Road Traffic (Light Vehicle Standards) Rules 2013

Road Traffic (Light Vehicle Standards) Rules 2013
Version: 10.2.2014




South Australia
Road Traffic (Light Vehicle Standards) Rules 2013
under the Road Traffic Act 1961



Contents
Part 1—Preliminary
1        Citation etc
2        Commencement
3        Definitions—the dictionary etc
4        Meaning of road
5        Meaning of road-related area
6        Diagrams
7        Notes
8        Examples
Part 2—Application of the Light Vehicle Standards
9        Application to vehicles and combinations on roads and road-related areas
10       Vehicles to which the Light Vehicle Standards do not apply
11       Non-application of Light Vehicle Standards—exemption under other laws
12       Non-application of Light Vehicle Standards to ADR-compliant matters
13       Non-application of Light Vehicle Standards—Motor Vehicle Standards Act approvals
Part 3—Australian Design Rules
Division 1—Interpretation
14       ADRs
15       National standards
16       References to national standards
17       Second edition ADRs
18       Third edition ADRs
Division 2—Compliance with ADRs
19       Compliance with second edition ADRs
20       Compliance with third edition ADRs
21       Exception to compliance with ADRs—vehicles that are not road vehicles
22       Exception to compliance with ADRs—Motor Vehicle Standards Act
23       Partial exception to compliance with ADRs—personally imported vehicles
Part 4—Adopted standards
24       Adopted standards
25       Reference to adopted standards
26       Exception to compliance with adopted standards




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Road Traffic (Light Vehicle Standards) Rules 2013—10.2.2014
Contents


Part 5—General safety requirements
Division 1—All vehicles
27      Steering
28      Turning ability
29      Ability to travel backwards and forwards
30      Protrusions
31      Frontal protection systems
32      Driver's view and vehicle controls
33      Seating
34      Mudguards and spray suppression
35      Horns, alarms etc
36      Rear vision mirrors
37      Rear vision mirrors—surfaces
38      Additional rear vision mirrors
39      Automatic transmission
40      Diesel engines
41      Bonnet securing devices
42      Electrical wiring, components, connections and installations
43      Television receivers and visual display units
44      Requirement for windscreen to be fitted
45      Windscreens and windows
46      Window tinting
47      Windscreen wipers
48      Wheels and tyres—size and capacity
49      Pneumatic tyres generally
50      Pneumatic tyres—carcass construction
51      Pneumatic tyres—size and capacity
52      Tyres—defects
53      Tyres—manufacturer's rating
54      Retreads
55      Tyre tread
Division 2—Additional requirements for motor bikes
56      Steering gear and handlebars
57      Foot rests
58      Chain guards
59      Sidecars
Part 6—Vehicle marking
60      Vehicle and engine identification numbers
61      White or silver band on certain vehicles
Part 7—Vehicle configuration and dimensions
Division 1—Axles
62      Axle configuration
Division 2—Dimensions
63      Width
64      Length of single motor vehicles


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                                                                                             Contents


65       Length of single trailers
66       Length of combinations
67       Rear overhang
68       Trailer drawbar length
69       Height
70       Ground clearance
Part 8—Lights and reflectors
Division 1—General requirements for lights
71       Certain requirements apply only at night
72       Prevention of glare
73       Pairs of lights
Division 2—Headlights
74       Headlights to be fitted to vehicles
75       How headlights are to be fitted
76       How single headlights are to be fitted
77       How additional headlights are to be fitted
78       Performance of headlights
79       Effective range of headlights
80       Changing headlights from high-beam to low-beam position
Division 3—Parking lights
81       Parking lights
Division 4—Daytime running lights
82       Daytime running lights
Division 5—Tail lights
83       Tail lights generally
84       Pattern of fitting tail lights
85       Performance of tail lights
86       Wiring of tail lights
Division 6—Number plate lights
87       Number plate lights
Division 7—Clearance lights
88       Front clearance lights
89       External cabin lights
90       Rear clearance lights
Division 8—Side marker lights
91       Vehicles needing side marker lights
92       Location of side marker lights
93       Performance of side marker lights
94       Side marker lights and rear clearance lights
Division 9—Brake lights
95       Fitting brake lights



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Contents


96      Performance and operation of brake lights
Division 10—Reversing lights
97      Reversing lights
Division 11—Direction indicator lights
98      Direction indicator lights on motor vehicles
99      Direction indicator lights on trailers
100     Location of direction indicator lights
101     Operation and visibility of direction indicator lights
Division 12—Fog lights
102     Front fog lights
103     Rear fog lights
Division 13—Interior lights
104     Interior lights
Division 14—Reflectors generally
105     General requirements for reflectors
Division 15—Rear reflectors
106     Rear reflectors
Division 16—Side reflectors
107     Compulsory side reflectors on pole-type trailers
108     Optional side reflectors
Division 17—Front reflectors
109     Compulsory front reflectors on trailers
110     Optional front reflectors
Division 18—Warning lights and signs on buses carrying children
111     Application of division
112     Fitting of warning lights and signs
113     Operation and performance of warning lights
114     Specifications for warning signs
Division 19—Other lights, reflectors, rear marking plates or signals
115     Other lights and reflectors
116     Rear marking plates
117     Signalling devices
118     Mechanical signalling devices
119     Turn signals
Division 20—Vehicles not required to have lights or reflectors
120     Certain vehicles used in daylight
121     Certain vehicles used for exhibition purposes




