Road safety plan for 2017-2019 - Gencat

Road safety plan for 2017-2019 - Gencat
Road
Safety
Plan for
2017-2019
Road safety plan for 2017-2019 - Gencat
Road safety plan for 2017-2019 - Gencat
Road
Safety
Plan for
2017-2019
Approved by the Government Agreement of 27 June 2017
Submitted to the Parliament of Catalonia on 29 June 2017
Road safety plan for 2017-2019 - Gencat
Preamble




The law whereby the Catalan Traffic Service was laun-     for pedestrians, for cyclists and for motorists, to pre-
ched lays down that a Road Safety Plan is to be drawn     vent driving under the influence of alcohol, narcotics
up every three years and is to detail the actions and     and psychotropic drugs, to control the use of devices
activities of the public and private bodies and of all    while driving, to eliminate simple accidents but also
the departments involved. This plan follows the 2014-     to reduce the accident rate in the urban area and the
2020 Strategic Road Safety Plan (SRSP) approved by        work-related traffic accident rate.
the Government of Catalonia and submitted to the
                                                          I invite you to look at the range of projects and initi-
Parliament. Its purpose is to equip the Government
                                                          atives in this new three-year plan that should help us
with a specialist instrument that will organise the
                                                          to continue to improve road safety in our country, an
array of measures, actions and resources required to
                                                          improvement that ought to be and which is a priority
reduce accidents, in particular the number of deaths
                                                          goal for the Government of Catalonia and for society
and serious, life-changing injuries.
                                                          as a whole.
Having reached the end of the last Road Safety Plan,
                                                                                       Joaquim Forn i Chiariello
which covered the period 2014-2016, and having ac-
                                                                                          Home Affairs Minister
hieved a 31.9% reduction in the accident rate, thereby
exceeding the set target of 30%, we are launching this
new 2017-2019 Road Safety Plan (RSP) with the cha-
llenge of increasing the guarantees regarding mobility,
which we believe must be both safe and sustainable.
This new three-year plan is particularly important be-
cause it is intended to help make it possible to meet
the goal established by the European Union of a 50%
reduction in the 2010 number of deaths in traffic ac-
cidents by 2020.
In addition to these statistical targets, the Ministry
of Home Affairs and the Catalan Traffic Service have
identified the specific areas in which we need to work
more intensely over this three-year period in order to
continue to reduce serious accidents. Consequently, we
have specific plans for the elderly and young people,
Road safety plan for 2017-2019 - Gencat
Purpose




The 2017-2019 Road Safety Plan is the last three-year        that already cover 90% of the population. We also
document that will be issued by the Catalan Traffic          want to continue placing people at the heart of our
Service this decade. In it, we set ourselves the goals of    policies and we do not wish to forget the victims, now
reducing the number of fatal casualties that occurred        that we come to the fifth anniversary of the launch
in 2010 by 45% by 2019, the final year of the plan,          of the pioneering SIAVT (Information and Assistance
and by 50% in ten years. By 2020, when the next plan         Service for Road Accident Casualties). And we shall
comes into force, we are fully convinced that we will        not fail to carry on proposing to central government
have achieved the goals set out in this plan in Cata-        new legislative measures to do with penalty points
lonia, and hence the number of fatal and seriously           on driving licences, repeat offenders, the acquisition
injured casualties in traffic accidents will have been       and revision of driving licences and the immediate
reduced. However, for an advanced society like ours, a       impact of self-driving cars on traffic circulation in the
society that takes the lead in safe mobility policies, our   coming years.
goal ought to be no victims whatsoever, in our case by
                                                             These are just some examples of the list of priorities
2050, and any figure higher than this is unacceptable.
                                                             laid down in the 2017-2019 Road Safety Plan, the
Consequently, we must work tirelessly to achieve this.
                                                             purpose of which is to enable us to achieve the tar-
The 119 actions outlined in this three-year plan un-         gets we have set for ourselves. Above all, however,
derscore the need to continue working in the main            it should make it possible for us to advance towards
areas of serious road accidents, for example with vul-       ever safer and more sustainable, healthier mobility, in
nerable groups, the young and the elderly, motorists,        short, mobility without casualties. I encourage you to
simple accidents potentially related to distractions,        continue your joint efforts towards this end.
work-related traffic accidents and the consumption of
                                                                                                Eugenia Doménech
narcotics and alcohol, which has not reduced despite
                                                                              Director of the Catalan Traffic Service
years of awareness-raising campaigns.
To ensure the success of these initiatives, the Catalan
Traffic Service cannot nor does it wish to act alone. Ins-
tead, it requires the collaboration and co-ordination
of every public and private agent related to road
safety, first and foremost among them town and city
councils, with which we are looking to go further
than the existing plans and partnership agreements
Table of contents




BASIC FIGURES
ON ROAD SAFETY IN CATALONIA        7
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PLAN   41
ACTIONS IN THE 2017-2019
ROAD SAFETY PLAN                  43




                                       5
Basic figures on road safety in Catalonia




                                                                              fatalities in 30 days in traffic accidents on the road
   European road                                                              network in the period 2000-2010.

   safety targets                                                             During this period, the goals were attained in Catalonia:
                                                                              in 2000, 891 traffic accident deaths were recorded, whe-
                                                                              reas the figure in 2010 was 381, an overall reduction of
                                                                              57.2%. If we break down the figures into interurban and
I. Progress and targets for 2000-2010                                         urban areas, the results show that the reduction in fata-
                                                                              lities within 30 days in interurban areas was even more
                                                                              pronounced, reaching 60.8%, but was lower in urban
The European Union established as the main target                             areas, standing at 45.5%, meaning that the goal set by
for road safety a reduction of 50% in the number of                           the European Union was not reached on urban roads.



   Changes in fatalities in 30 days, targets and real figures
   Interurban and urban network. Catalonia 2000-2010

  1.000
              891
                        815                                                                                             -50,0%
                                      812
    800                                           751
              680                                                661
                                                                          641
                        606           609                                              569
                                                  568                                            521
    600                                                                                                       452
                                                                                                                     411
                                                                                                                             381
    400                                                          473
                                                                          448
                                                                                      391
              211       209           203                                 193                   355                              266
                                                  183            188                  178                     308    288
    200

                                                                                                166           144    123     115
      0
             2000       2001         2002        2003            2004    2005        2006      2007           2008   2009   2010

                                  Fatalities in 30 days in interurban areas                   EU target: IA
                                  Fatalities in 30 days in urban areas                        EU target: UA
                                  Fatalities in 30 days. Total                                EU target: Total


Source: Catalan Traffic Service
                                                                                                                                          7
II. European target for 2020                                            In 2015, the number of road deaths over 30 days was
                                                                            higher than it had been the year before. Even so, a
                                                                            reduction of 23.6% in fatalities over 30 days in com-
    The European Union Road Safety Action Plan 2011-
                                                                            parison with the 2010 figure was achieved, and so the
    2020 once again sets a target of a 50% reduction in the
                                                                            trend is still in line with the 2020 target.
    number of deaths over 30 days on the road network in
    comparison with the 2010 figures. This target remains in                In 2015, the reduction in fatalities over 30 days in com-
    keeping with the goal for the prior period of 2000-2010,                parison with the 2010 figures was 28.9% in interurban
    though it will of course require greater effort to achieve              areas and 11.3% in urban areas.
    due to the fall in fatalities in the previous ten years.




      Changes in fatalities in 30 days and projections.
      Urban and interurban network. Catalonia 2000-2010

      500

                                                                                                                        -50,0%
      400        381        352
                                        336

                                                                            291
      300                                             272
                              241
                                                                     272
               266
      200                                224                       157                                                           191
                                                 186                         189
                115         111         112
                                                                    115                                                          133
                                                       86                     102
      100
                                                                                                                                 58

         0
                2010        2011        2012          2013     2014        2015     2016        2017          2018   2019   2020

                       Fatalities in 30 days in interurban areas                           EU target: IA
                       Fatalities in 30 days in urban areas                                EU target: UA
                       Fatalities in 30 days. Total                                        EU target: Total

    Source: Catalan Traffic Service




    III. European context                                                   had a lower mortality rate than Catalonia, and Finland,
                                                                            which in 2010 had the same rate as Catalonia.
                                                                            Countries with the highest road death rates are those
    In 2015, Catalonia ranked among the group of coun-
                                                                            in Eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Rumania, Latvia, Lithuania
    tries in the European Union with the lowest number of
                                                                            and Croatia), whereas those with the lowest rates are
    fatalities in traffic accidents per million inhabitants. The
                                                                            in northern Europe (Sweden, the United Kingdom, the
    gap between Catalonia and benchmark countries such
                                                                            Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, Germany and Finland).
    as Malta, Sweden and the United Kingdom has shrunk
                                                                            The Mediterranean countries have intermediate rates
    but shows that there is still potential for improvement.
                                                                            of between 50 and 80 fatalities per million inhabitants
    Between 2010 and 2015, Catalonia recorded better                        (France, Italy, Portugal and Greece). Catalonia and
    road accident figures than other countries in the Eu-                   Spain are the exception, as they have lower death rates
    ropean Union, among them Germany, which in 2010                         than their neighbouring countries.




