Referencing is necessary... to give due respect to those whose work contributed to your discussion.

Referencing is necessary... to give due respect to those whose work contributed to your discussion.

APA 6TH EDITION REFERENCING HANDOUT This guide is based on details taken from Curtin University of Technology online guide and from the Glion Institute of Higher Education Referencing Manual as well as the APA 6 th edition manual. Last update semester 2013.2. Referencing is necessary...  to give due respect to those whose work contributed to your discussion.  to acknowledge the source of all ideas which are not common knowledge.  to set your work into the context of other research.  to allow readers of your work to read more on the topic and check your interpretation.  to avoid plagiarism.

Page | 1 Please note that failure to acknowledge your sources appropriately will be regarded as plagiarism. Plagiarism is the “stealing of thoughts or writings of others and giving them out as your own” (Oxford, 2001, p. 961). There is a formal procedure at Les Roches whereby suspected plagiarism is investigated and a negative outcome will result in a mark of zero. It is your responsibility to read this manual and familiarise yourself with the appropriate way to reference work. Introduction When you write any piece of work you should refer to the work of others. You will never be the first to write on a given topic.

Therefore, you must always attribute ideas gained from other authors in order to avoid plagiarism. The correct way to incorporate the work of others into your own is by referencing. In order to do this, you must indicate in your text where you have incorporated another author’s ideas then list details of his/her publication in alphabetical order with all the other references you have used at the end of your work.

Before you begin, it is worthwhile noting the difference between “References” and a “Bibliography”. Both of these can be used at the end, but there is an important difference. A reference list (entitled “References” in APA) shows precisely where the reader can find the literature items that you referred to in the text. It is one complete alphabetical list of all the sources you have used in your work. A bibliography is a list of books, articles and papers that form background reading, or further reading, and the items shown in a bibliography section do not need to be cited in the text.

It is your responsibility to read this manual and familiarise yourself with the appropriate way to reference work.

Page | 2 Bibliographies are generally only found at the end of textbooks as well as non-academic books. As a student, you are normally requested to use “References”, not a “Bibliography” at the end of your text. There is also a difference between a journal and a magazine. A journal reports scholarly, often original research conducted by professional or experts in a given discipline. Journal articles are often long and complex, and can be challenging reading for those not familiar with the field of study. They will include abstracts (summaries), footnotes and bibliographies.

Examples: Harvard Business Review, Cornell Quarterly, New England Journal of Medicine, etc.

A magazine provides general information and entertaining reading to a wide audience. Magazines cover current news and general interest topics. Magazine articles are usually short and easy to comprehend by the general public. They rarely cite sources or include bibliographies. Examples: Time, Newsweek, Wine Spectator, The Economist, Caterer and Hotelkeeper. In any case, it is very important to read carefully the assessment outline, conform to its referencing requirements and use the type(s) of sources requested for the project.

Page | 3 APA Referencing System The American Psychological Association (APA) referencing system is a standardised method of acknowledging sources of information and ideas that you have to use in your assignment whenever you get specific information from others. The “rules of referencing” There are three rules of referencing. 1. A reference must be included every time you use someone else’s information or ideas. 2. A reference must be included when you: - paraphrase (express someone else’s idea in your own words). - quote (express someone else’s idea in their exact words). - summarise (express someone else’s idea in a reduced form in your own words).

- copy (reproduce a diagram, graph, table, photo or figure from someone else’s work). 3. Each reference must appear in two places: - shown as a shortened reference in the text of your work each time it is used (the in-text reference/citation) AND - written in full in “References” at the end of your work. This list has full details so that your reader can find the reference. The main components of the APA referencing system are therefore in-text references and a reference list entitled “References”. In-text references When you write a paper you obtain information from three sources:  your own ideas and observations.

 general common information you can find in many places.  specific information, phrases and ideas that you can get from others ("borrowed information"). In-text referencing is only required when you use specific “borrowed information”.

Page | 4 What is general common information? General common information is factual information considered to be in the public domain, such as birth and death dates of well-known figures, and generally accepted dates of military, political, literary, and other historical events. In general, factual information contained in multiple standard reference works can usually be considered to be in the public domain.