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                                                                                             Contents


Part 9—Braking systems
Division 1—Brake requirements for all vehicles
122      Parts of a braking system
123      Provision for wear
124      Supply of air or vacuum to brakes
125      Performance of braking systems
Division 2—Motor vehicle braking systems
126      Motor vehicle braking system requirements
127      Operation of brakes on motor vehicles
128      Air or vacuum brakes on motor vehicles
Division 3—Trailer braking systems
129      Trailer braking requirements
130      Operation of brakes on trailers
131      Air or vacuum brakes on trailers
Part 10—Control of emissions
Division 1—Crank case gases and visible emissions
132      Crank case gases
133      Visible emissions
134      Exhaust emissions—diesel-powered vehicles
135      DT80 test procedure
136      Requirements of DT80 test cycle
Division 2—Exhaust systems
137      Exhaust systems
Division 3—Noise emissions
138      Measurement of stationary noise levels
139      Silencing device for exhaust systems
140      Stationary noise levels—car-type vehicles and motor bikes and motor trikes
141      Stationary noise levels—other vehicles with spark ignition engines
142      Stationary noise levels—other vehicles with diesel engines
Part 11—Alternative fuel systems for vehicle engines
143      LPG-powered vehicles
144      Vehicles powered by natural gas
Part 12—Mechanical connections between vehicles
145      General coupling requirements
146      Drawbar couplings
Part 13—Other matters
147      Vehicle equipment
148      Restored vehicles
149      Retractable axles
150      Measurement of distance between parallel lines



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Contents


151       Interpretation of certain second edition ADRs
152       References to Australian Standards and Australian/New Zealand Standards
Dictionary

Legislative history


Part 1—Preliminary
1—Citation etc
    (1)   These rules may be cited as the Road Traffic (Light Vehicle Standards) Rules 2013.
    (2)   These rules are made under section 111 of the Road Traffic Act 1961.
    (3)   In these rules, these rules are referred to as the Light Vehicle Standards.
    Note—
          1           Under the Road Traffic Act 1961, a person commits an offence if there is a breach of a
                      light vehicle standards requirement and the person is the driver or operator of the light
                      vehicle concerned (see sections 117 and 118).
          2           Under section 161A of the Act, certain classes of light vehicles can only be driven on
                      roads with the approval of the Minister.

2—Commencement
          These rules will come into operation on the day on which Part 3 of the Statutes
          Amendment (Heavy Vehicle National Law) Act 2013 comes into operation.
3—Definitions—the dictionary etc
    (1)   The dictionary at the end of the Light Vehicle Standards defines certain words and
          expressions, and includes signpost definitions to words and expressions defined
          elsewhere in the Light Vehicle Standards.
          Note—
                      A signpost definition (eg road-related area see rule 5) is included in the dictionary if the
                      definition applies outside the rule defining the word or expression.
    (2)   The dictionary is part of the Light Vehicle Standards.
    (3)   A definition in the Light Vehicle Standards applies to each use of the word or
          expression in the Light Vehicle Standards, unless the contrary intention appears.
4—Meaning of road
          A road is an area that is open to or used by the public and is developed for, or has as 1
          of its main uses, the driving or riding of motor vehicles.
5—Meaning of road-related area
          A road-related area is any of the following:
               (a)    an area that divides a road; or
               (b)    a footpath or nature strip adjacent to a road; or




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                                                                                   Preliminary—Part 1


             (c)   an area that is open to the public and is designated for use by cyclists or
                   animals; or
             (d)   any public place that is not a road and on which a motor vehicle may be
                   driven, whether or not it is lawful to drive a motor vehicle there.
6—Diagrams
   (1)   A diagram in the Light Vehicle Standards is part of the Light Vehicle Standards.
   (2)   A diagram of something is an illustrative example of the thing in black and white, but
         does not represent its dimensions or the dimensions of any part of it.
7—Notes
         A note in the Light Vehicle Standards is explanatory and is not part of the Light
         Vehicle Standards.
8—Examples
   (1)   An example (whether or not in the form of a diagram) in the Light Vehicle Standards
         is part of the Light Vehicle Standards.
   (2)   If the Light Vehicle Standards include an example of the operation of a provision of
         the Light Vehicle Standards—
             (a)   the example is not exhaustive; and
             (b)   the example does not limit, and may extend, the meaning of the provision;
                   and
             (c)   the example and the provision are to be read in the context of each other and
                   of the other provisions of the Light Vehicle Standards, but, if the example and
                   the provision as so read are inconsistent, the provision prevails.