8
Fatalities per million inhabitants in traffic accidents in the European Union, 2015




Source: CARE (Community Road Accident Database)




Catalonia ranks among the top countries in the Europe-    In the comparative analysis with other countries in the
an Union to have achieved a higher reduction in road      European Union, the numbers of seriously injured have
deaths (23.6% in the period 2010-2015).                   not been taken into account due to the differences in
                                                          each country’s criteria for defining ‘seriously injured’.




                                                                                                                      9
Changes in fatalities/million inhabitants in traffic accidents
        in the EU (fatalities in 30 dies) in leading countries


                       62
                                            61

       60
                                                          56
                       54                   54

                                                                                                      51
                                                                                    50                                           52
                  51                        49
       50                                                   47
                                                                                           48                                    49
                 46
                                                                                     41              42
                  45                   45                                                                                        43

       40                                        40                                                                             39
                                                          41                        36                     36
                                            34                                                                                   36
                        32                                     34
                                                                                                           32              31
                  31                                                                34                                           31
       30                                                                                                  29
                                            31
                                                                                                                                 28
                       28                                 29                                          28
                                                                                     27                                    27

       20
                      2010                 2011          2012                       2013            2014                  2015

                             Germany                                Catalonia                                   Denmark

                             Spain                                  Finland                                     France

                             Netherlands                            Sweden                                      United Kingdom


     Source: CARE (Community Road Accident Database)




     IV. Targets in the 2014-2020 SRSP
                                                                                •   10% reduction in elderly fatalities
                                                                                •   Promotion of cycling without increasing the
     The targets set in the Strategic Road Safety Plan (SRSP)                       accident rate**
     were established in accordance with the European Uni-                      •   20% reduction in fatalities and serious injuries
     on guidelines and are an initial step towards achieving                        among motorists
     the Vision Zero objective in 2050.                                         •   20% reduction in fatalities and serious injuries
                                                                                    during work-related travel or commuting
     The priority goal is to achieve a 50% reduction in the
                                                                                •   60% reduction in child fatalities***
     2010 number of fatalities on Catalan roads by 2020.
                                                                                •   40% reductions in serious, life-changing in-
     The specific targets are:                                                      juries*
          • 30% reduction in deaths caused by the victim
            being run over




10
Changes in the priority target: compliance in 2015


                                                                                                                      2015 SRSP
                                                     ∆ 2010-     ∆ 2010-2015          2015
 Casualties                    2010       2015                                                         2020 goal         target
                                                        2015             (%)         target
                                                                                                                       achieved
 Fatalities
 30 days
                                381        291           –90          –23.6%       –25.0%        191     –50.0%          û
 IA                             266        189           –77          –28.9%                                            ü
 UA                             115        102           –13          –11.3%                                            û
 Fatalities
 24 hours
                                339        261           –78          –23.0%       –25.0%        170     –50.0%          û
 IA                             246        176           –70          –28.4%                                            ü
 UA                              93         85            –8           –8.6%                                            û

Fatalities caused by running-over


                                                                                                                      2015 SRSP
                                                     ∆ 2010-     ∆ 2010-2015          2015
 Casualties                    2010       2015                                                      2020 target          target
                                                        2015             (%)         target
                                                                                                                       achieved
 Fatalities caused by
 running-over
                                 63         49           –14          –22.2%       –15.0%         44     –30.0%         ü
 IA                              45         33           –12          –26.7%                                            ü
 UA                              18         16            –2          –11.1%                                            û

Fatalities among the elderly


                                                                                                                      2015 SRSP
                                                     ∆ 2010-     ∆ 2010-2015          2015
 Casualties                    2010       2015                                                      2020 target          target
                                                        2015             (%)         target
                                                                                                                       achieved
 Fatalities among the
 elderly (>64 years)
                                 73         65            –8          –10.9%         –5.0%        67     –10.0%         ü
 IA                              41         41             0            0.0%                                            û
 UA                              32         24            –8          –25.0%                                            ü



Promotion of cycling without increasing the accident rate


                                                                                                                    2015 SRSP
                                                     ∆ 2010-     ∆ 2010-2015          2015
 Casualties                    2010       2015                                                      2020 target     target
                                                        2015             (%)         target
                                                                                                                    achieved

 Cyclist fatalities**            12           8           –4          –33.3%          0.0%        12       0.0%         ü
 IA                                7          7            0            0.0%                                            ü
 UA                                5          1           –4          –80.0%                                            ü
** To evaluate this target, the number of cyclist fatalities is monitored, the goal being to ensure it does not rise. These are
absolute figures and unrelated to mobility.




                                                                                                                                  11
Fatalities and serious injuries among motorists


                                                                                                                         2015 SRSP
                                                               ∆ 2010-   ∆ 2010-2015      2015
      Casualties                    2010       2015                                                     2020 target         target
                                                                  2015           (%)     target
                                                                                                                          achieved
      Fatalities and serious
      injuries among                 582         715              133         22.8%    –10.0%        466     –20.0%         û
      motorists

      IA                             296         352               56         18.9%                                         û
      UA                             286         363               77         26.9%                                         û

     Fatalities and serious injuries during work-related travel or commuting


                                                                                                                         2015 SRSP
                                                               ∆ 2010-   ∆ 2010-2015      2015
      Casualties                    2010       2015                                                     2020 target         target
                                                                  2015           (%)     target
                                                                                                                          achieved
      Fatalities and serious
      injuries during work-
      related travel or
                                     362         259             –103        –28.4%    –10.0%        290     –20.0%         ü
      commuting



     Child fatalities


                                                                                                                         2015 SRSP
                                                               ∆ 2010-   ∆ 2010-2015      2015
      Casualties                    2010       2015                                                     2020 target         target
                                                                  2015           (%)     target
                                                                                                                          achieved
      Child fatalities (≤14
      years old)***
                                        7         10                3         42.8%    –30.0%          3     –60.0%         û
      IA                                5          7                2         40.0%                                         û
      UA                                2          3                1         50.0%                                         û
     *** Even though the Convention on the Rights of the Child states “a child means every human being below the age of
     eighteen years”, in the field of road safety minors up to and including the age of 14 are regarded as children because prior
     to that age, children’s choice of transport is often determined by their parents, their environment and policies in general. In
     many countries in the EU, compulsory education ends at 15 and this is also the age when the person is deemed legally res-
     ponsible for their acts. In addition, moped licences can be acquired at the age of 15 and hence young people of this age are
     able to become drivers of motorised vehicles.



     Changes in the specific targets: compliance in 2015
     Casualties with serious, life-changing injuries

      Casualties                                       2010                    2015           ∆ 2010-2015          ∆ 2010-2015 (%)
      Severely injured
                                                       2,007                   1,900                  –107                   –5.3%
      casualties*
      IA                                               1,032                    891                   –141                  –13.7%
      UA                                                975                    1,009                    34                    3.5%

     * As yet, there are no broken-down figures for the number of casualties with severe, life-changing injuries. This is currently
     being studied as part of the European project to standardise the MAIS 3+ criteria. Consequently, this target cannot be evalu-
     ated at the present time, as the only figures available are for the overall number of severely injured casualties.




12
•   Risk factors
  Basic figures on road                                               – Speeding
                                                                      – Passive safety mechanisms
  accidents in Catalonia                                              – Alcohol, narcotics and psychotropic drugs
                                                                      – Distractions
                                                                  •   State of the vehicle
Every year, the Catalan Traffic Service (CTS) draws up
the Anuari estadístic d’accidents de trànsit a Catalunya
(Statistical Yearbook of Traffic Accidents in Catalonia),
which quantifies the changes in the accident rate vari-      I. Changes in the accident rate
ables. In addition, this yearbook provided the basis for
drawing up the 2014-2020 SRSP and the 2017-2019 RSP.
The 2014-2020 SRSP sets a target of a 50% reduction in       1.1. Deaths within 24 hours
the 2010 number of fatalities by 2020. It analyses the
changes in the accident rate in the 2010-2015 period,        Deaths within 24 hours
bearing in mind that this represents half of the 2010-       (interurban and urban areas)
2020 decade.
                                                             In 2016, a total of 231 deaths within 24 hours of the
This chapter presents a series of statistical data grouped   accident were recorded on the road network in Cata-
by subject, as detailed below, in order to draw attention    lonia. Of these, 154 occurred on interurban roads and
to those achievements made thus far and the challen-         77 on urban roads. These figures represent a reduction
ges that are still outstanding, and to identify points       of 31.9% in relation to 2010 (339 fatalities).
requiring particular attention today, which will serve
as a reference for focusing initiatives to be pursued
during the life of the plan.
      • Changes in the accident rate
        – Changes in deaths within 24 hours
        – Changes in severely injured casualties
        – Changes in deaths within 24 hours and severe
          injuries
        – Accidents with fatalities per billion vehicle-
          kilometres in interurban areas
      • Accident location
        – Interurban and urban areas (deaths within
          24 hours)
        – Interurban and urban areas (deaths within
          24 hours and severe injuries)
        – Demarcations
        – Intersections
      • Time period
        – Day of the week
        – Period of the week and zone
        – Month
        – Time of day
      • Accident rate by means of transport: vulne-
        rable users
        – Deaths within 24 hours by means of transport
          (interurban area)
        – Deaths within 24 hours by means of transport
          (urban area)
        – Deaths within 24 hours and severe injuries
          by means of transport (interurban area)
        – Deaths within 24 hours and severe injuries
          by means of transport (urban area)
        – Vulnerable groups
      • Work-related traffic accidents
        – Changes in the severity of injuries in accidents
          during the working day
        – Changes in the severity of injuries in work-
          related accidents during commuting

