RISE OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC-READING

RISE OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC-READING

RISE OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC-READING

UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 1 Name _ Date _ _ DO NOW: please read and answer the questions for paragraphs one and two RISE OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC-- READING (1) A republic is a form of government with elected leaders. In Rome not all people were equal. Power in the early republic belonged to rich men called patricians. The majority of Romans, the plebeians, had no say in the government. A republic is: a. A place where people live in Rome b. A place where patricians go to vote c. A type of government where the leaders are elected d. A type of government where plebeians have the power Which of the following is NOT true about a republic in Rome?

a. A republic is a form of government where the leaders are chosen by the people b. A republic is a form of government where all people have equal power c. In a republic in Rome, patricians have more power than plebeians d. In a republic in Rome plebeians do not have any say in the government (2) Upper-class citizens, called patricians, came from a small group of wealthy landowners. Patricians comes from the Latin word patres, which means “father.” The patricians controlled the most valuable land. They also held the important military and religious offices. Only the patricians could participate in the government.

Patricians were: a. Upper Class b. Middle Class c. Lower Class Patricians controlled the most valuable land. According to the text, what other 3 things could patricians do?

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UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 2 (3) Lower-class citizens, called plebeians, were mostly peasants, laborers, craftspeople, and shopkeepers. The word plebeians comes from plebs, which means “many.” Plebeians made up about 95% of Rome’s population. They could not be priests in the church or government officials. They had little say in the government. Yet they were still forced to serve in the army. Plebeians were: a. Upper Class b. Middle Class c. Lower Class According to the text, where would you find a plebeian?

a. Working as a priest in a church b. Working as a government official c. Working in a shop as a shopkeeper (4)In a republic, elected officials work for the interests of the people. To the patricians, “the people” meant the patricians themselves, not the plebeians. They put most of the power in the hands of the Senate. The Senate was a group of men that the patricians elected. The senators served for life. They also appointed other government officials and served as judges. Why did the people value living in a republic?

Why would the patricians give the people in the Senate the most power? (5) Two elected leaders called consuls shared command of the army. The Senate was supposed to give the consuls advice on what to do. The consul was expected to do whatever the consul told them. What was the responsibility of consuls? Explain the relationship between the consuls and the Senate.

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UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 3 ROMAN REPUBLIC-- NOTES   Rome Similarities United States Republic The Roman government was a , or indirect democracy. A Republic is a type of government in which people _ on _ who make laws for them. The United States government is a republic, in which people vote on representatives to make laws. 3 Branches The Roman republic had _ _ _ of government. The United States government has three branches of government. Executive Two elected _ _ led government and commanded the army. An elected president heads the government and military.

Legislative The _ were made by two houses of representatives: the _ and the _ . The laws are made by two houses of representatives: the Senate and the House of Representatives. Judicial Eight _ _ oversaw the _ _ and governed. The Supreme Court of nine justices interprets the law. Social Classes in Rome

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UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 4 ROMAN REPUBLIC-- PRACTICE The US is modeled after the Roman Republic. The US is also a - , with _ _ _ of government. Your Definition of a “Republic”: Characteristics of a Republic: Examples of civilizations or countries that have/had a republic: Examples of civilizations or countries that did NOT have a republic: Draw pictures that show who led each branch of the Roman government and what their responsibilities were. Two elected consuls led government and commanded the army.

The laws were made by two houses of representatives: the Senate and the Assembly. Eight judges oversaw the courts and governed. Describe each branch of the Roman government. Tell who made up the branch and what their role was.

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UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 5 Name _ Date _ _   Do Now: Fill in the chart below with the Social classes in Ancient Rome and how each social class participated in the government in the Roman Republic. Social  Class How  did  this  social  class  participate  in  the   government  in  the  Roman  Republic?         *Stop.  This  is  the  end  of  your  Do  Now.     ROMAN LAW-- READING (1) Rome was now a republic but the patricians held all the power. They made sure that only they could be a part of the government. Only they could become senators or consuls. Plebeians had to obey their decisions. Because laws were not written down, patricians often changed or interpreted the laws to benefit themselves. The laws in Rome were not written down. How was this an disadvantage for the plebeians?