Part 2—Application of the Light Vehicle Standards
9—Application to vehicles and combinations on roads and road-related areas
         The Light Vehicle Standards apply to light vehicles that are motor vehicles, trailers or
         combinations on roads and road-related areas.
  Notes—
         1         A light vehicle is a vehicle that is not a heavy vehicle—see section 5 of the Road Traffic
                   Act 1961.
         2         Section 6 of the Heavy Vehicle National Law (South Australia) defines a heavy vehicle as
                   a vehicle that has a gross vehicle mass (GVM) or aggregate trailer mass (ATM) of more
                   than 4.5 tonnes.
                   The same section defines a heavy combination as either a combination consisting of 2 or
                   more heavy vehicles or a combination of a light vehicle and a heavy vehicle. An example
                   of a light vehicle in a heavy combination is a light commercial 4WD vehicle towing an
                   empty field bin with an ATM greater than 4.5 tonnes.

10—Vehicles to which the Light Vehicle Standards do not apply
         The Light Vehicle Standards do not apply to—
             (a)   a vehicle used only on a railway or tramway; or



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            (b)    a vehicle designed to be controlled by a person walking next to it; or
            (c)    a vehicle propelled by a motor with a maximum power output of not over
                   200 watts; or
            (d)    a motorised wheelchair that cannot travel at over 10 kilometres an hour; or
            (e)    a vehicle or combination—
                      (i)    that is being repaired, or is being tested in the course of being
                             repaired, so it will comply with the Light Vehicle Standards; or
                      (ii)   that is being driven or towed directly to a place where it is to be
                             repaired so it will comply with the Light Vehicle Standards,
                   provided that the vehicle or combination is safe and will not endanger other
                   road users if driven or towed on a road or road-related area.
11—Non-application of Light Vehicle Standards—exemption under other laws
    (1)   A provision of the Light Vehicle Standards does not apply to a vehicle or combination
          if the vehicle or combination is exempt from—
            (a)    the provision under another law of this jurisdiction; or
            (b)    the corresponding provision of the law of another jurisdiction.
    (2)   However, the vehicle or combination is exempt only if all conditions of the exemption
          (if any) are being complied with.
12—Non-application of Light Vehicle Standards to ADR-compliant matters
          A requirement of Part 5 to Part 13 of the Light Vehicle Standards does not apply to a
          vehicle or combination if—
            (a)    the provision is inconsistent with a requirement of a second or third edition
                   ADR applying to the vehicle or combination; and
            (b)    the vehicle or combination complies with the requirement referred to in
                   paragraph (a).
13—Non-application of Light Vehicle Standards—Motor Vehicle Standards
   Act approvals
          A provision of Part 5 to Part 13 of the Light Vehicle Standards does not apply to a
          vehicle if—
            (a)    the vehicle does not comply with a requirement of an ADR applying to the
                   vehicle; and
            (b)    the provision of the Light Vehicle Standards corresponds to the requirement
                   of the ADR; and
            (c)    despite the non-compliance, approval has been given, under section 10A(2)
                   or (3) of the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989 of the Commonwealth to
                   place identification plates on vehicles of that type; and
            (d)    the vehicle complies with the approval conditions (if any).




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10.2.2014—Road Traffic (Light Vehicle Standards) Rules 2013
                                                      Application of the Light Vehicle Standards—Part 2


  Notes—
         1         Section 10A(2) of the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989 (Cwlth) deals with vehicles that
                   do not comply with an ADR, but the non-compliance is only in minor and
                   inconsequential respects.
         2         Section 10A(3) of that Act deals with vehicles that do not comply with an ADR, and the
                   non-compliance is not minor and inconsequential, but the vehicle will be safe to use if
                   conditions are complied with.


Part 3—Australian Design Rules
Notes—
         1         The Australian Design Rules (ADRs) are rules for designing and building vehicles.
                   Imported vehicles must also comply with the ADRs. Certain ADRs are applied by the
                   Light Vehicle Standards.
                   The Light Vehicle Standards also apply certain other standards (adopted standards) that
                   are intended to complement the ADRs.
                   The ADRs do not cover the following:
                       (a)   vehicles built before 1969;
                      (b)    combination of vehicles of any age;
                       (c)   every safety feature for vehicles built between 1969 and 1988.
                   However, these matters are covered by provisions of the Light Vehicle Standards.
         2         This Part applies the second and third edition ADRs to various vehicles.
                   Under the Part, a vehicle that is subject to ADRs when it is built or imported generally
                   remains subject to the ADRs throughout its life. However, a vehicle need not comply
                   with a standard if the standard is replaced by, or inconsistent with, a later standard and
                   the vehicle complies with the later standard. Older vehicles may, therefore, be fitted with
                   any equipment allowed on newer vehicles.
                   Vehicles that are modified must continue to comply with the Light Vehicle Standards.
                   Rule 42(4) (electrical wiring, components, connections and installations) extends the
                   application of particular second or third edition ADRs to vehicles to which the ADRs are
                   not expressed to apply.
                   The following provisions of the Light Vehicle Standards apply to a vehicle instead of the
                   corresponding ADR requirement:
                        •    rule 46(5) and (6) (window tinting)
                        •    rule 53 (tyre speed category requirements)
                        •    rule 112 (warning lights and signs on buses carrying children)
                        •    rule 115(4) (display of certain lights and reflectors)
                   Rule 35(6) (horns, alarms etc) of the Light Vehicle Standards modifies the effect of the
                   corresponding ADR requirement.