                                                                                                                      13
Changes in the number of deaths within 24 hours

                                             2011-2013 RSP                                         2014-2016 RSP
       400
                   339
       350
                                  280                 274
       300                                                                                               261
                   246
                                                                     232                 230                           231
       250
                                  205
                                                      194
                                                                                                         176
       200                                                                  170
                                                                                                                       154
                                                                                          140
       150

       100

         50           93                                                                  90             85
                                   75                  80                                                               77
                                                                      62
          0
                  2010            2011                2012          2013                 2014           2015           2016


                                        Urban areas                 Interurban areas                    Total




     Deaths within 24 hours on the interurban road                    The figures show that the targets in the 2014-2020 SRSP
     network                                                          are being met. This plan sets a target of a 50% fall in
                                                                      the 2010 number of fatalities by 2020. In the 2010-2016
     Road accidents involving fatalities on the interurban
                                                                      period, there was a fall of 37.4%.
     road network have been falling since 2010.



       Changes in the number of deaths within 24 hours. Interurban areas


       300                   2011-2013 RSP                    2014-2016 RSP


       250

                246
       200
                           205                                                                                         EU target
                                   194
       150                                                           176                                                     123
                                                170
                                                                                  154
                                                             140
       100



        50



          0
                2010       2011    2012        2013          2014    2015         2016          2017   2018     2019      2020




14
Deaths within 24 hours on the urban network                   Whereas the number of casualties fell by 33.3% in the
                                                              2010-2013 period (dropping from 93 to 62 fatalities),
There is no clear trend to the change in the number of
                                                              in the last three years (2014-2016), the figure rose
deaths within 24 hours of an accident on the Catalan
                                                              again and is now similar to that of the first three-year
urban road network over the 2010-2016 period. The
                                                              period (2010-2013).
accident rate during this period fell by 17.2%, signifi-
cantly below the targets set in the SRSP.



  Changes in the number of deaths within 24 hours. Urban areas


  120                      2011-2013 RSP                 2014-2016 RSP


  100                                              90
                                                              85

            93
   80

                                80                                                                        EU target
                      75                                                 77
   60
                                                                                                               47
                                           62

   40



   20



     0
           2010      2011      2012        2013   2014       2015     2016      2017     2018      2019      2020




1.2. Severely injured casualties
                                                              the degree of seriousness of accidents on a scale of
In order to arrive at an accurate assessment of the acci-     one to six. According to this scale, any person injured
dent rate, the number of fatalities and casualties who        on a scale of three or above is regarded as ‘seriously
have suffered severe injuries must both be taken into         injured’. This system will make it possible to determine
account. With regard to severely injured casualties, the      which accidents are indeed serious and to improve the
European Union has set a target of a 40% reduction            research and prevention of traffic accidents.
by 2020, to be based on a definition of the concept of
                                                              For the purposes of this assessment, while we lack
‘severely injured’ that is yet to be determined (see the
                                                              an established MAIS 3+ indicator that would make it
resolution of the European Parliament on road safety,
                                                              possible to identify real serious injuries, anyone who
agreed in September 2011).
                                                              has been hospitalised for more than 24 hours after an
There is no standard criterion for every country in the       accident is deemed to be ‘seriously injured’.
European Union concerning what is regarded as a ‘se-
                                                              During the course of 2015, 1,900 seriously injured ca-
rious injury’ (in some countries, three days in hospital
                                                              sualties were recorded on the Catalan road network
qualifies as a serious injury; in others two), meaning
                                                              (891 in interurban areas and 1,009 in urban areas).
that this indicator cannot be compared between co-
                                                              The overall reduction was 5.3% in comparison with
untries.
                                                              2010, but it was not evenly distributed, as there was
Work is currently ongoing on the MAIS 3+ project              a fall of 13.7% in interurban areas and a rise of 3.5%
(Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale) – in which the             in urban areas.
Catalan Traffic Service is taking part – which classifies




                                                                                                                         15
Changes in the number of seriously-injured casualties*

                                                       2011-2013 RSP                                       2014-2016 RSP
       3.000


       2.500
                      2.007                                  1.980
                                               1.866                             1.901               1.888              1.900
       2.000


       1.500
                      1.032                    1.014                                                1.069
                                                               983                999                                   1.009
       1.000

                       975                                     997
                                                852                               902                 819                 891
          500


               0
                      2010                     2011          2012                2013               2014                2015

                                       Total                Urban areas                       Interurban areas


     * As yet, there are no definitive figures for seriously injured casualties in 2016, as a result of which these data are not inclu-
     ded in the RSP, unlike the figures for fatalities within 24 hours.


     The goal set in the 2014-2016 Road Safety Plan (a re-                1.3 Changes in deaths within 24 hours and
     duction of 16% in casualties with life-changing, serious             severe injuries
     injuries in 2015 in comparison with 2010) cannot be
     evaluated until the MAIS 3+ project has been develo-                 Deaths within 24 hours and severe injuries
     ped and integrated.                                                  (interurban and urban areas)
                                                                          During the course of 2015, a total of 261 deaths within
                                                                          24 hours (176 in interurban areas and 85 in urban areas)
                                                                          and 1,900 seriously injured casualties (891 in interurban
                                                                          areas and 1,009 in urban areas) were recorded on the
                                                                          Catalan road network. The overall reduction was 7.9%
                                                                          in comparison with 2010, but it was not even, as there
                                                                          was a fall of 16.5% in interurban areas and a rise of
                                                                          2.4% in urban areas.


        Changes in the number of deaths within 24 hours and seriously-injured casualties

                                                       2011-2013 RSP                                        2014-2016 RSP
       3.000

                      2.346
       2.500                                                  2.254
                                               2.146                              2.133              2.118               2.161

       2.000


       1.500          1.278
                                                              1.177                                  1.159
                                               1.057                             1.072                                   1.094

       1.000
                      1.068                    1.089          1.077               1.061                                   1.067
                                                                                                       959
         500


           0
                      2010                     2011           2012                2013               2014                2015

                               Total                       Urban areas                            Interurban areas

16
Changes in the number of deaths within 24 hours and seriously-injured casualties
   Interurban areas

  1500
                                             2011-2013 RSP                                        2014-2016 RSP


                1032
                                                    983
                                                                        902                                    891
  1000                           852                                                        819




   500
                246
                                 205                194                 170                                    176
                                                                                            140


     0
                2010            2011               2012                2013                2014                2015

                                       Deaths within 24 hours                   Seriously-injured casualties




  Changes in the number of deaths within 24 hours and seriously-injured casualties
  Urban areas

  1500
                                             2011-2013 RSP                                      2014-2016 RSP

                                                                                           1069
                                1014                997                 999                                    1009
                975
  1000




   500


                 93              75                 80                  62                   90                   85


     0
                2010            2011               2012                2013                 2014               2015

                                       Deaths within 24 hours                   Seriously-injured casualties




1.4. Accidents with fatalities per 1 billion                    most objective exposure to risk factor, even though it
vehicle-kilometres in interurban areas                          is a figure that is often relatively difficult to calculate.

A key indicator for reliably assessing the changes in           Between 2010 and 2015, there was a fall of 19.6% in
accidents is the ratio between the accident rate and            the accident rate.
the number of kilometres travelled. This represents the




                                                                                                                               17
Accident index in Catalonia (accidents with fatalities/billion vehicle-kilometres on
       the interurban network). 2010-2015

       7,0
                      6,1

       6,0                                    5,2              5,3
                                                                                 5,1
                                                                                                                        4,9

       5,0
                                                                                                       4,0

       4,0


       3,0


       2,0


       1,0


       0,0
                     2010                 2011                2012               2013                 2014              2015


     Source: Catalan Traffic Service

     NB: The vehicle-kilometre data for 2015 are provisional.