(2) The plebeians had to fight for what they wanted. They began to demand more political rights. The struggle between the plebeians and patricians was known as the Conflict of Orders, or conflict between the classes. How do we know the plebeians fought for what they wanted? (3) The struggle took a dramatic turn in 494 BCE. By then, Rome was a city of between 25,000 and 40,000 people. Most of the population were plebeians. Angry over their lack of power, the plebeians marched out of the city and gathered on a nearby hill. They refused to enter back into the city until the patricians met their demands. Stop! Jot!

Do you think the plebeians actions will bring about change? Why or why not?

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UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 6 (4) Rome was in trouble. Work in the city and on the farms stopped. Without plebeians, patricians feared that the army would be helpless if and enemy struck at Rome. The patricians had little choice but to compromise. (5) Over time, plebeians used a series of protests to gain more political rights. One thing they demanded was that the laws be written down. That way the patricians could not change them whenever they wanted. Around 451 BCE the patricians agreed. The laws were written down on tablets called the Twelve Tablets.

Were the plebeians successful in bringing about change? If so, what change occurred? ROMAN LAW-- NOTES •  Romans  wanted  fair _ _  to _ _  the  large  Roman   _ _  and  make  it _ .   •  Many  legal  systems  in _ _  and  the   _ _  were  based  on   _ _  law.   •  Roman  law  became  more _ .  The  job  of   _ ,  called  Juris  Prudentes,  was  created  to   _ _ _ .   •  Romans  created  a  law  code  called  the   _ .

  •  The  Laws  of  the  Twelve  Tables  were  recorded  on _ _  tablets  and   posted  in  the _ ,  the  center  of  town.   •  The  Twelve  Tables  were  placed  in  the  forum  so   _ _  could   _ .  

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UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 7 Name _ Date _ _   ROMAN LAW—PRACTICE Directions: Answer the following questions in complete sentences 1. How did having one set of laws affect the Roman Empire? _ _ _ _   2. Which modern countries have modeled their law codes after the Roman model? _ _ _ _   3. Why was the profession of lawyers begin? _ _ _ _   4. What was the Roman law code called? _ _ _ _   5. Where were the Twelve posted? _ _ _ _   6. Why did the Roman government post the Twelve Tables in the forum?

_ _ _ _   7. What was the impact of the Twelve Tables on the Roman Empire? _ _ _ _  

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UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 8 Name _ Date _ _   ROMAN TECHNOLOGY-- NOTES Notes Pictures • Romans invented many , such as the helmets, shields, gladius, and pilum. • Rome was made famous for it’s big system of , which helped with , and moving their _ . • Romans built a _ system of toilets and public baths to keep the city . This allowed the city to _ than any city in the past. _ were a part of the Sewage system. They _ _ _ to the fountains and bathhouses.

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UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 9 ROMAN TECHNOLOGY-- PRACTICE Ancient Roman Museum Congratulations! You have just been hired as a tour guide for the Ancient Roman History Museum in Rome, Italy. As you pass each exhibit in the museum, you must explain to your tour group what each artifact is, and what it was used for. USE YOUR NOTES!!! Good Luck!!! This  is  a:     It  was  used  for:   This  is  an  example  of:     It  was  used  for:   These  are  called:     They  were  used  for:  

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UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 10 This  is  a:     It  was  used  for:   This  is  a:     It  was  used  for:  

UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 11 Name _ Date _ _   Do Now 1. What were the Twelve Tables? _ _ _ _ 2. Where were the Twelve Tables placed? _ _ _ _ 3. Why were the Twelve Tables important? _ _ _ _ Julius Caesar and the Rise of the Roman Empire The Rise of the Roman Empire- BrainPop Video Questions: 1. Who was Julius Caesar? 2. What land did Julius Caesar conquer? 3. Why was the Senate worried about Julius Caesar? 4. What changes did Julius Caesar make? 5. What did the Senators do to Julius Caesar? 6. What happened in Rome after Julius Caesar died? 7. What powers did Augustus Caesar have as emperor? 8. What was the Pax Romana?

UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 12         Why did the Roman Republic change from a republic to an empire?   • Julius  Caesar  was  a  successful _ _  leader  who  stopped   _ _ _ _  and  gave _ _  to  the   _ .   • Julius  Caesar  also  created  the _ _ _ ,   which  is  similar  to  the  calendar  we  use  today.   • Members  of  the _ _ _ _  Julius  Caesar   because  they  thought  he  was  taking _ _ _ _ _ _   over  the  government.   • After  Caesar's  death,  many  rulers _ _ _ _ _ _   the  government.   • Some  thought  Rome  was _ _ _ _  to  continue  being  a  republic.   • –Others  wanted _ _ _ _ _ _  to  stop  the   fighting  over  leadership.  

UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 13 JULIUS CAESAR AND AUGUSTUS—PRACTICE Directions: As you read, underline key information (1)Julius Caesar was a general that wanted to control Rome. Another general, Pompey, also wanted to control Rome. Pompey had the support of the Senate. What two generals were fighting with each other? (2) After three years of fighting Julius Caesar defeated Pompey and took control of Rome. The Senate became afraid of Julius Caesar and gave him control of Rome for the rest of his life. With Caesar in control, the republic form of government where people could vote for their leaders, was at an end.

True/False _ Caesar was elected by the Senate. (3) As the dictator (life long ruler), of Rome, Julius Caesar made many changes. He gave work to thousands of Romans by starting new projects to make new roads and public buildings. To keep the poor happy, he staged gladiator contests they could watch for free. He also adopted a calendar that is still used today. Name three ways Julius Caesar helped the people of Rome (4) Caesar had a vision of Rome as a great empire. But he did not live to see this vision come true. On March 15th , 44BCE a group of enemies stabbed Caesar to death. Stop! Jot! Why do you think the enemies killed Julius Caesar? (5) The people who killed Caesar thought they were saving the republic. Caesar’s murder put Rome into a series of civil wars that lasted for more than ten years. What happened after Julius Caesar was killed?

Do you think his death was a good thing or a bad thing? DEAD OR ALIVE According to the text, explain who might want Julius Caesar dead and why. According to the text, explain who might want Julius Caesar alive and why. Who: Why: Who: Why:

UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 14 OCTAVIAN “AUGUSTUS” Directions: As you read, underline key information (1) Caesar’s murder put Rome into a series of civil wars that lasted for more than ten years. When the fighting ended, one man stood as the absolute ruler of Rome. He was Octavian, Caesar’s grandnephew and adopted son. (2) To gain power, Octavian had to defeat jealous rivals. One of them was Marc Antony, a popular general. Antony married Cleopatra of Egypt. In 31 BCE, Octavian defeated Antony and Cleopatra in a sea battle near Actium, Greece. His army chased the lovers to Egypt, where they killed themselves. Octavian was now the supreme ruler of the Mediterranean region. (3) Octavian knew that the Romans prized their republic (their ability to vote for their leader). The Senate gave him the title Augustus, which means “revered” (honored). (4) As ruler of Rome, Augustus encouraged education, art, and literature. He completed grand construction projects repairing more than eighty ruined temples. He also gave Rome its first police force, firefighters, and library.

(5) As emperor, Augustus ruled over 50 million people who lived around the Mediterranean Sea. While the land surrounding the Mediterranean Sea was under Roman rule, it was mostly at peace for 200 years. This period is called the Pax Romana, or Roman Peace. Territory Controlled by Rome, About 117 CE Directions: Create a picture that describes the events that occurred in each paragraph. Include a caption that explains the picture. Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3 Paragraph 4 Paragraph 5 Picture: Picture: Picture: Picture: Picture: Caption: Caption: Caption: Caption: Caption:

UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 15 Name _ Date _ _ DO NOW: 1) Outline Italy. (Remember: Italy is shaped like a boot.) 2) Put a star where the city of Rome is, and label it “Rome”. 3) Label the Ionian Sea, Adriatic Sea, and Mediterranean Sea. 4) Label the Tiber River. (Remember, Rome is on the Tiber River.) CHRISTIANITY IN ROME-- READING (1) By the 60s CE, Christians were beginning to attract the notice of the Romans. Christian preachers traveled along the roads of the empire, winning converts to their new religion. Both Paul and Peter, a close friend of Jesus, preached in Rome. At first, Rome was not mean to Christians. What was another god, among so many?