Division 1—Interpretation
14—ADRs
         An Australian Design Rule (ADR) is a national standard.




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Part 3—Australian Design Rules
Division 1—Interpretation

15—National standards
           A national standard is a national standard under the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989
           of the Commonwealth.
16—References to national standards
           Unless the contrary intention appears, a reference in the Light Vehicle Standards to a
           national standard is a reference to the national standard.
17—Second edition ADRs
           A second edition ADR is a national standard incorporated in the document described
           as the Australian Design Rules for Motor Vehicle Safety, Second Edition published by
           the Commonwealth Government.
18—Third edition ADRs
           A third edition ADR is a national standard incorporated in the document described as
           the Australian Design Rules for Motor Vehicles and Trailers, Third Edition published
           by the Commonwealth Government.

Division 2—Compliance with ADRs
19—Compliance with second edition ADRs
     (1)   If a second edition ADR recommends that the ADR should apply to the design and
           construction of a vehicle, the vehicle must comply with the ADR.
     (2)   If a second edition ADR contains a requirement for a type of equipment fitted to a
           vehicle built on or after a stated time any equipment of the same type fitted to the
           vehicle after it is built must comply with—
              (a)   the requirement as in force when the vehicle was built; or
             (b)    if the requirement is amended after the vehicle is built and before the
                    equipment is fitted, the requirement as in force—
                       (i)    when the vehicle was built; or
                       (ii)   when the equipment was fitted; or
                       (iii) at any time between when the vehicle was built and the equipment
                             was fitted.
     (3)   However, a vehicle, or equipment fitted to a vehicle, need not comply with a
           recommendation or requirement of a second edition ADR if—
              (a)   the recommendation or requirement is replaced by, or is inconsistent with, a
                    requirement of a third edition ADR applying to the vehicle or equipment; and
             (b)    the vehicle or equipment complies with the requirement of the third edition
                    ADR.
     (4)   If a second edition ADR allows a vehicle built on or after a stated time to be fitted
           with equipment, a vehicle built before the time may also be fitted with the equipment.




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10.2.2014—Road Traffic (Light Vehicle Standards) Rules 2013
                                                                         Australian Design Rules—Part 3
                                                                    Compliance with ADRs—Division 2

20—Compliance with third edition ADRs
   (1)   If a third edition ADR applies to the design and construction of a vehicle, the vehicle
         must comply with the ADR.
   (2)   If a third edition ADR contains a requirement for a type of equipment fitted to a
         vehicle built on or after a stated time, any equipment of the same type fitted to the
         vehicle after it is built must comply with—
             (a)   the requirement as in force when the vehicle was built; or
             (b)   if the requirement is amended after the vehicle is built and before the
                   equipment is fitted, the requirement as in force—
                       (i)   when the vehicle was built; or
                      (ii)   when the equipment was fitted; or
                      (iii) at any time between when the vehicle was built and the equipment
                            was fitted.
   (3)   However, a vehicle, or equipment fitted to a vehicle, need not comply with a
         requirement of a third edition ADR if—
             (a)   the requirement is replaced by, or is inconsistent with, a requirement of a later
                   version of the ADR applying to the vehicle or equipment; and
             (b)   the vehicle or equipment complies with the requirement of the later version.
   (4)   If a third edition ADR allows a vehicle built on or after a stated time to be fitted with
         equipment, a vehicle built before the time may also be fitted with the equipment.
21—Exception to compliance with ADRs—vehicles that are not road vehicles
         A vehicle need not comply with an ADR applied by rule 19(1) or 20(1) if a
         determination or declaration under section 5B of the Motor Vehicle Standards
         Act 1989 of the Commonwealth provides that the vehicle is not a road vehicle for that
         Act.
22—Exception to compliance with ADRs—Motor Vehicle Standards Act
   (1)   A vehicle need not comply with an ADR applied by rule 19(1) or 20(1) if—
             (a)   despite non-compliance with the ADR, approval has been given, under
                   section 10A(2) or (3) of the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989 of the
                   Commonwealth to place identification plates on vehicles of that type; and
             (b)   the vehicle complies with the approval conditions (if any).
         Note—
                   See notes to rule 13.
   (2)   A vehicle need not comply with an ADR applied by rule 19(1) or 20(1) if—
             (a)   the vehicle may be supplied to the market under section 14A(1) of the Motor
                   Vehicle Standards Act 1989 of the Commonwealth; and
             (b)   for a vehicle for which an approval has been given under that subsection—the
                   vehicle complies with the approval conditions (if any).