     II. Accident location
                                                                        this trend is showing a degree of change and the last
                                                                        three years have seen a rise in the relative weight of
     2.1. Interurban and urban areas                                    urban areas (due to the declining trend in the death
     (deaths within 24 hours)                                           rate in interurban areas in contrast with the rise in
                                                                        urban areas).
     On average, 70% of fatalities were recorded in inte-
     rurban areas between 2010 and 2016. Nevertheless,



       Changes in deaths within 24 hours by area. 2010-2015

       100%

        90%

        80%       72,6%           73,2%                              73,3%
                                                    70,8%
                                                                                                        67,4%
        70%                                                                                                            66,7%
                                                                                       60,9%
        60%

        50%
                                                                                           39,1%
        40%
                                                            29,2%                                              32,6%           33,3%
                       27,4%             26,8%                           26,7%
        30%

        20%

        10%

         0%
                   2010                2011           2012            2013              2014              2015          2016

                                       % Interurban areas                                      % Urban areas

18
2.2. Interurban and urban areas                                             since 2010 show an inversion of the trend: whereas
(deaths within 24 hours and the seriously                                   before, most fatalities and seriously injured casualties
injured)                                                                    occurred in interurban areas, in 2011, 2014 and 2015,
                                                                            urban areas in Catalonia gained in importance.
In contrast, 51% of fatalities and seriously injured ca-
sualties occurred in urban areas in 2015. The changes



  Changes in the number of deaths within 24 hours and seriously-injured casualties
  by area. 2010-2015

  60%
            54,5%                                                                                         54,7%
                                                            52,2%
                                                50,7%                          50,3% 49,7%
                                       49,3%                        47,8%                                             49,4% 50,6%
  50%
                       45,5%                                                                      45,3%

  40%


  30%


  20%


  10%


   0%
                 2010                      2011                 2012                 2013                2014            2015

                                               % Interurban areas                        % Urban areas




Even so, the seriousness of the injuries was greater in                     for 5% of all casualties, whereas they represented 8.9%
interurban accidents than it was in urban accidents:                        in interurban areas.
deaths and serious injuries in urban areas accounted


  Proportion of casualties by severity of injuries, by area (2015)

                       0%          10%          20%       30%        40%       50%          60%    70%          80%    90%      100%




                                                                                Minor injuries
  Interurban areas
                                                                                  91,1%

          Fatalities        Serious
             1,5%           injuries
                             7,4%


                                                                               Minor injuries
        Urban areas
                                                                                 95,0%

          Fatalities    Serious
             0,4%       injuries
                         4,6%



In order to reduce the accident rate in urban areas, the                    for accident black spots and stretches of road. At the
Catalan Traffic Service has been developing local road                      present time, every town and city in Catalonia with
safety plans (LRSPs) since 2006. These LRSPs analyse                        more than 10,000 inhabitants and every county chief
the state of the accident rate in cities and towns in                       city already has an LRSP.
Catalonia and propose strategic and specific measures
                                                                                                                                       19
2.3. Demarcations (changes in deaths within 24                     Barcelona continues to decline, whereas in Tarragona
     hours by province)                                                 there was a rise in deaths in 2015 (53 fatalities) and a
                                                                        drop in 2016 (44). The same occurred in Lleida, where
     The number of fatalities in interurban areas fell in
                                                                        the number of deaths dropped from 38 in 2015 to 28).
     every demarcation except Girona in 2016. The trend in



       Changes in the number of deaths within 24 hours on the interurban network
       by demarcation. 2010-2016

       100
                     86
                                                  77                    76
        80                          72
                    65
                                                                                            61
        60                          52                                                                   55
                                                                                                               53
                    58                            47                                                                   48
                                    51                                                                    38                44
                                                                         35                 33
        40
                                                  42
                                                                                                                            34
                     37                                                                          26
                                                                             30                           30
                                    30            28                    29                                            28
        20
                                                                                            20

         0
                    2010        2011          2012                  2013                   2014          2015         2016


                                Barcelona                  Girona                      Lleida             Tarragona




     In urban areas, the tendency is towards greater fluc-              deaths in Tarragona and Lleida but a rise in Girona
     tuations. In 2016, there was a drop in the number of               and Barcelona.



       Changes in the number of deaths within 24 hours on the urban network by
       demarcation. 2010-2016

       100



        80
                    68                                                                     68

                                                  58                                                      56           58
        60
                                    50
                                                                        41

        40


                    13              14                                                      12
        20                                        14                                                           14     11
                                                                        9
                8                                                                                              9
                                6        5    3    5                                             7                          5
                4                                                                                              6
                                                                    6                            3                          3
         0
                    2010        2011          2012                  2013                   2014          2015         2016


                            Barcelona                  Girona                     Lleida              Tarragona

20
2.4. Junctions and intersections (changes in                                the number of deaths fell by 33%. The reduction was
deaths within 24 hours by location)                                         43.3% at interurban intersections.

Junctions and intersections are potential accident                          In 2016, most deaths occurred away from intersections
hotspots in urban areas and efforts have been focused                       in interurban areas (90% of fatalities) and outside
on improving their safety: between 2010 and 2016,                           junctions in urban areas (61%).



  Changes in the location of deaths within 24 hours by area
  250
                  216

  200
                                     176               172

                                                                           148                                  152
  150                                                                                                                                137

                                                                                               114

  100

                                                                                               56                51
                   48                44                42                                                                             47
                                                                            44
   50
              45                31                                                             34                    34
                                                                            18                                                             30
                                                     38
                  30                 29                                                        26
                                                       22                  22                                    24                   17
    0
              2010               2011                 2012                 2013            2014                2015                  2016

                                            IA intersection                                     Not at an IA intersection
                                            UA junction                                         Not at a UA junction




III. Time period
                                                                            of fatalities on the interurban network occur in the
                                                                            months of March, April and June. In contrast, the
                                                                            highest death rate occurs in urban areas in November.
3.1. Month (deaths within 24 hours)
The urban and interurban accident rates vary depen-
ding on the month of the year. The highest number



  Number of deaths within 24 hours by month and area. 2016

   25
                                22

   20
                                           17                     17                                                                       17
                                                                                                      15
   15                                                                                     14

         11                                                                                                                     11
                                     10                                                                         10
   10                                                                                                      9
                        8                                                         8            8                            8
              7                                           7                                                                                     7
                                                                       6
                            5                                                                                         5
    5                                                                                 4
                                                              3
                                                2

    0
          Jan.          Feb.    Mar.        Apr.          May.     June.          July.   Aug.         Sept.      Oct.      Nov.            Dec.

                                                    Interurban areas                      Urban areas

                                                                                                                                                    21
3.2. Day of the week
     (deaths within 24 hours)
                                                                         days with the lowest accident rates. In urban areas, a
     In 2016, 36.1% of the fatalities in interurban areas                higher proportion of deaths occur on weekdays (71.4%
     occurred at the weekend. Monday and Friday are the                  in 2016).



        Number of deaths within 24 hours by day of the week. 2016

        40
                                                                                                                      36



        30
                                                                    25
                                23
                                                                                                       21
                                                  20
        20
                                                                                             16                16
                15
                      14                                                              14

                                         9               8                 8
        10
                                                                                                                               6



         0
                  Monday         Tuesday         Wednesday          Thursday            Friday         Saturday       Sunday

                                                 Interurban areas              Urban areas




     3.3. Period of the week and zone (deaths
     within 24 hours)
                                                                         tion of all deaths. In interurban areas, the opposite
     Between 2010 and 2016, a rise was recorded in urban                 trend was observed (a higher proportion on weekdays,
     areas in fatalities at the weekend and in their propor-             though the number of deaths in both areas fell).



      Changes in deaths within 24 hours by period of the week and area.
      Changes 2010-2016

      100%
       90%            21,5%            24,0%                       24,2% 24,3% 23,3%
              36,6%                                    32,5% 27,6%                   33,0% 29,4% 37,0% 28,6%
       80%                    38,5%            38,7%
       70%
       60%
       50%
       40%            78,5%            76,0%                       75,8% 75,7% 76,7%
              63,4%                                    67,5% 72,4%                   67,0% 70,6% 63,0% 71,4%
       30%                    61,5%            61,3%
       20%
       10%
        0%
                  2010               2011           2012             2013               2014                2015    20162016

                           Weekdays IA         Weekend IA                  Weekdays UA            Weekend UA




22
3.4. Time of day
(deaths within 24 hours)
In interurban areas, the proportion of fatalities in ac-       30%). Accidents at night during this period, in contrast,
cidents that occurred in the morning increased signifi-        were under 25% of the total for the first time.
cantly in 2016 (39%, the first time it has ever exceeded



  Proportion of deaths within 24 hours by time of day, interurban areas

 100%

                                  27,8%                      27,1%                         26,7%           22,7%
               34,6%                        33,0%                           29,3%
  80%


  60%                                                                                                      38,3%
                                  45,9%                      43,5%                         44,3%
               36,6%                        40,2%                           45,7%
  40%


  20%                                                                                                      39,0%
               28,9%              26,3%     26,8%            29,4%          25,0%          29,0%

    0%
                2010              2011       2012             2013           2014           2015            2016

                                             Morning           Afternoon           Nit

Source: Catalan Traffic Service




Also in urban areas, the highest proportion of casual-         overturned in 2016. Last year, the largest proportion
ties resulted from accidents in the afternoon in 2010-         of casualties occurred in the morning (40.3%).
2015 (with the exception of 2011), but this trend was


  Proportion of deaths within 24 hours by time of day, urban areas

  100%
                                  21,3%                       24,2%          26,7%                         22,1%
                33,3%                        33,8%                                          38,8%
   80%


   60%                            36,0%                                                                    37,7%
                                                              45,2%          35,6%
                36,6%                        36,3%
                                                                                            34,1%
   40%


   20%                            42,7%                                      37,8%                         40,3%
                30,1%                        30,0%            30,6%                         27,1%

    0%
                 2010              2011      2012              2013           2014          2015            2016

                                          Morning          Afternoon       Night

Source: Catalan Traffic Service




                                                                                                                           23
IV. Accident rate by means of trans-                          Between 2010 and 2016, there was a fall of 43.7% in
     port: vulnerable users                                        the number of fatalities in cars and all-terrain vehicles.
                                                                   Deaths among users of lorries and vans fell by 67.6%.
                                                                   Deaths on motorcycles and mopeds also fell by 14.6%
     4.1. Deaths within 24 hours by means of                       in the 2010-2016 period.
     transport (interurban areas)                                  The number of pedestrians run over fell by 47.4%
     In interurban areas, cars and all-terrain vehicles are        between 2010 and 2016 and the number of fatalities
     the means of transport most frequently recorded in            on bicycles dropped by 42.9%.
     fatalities, accounting for 80 deaths in 2016, followed
     by motorcycles and mopeds, with 35 deaths.