The content available in dictionaries is usually considered as common information. A citation, i.e. in-text reference, is a short reference given in brackets within your text to help the reader find the source of information. It is used every time you use borrowed information, i.e. when you paraphrase/summarise/copy or quote information. The reference list at the end of the assignment contains the full details of all in-text citations. Example: The theory was first propounded in 1993 (Comfort, 1997, p. 58). Direct quotations, paraphrases, summaries, facts and figures, graphs as well as ideas and theories, from both published and unpublished works, must be referenced using citations in the text.

When summarising information you must write the last name of the author and the date of publication of the source. When you paraphrase, quote or copy a diagram, picture etc. you must write the last name of the author, the date of publication and well as the page number of the source. If there is no date of publication then you must write n.d. If there is no author to cite, such as when you are citing a web page that lists no author, use the title of the page, article or book in italics to substitute for the name of the author.

If you are citing a work that has no author and no date, use the title in italics and the abbreviation n.d.

(for "no date") (See examples of referencing).

Page | 5 List of references Your list of references should appear at the end of your paper and should begin on a separate page from the text of the assignment. Each type of source (magazine, web site, newspaper, book) will have a different form so as to identify the source. A list of references in the APA system:  is entitled References at the top of the page.  is arranged alphabetically by the author’s family name.  is a single list – books, articles and electronic sources are listed all together alphabetically and not in separate sections.  includes the full details of all sources of information used in the text.

Steps of referencing 1. Note down the full bibliographic details including the page number(s) from which the information is taken.  In the case of a book, ‘bibliographical details’ refers to: author/editor, year of publication, title, edition, volume number, place of publication and publisher as found on the front and back of the title page. (Not all of these details will necessarily be available).  In the case of a journal article, the details required include: author of the article, year of publication, title of the article, title of the journal, volume and issue number of the journal, and page numbers.

 For all electronic information, the database name or web address (URL) from where you accessed it. 2. Insert the citation at the appropriate place within the text of the document (see examples below). 3. Provide a reference list at the end of the document (see examples below).

Page | 6 APA Referencing Examples Important: please note that this handout includes how to refer to the most common types of source or information you are likely to use in your studies. If the type of source or information you wish to refer to is not listed below, please consult the official Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), 6th Edition, available in the library.

The manual provides referencing examples even for the most uncommon types of borrowed information. Books Type of Source In-text citation APA examples Reference list APA examples Book, single author (Author's last name, year of publication, p.x) (Comfort, 1997, p. 209) or As Comfort (1997) stated, … (p. 209).

Author's last name, first initials. (year). Book title. Place of publication: publisher. Comfort, A. (1997). A good age. London: Mitchell Beazley. Book, 2 authors (Authors' last names, year of publication, p. x) (Madden & Hogan, 1997, p. 123) or Madden and Hogan (1997) found that… (p. 123). Last name, initials. & last name, initials. (year). Book title. Place of publication: publisher. Madden, R. & Hogan, T. (1997). The definition of disability in Australia: moving towards national consistency. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Book, 3 authors (Authors' last names, year of publication, p.

x) (Leeder, Dobson & Gibbers, 1996, p. 12) or As Leeder, Dobsen and Gibbers (1996) demonstrated, … (p. 12) Each author's last name and first initials. (year). Book title. Place of publication: publisher. Leeder, S.R., Dobson, A.J. & Gibbers, R.W. (1996). The Australian film industry. Adelaide: Dominion Press.

Page | 7 Book, 4 authors (Authors' last names, year of publication, p. x) (Bradley, Ramirez, Soo & Walsh, 2006, p. 11) or Bradley, Ramirez, Soo and Walsh (2006) showed that… (p. 11) Each author's last name and first initials. (year). Book title. Place of publication: publisher. Leeder, S.R., Dobson, A.J., Gibbers & R.W., Patel, N.K. (1996). The Australian film industry. Adelaide: Dominion Press. Book, 5 authors (Authors' last names, year of publication, p. x) (Walker, Allen, Bradley, Ramirez & Soo, 2008, p. 79) or According to Walker, Allen, Bradley, Ramirez and Soo (2008 ( p. 79).

Each author's last name and first initials.