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Part 3—Australian Design Rules
Division 2—Compliance with ADRs

     (3)   A vehicle need not comply with an ADR applied by rule 19(1) or 20(1) if—
             (a)    the vehicle may be used in transport in Australia under section 15(2) of the
                    Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989 of the Commonwealth; and
             (b)    for a vehicle for which an approval has been given under that subsection—the
                    vehicle complies with the approval conditions (if any).
23—Partial exception to compliance with ADRs—personally imported vehicles
     (1)   In this rule—
           personally imported vehicle means a vehicle built after 1968 that has been imported
           into Australia by a person who—
             (a)    before the vehicle was imported into Australia, owned and used it for a
                    continuous period of at least—
                       (i)    if the vehicle owned by the person before 9 May 2000—3 months; or
                       (ii)   in any other case—1 year; and
             (b)    when the vehicle was imported into Australia—
                       (i)    was an Australian citizen or permanent resident or an applicant for
                              Australian citizenship or permanent residency; and
                       (ii)   was old enough to hold a driver’s licence or learner’s permit to drive
                              the vehicle; and
             (c)    has undertaken to comply with any requirements relating to road safety
                    imposed in relation to the vehicle under the Motor Vehicle Standards
                    Regulations 1989 of the Commonwealth; and
             (d)    has not, within the previous year, imported into Australia another vehicle
                    owned by the person.
     (2)   A personally imported vehicle must be fitted with—
             (a)    seat belts that are as effective as seat belts that meet an Australian Standard or
                    British Standard for seat belts as in force when this rule commenced; and
             (b)    seat belt anchorages that meet the number and location requirements of
                    second or third edition ADR 5; and
             (c)    child restraint anchorages that meet the number, location, accessibility, thread
                    size and form requirements of second edition ADR 34 or third edition ADR 5
                    or 34; and
             (d)    head restraints that meet the number, location and size requirements of
                    second or third edition ADR 22.
     (3)   However, a personally imported vehicle need only meet the requirements of an ADR
           mentioned in subrule (2) if the ADR recommends that it should apply, or applies, to a
           vehicle of the same type.
     (4)   A personally imported vehicle need not otherwise comply with an ADR applied by
           rule 19(1) or 20(1).




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                                                                            Adopted standards—Part 4




Part 4—Adopted standards
24—Adopted standards
         An adopted standard is a standard, except a national standard, that is applied, adopted
         or incorporated by the Light Vehicle Standards.
25—Reference to adopted standards
         Unless the contrary intention appears, a reference in a rule or subrule to an adopted
         standard is a reference to the standard as in force at the commencement of the Light
         Vehicle Standards, or, if the provision in which reference appears commenced after
         the commencement of the Light Vehicle Standards, as in force at the commencement
         of that provision.
26—Exception to compliance with adopted standards
         A vehicle need not comply with an adopted standard if—
             (a)   the standard is replaced by, or is inconsistent with, a later version of the
                   standard; and
             (b)   the vehicle complies with the later version of the standard.

Part 5—General safety requirements
Note—
         For a vehicle to be operated safely, the vehicle needs to be properly designed to minimise the
         potential for accidents and harm to other road users.
         This Part sets out various requirements covering the driver's view from a vehicle, the driver's
         control of a vehicle, protection of vehicle occupants and other road users, and other general safety
         features.

Division 1—All vehicles
27—Steering
   (1)   A motor vehicle must have a right-hand drive.
   (2)   A motor vehicle has a right-hand drive if the centre of at least 1 steering control of the
         vehicle is to the right of, or in line with, the centre of the vehicle.
   (3)   A component of the steering system of a motor vehicle that is essential for effective
         steering of the vehicle must be built to transmit energy by mechanical means only.
   (4)   Failure of a non-mechanical component of the steering system must not prevent
         effective steering of the vehicle.
28—Turning ability
   (1)   A motor vehicle must be able to turn in a circle not over 25 metres in diameter,
         measured by the outer edge of the tyre track at ground level.
   (2)   The vehicle must be able to comply with subrule (1) whether it turns to the left or to
         the right.



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Part 5—General safety requirements
Division 1—All vehicles