       Changes in the number of deaths within 24 hours by means of transport, 2010-2016
       Interurban areas

       150
              142                                                                                            2010-2016
                              121
       120
                                              105
                                                                                                             i 43,7%
                                                              91
                                                                                     88
        90                                                             81                          80
                                                                                                             i 14,6%


        60                    52                                                                             i 47,4%
                                                                                     49
                    41                                        42
                                              33                                                    35
                                                                       31
               34                                                                                            i 67,6%
        30                                                    18
                              13                                                     15
               19                                                      10                  14       10
                                                   8      5                               7                  i 42,9%
                7                                                                                        4
         0                                                                             1
                 2010        2011            2012         2013       2014          2015           2016

                                   Bicycle                                   Pedestrian
                                   Motorcycle and moped                      Car and all-terrain vehicle
                                   Lorry and van                             Coach




     4.2. Deaths within 24 hours by means of                       The number of fatalities in cars and all-terrain vehicles
     transport (interurban areas)                                  also fell by 18.2%.

     In urban areas, the groups with the highest number of         The number of cyclist deaths was the same in 2016 as
     fatalities were pedestrians and motorcycle and moped          it had been in 2010, though the figure varied conside-
     riders. In 2010-2016, the number of pedestrians killed        rably in the intervening years.
     by being run over fell by 26.7%, while the number of
     motorcycle and moped fatalities dropped by 6.9%.




24
Changes in the number of deaths within 24 hours by means of transport, 2010-2016
        Urban areas

   50
                45                                                                                                   2010-2016

   40                     37
                                                                       36
                                                                                       33              34
                                          32
                                                                                                                      i 24,4%
                29
   30                                                  27                                              27
                          26                                                           32
                                         28                            28                                             i 6,9%

   20
                                                       22              16                   17                        i 18,2%
                                         11            11
           11              9                                                                            9
   10                                                                                                                 = 0,0%
                                          4                             5
           5               2                            1                               2                   5
                                                                                                                      i 100,0%
           1                                                                                1               1
    0
               2010      2011           2012           2013            2014         2015               2016
                               Bicycle                                        Pedestrian
                               Motorcycle and moped                           Car and all-terrain vehicle
                               Lorry and van                                  Coach




An analysis of the fatalities that occurred in the period       The number of motorcycle and moped fatalities was
2010-2015 shows that there was an increase among                the same in 2010 and 2015 and is close to that of car
motorcycle and moped riders in urban as well as in              fatalities, which accounted for most of the deaths and
interurban areas.                                               severe injuries. Nevertheless, it should be noted that in
                                                                2015, the number of car fatalities and severe injuries
                                                                fell by 26.2% in comparison with 2010.
4.3. Deaths and severe injuries by means of
                                                                The number of pedestrians killed or severely injured
transport (interurban areas)
                                                                by being run over fell by 35.8%.
In interurban areas, cyclists were the only collective in
which the number of deaths and severe injuries rose
in 2010-2015 (14.3%).



  Changes in the number of deaths within 24 hours and seriously-injured casualties
  by means of transport, 2010-2015. Interurban areas

 700
                623                                                                                                  2010-2015
                                               570
 600                           533
                                                              515
                                                                                                                      i 26,2%
 500                                                                                                460
                                                                                 433
                                                                                                                      = 0,0%
 400       382                                  355                                                 382
                                315                           336                340
                                                                                                                      i 22,2%
 300
                                                                                                                      h 14,3%
 200
                117                            112                                                                    i 35,8%
                                92                            85                                       91
 100                                                                              71
           81                                                                                               64
           56                                                                                               52        i 50,0%
            2              5                      2                2                               1
    0
                2010           2011            2012           2013               2014               2015

                                Bicycle                                                Pedestrian
                                Motorcycle and moped                                   Car and all-terrain vehicle
                                Lorry and van                                          Coach

                                                                                                                                 25
4.4. Deaths and severe injuries by means of                          In addition, there was a rise of 43.2% of deaths and
     transport (urban areas)                                              severe injuries among cyclists, coinciding with the
                                                                          general increase in the number of journeys made by
     In urban areas, pedestrians and motorcycle and moped
                                                                          people on bicycles in cities across Catalonia.
     riders accounted for most deaths and severe injuries.
     There was an increase of 4.8% in deaths and severe
     injuries among motorists during the period and a rise
     of 3.7% among pedestrians.


       Changes in the number of deaths within 24 hours and seriously-injured casualties
       by means of transport, 2010-2015. Urban areas
                                                                                       519
       500                                                                                                  461                  2010-2015
                                                        459
                     440               427                           435

       400                                  385                                                                                   h   4,8%
                     348                               360           360                                     361
                                                                                      342
                                                                                                                                 h 3,7%
       300
                     117                                                                                                          i   9,0%
                                                       112                                                   91
                                       92                                85               71
       200
                                                                                                                                  h   43,2%
                     111              101                                98           117
                                                        87                                                   101
       100                                                                                                                        i   18,2%
                                 62               59                                 72
                     44                                                                                            63
                                                                         79
                           9      12        12     11        7      11        12      9        10           9      8              i   11,1%
                  11
         0
                     2010          2011             2012             2013             2014                  2015
                                       Bicycle                                                 Pedestrian
                                       Motorcycle and moped                                    Car and all-terrain vehicle
                                       Lorry and van                                           Coach




     4.5. Vulnerable groups                                               into account the total number of deaths (within 24
                                                                          hours) and severely injured people.
     Vulnerable users are defined in the European In-
     telligent Transport Systems (ITS) Directive as “non-                 Within the group of vulnerable users, age is a factor
     motorised road users, such as pedestrians and cyclists,              that determines the frequency of accidents since it has
     as well as motor-cyclists and persons with disabilities              an impact on mobility and the ability to react.
     or reduced mobility and orientation”.
                                                                          An analysis of the age of casualties killed or severely
     The accident rate among vulnerable users in relation                 injured per 100,000 inhabitants reveals the age groups
     to motorised means of transport is assessed by taking                in which more victims are recorded.


     Deaths within 24 hours and severe injuries by means of transport per 100,000 inhabitants (2015)

                                                                                                           Car and all-terrain        Heavy goods
      Age group                   Pedestrian           Bicycle     Motorcycle        Moped
                                                                                                                      vehicle               vehicle

      Aged 0 to 17                      5,3                  0,9               1,5                  1,4                  2,2                    0,0

      Aged 18 to 24                     6,8                  2,0              13,2                  5,6                 12,9                    0,0

      Aged 25 to 34                     2,3                  1,9              16,5                  2,2                  8,7                    0,7

      Aged 35 to 44                     3,4                  1,7              11,7                  1,9                  6,2                    1,0

      Aged 45 to 54                     4,2                  1,7              19,2                  1,7                  5,8                    1,0

      Aged 55 to 64                     7,0                  2,5              10,6                  0,7                  6,9                    1,8

      Aged 65 to 74                     6,7                  2,2               3,1                  1,0                 10,0                    0,3

      Aged over 74                     15,6                  0,6               0,4                  0,9                  9,4                    0,1

     Note: drivers and passengers are included for each vehicle type.
26
The main groups at risk are:

                                                               Proportion of severe casualties, 2015
     Position      Risk group                                  deaths within 24 hours + severely-injured casualties per
                                                               100,000 inhabitants

        1          Motorcycle users aged between 45 and 54                                19.2

        2          Motorcycle users aged between 25 and 34                                16.5

        3          Pedestrians aged over 74                                               15.6

        4          Motorcycle users aged between 18 and 24                                13.2

        5          Car users aged between 18 and 24                                       12.9

        6          Motorcycle users aged between 35 and 44                                11.7

        7          Motorcycle users aged between 55 and 64                                10.6

        8          Car users aged between 65 and 74                                       10.0




Below is an analysis comparing the casualties (deaths        Pedestrians
or serious injuries) by age group as a percentage of
                                                             Casualties run over: deaths and serious injuries by
all casualties and considering them in relation to the
                                                             age group
percentage of the population that these age groups
represent.                                                   Of the pedestrians who died or were seriously injured,
                                                             11.0% were men aged over 74 even though this group
                                                             represents 3.5% of the population, and 12.6% were
                                                             women aged over 74, despite the fact that this group
                                                             represents 5.5% of the population. Consequently, men
                                                             and women aged over 74 who died or suffered serious
                                                             injuries were disproportionately represented among
                                                             the casualties who were run over.