(2) But Christians refused to worship the other Roman gods. Worse, they would not admit that the emperor was a god. Their way of life seemed to be an insult to Roman customs. Instead of wealth and luxury, they preferred simplicity. Recalling Jesus’ message of peace and love, many of them refused to serve in the Roman army. (3) As the number of Christians grew, many Romans saw them as a threat to the Roman way of life. Eventually the Christian religion was declared illegal.

UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 16 (4). Some emperors were determined to make a example of Christians, who they considered citizens who were not being loyal to the Roman empire. For refusing to honor the Roman gods, Christians were sentenced to die in cruel and painful ways. Some were crucified (hung on a cross to die). Some were burned to death. Others were thrown into arenas where they were attacked and eaten by wild animals in front of cheering crowds. (5) But the attacks on Christians failed to destroy the new religion. Instead, Christians won new admirers by facing death bravely, even singing hymns (religious songs) as lions or bears tore them apart. And Christianity offered many people in the empire a sense of purpose and hope. It taught that even the poor and slaves could look forward to a better life after death if they followed the way of Christ.

(6) Over time, people of all different social classes adopted the new faith. By 300 CE there were about 5 million Christians in the Roman lands of Europe, North Africa and western Asia. (7) In 313, Emperor Constantine gave Christians the freedom to practice their religion openly. Future emperors also accepted the new faith. By 393 Christianity was the official religion of the Roman Empire. Stop! Jot! What are TWO things you learned from this passage?   Christian martyrs—people killed for their faith— faced terrible deaths with courage.

UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 17 CHRISTIANITY IN ROME—NOTES _ _  are  people  who  believe  that _ _  Christ   is  the _ . _ _  is  their  religion.     • Jesus  was  born  during  the _ _  Empire.  He  practiced   _ .       • Christianity  has  it's  roots  in  Judaism.  Jesus  believed  in   _ ,  and  accepted  the _ .     • As  Jesus  become  more _ ,  the   _ _ felt _ _  by  the  amount  of   power  that  he  was  gaining.  The  Roman  government  executed  Jesus  by   _ .

    • Despite  his  death  and  persecution, _ _  still  began  to  practice  his   teaching  and  Christianity _ _  across  social  classes.     • Christians  were  persecuted  (attacked)  until  Emperor  Constantine   _ _  to  Christianity  and  made  it _ _  to  practice  any   religion.     _ _  helped  Christianity  to _ _  across  the   Roman  Empire.   CHRISTIANITY IN ROME—PRACTICE Part I: INTERVIEWING JESUS 1) Where did you live? 2) What religion did you believe in? 3) What were some of your teachings? 4) What happened when you became popular?

UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 18 5) Who executed you? 6) Why were you crucified? 7) What were the people called who believed you were god? 8) What is the name of the religion where people believe you are a god? Part II: Circle the correct answers. 1) What religion did Jesus believe in? a. Judaism b. Hinduism c. Christianity d. Sumerian 2) What religion did Jesus’ followers start after Jesus died? a. Judaism b. Hinduism c. Christianity d. Sumerian Write complete sentences. 3) Where did Jesus live? 4) What were some of Jesus’ teachings? 5) What happened when Jesus became popular?

UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 19 6) Who executed Jesus? 7) Why was Jesus executed? 8) What were people called who believed Jesus was a god? Part III: Write in complete sentences. 9) Do you think Jesus had excellent teachings? Why or why not? 10)If you lived in Judea when Jesus lived there, do you think you would have been one of Jesus’ followers? Why or why not? 11) If you were someone in the Roman government, would you have felt threatened by Jesus and his followers? Why or why not? 12) If you were a Roman official, would you have ordered Jesus to be crucified? Why or why not?

UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 20 Part IV: Match each person we studied with what they would have said about themselves. 1) Moses _ _ 2) Julius Caesar _ _ 3) Homer _ _ 4) Augustus _ _ 5) Alexander the Great _ _ 6) Odysseus _ _ A. I controlled a huge empire on Africa, Asia and Europe by building Greek style cities and spreading Greek culture. B. I was the author of two famous Greek epics – The Iliad and The Odyssey. C. I was the first emperor of the Roman Empire. I became the emperor after I defeated Cleopatra and Mark Antony in battle.