29—Ability to travel backwards and forwards
           A motor vehicle with an unloaded mass over 450 kilograms must be able to be driven
           both backwards and forwards when the driver is in the normal driving position.
30—Protrusions
     (1)   An object fitted to a vehicle must be designed, built and fitted to the vehicle in a way
           that minimises the likelihood of injury to a person making contact with the vehicle.
     (2)   However, subrule (1) does not apply to an object fitted to a vehicle if—
              (a)   the vehicle was designed before 1965 and the object was part of the design of
                    the vehicle; or
             (b)    the object was fitted to the vehicle before 1965 in accordance with the law of
                    the place where the object was fitted.
31—Frontal protection systems
     (1)   This rule applies to a motor vehicle built on or after 1 July 2013 that has a GVM not
           over 3.5 tonnes.
     (2)   In addition to complying with rule 30, a frontal protection system fitted to a motor
           vehicle to which this rule applies must comply with Australian Standard AS 4876.1—
           2002 Motor Vehicle Frontal Protection Systems—Road User Protection (other than
           clause 3.2).
     (3)   In this rule—
           frontal protection system means a structure (other than a bumper bar) fitted to the
           front of a motor vehicle to reduce damage to the vehicle structure and systems if the
           front of the vehicle comes into contact with an animal, vehicle or other object, and
           includes such a structure that replaces or supplements a bumper bar.
           Examples of frontal protection systems—
               Bull bars, nudge bars and roo bars.
32—Driver's view and vehicle controls
           A motor vehicle must be built—
              (a)   to allow the driver a view of the road and of traffic to the front and sides of
                    the vehicle so the driver can drive the vehicle safely; and
             (b)    with its controls located so the driver can drive the vehicle safely.
33—Seating
           A seat for a driver or passenger in a vehicle must be securely attached to the vehicle.
34—Mudguards and spray suppression
     (1)   A vehicle must have firmly fitted a mudguard for each wheel or for adjacent wheels.
     (2)   However, subrule (1) does not apply to a vehicle if—
              (a)   the construction or use of the vehicle makes the fitting of mudguards
                    unnecessary or impracticable and the vehicle is not driven or towed at a speed
                    greater than 40 kilometres an hour; or



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                                                                    General safety requirements—Part 5
                                                                               All vehicles—Division 1

             (b)   the body or part of the body of the vehicle acts as a mudguard.
         Examples of vehicles to which subrule (2)(a) applies—
                       (a)   Most road-making plant.
                      (b)    Some agricultural equipment.
   (3)   A mudguard may be up to—
             (a)   230 millimetres above ground level; or
             (b)   on a vehicle built to be used off road—300 millimetres above ground level.
   (4)   The outside of a rear mudguard, except a mudflap, of a vehicle that can be seen from
         the rear of the vehicle must be coloured white or silver if the vehicle—
             (a)   is at least 2.2 metres wide; and
             (b)   has a body the vertical measurement of which is under 300 millimetres at the
                   rear, measured from the lowest point of the body above ground level to the
                   highest point; and
             (c)   is not fitted with rear marking plates.
   (5)   For subrule (4)(a), the width of a vehicle is measured disregarding any anti-skid
         device mounted on wheels, central tyre inflation systems, lights, mirrors, reflectors,
         signalling devices and tyre pressure gauges.
35—Horns, alarms etc
   (1)   A motor vehicle must be fitted with at least 1 horn or other device that can give
         sufficient audible warning to other road users of the approach or position of the
         vehicle.
   (2)   A motor vehicle must not be fitted with a device that can make a sound like the sound
         of a siren, exhaust whistle, compression whistle or repeater horn.
   (3)   However, subrule (2) does not apply to—
             (a)   a police vehicle; or
             (b)   an emergency vehicle; or
             (c)   a vehicle at least 25 years old that is fitted as a police or emergency vehicle
                   if—
                       (i)   the vehicle is only used for exhibition purposes; or
                      (ii)   it is part of a collection of former police or emergency vehicles; or
             (d)   an anti-theft alarm if the alarm cannot be operated while the vehicle's ignition
                   is on.
   (4)   Also, a motor vehicle may be fitted with a device that emits a regular, intermittent
         sound while the vehicle is reversing or in reverse gear.
   (5)   The device must not be louder than is necessary so the driver, and a person near the
         vehicle, can hear the device when it is operating.
   (6)   The provision of the relevant ADR that corresponds to subrule (2) applies to a vehicle
         as if that provision did not contain a reference to a bell.




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Division 1—All vehicles

36—Rear vision mirrors
     (1)   A rear vision mirror or mirrors must be fitted to a motor vehicle as required by this
           rule so that a driver of the vehicle can clearly see by reflection the road behind the
           vehicle and any following or overtaking vehicle.
     (2)   At least 1 rear vision mirror must be fitted to—
              (a)   a car; and
              (b)   a motor trike with 2 front wheels; and
              (c)   a motor bike, or motor trike with 1 front wheel, built before July 1975.
     (3)   At least 1 rear vision mirror must be fitted to each side of—
              (a)   a motor vehicle with a GVM over 3.5 tonnes; and
              (b)   a motor bike, or motor trike with 1 front wheel, built after June 1975.
     (4)   A motor vehicle with a GVM not over 3.5 tonnes (except a motor vehicle mentioned
           in subrule (2) or (3)) must be fitted with—
              (a)   at least 1 rear vision mirror on the right side of the vehicle; and
              (b)   at least 1 rear vision mirror on the left side of the vehicle or inside the vehicle.
     (5)   A rear vision mirror fitted to a motor vehicle with a GVM over 3.5 tonnes must not
           project over 150 millimetres beyond the widest part (excluding lights, signalling
           devices and reflectors) of the vehicle or combination.
     (6)   However, the rear vision mirror may project not over 230 millimetres beyond the
           widest part of the vehicle or combination if it can fold to project not over
           150 millimetres beyond the widest part.
37—Rear vision mirrors—surfaces
     (1)   A rear vision mirror required to be fitted to the side of a motor vehicle with a GVM
           over 3.5 tonnes must have a reflecting surface of at least 150 square centimetres.
     (2)   The reflecting surface of the rear vision mirrors that are required to be fitted to a
           motor bike or moped must—
              (a)   each be of the same curvature; and
              (b)   if convex, be part of a notional sphere with a radius of at least 1.2 metres.
38—Additional rear vision mirrors
           A motor vehicle may be fitted with additional rear vision mirrors or mirror surfaces
           that are flat or convex or a combination of flat and convex surfaces.
39—Automatic transmission
     (1)   A motor vehicle fitted with an automatic transmission must have an engine starter
           mechanism that cannot operate when the transmission control is in a position to drive
           the vehicle.
     (2)   A vehicle built after 1975 that is fitted with an automatic transmission must have an
           indicator in the driver's compartment showing the transmission control position.
     (3)   Subrules (1) and (2) do not apply to a motor vehicle with less than 4 wheels.