            Deaths within 24 hours and seriously-injured casualties            Population pyramid (%) 2015
                  among pedestrians by age group (%) 2015

    Aged over 74                    11,0%     12,6%                                      3,5%     5,5%

   Aged 65 to 74                     4,9%     5,4%                                     4,3%       4,9%

   Aged 55 to 64                     6,1%     7,6%                                     5,6%       6,0%

   Aged 45 to 54                     5,6%     4,9%                                     7,4%       7,3%

   Aged 35 to 44                     4,7%     5,4%                                     9,0%       8,5%

   Aged 25 to 34                     3,1%          1,8%                                6,4%       6,4%

   Aged 18 to 24                     4,0%     3,6%                                       3,4%     3,2%

    Aged 0 to 17                     9,4%     7,2%                                     9,5%       9,0%

                10,0%        5,0%           0,0%      5,0%   10,0%     10,0%      5,0%          0,0%     5,0%     10,0%

                                    Male           Female                             Male               Female


Source: Catalan Traffic Service and IDESCAT




                                                                                                                          27
Cyclists                                                            cyclists. Men in all age groups are over-represented,
                                                                         though this figure needs to be compared with the
     Deaths within 24 hours and serious injuries by age
                                                                         volume of users by age group. With regard to women,
     group
                                                                         there is a higher proportion in the 25 to 34 age bracket.
     Men aged between 55 and 64 accounted for the highest
     proportion of deaths and serious injuries among


                          Deaths within 24 hours and seriously-injured                 Population pyramid (%) 2015
                           casualties on bicycles by age group (%) 2015

          Aged over 74                  3,1%                                                         3,5%     5,5%

     Aged 65 to 74 anys                     9,4%          2,3%                                    4,3%        4,9%

     Aged 55 to 64 anys                    16,4%      0,8%                                        5,6%        6,0%

     Aged 45 to 54 anys                    13,3%          1,6%                                    7,4%        7,3%

     Aged 35 to 44 anys                    14,8%          2,3%                                    9,0%        8,5%

     Aged 25 to 34 anys                    10,9%           3,1%                                   6,4%        6,4%

     Aged 18 to 24 anys                     7,0%      0,8%                                           3,4%     3,2%

      Aged 0 to 17 anys                    10,2%                                                  9,5%        9,0%

                          20,0%    10,0%           0,0%          10,0%   20,0%    10,0%       5,0%          0,0%      5,0%    10,0%

                                           Male             Female                                Male             Female



     Source: Catalan Traffic Service and IDESCAT




     Motorcycle users                                                    majority of the casualties. The accident rate in the 45 to
                                                                         54 age bracket is particularly notable, though the age
     Deaths within 24 hours and serious injuries on mo-
                                                                         brackets between 18 and 64 are all over-represented.
     torcycles by age group
     An analysis of the deaths and serious injuries in mo-
     torcycle accidents shows that men accounted for the


                 Deaths within 24 hours and seriously-injured casualties                  Population pyramid (%) 2015
                         on motorcycles by age group (%) 2015

         Aged over 74                    0,4%                                                        3,5%      5,5%

        Aged 65 to 74                  2,3%          0,5%                                            4,3%      4,9%

        Aged 55 to 64                   10,9%        1,5%                                            5,6%      6,0%

        Aged 45 to 54                   25,7%         3,0%                                           7,4%      7,3%

        Aged 35 to 44                   17,2%             3,5%                                       9,0%      8,5%

        Aged 25 to 34                   17,9%             3,5%                                       6,4%      6,4%

        Aged 18 to 24                       7,4%     1,5%                                            3,4%      3,2%

         Aged 0 to 17                  2,6%          0,3%                                            9,5%      9,0%

                    30,0% 20,0% 10,0%             0,0% 10,0% 20,0% 30,0%          10,0%       5,0%          0,0%       5,0%   10,0%

                                        Male               Female                                 Male               Female


     Source: Catalan Traffic Service and IDESCAT
28
Car and all-terrain vehicle users                                      extent as in the case of motorcycles and mopeds. The
                                                                       largest population groups are men aged between 25
Deaths within 24 hours and serious injuries in cars and
                                                                       and 34 and over 74. This latter group is particularly
all-terrain vehicles by age group
                                                                       over-represented in comparison with their proportion
Men account for a large proportion of the deaths in                    of the Catalan population as a whole.
cars and all-terrain vehicles, though not to the same


                  Deaths within 24 hours and seriously-injured casualties              Population pyramid (%) 2015
                   in cars and all-terrain vehicles by age group (%) 2015

   Aged over 74             7,5%                               4,6%                              3,5%     5,5%

   Aged 65 to 74              6,2%                                    7,2%                       4,3%     4,9%

   Aged 55 to 64             6,4%                               5,2%                             5,6%     6,0%

   Aged 45 to 54             6,8%                                5,6%                            7,4%     7,3%

   Aged 35 to 44    10,6%                                       5,2%                             9,0%     8,5%

   Aged 25 to 34     10,6%                                       5,6%                            6,4%     6,4%

   Aged 18 to 24             6,9%                                5,6%                            3,4%     3,2%

   Aged 0 to 17s                     2,5%                    3,5%                                9,5%     9,0%

                  15,0%   10,0%      5,0%      0,0%          5,0%     10,0%    10,0%      5,0%          0,0%      5,0%   10,0%

                                        Male            Female                                Male             Female


Source: Catalan Traffic Service and IDESCAT




Deaths in cars and all-terrain vehicles within 24 hours                extent as in the case of motorcycles and mopeds. The
by age group                                                           largest population groups are men aged between 25
                                                                       and 34 and over 65.
Men account for a large proportion of the deaths in
cars and all-terrain vehicles, though not to the same


                                  Deaths within 24 hours in cars and                Population pyramid (%) 2015
                             all-terrain vehicles by age group (%) 2015

   Aged over 74                               8,6%      6,7%                                     3,5%      5,5%

   Aged 65 to 74                            10,5%       6,7%                                     4,3%      4,9%

   Aged 55 to 64                              7,6%          1,9%                                 5,6%      6,0%

   Aged 45 to 54                              4,8%      4,8%                                     7,4%      7,3%

   Aged 35 to 44                              7,6%            2,9%                               9,0%      8,5%

   Aged 25 to 34                            17,1%              2,9%                              6,4%      6,4%

   Aged 18 to 24                              8,6%     3,8%                                      3,4%      3,2%

    Aged 0 to 17                       2,9%                   2,9%                               9,5%      9,0%

                  20,0% 15,0% 10,0%     5,0%         0,0%     5,0%     10,0%   10,0%      5,0%          0,0%      5,0%   10,0%

                                        Male                Female                            Male             Female


Source: Catalan Traffic Service and IDESCAT
                                                                                                                                 29
Age and gender                                                and a higher representation of the male population
                                                                   group aged over 74. The population in the 55 to 64
     The following figures show the percentage of deaths
                                                                   age bracket is also very high.
     within 24 hours per 1,000 members of the population
     broken down by age and gender. The analysis reveals           The efforts made in the field of road safety in the last
     that in 2010, the groups most over-represented among          15 years, and especially on road safety education in
     these fatalities were men aged between 18 and 24,             schools, as well as the effect of the economic recession
     who accounted for 9.4% of the accidents per 1,000             and other factors, such as the fall in the number of
     members of the Catalan population of the same age.            young drivers, has led to a reduction in the number
     Fatalities among males in the 25 to 34 age brackets           of deaths in the 0 to 24 age bracket. In 2010, deaths
     are also striking.                                            among people aged under 24 accounted for 2.69% per
                                                                   1,000 members of this age group, but this had reduced
     In contrast, the changes in the data show that in 2015,
                                                                   to 1.9% in 2015, meaning a reduction of 29%.
     there was a greater distribution of casualties by groups



       Deaths within 24 hours in traffic accidents per 1,000 inhabitants/population 2010


        Aged over 74                                             5,7%     4,3%

       Aged 65 to 74                                             6,1%     2,8%

       Aged 55 to 64                                             6,0%            1,2%

       Aged 45 to 54                                             7,4%     3,3%

       Aged 35 to 44                                             8,1%     1,8%

       Aged 25 to 34                                             8,9%     2,5%

       Aged 18 to 24                                             9,4%     2,6%

         Aged 0 to 17                                            1,9%          0,8%


                    10,0%       7,5%        5,0%        2,5%            0,0%          2,5%   5,0%       7,5%       10,0%

                                                                Male             Female




        Deaths within 24 hours in traffic accidents per 1,000 inhabitants/population 2015