(year). Book title. Place of publication: publisher. Leeder, S.R., Dobson, A.J., Gibbers, R.W., Patel, N.K. & Mathews, N.S. (1996). The Australian film industry. Adelaide: Dominion Press. Book, 6 or more authors (One author's name et al., year of publication, p.x) (Rodgers et al., 2005, p. 13) or Rodgers et al. (2005) demonstrated that… (p. 13). 6 authors' last names and first initials. et al. (year). Book title. Place of publication: publisher.

Rodgers, P., Smith, K., Williams, D., Conway, L., Robinson, W., Franks, F. et al. (2002). The way forward for Australian libraries. Perth: Wombat Press. No author (Book title, year of publication, p. x) (Advertising in the Western Cape, 1990, p. 345) Book title (year). Place of publication: publisher. Advertising in the Western Cape (1990). Cape Town: ABC Publishers. Multiple works by same author (Author's last name, year, year) (Brown, 1982, 1988) Itemise each book separately as for "book, single author". Order alphabetically by book title. Brown, P. (1982). Corals in the Capricorn group.

London: Routledge.

Brown, P. (1988). The effects of anchor on corals. London: Routledge. Multiple works published in the same year by the same author (Author's last name, year a, year b) (Napier, 1993a, 1993b) Itemise each book separately as for "book, single author". Order alphabetically by book title. Napier, A. (1993a). Fatal storm. Sydney: Allen & Unwin. Napier, A. (1993b). Survival at sea. Sydney: Allen & Unwin. Editor (Editor's last name, year of publication, p. x) (Kastenbaum, 1993, p. 12) Editor's last name, first initials. (Ed.) (year). Book title. Place of publication: publisher. Kastenbaum, R. (Ed.) (1993).

Encyclopedia of adult development. Phoenix: Oryx Press.

Type of Source In-text citation APA examples Reference list APA examples

Page | 8 Different editions (Author's last name, year of publication, p.x) (Renton, 2004, p. 33) Author's last name, first initials. (year). Book title (xx ed.). Place of publication: publisher. Renton, N. (2004). Compendium of good writing (3rd ed.). Milton: John Wiley & Sons. Encyclopedia or dictionary (Title, year of publication, p. x) (The new Grove encyclopedia of music and musicians, 1980, p. 122) Title. (year). Place of publication: publisher. The new Grove encyclopedia of music and musicians.

(1980). London: Macmillan.

Non-English book (Author's last name, year of publication, p.x) (Sikström, 2007, p. 34) Author's last name, first initials. (year). Book title in original language [title translated in English]. Place of publication: publisher. Sikström, C. (2007). Stockholm utställningen 1930 [The Stockholm exhibition of 1930]. Uppsala: Acta Universalis. Electronic book (e- books, books on Google Book, etc.) (Author's last name, year of publication, p.x) (Hill, 2010, p. 34) Author's last name, first initials. (year). Book title. Retrieved from name/address of electronic source Hill, P. (2010). Sociology: a new paradigm.

Retrieved from http://books.google Book chapters Article or chapter in a book (Author's last name, year of publication, p. x) (Blaxter, 1976, p. 56) Author's last name, first initials. (year). Article or chapter name. In Editors' names (Eds.). Title of book (page numbers). Place of publication: publisher. Blaxter, M. (1976). Social class and health inequalities. In C. Carter & J. Peel (Eds.). Equalities and inequalities in health (pp. 120-135). London: Academic Press.

Article or chapter in a book, no author (Article or chapter name, year of publication, p. x) (Solving the Y2K problem, 1997, p. 78) Article or chapter name (year). In Editor's name (Ed.). Title of book. (page number). Place of publication: publisher. Solving the Y2K problem (1997). In D. Bowd (Ed.).Technology today and tomorrow. (p. 27). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Type of Source In-text citation APA examples Reference list APA examples

Page | 9 Print articles  Important: print articles are articles that have not been retrieved online. For online articles, see p.

10. Article (Author's last name, year, p.x) (Wharton, 1996, p. 34) Author's last name, first initials. (year). Article title. Name of journal, volume(issue number), page numbers. Wharton, N. (1996). Health and safety in outdoor activity centres. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 12(4), 8-9. Article, no author ("Article title", year, p.x) ("Anorexia nervosa", 1969, p. 37) Article title (year). Name of journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers.