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                                                                               All vehicles—Division 1

40—Diesel engines
         A motor vehicle propelled by a diesel engine must be fitted with a device preventing
         the engine from being started accidentally or inadvertently.
41—Bonnet securing devices
   (1)   A motor vehicle with a moveable body panel forward of the windscreen that covers an
         engine or luggage storage or battery compartment, must have a device to secure the
         panel.
   (2)   However, if the panel opens from the front in a way that partly or completely obstructs
         the driver's forward view through the windscreen, the panel must have primary and
         secondary devices to secure the panel.
42—Electrical wiring, components, connections and installations
   (1)   The wiring of electrical equipment of a vehicle, except the high tension ignition
         wiring, must—
             (a)   be supported at intervals of not over 600 millimetres, unless the vehicle is a
                   pole-type trailer with a pole with an adjustable length, or an extendible trailer;
                   and
             (b)   be insulated at each of its joints; and
             (c)   be located where it cannot—
                       (i)   become overheated; or
                      (ii)   contact moving parts; or
                      (iii) come near enough to the fuel system to be a fire hazard; and
             (d)   be protected from chafing.
   (2)   The electrical components of a vehicle must be securely mounted.
   (3)   The electrical connectors between motor vehicles and trailers, for the operation of the
         vehicle lights required by the Light Vehicle Standards, must comply with at least 1 of
         the following standards:
              •    Australian Standard AS 4177.5-2004 Caravan and Light Trailer Towing
                   Components—Electrical Wiring
              •    International Standards Organisation ISO 1185-1997
              •    Society of Automotive Engineers SAE J 560-1998
              •    Australian Standard AS 4735-2003 Heavy road vehicles—Electrical
                   connectors for articulated vehicles.
   (4)   A trailer must be equipped with an electrical conductor, independent of the trailer
         coupling, that provides a return path between the electrical circuits of the trailer and
         towing vehicle.
43—Television receivers and visual display units
   (1)   A television receiver or visual display unit must not be installed in a vehicle so any
         part of the image on the screen is visible to the driver from the normal driving
         position.



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Division 1—All vehicles

     (2)   However, subrule (1) does not apply to—
              (a)   a television receiver or visual display unit that cannot be operated when the
                    vehicle is moving; or
             (b)    a driver's aid in any vehicle or a destination sign in a bus.
                    Examples of driver's aids—
                                 (a)   Closed-circuit television security cameras.
                                 (b)   Dispatch systems.
                                 (c)   Navigational or intelligent highway and vehicle system equipment.
                                 (d)   Rearview screens.
                                 (e)   Ticket-issuing machines.
                                 (f)   Vehicle monitoring devices.
     (3)   A television receiver, or visual display unit, and its associated equipment in a vehicle
           must be securely mounted in a position that—
              (a)   does not obscure the driver's view of the road; and
             (b)    does not impede the movement of a person in the vehicle.
44—Requirement for windscreen to be fitted
           A motor vehicle (but not including a motor bike, a motor trike or a moped) must be
           fitted with a windscreen if it is manufactured or designed to have a windscreen.
45—Windscreens and windows
     (1)   Transparent material used in a windscreen, window, or an interior partition, of a motor
           vehicle must be of approved material if—
              (a)   the vehicle was built after June 1953; or
             (b)    the material was first fitted to the vehicle after June 1953.
     (2)   In this rule—
           approved material means material with the same characteristics as material mentioned
           in any of the following standards:
              (a)   Australian Standard AS R1–1965 Safety Glass for Land Transport
             (b)    Australian Standard AS R1–1968 Safety Glass for Land Transport
              (c)   Australian Standard AS 2080–1977 Safety Glass for Vehicles
             (d)    British Standard BS 857:1967 Specification for Safety Glass for Land
                    Transport
              (e)   British Standard BS 5282:1975 Specification for Road Vehicle Safety Glass
              (f)   British Standard BS AU178:1980 Specification for Road Vehicle Safety
                    Glass
             (g)    Japanese Industrial Standard JIS R 3211–1979 Safety Glasses for Road
                    Vehicles
             (h)    American National Standard ANSI Z26.1–1980 Safety Code for Safety
                    Glazing Materials for Glazing Motor Vehicles Operating on Land Highway;