          Aged over 74                                           8,5%      4,1%

     Aged 65 to 74 anys                                          5,6%      2,2%

     Aged 55 to 64 anys                                          7,4%            0,9%

     Aged 45 to 54 anys                                          6,5%              1,5%

     Aged 35 to 44 anys                                          4,9%             1,3%

     Aged 25 to 34 anys                                          7,1%            1,0%

     Aged 18 to 24 anys                                          7,0%               1,6%

      Aged 0 to 17 anys                                   1,3%                 0,7%


                        10,0%     7,5%       5,0%        2,5%           0,0%          2,5%   5,0%        7,5%      10,0%

                                                                 Male             Female




30
V. Work-related traffic accidents                                  in which people were given sick leave, a percentage
                                                                   that rises to 42% in the case of fatalities. Thus, more
                                                                   than a third of all deaths in work-related accidents in
                                                                   Catalonia are connected with transport.
5.1. Changes in traffic accidents in the course
of work in Catalonia                                               An analysis of work-related traffic accidents shows a
                                                                   considerable rise from 2013 after two years in which
Traffic accidents during commuting or during the
                                                                   there was a significant fall. With regard to accidents
working day – a journey motivated by a productive
                                                                   while commuting to and from work, there was an
activity – are deemed to be traffic accidents in the
                                                                   increase of 34.9% between 2012 and 2016, whereas
course of work.
                                                                   accidents during the working day rose by 25.3%.
Casualties occurring during work-related traffic acci-
                                                                   In 2016, the increase over the previous year was higher
dents in 2016 accounted for 39% of all road accident
                                                                   than 10% in the case of accidents during the working
casualties in Catalonia. Work-related traffic accidents in
                                                                   day (11%) and those during commuting (12.9%).
2016 accounted for 13% of all work-related accidents



   Changes in work-related traffic accidents in Catalonia. 2010-2016

  12.000


  10.000                                                                                                     10.993

               9.794                                                                           9.740
   8.000                       8.829                                            8.957
                                               8.150              8.188

   6.000


   4.000


   2.000       2.965                                                                                          3.061
                               2.665                              2.584          2.666         2.758
                                               2.442

       0
                2010            2011            2012              2013           2014          2015           2016

                                         During the working day              While commuting


Source: Ministry of Employment, Social Affairs and Families




5.2. Changes in the severity of injuries in                        once again exceeded the 2010 values. In contrast, with
accidents during the working day                                   regard to serious accidents, there was a downward
                                                                   trend almost constantly in the 2010-2016 period, with
With regard to the severity of injuries caused in acci-
                                                                   a fall of 33.7%. Fatalities, which rose significantly in
dents during the working day, minor injuries increased
                                                                   2015, once again fell in 2016.
by 11.5% between 2010 and 2016, and in 2015 they




                                                                                                                              31
Changes in the severity of casualties in work-related traffic accidents during the working day. 2010-2016
       3.500

                                                                                                                              2.994
                   2.865
       3.000
                                                                                                               2.684
                                      2.580                                                 2.600
                                                                            2.512
       2.500                                                 2.360



       2.000

         100         83
                                     70                      69
                                                                               59            58                    57          55

          50
                          17              15                                                      8                     17       12
                                                                  13                13
           0
                    2010            2011                     2012            2013           2014                   2015       2016

                                                    Fatalities           Serious injuries         Minor injuries



     Source: Ministry of Employment, Social Affairs and Families




     5.3. Changes in the severity of injuries in                               In contrast, serious accidents and fatalities rose consi-
     work-related accidents during commuting                                   derably in 2016: the number of people seriously injured
                                                                               increased by 26.1% and fatalities by 50%.
     The severity of injuries caused during accidents whi-
     le commuting to and from work showed the same                             Even so, this is still below the 2010 figures: a 9.6%
     upwards tendency as the minor injuries during the                         reduction in the case of serious injuries and 6.3% in
     working day, with a 12.6% rise in 2016 in comparison                      the case of deaths.
     with 2015 figures.


        Changes in the severity of casualties in work-related traffic accidents during the working day. 2010-2016
                                                                                                                             10.755
       11.000


       10.000
                                                                                                           9.555
                9.532
                                      8.604                                                 8.771
        9.000
                                                                              7.965
                                                              7.944
        8.000


        7.000

          400
                     230                                                                                                       208
                                     197                     186               197
                                                                                             165                   165
          200

                           32                                                                                                    30
                                           28                     20                 26             21                  20
            0
                    2010            2011                     2012             2013           2014                  2015       2016

                                                Fatalities             Serious injuries           Minor injuries


     Source: Ministry of Employment, Social Affairs and Families
32
6. Risk factors                                                                  from 82.7 km/h in the first six months of 2010 to 91.9
                                                                                 km/h in the second half of 2015.
                                                                                 In the case of motorways, there was a moderate but
6.1. Speeding                                                                    continual fall from 109.5 km/h in the first six months
                                                                                 of 2010 to 104.1 km/h in the second half of 2015. On
The severity of accidents is directly related to the speed
                                                                                 dual carriageways and highways, the reduction was
at which the vehicles involved are travelling.
                                                                                 not as great.
The access routes into Barcelona are the only highways
where speeds rose in the 2010-2015 period, increasing


  Changes in average speeds on the interurban road network. Catalonia 2010-2015
  120
           109,5          109,6      108,3          108    107,1         107,2     107,4        106,8       106,4
  110                                                                                                                      105     105          104,1

  100
                                                                                   92,2          91,9        92,3          91,5    91,8         91,9
            90,3          90,1        89,6          90,8   90,9           91
   90
                                       88,2         89,9    89           88,9      89,8          89,6         90           89,3    89,3         88,8
   80        82,7          83,2

   70
            73,3          73,4         73           72,7                                                     71,7          72,2    72,5         71,8
                                                           71,4          71,3      71,4          71,5
   60
          1st HALF- 2nd HALF- 1st HALF- 2nd HALF- 1st HALF- 2nd HALF- 1st HALF- 2nd HALF- 1st HALF- 2nd HALF- 1st HALF- 2nd HALF-
              2010      2010      2011      2011      2012      2012      2013      2013      2014      2014      2015      2015

                                  Entrance to Barcelona              Motorway                     Dual carriageway                 Highway


Source: Catalan Traffic Service




6.2. Passive security mechanisms                                                 The use of safety belts and car seats for children in
                                                                                 light vehicles was higher in interurban areas than in
The use of passive security accessories remained high
                                                                                 urban areas, but an improvement in urban areas was
between 2010 and 2015, and a slight increase in the
                                                                                 recorded between 2010 and 2015.
use of helmets and safety belts, as well as car seats for
children in light vehicles, was identified.




   Changes in the use of safety accessories by people involved in accidents
   with casualties in interurban and urban areas (%). 2010-2015

    100                                                           99,5
                                             99,3                                      99,2                        99,3               99,3
                   98,9
     99
                                             99,1                                      99,1                        99,2
                                                                                                                                      98,9
     98                                                           98,6
                   98,1
                                             97,8                                      97,7                        97,9
     97                                                           97,6                                                                97,6
                   97,3
     96
                                                                                           96                      95,9               95,8
                                                                  95,7
     95
                   94,1                      95,2
     94
                   2010                      2011                 2012                    2013                      2014                 2015

                                   Helmet (IA)                                                          Safety belt and CRS (IA)
                                   Helmet (UA)                                                          Safety belt and CRS (UA)


Source: Catalan Traffic Service
                                                                                                                                                        33
6.3. Alcohol, narcotics and psychotropic drugs                    Changes in the results of alcohol and drug tests
     In order to reduce the accident rate, the Catalan Traffic         The percentage of drivers exceeding the permitted
     Service has worked constantly to combat the use of                alcohol limit rose between 2012 and 2015 in random
     narcotics and alcohol while driving.                              preventive testing and testing as a consequence of ac-
                                                                       cidents, traffic offences and symptoms of driving under
                                                                       the influence of drink. This represents a reversal of the
                                                                       positive trend in the 2010-2012 period.



       Changes in the result of alcohol tests. 2010-2015

       8,0%



       6,0%
                           5,5%                                                                   5,0%            5,1%
                                         4,9%                                    4,9%


       4,0%
                                                          4,2%


       2,0%



       0,0%
                      2010             2011                2012                 2013            2014              2015

                                          Over the limit or refused to undergo the test



     Source: Catalan Traffic Service




     In 2010, 0.3% of drivers refused to undergo tests to              The number of drivers driving over the alcohol limit
     ascertain their blood alcohol level. In other years, they         remained stable in preventive checks in the last three
     accounted for 0.1% of the total.                                  years (4.1%).
     According to Catalan Traffic Service figures, in 2014*            The number of drivers driving over the alcohol limit
     1.2% of drivers had a blood alcohol level above the               who committed a traffic offence fell in the five-year pe-
     permitted limit. This figure rises to 10.1% in the case           riod (from 35.1% in 2010 to 22.0% in 2015), though the
     of drivers involved in accidents (11.8% in 2015) and              figure for 2015 was higher than that in 2014 (20.0%).
     up to 24.8% in the case of drivers who died in traffic
                                                                       The number of drivers driving over the alcohol limit
     accidents (29.2% in 2015).
                                                                       who showed signs of drink driving rose by 28.8% (from
     Between 2010 and 2015, there was a reduction in the               41.7% in 2010 to 53.7% in 2015).
     percentage of drivers over the permitted blood alcohol
                                                                       In general, there was an upward trend in the blood
     limit (from 1.6% in 2010 to 1.2% in 2014), but there was
                                                                       alcohol indicators (% of positive results) in all types
     a slight increase in the percentage of drivers over the
                                                                       of tests.
     blood alcohol limit involved in accidents (from 10.3%
     in 2010 to 11.8% in 2015) and in the percentage of
     drivers killed over the permitted blood alcohol limit
     (from 26.1% in 2010 to 29.2 % in 2015).