Anorexia nervosa (1969). British Medical Journal, 1, 529-530. Newspaper/magazine article (Author's last name, year, p.x) (Towers, 2000, p. 234) Author's last name, first initials. (year, date). Article title, Newspaper/magazine name, page number. Towers, K. (2000, January 18). Doctor not at fault: Coroner, The Australian, p. 3. Newspaper/magazine article, no author (Article title, year, p.x) (Rate Rise, 2005, p. 134) Article title (year, date). Newspaper/magazine name, page number. Rate rise scares new home buyers away (2005, April 29). Sydney Morning Herald, p. 35. Press release (Author's last name, year) (Watersmith, 2000) Author's last name, first initials (year, date).

Article title. (Press release). Place of press release: producer of press release.

Watersmith, C. (2000, March 1). BHP enters new era. (Press release). Melbourne: BHP Limited. Type of Source In-text citation APA examples Reference list APA examples

Page | 10 Online articles from journals  Digital object identifiers (DOI) is a unique code providing a persistent link to the online location of a source. This system is used more and more in particular for academic journals and articles. If a DOI is assigned to the article you wish you refer to, you should always include it in your referencing. In that case, no retrieved online database name or URL needs to be included in the reference list for this particular source.

The online database name or URL from which you retrieved the article should only be included if a DOI is not available.

Full text article from an electronic database (when DOI is available) (Author's last name, year, p.x) (Haynes, 2010, p. 42) Author's last name, first initials. (year). Article title, Journal title, Volume number(issue number), page numbers. doi:xx.xxxxxxx. Madden, G. (2002). Internet economics and policy: an Australian perspective, Economic Record, 78, 343-58. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.23.2.225. Full text article from an electronic database (when DOI is not available) (Author's last name, year, p.x) (Madden, 2002, p. 4) Author's last name, first initials. (year). Article title, Journal title, Volume number(issue number), page numbers.

Retrieved from name of database.

Madden, G. (2002). Internet economics and policy: an Australian perspective, Economic Record, 78, 343-58. Retrieved from ABI/INFORM Global database. Full text article from an electronic database, no author ("Article title", year, p.x) ("Internet economics", 2002, p. 30) Article title. (year). Journal title, Volume number(issue number), page numbers. Retrieved from name of database. Internet economics and policy: an Australian Perspective. (2002). Economic Record, 78, 343-58. Retrieved from ABI/INFORM database.

Full text article in a journal from the internet (Author's last name, year, p.x) (Byrne, 2004, p.

434) Author's last name, first initials. (year). Article title, Journal title, volume number(issue number). Retrieved from webpage address Byrne, A. (2004). The end of history: censorship and libraries, The Australian Library Journal 53(2). Retrieved from http://www.alia.org.au Full text newspaper, newswire or magazine article from an electronic database, no author ("Article title", year, p.x) ("WA Packed", 2004, p. 13) Article title. (year, date).

Newspaper/newswire/magazine name, page number. Retrieved from name of database. WA packed with overseas appeal. (2004, November 12). The West Australian, p. 47. Retrieved from Factiva database. Type of Source In-text citation APA examples Reference list APA examples

Page | 11 Information from websites  Referring to information available on websites could be problematic, as details concerning the author and date of publication are often lacking. As well, identifying what is the title of the webpage or webpage section you wish to refer to may not be easy.

Therefore, using content from websites sometimes requires some improvisation, but you should always make sure the reader can easily find the information you borrowed thanks to your referencing. Document on WWW (Author's/Authors' last name, year) (Dawson, Smith, Deubert & Grey-Smith, 2002) Author's last name, first initials. (year). Document title.

Retrieved from webpage address Dawson, J., Smith, L., Deubert, K. & Grey-Smith, S. (2002). 'S' Trek 6: referencing, not plagiarism. Retrieved from http://studytrekk.lis.curtin.edu.au Webpage content, no author (Webpage title, year) (Leafy seadragons, 2001) Webpage title (year). Retrieved from webpage address Leafy seadragons and weedy seadragons (2001). Retrieved from http://www.windspeed.net.au/~jenny/ sea dragons Document on WWW, no date (Author's last name or document name, n.d.) (Royal Institute of British Architects, n.d.) Source (n.d.). Document name.