D. I received the Ten Commandments from Yahweh and led the Hebrew people out of slavery in Egypt. E. I am the main character of The Odyssey, a story about my journey home from the Trojan wars and the obstacles I face along the way. F. I was a Roman general but then I became the dictator of Rome. I was murdered by people who thought I threatened the republic by gaining too much power.  

UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 21 Name _ Date _ _ DO NOW 1) Around the year 60 C.E., what were Christians preachers doing? a. Building huge churches. b. Killing lions in the Colosseum. c. Playing the organ. d. Converting Romans to Christianity. 2) Who was one of these Christian preachers? a. Paul b. Yahweh c. Jesus d. Moses Write complete sentences. 3) What are TWO reasons Roman emperors made Christianity illegal? 4) How did the persecution help spread Christianity? 5) Eventually, what religion replaced the Roman religion?

UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 22 THE FALL OF ROME Most modern historians believe that a number of problems combined to bring about Rome’s fall. Here are three of the main reasons. Bad Leadership Rome never solved the problem of how to peacefully transfer political power to a new leader who was capable of doing a good job. When an emperor died, rivals often fought each other for the emperor’s crown. Sometimes rivals didn’t wait for am emperor to die; emperors were murdered regularly. After 180 CE, Rome had a number of emperors who were weak and sometimes dishonest. Military Defeats The huge size of the empire made it hard to defend against enemies. By the 300s tribes from Germany were trying to attack the western borders of the Roman Empire.

Economic Issues Bad leadership contributed to other problems. To pay for Rome’s huge armies, its citizens had to pay heavy taxes. These taxes drove many people into poverty. Trade with other countries also suffered. Across the empire, people stopped liking Rome as much. They were not as proud to be citizens of Rome as they had once been. FALL OF ROME READING QUESTIONS 1. According to the text, which of the following is NOT a reason the Roman Empire fell? a. Military defeats b. Economic Issues c. Disease d. Bad leadership 2. According to the text, bad leadership: a. Hurt Rome because many rivals were killing each other to gain power.

b. Some leaders were dishonest c. All of the above 3. Use the text to find the statement that best explains Rome’s relationship with Germany: a. The Germans were trying to help the Romans save their city b. The Germans were trying to get the Roman emperor to join forces c. The Germans attacked the Romans and weakened their military d. The Germans were too far away from the Romans to have any relationship with them 4. True/False _ Romans were becoming poor because they had to pay high taxes in order to build up the armies. After years of attacks by invaders the city of Rome itself was finally captured marking the official collapse of the western part of the Roman Empire.

UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 23 Name _ Date _ _ ROMAN REPUBLIC—HOMEWORK Imagine you go back to your 5th grade class to visit your teacher (me). He or she is so excited to see you. Your teacher is teaching a lesson about the branches of United States government. A student asks where the structure of the United States government came from. Your 5th grade teacher asks you to explain where each of the branches came from, and what the similarities are between the US government and Roman government. Write down your response. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Describe each branch of the Roman government. Tell who made up the branch and what their role was.

Which of the following was NOT true about the Roman Republic? a. Slaves were not allowed to participate in the Roman Republic b. Patricians were able to participate

UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 24 Name _ Date _ _   ROMAN LAW—HOMEWORK       Part  1:  Imagine  you  are  a  Juris  Prudent  (a  lawyer).  A  plebeian  has  come  to  you   seeking  law  advice.  They  are  clueless  about  how  Roman  law  works,  so  help  them  out.     Plebeian:  I  am  so  upset  that  I  was  charged  with  a  crime!  Why  do  we  have  written   laws  here  in  Rome?   You _ _ _ _   Plebeian:  Thanks  for  your  brilliance.  Who  are  you  anyway?  Someone  told  me  to  go   see  a  Juris  Prudent,  but  I  don’t  know  what  that  is!  What  do  you  do?   You _ _ _ _   Plebeian:  So  there  are  a  lot  of  laws,  huh?  What  are  the  laws  called?   You _ _ _ _   Plebeian:  How  are  people  supposed  to  know  what  the  laws  are?   You _ _ _ _   Plebeian:  They’re  in  the  forum?  What  are  they  doing  there?   You _ _ _ _   Plebeian:  Well,  I  guess  I’ll  go  check  out  the  laws  for  myself.  Thanks  for  your  help!             DON'T STOP! TURN TO THE NEXT PAGE TO FINISH YOUR HOMEWORK!  

UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 25 Part 2: Your Opinions: To receive full credit, your answers must be written in complete sentences. 1) We don’t have a “forum” in the center of our city. Where do you think would be a good place to post our laws? Why?   _ _ _ _ _ _   2) Why do you think Europe and America copied some of the legal structure of the Romans?   _ _ _ _ _ _   3) The “Twelve Tables” were written in metal. What do you think this suggests about what the Romans thought about their government?

  _ _ _ _ _ _   4) If your family lived in Ancient Rome, what class do you think they would be a part of? Why? _ _ _ _ _ _ 5) Romans believed that all citizens should contribute positively to society. Think about yourself, and your life here in Memphis. Do you think you contribute positively to Memphis/US society? Why or why not? _ _ _ _ _ _  

UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 26 Name _ Date _ _   ROMAN TECHNOLOGY—HOMEWORK 1. Which Roman inventions do we still use today? How have they changed over time? _ _ _ _ 2. Which Roman invention helps you the most in your life? How does it help you? _ _ _ _ 3. Which Roman invention helps you the least in your life? _ _ _ _ 4. What do Roman inventions tell us about Roman values and culture? _ _ _ _

UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 27 Name _ Date _ _ JULIUS AND AUGUSTUS CAESAR-- HOMEWORK   It just been announced that Julius Caesar is dead! Everyone in the Roman Empire is waiting to hear more about his death. Eulogy—a  speech  that   tells  good  things  about  a   person.  Most  often  read  at   funerals.  

UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 28 Name _ Date _ _ CHRISTIANITY IN ROME-- HOMEWORK You are a famous Christian Historian, and a Hindu person comes to you to find out more about Christianity. Help him out by answering the questions he has. Dasa: What is the name of the RELIGION of people who believe Jesus was the Messiah? You _ _ Dasa: What religion did Jesus practice? You _ _ Dasa: How did the Roman government react to Jesus and his followers? You _ _ _ _ Dasa: They killed Jesus?! Who did it? How did they do it? You _ _ _ _ Dasa: But why? Why would they kill Jesus? You _ _ _ _ _ _ Dasa: Did the Roman Government ever come to believe Jesus’ teachings? What happened?

You _ _ _ _ _ _

UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 29 Name _ Date _ _ FALL OF ROME/UNIT REVIEW HW Part I: Below are some facts about Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire. Write GREEK or ROMAN next to each fact to show which civilization it belongs to. 1 _ Athens and Sparta were two important cities here. 2 _ The Coliseum and the Pantheon are huge structures located here. 3 _ The Parthenon, a beautiful marble temple for Athena, is located here. 4 _ Socrates and Aristotle were great philosophers here. 5 _ People who live here speak Latin.

6 _ People here trade by taking ships along trade routes on the sea. 7 _ People here think the most important part of religion is performing rituals. 8 _ People here travel and trade on 53,000 miles of roads. 9 _ People here enjoy reading Homer’s epics The Iliad and The Odyssey.

UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 30 Part II: Write complete sentences. 1) What is one reason the Roman Empire fell apart? 2) What is another reason the Roman Empire fell apart? 3) What is another reason the Roman Empire fell apart? 4) What happened to the Roman Empire after it fell apart? 5) What was the name of the new empire that began? 6) How long did the new empire last? Part III: MATCH EACH TYPE OF GOVERNMENT WITH ITS DESCRIPTION. 1) Monarchy _ A. All citizens vote to make important decisions. 2) Democracy _ B. Citizens elect a group of people to make decisions.

3) Republic _ C. One ruler makes all the decisions.

UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 31 Name _ Date _ _ ROMAN REPUBLIC 1. What type of government did the Romans develop? _ _ 2. Who makes laws in a republic? _ _ 3. How many branches of government did the Roman Republic have? _ _ 4. Fill in the social class diagram below: Name _ Date _ _ ROMAN REPUBLIC 1. What type of government did the Romans develop? _ _ 2. Who makes laws in a republic? _ _ 3. How many branches of government did the Roman Republic have? _ _ 4. Fill in the social class diagram below:

UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 32 Name _ Date _ _ ROMAN LAW 1. How did having one set of laws affect the Roman Empire? _ _ _ _ 2. Why was the job of the Juris Prudentes [lawyer] created? _ _ _ _ 3. The Roman law code was called the _ _ 4. Why did the Roman government post the Roman law code in the forum? _ _ _ _ 5. Name one modern country that modeled their law codes after the Roman model _ _ Name _ Date _ _ ROMAN LAW 1. How did having one set of laws affect the Roman Empire? _ _ _ _ 2. Why was the job of the Juris Prudentes [lawyer] created? _ _ _ _ 3. The Roman law code was called the _ _ 4. Why did the Roman government post the Roman law code in the forum? _ _ _ _ 5. Name one modern country that modeled their law codes after the Roman model _ _

UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 33 Name _ Date _ _ ROMAN TECHNOLOGY Technology Purpose 1. Aqueduct a. 2. b. Helped transport goods and armies from place to place 3. Pilums, Shields, and Gladius c. 4. d. Kept the city clean. Allowed Rome to grow bigger than any city before Name _ Date _ _ ROMAN TECHNOLOGY Technology Purpose 1. Aqueduct a. 2. b. Helped transport goods and armies from place to place 3. Pilums, Shields, and Gladius c. 4. d. Kept the city clean. Allowed Rome to grow bigger than any city before

UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 34 Name _ Date _ _ JULIUS AND AUGUSTUS CAESAR 1. Which of the following is NOT something that Julius Caesar did while he was in control? a. Stopped unfair taxes b. Created the Julian calendar c. Gave land to the poor d. Created peace after 100 years of civil war 2. After Julius Caesar’s death, many rulers fought over control of the government. What were the two ideas that people had that led to a Civil War? a _ _ _ _ b _ _ _ _ 3. What is the name of Julius Caesar’s grandson who became the first emperor of Rome?

_ . 4. The time of peace following the Civil War in Rome is known as the _ . Name _ Date _ _ JULIUS AND AUGUSTUS CAESAR 1. Which of the following is NOT something that Julius Caesar did while he was in control? a. Stopped unfair taxes b. Created the Julian calendar c. Gave land to the poor d. Created peace after 100 years of civil war 2. After Julius Caesar’s death, many rulers fought over control of the government. What were the two ideas that people had that led to a Civil War? a _ _ _ _ b _ _ _ _ 3. What is the name of Julius Caesar’s grandson who became the first emperor of Rome?

_ . 4. The time of peace following the Civil War in Rome is known as the _ .

UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 35 Name _ Date _ _ CHRISTIANITY IN ROME 1) What religion did Jesus’ followers start after Jesus died? a. Judaism b. Hinduism c. Christianity d. Sumerian Write complete sentences. 2) Why was Jesus crucified? 3) What are the people called who believed Jesus was God? Name _ Date _ _ CHRISTIANITY IN ROME 1) What religion did Jesus’ followers start after Jesus died? a. Judaism b. Hinduism c. Christianity d. Sumerian Write complete sentences. 2) Why was Jesus crucified? 3) What are the people called who believed Jesus was God?

UNIT FIVE—ANCIENT ROME PAGE 36 Name _ Date _ _ FALL OF ROME 1) Which of the following is not a reason why Ancient Rome fell apart? a. There were several leaders who were not strong that hurt the empire b. There was a disease that killed the majority of Rome’s population c. Many citizens in Rome were poor because taxes became too expensive d. Other empires began to attack Rome 2) What happened to the Roman Empire after it fell apart? _ _ _ _ 3 _ True/False The name of this new empire was the Byzantine Empire.

4) How long did this new empire last _ _ Name _ Date _ _ FALL OF ROME 1) Which of the following is not a reason why Ancient Rome fell apart? a. There were several leaders who were not strong that hurt the empire b. There was a disease that killed the majority of Rome’s population c. Many citizens in Rome were poor because taxes became too expensive d. Other empires began to attack Rome 2) What happened to the Roman Empire after it fell apart? _ _ _ _ 3 _ True/False The name of this new empire was the Byzantine Empire.

4) How long did this new empire last _ _

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