34
Changes in alcohol indicators (% over the limit). 2010-2015

   70
                                                           65,7
                                      59,0
   60
                                                                                     54,7
                                                                                                          48,9                     53,7
   50


   40      41,7
                                                             34,1
           35,1                          32,1
                                                                                  26,9
   30                                                                                                     24,8                     29,2
           26,1                                               29,0
                                         27,5                                    26,7                                              22,0
   20
                                                             10,3                                         10,1
                                          9,5                                      8,8
   10      10,3                                                                                                                    11,8

             4,5                                                                                                                   4,1
             1,6                                                                                                  1,2
    0
                   2010                  2011                2012                2013                    2014               2015

                            Tests at accidents                                                 Preventive tests
                            Tests on accident fatalities                                       Alcohol violation
                            Random tests                                                       Symptoms


Source: Catalan Traffic Service

* Biennial data. There are no figures for 2015 as the campaign is run every two years.




Toxicological trends (percentage of drivers                              Alcohol remained the substance most frequently
with detected substances who die)                                        detected in fatalities caused by traffic accidents and
                                                                         increased by 19.2% between 2010 and 2016.
According to the Catalan Institute of Legal Medicine
and Forensic Sciences, in 2016 46.2% of drivers killed                   The presence of narcotics or psychotropic drugs in the
in an accident had consumed some type of intoxicating                    blood of drivers killed in traffic accidents was lower
substance (31.1% alcohol and 25% psychotropic drugs                      than in 2015, when an extremely significant increase
or narcotics). This percentage rose in the 2010-2016                     occurred.
period from the figure of 32.5% in 2010.


  Toxicological trends according to the Catalan Institute of Legal Medicine and
  Forensic Sciences (% of drivers killed testing positive for substances). 2010-2016
                                                                                                              48,9
   50
                                                                                                                             46,2
                                                                       41,9

   40                                               36,8
                                   35,5                                                  34,9
              32,5                                                                                                          31,1
                                                                                                              29,2
                                  27,5              29
   30                                                                  26,7
               26,1                                                                      24,8
                                                                                                              28,4
                                                                                                                            25,0
   20
                                                                        20,9             20,2
                                  18,8
                                                    18
   10
              12,1


    0
               2010               2011              2012               2013              2014                 2015           2016

                                  Alcohol                     Narcotics + psychotropic drugs                        Total


Source: Catalan Traffic Service and the Catalan Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences
                                                                                                                                          35
6.4. Distractions                                            ces). Similarly, in the 2012-2016 period, the number of
                                                                  charges for not obeying traffic lights rose by 39.26%.
     Every year, the Catalan Traffic Service co-ordinates two
     campaigns to combat distractions while driving (such
     as visual displays incompatible with focusing on the         Accidents involving single vehicles
     road at all times and various communication systems).
     Two campaigns were run in 2016 (one in March, the            One of the issues worth highlighting in the analysis
     other in October), involving the Mossos d’Esquadra           of accidents is that many involved single vehicles (no
     (the Catalan police force), local police forces, urban       other type of vehicle was involved) due to a range of
     police and security staff in Catalan municipalities (69      factors - potentially in combination - such as distracti-
     municipalities took part in March and 43 in October).        ons, inappropriate or excessive speed, the consumption
                                                                  of alcohol, narcotics or psychotropic drugs or the lack
     Campaigns to combat distractions in 2016 were carried        of driving expertise.
     out in conjunction with campaigns to ensure drivers
     obeyed traffic lights in Catalonia (article 146 of the       In 2010, no other vehicle took part in a quarter of those
     Highway Code).                                               accidents involving a bicycle or motorbike. For other
                                                                  vehicles, this percentage was below 20%.
     The number of checks and offenders detected during
     the campaigns rose each year. There was a considera-         However, whereas in the case of other vehicle types
     ble increase in checks between 2010 and 2011 and in          the proportion of accidents involving a single vehicle
     2012, when checking was combined with monitoring             fell, this proportion rose for motorcycles and bicycles,
     compliance with traffic lights. Between 2010 and 2016,       accounting for 30% in the case of motorcycles and 29%
     there was a rise of 178.51% in the number of charges         in the case of bicycles.
     over distractions (the use of screens and mobile devi-



       Accidents involving a single vehicle by vehicle type. 2010-2015

      35,0%
                                                                                          31,8%             30,0%
                                                                        28,6%
      30,0%
                                   27,0%              26,3%
                   25,1%                                                                                   29,1%
                                                                         27,8%            27,3%
      25,0%
                                       22,4%
                24,5%                              21,3%

      20,0%

                  18,5%            18,4%             18,7%              18,2%             18,0%
      15,0%
                                                                                                           17,3%

      10,0%
                    2010              2011             2012               2013               2014             2015

                                        Bicycle            Motorcycle            Other vehicles




     7. State of the vehicle                                      of the fleet is a significant factor that potentially has a
                                                                  negative effect on the outcomes of accidents.
                                                                  A total of 2,668,214 vehicles passed the safety, road
     Vehicles’ characteristics (age, condition, protective
                                                                  worthiness and exhaust emissions inspection test (ITV)
     features, etc.) are relevant factors when an accident
                                                                  in 2016. Of these vehicles, 17.83% (475,729) failed the
     occurs. In 2015, the fleet of vehicles in Catalonia num-
                                                                  first inspection, meaning that they did not comply
     bered 5,338,050.
                                                                  with the minimum requirements. The main common
     In 2015, across the whole of Spain 14.5% of cars, 21.6%      reasons why these vehicles failed were: 27% lighting
     of lorries and vans and 27.5% of motorcycles were 20         and signalling; 15.1% exterior condition, bodywork and
     years old or more.                                           chassis; and 14.6% engine and transmission.

     Despite the various campaigns to encourage people to         In Catalonia in 2015, 2.46% of vehicles did not pass the
     buy new vehicles (Renove, Pive and Prever), the ageing       second inspection.
36
Indicators

 Accident rate                                                2010            2015        ∆ 2010-2015 (%)        Change

 Deaths within 30 days                                         381              291                –23.6%          ü
 Interurban areas                                              266              186                –28.9%          ü
 Urban areas                                                   115              102                –11.3%          ü
 Deaths within 24 hours                                        339              261                –23.0%          ü
 Interurban areas                                              246              176                –28.5%          ü
 Urban areas                                                    93               85                  –8.6%         ü
 Seriously-injured casualties                                2,007            1,900                  –5.3%         ü
 Interurban areas                                            1,032              891                –13.7%          ü
 Urban areas                                                   975            1,009                   3.5%         û
 Deaths within 24 hours and seriously-injured
 casualties
                                                             2,346            2,161                  –7.9%         ü
 Interurban areas                                            1,278            1,067                –16.5%          ü
 Urban areas                                                 1,068            1,094                   2.4%         û
Note: the change is shown in green when the indicator is a reduction and/or favourable and in red when it is a rise and/or
unfavourable.




 Accident rate by means of transport                          2010            2015        ∆ 2010-2015 (%)        Change

 Pedestrians

 Deaths within 24 hours IA                                      45               33                –26.7%          ü
 Deaths within 24 hours UA                                      18               16                –11.1%          ü
 Deaths within 24 hours and seriously-injured
 casualties IA
                                                                81               52                –35.8%          ü
 Deaths within 24 hours and seriously-injured
 casualties UA
                                                               348              361                   3.7%          û
 Bicycle

 Deaths within 24 hours IA                                       7                7                   0.0%         û
 Deaths within 24 hours UA                                       5                1                –80.0%          ü
 Deaths within 24 hours and seriously-injured
 casualties IA
                                                                56               64                 14.3%           û
 Deaths within 24 hours and seriously-injured
 casualties UA
                                                                44               63                 43.2%           û
 Motorcycle and moped

 Deaths within 24 hours IA                                      41               49                 19.5%           û
 Deaths within 24 hours UA                                      29               33                 13.8%           û
 Deaths within 24 hours and seriously-injured
 casualties IA
                                                               382              382                   0.0%          û
 Deaths within 24 hours and seriously-injured
 casualties UA
                                                               440              461                   4.8%          û
 Car and all-terrain vehicle

 Deaths within 24 hours IA                                     142               88                –38.0%          ü
                                                                                                                             37
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