them this way, words are written only:
                                                          ––   from left to right (across or diagonally); or
                                                          ––   from top to bottom (down).
                                                       •• All the letters are lowercase.
                                                       •• Every word in every grid has its own set
                                                          of letters, that is, letters are not shared with
                                                          any other word.
                                                       •• The letters that are left after all the
                                                          words have been found form another word
                                                          from the book. A clue is given for this extra
                                                          word.
                                                       •• At the earlier levels (especially Silver, White
                                                          and Red), high-frequency words feature more
                                                          often than interest or content words.
                                                       •• As the levels become progressively more
                                                          difficult, interest or content words are
                                                          introduced with increasing frequency.
                                                       •• Answers are provided in the Activities folder
                                                          on the CD.
                                                       •• A blank Word Search template is provided in
                                                          the Additional Resources folder on the CD
                                                          for any teachers or students who wish to
                                                          make their own word search activities.

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