Retrieved from webpage address Royal Institute of British Architects (n.d.) Shaping the future: careers in architecture.

Retrieved from http://www.careersinarchitecture.net Webpage content, no author, no date (Webpage title, n.d.) (Tweeter and its users, n.d.) Webpage title. Retrieved from webpage address Tweeter and its users. Retrieved from http://www.socialmedialaboratory. com Type of Source In-text citation APA examples Reference list APA examples

Page | 12 Secondary sources  Secondary sources are sources that have been cited by another author in her/his work. We strongly encourage students to always try to find and refer to the original/primary source. However if exceptionally after using all of the library resources and our online databases the source is not available, you may refer to it as a secondary source following the examples below. Book (Original source authors, as cited in book's author's last name, year, p.x) (Carini and Hogan, as cited in Thibodeau & Patton, 2002, p. 342) Book's author's last name, first initials. (Eds.).

(year). Book name. place of publication: publisher. N.B. Cite the book YOU sourced.

Thibodeau, G.A. & Patton, K.T. (Eds.). (2002). The human body in health and disease. St. Louis, MO: Mosby. Journal article (Original source authors, as cited in journal's author's last name, year, p.x) (Carini and Hogan, as cited in Patton, 2002, p. 34) or Carini and Hogan's study (as cited in Patton, 2002, p. 34) Journal's author's last name, first initials. (year). Article title. Journal title, volume number(issue number). page numbers. N.B. Cite the journal YOU sourced. Patton, K.T. (2002). Neuralgia and headaches. Science, 400, 2153- 55.

Type of Source In-text citation APA examples Reference list APA examples

Page | 13 Audiovisual material Image on the web (Title of image, year) (Coral bleaching and mass bleaching events, 2002) Title of image [Image]. (year). Retrieved from webpage address Coral bleaching and mass bleaching events [Image].(2002). Retrieved from http:// www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/ info_services/science/ bleaching Films and video recordings (Creator's last name, year) (Scorsese & Lonergan, 2000) Creator's last name, first initials. (creator's title). (year). Title of film [type of media]. Place produced: producer. Scorsese, M. (Producer) & Lonergan, K. (Writer/Director). (2000).

You can count on me [Motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.

Television and radio programmes (Source's last name, year) (Crystal, 1993) Source's last name, first initials. (source's title).(year). Programme title [programme type]. Place produced: producer. Crystal, L. (Executive Producer). (1993). The MacNeil/Lehrer news hour [Television broadcast]. New York and Washington, DC: Public Broadcasting service. Image from newspaper/magazine The poster/image/photo "Name of image" (Photographer's name, year) The poster "Buy Australian Apples" (Cowle & Walker, 2005) Photographer's name, first initials. (year, date). Article title.

Newspaper/magazine name, page number.

Cowle, C. & Walker, D. (2005, November). The art of apple branding. National Geographic, p. 36. Image in a book The poster/image/photo "Name of image" (Photographer's name, year) The poster "Buy Australian Apples" (Cowle & Walker, 2005) Photographer's name, first initials. (year). Name of book. Place of publication: publisher. Cowle, C. & Walker, D. (2005). The art of apple branding. Hobart: Apples from Oz. Type of Source In-text citation APA examples Reference list APA examples

Page | 14 Other types of sources Brochure (Publisher's name, year of publication) (Research and Training Centre, 1992) Publisher's name. (year). Brochure title (edition number) [Brochure]. Place of publication: publisher. Research and Training Centre on Independent Living. (1993). Guidelines for reporting and writing about people with disabilities (4th ed.) [Brochure]. Melbourne: Research and Training Centre. E-book * no paper version published (Author's last name, year of publication, p.x) (Pettinger, 2002, p. 398) Author's last name, first initials. (year). E-book title. Retrieved from webpage address/source.

Pettinger, R. (2002). Global organizations. Retrieved from NetLibrary database.

Thesis (Author's last name, year, p.x) (Jones, 1988, p. 33) Author's last name, first initials. (year). Thesis title. (Name of diploma sought thesis). Name of institution. Retrieved from name of university Digital Theses. Jones, F. (1998). The mechanism of Bayer residue flocculation. (PhD Thesis). Curtin University of Technology. Retrieved from Curtin University of Technology Digital Theses. Conference proceeding (Author's last name, year, p.x) (Debono, 2000, p. 341) Author's last name, first initials. (year). Subject title.

Proceedings title, (page numbers). Place of publication: publisher.

Debono, C. (2000). The National Trust into the new millennium. Proceedings of the ninth meeting of the International National Trust, (pp. 44-6). Alice Springs, NT: Australian Council of National Trusts. Annual report of an organisation (Organisation name, year, p.x) or xxxxx's annual report (year, p.x) (Department of Transport and Regional Services, 2001, p. 3) OR Billabong's annual report (2005) … (p. 34). Organisation name (year). Annual report year, place. OR Name of company (year). Annual report year. Retrieved from source. Department of Transport and Regional Services (2001). Annual report 2001-2002, Canberra.

OR Billabong International Ltd. (2005). Annual report 2005. Retrieved from Connect4 database. Type of Source In-text citation APA examples Reference list APA examples

Page | 15 Act of Parliament Governmental body's act title + year The Commonwealth's Copyright Act 1968… Legislation is included in a list of references only if it is important to an understanding of the work. Set the list apart from the main body of the reference list under the subheading "Legislation". The essential elements are: Short title Date (Jurisdiction). If retrieved from a database, include "retrieved from" statement.

Copyright Act 1968 (Cwlth). Bulletin (Name of governmental body, year) (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1999) Name of governmental body.

(year). Bulletin name, referencing, place of publication. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (1999). Disability, ageing and careers: summary of findings, cat. No. 4430.0, ABS, Canberra. Census information (Name of governmental body, year) (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2001) Name of governmental body. (year). Census name. Retrieved from name of database. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2001). Census of population and housing: B01 selected characteristics (First release processing) postal area 6050. Retrieved from AusStats database.

Government report (Name of governmental body, year, p.x) (Resource Assessment Commission, 1991, p.

322) Name of governmental body (year). Report name. Place published: publisher. Resource Assessment Commission (1991). Forest and timber inquiry: draft report, (No.1). Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. Standard (Standard publication, year) (Standards Australia, 1997) Standard publication name (year). Standard title (referencing codes). Retrieved from name of database. Standards Australia (1997). Size coding scheme for infants' and children's clothing - underwear and outerwear, (AS 1182-1997). Retrieved from Standards Australia Online database. Personal communication, e- mail and discussion lists with no web archive (First initials last name of source, personal communication, date) (S.

Savieri, personal communication, 24 April, 1999) Not included as untraceable Type of Source In-text citation APA examples Reference list APA examples

Page | 16 Example of an APA reference list  Please note that if your entry has more than one line, each line after the first one should be indented from the left margin as in the example below. References 2 swans [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://laydenrobinson.wordpress.com/2011/07/07/2-swans/ Blake, D. (2001). Skroo the rules: what the world’s most productive workplace does differently. Melbourne: Information Australia. Coral bleaching and mass bleaching events [Image].(2002). Retrieved from http:// www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/ info_services/science/ bleaching Dawson, J., Smith, L., Deubert, K.

& Grey-Smith, S. (2002). 'S' Trek 6: referencing, not plagiarism. Retrieved from http://studytrekk.lis.curtin.edu.au Napier, A. (1993a). Fatal storm. Sydney: Allen & Unwin. Napier, A. (1993b). Survival at sea. Sydney: Allen & Unwin. Robertson, F. (2007, February 23). Flight Centre: Still best place to work. The National Business Review. Retrieved from Newztext database.

Ruth, D. (2007). Management development in New Zealand. Journal of European Industrial Training, 31(1), 52-67. doi:10.1108/03090590710721736 Neither “Bibliography” nor “Reference List” List entries in alphabetical order Entries beginning with numbers go first Include DOI when available Title of journals or books in italics No full stop at end of webpage addresses Use ampersand (&) to say “and” between authors’ names Use 1.5 line spacing throughout the list

Page | 17 APA Sample Paper - 6th Edition The next two pages represent a portion of a paper as an example of how to cite sources correctly.

As to the paper format, you will always need to follow the instructions given by your teacher. Preventing Obesity in Children Americans are the fattest people on the planet and continue to expand. According to a survey of adult men and women in the United States during 1999- 2000, published in JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 30.5% of Americans are obese, up from 22.9% ten years earlier, and nearly two-thirds (64.5%) are overweight (Flegal, Carroll, Ogden & Johnson, 2002, pp. 1723-1727).

Excess weight is not just a matter of looks. Obesity magnifies the risk of heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and other ailments thus overtaking tobacco as the leading cause of chronic illness (Brownell & Horgen, 2004, p. 4). An especially disturbing aspect of this trend is that children are increasingly obese. The US Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2002) reports that the percentage of obese children aged 6 to 11 almost quadrupled from 4% in 1974 to 15% in 2000, and the percentage of obese children aged 12 to 19 increased from 6% in 1974 to 15% in 2000. Obese children have a 70% chance of becoming obese adults with a much higher risk of serious illness than those of normal weight (Brownell & Horgen, p.

46) (N.B. There is no year given for the second Brownell & Horgen citation in this paragraph as it is in the same paragraph and is the same source). Furthermore, obese children suffer many serious health problems today. According to Morgan, pediatricians now routinely treat atherosclerosis and type II diabetes, diseases that used to be frequent only among older people (as cited in Tyre, 2002, p. 38). Today’s children are among the first generation in American history who may die at earlier ages than their parents.

For most people in the United States, obesity is a matter of individual choice and old-fashioned willpower (Lee & Oliver, 2002). The usual advice for overweight people is to eat less and exercise more, but how applicable is this advice for children unless they have strong guidance from adults? How can children make intelligent choices about eating in an environment where overeating is normal and where few adults know what is in the food they eat? The United States has been successful in addressing teen health problems: drug use has dropped, teenage pregnancy has been reduced, and teen smoking has declined.

We need to take a similar proactive response by taking concrete steps to reverse the trend toward more obese children. Many have blamed the rise in obesity on a more sedentary life style, including the move to the suburbs, where people drive instead of walk, and increased viewing of television. One study of children watching television found a significant drop in the average metabolic rate during viewing (Klesges, Shelton, & Klesges, 1993, pp. 281-286). Another study reports that reducing children’s television viewing also affects their eating behavior (Robinson & Killen, 2001). No doubt children who exercise less tend to weigh more, but the couch potato argument does not explain why the enormous weight gains have occurred over the past twenty-five years.

The move to the suburbs and the widespread viewing of television began in the 1950s. Furthermore, the couch potato argument neglects the extraordinary rise of female participation in athletics. The number of young women playing a sport in high school has risen from 294,015 in 1971-72 to 2,856,358 in 2002-03, almost a tenfold increase (National Federation of State High School Associations, 2003). Yet girls, like boys, have gained weight.

Page | 18 References Brownell, K. D., & Horgen, K. B. (2004). Food fight: the inside story of the food industry, America’s obesity crisis, and what we can do about it. Chicago: Contemporary Publishing. Flegal, K. M., Carroll, M.D., Ogden, C. L., & Johnson, C. L. (2002). Prevalence and trends in obesity among U.S. adults, 1999-2000. Journal of the American Medical Association 288(14), 1723-1727. Klesges, R.C., Shelton, M. L. & Klesges, L.M. (1993). Effects of television on metabolic rate: Potential implications for childhood obesity. Pediatrics 91, 281-286. Retrieved from Expanded Academic ASAP database.

Lee, T., & Oliver, J. E. (2002, May). Public opinion and the politics of America’s obesity epidemic. Retrieved from Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government, ksgnotes1.harvard.edu/Research/wpaper.nsf/rwp/RWP02-017/$File/rwp02_017_lee .pdf National Federation of State High School Associations. (2003). Make a difference. Participation Summary 2002-03. Retrieved from http://www.nfhs.org/nf_survey_resources.asp Robinson, T. N., & Killen, J. D. (2001). Body image, eating disorders, and obesity in youth. Psychology 32(3), 167-169. doi:10.1207/s15328023top3203_8 Tyre, P. (2002, August 5).

Fighting big fat. Newsweek, pp. 38-40. U. S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2002, October 24). Prevalence of overweight among children and adolescents: United States, 1999-2000. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/overwght99.htm