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                                                                               All vehicles—Division 1

         transparent material does not include any coating added to the windscreen, window
         or partition after its manufacture.
46—Window tinting
   (1)   Glazing used in a windscreen of a motor vehicle must have a luminous transmittance
         of at least—
             (a)   for a motor vehicle built after 1971—75%; or
             (b)   for another motor vehicle—70%.
   (2)   Windscreen glazing of a motor vehicle must not be coated in a way that reduces its
         luminous transmittance.
   (3)   However, subrules (1) and (2) do not apply to the greater of the following areas of a
         windscreen:
             (a)   the area above the highest point of the windscreen that is swept by a
                   windscreen wiper;
             (b)   the upper 10% of the windscreen.
   (4)   Glazing used in a window or interior partition of a motor vehicle must have a
         luminous transmittance of at least 70%.
   (5)   Glazing behind the rear of the driver's seat may be coated to achieve a luminous
         transmittance of not less than 35%.
   (6)   Glazing in a side window forward of the rear of the driver's seat may be coated to
         achieve a luminous transmittance of not less than 35%.
   (7)   Glazing that has been coated to reduce its luminous transmittance must not have a
         reflectance of over 10%.
   (8)   The luminous transmittance requirements in subrules (5) and (6) apply to a vehicle
         instead of the corresponding requirements in the relevant ADR.
   (9)   In this rule—
         glazing means material fitted to the front, sides, rear or interior of a vehicle, through
         which the driver can see the road, but does not include a coating added after
         manufacture of the material;
         luminous transmittance, for glazing, means the amount of light that can pass through
         the glazing as a percentage of the amount of light that would be transmitted if the
         glazing were absent.
47—Windscreen wipers
   (1)   A motor vehicle with 3 or more wheels that is fitted with a windscreen must be fitted
         with at least 1 windscreen wiper unless a driver in a normal driving position can
         obtain an adequate view of the road ahead of the motor vehicle without looking
         through the windscreen.
   (2)   At least 1 windscreen wiper fitted to the motor vehicle must—
             (a)   be able to remove moisture from the part of the windscreen in front of the
                   driver to allow the driver an adequate view of the road ahead of the motor
                   vehicle when the windscreen is wet; and



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Division 1—All vehicles

             (b)    be able to be operated from a normal driving position; and
             (c)    for a motor vehicle built after 1934—continue to operate until the wiper is
                    switched off; and
             (d)    for a motor vehicle built after 1959 the driving position of which is nearer one
                    side of the vehicle than the other—
                       (i)    be able to remove moisture from the part of the windscreen in front
                              of the driver, and a corresponding part of the windscreen on the other
                              side of the centre of the motor vehicle, to allow the driver an
                              adequate view of the road ahead of the motor vehicle when the
                              windscreen is wet; and
                       (ii)   if the windscreen wipers are operated by engine manifold vacuum—
                              be provided with a vacuum reservoir or pump to maintain the
                              efficient operation of the wiper or wipers while the vehicle is in
                              motion.
48—Wheels and tyres—size and capacity
           The wheels and tyres fitted to an axle of a vehicle must be of sufficient size and
           capacity to carry the part of the vehicle's gross mass transmitted to the ground through
           the axle.
49—Pneumatic tyres generally
           A vehicle built after 1932 must be fitted with pneumatic tyres.
50—Pneumatic tyres—carcass construction
     (1)   A vehicle must not have pneumatic tyres of different carcass construction fitted to the
           same axle, but the tyres may have different cord materials and a different number of
           plies.
     (2)   However, subrule (1) does not apply to a tyre being used in an emergency as a
           temporary replacement for a tyre complying with the subrule.
51—Pneumatic tyres—size and capacity
           The size and capacity of a pneumatic tyre to be fitted to a vehicle must be decided
           using a cold inflation pressure that is not more than the lesser of—
             (a)    the pressure recommended by the tyre manufacturer; and
             (b)    a pressure of—
                       (i)    for a radial ply tyre—825 kilopascals; or
                       (ii)   for another tyre—700 kilopascals.
52—Tyres—defects
           A tyre fitted to a vehicle must be free of any apparent defect that could make the
           vehicle unsafe.
53—Tyres—manufacturer's rating
     (1)   This rule applies to a motor vehicle if the vehicle—
             (a)    has 4 or more wheels; and


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                                                                               All vehicles—Division 1

             (b)   was built after 1972.
   (2)   However, this rule does not apply to a tyre if the tyre—
             (a)   is recommended by the vehicle builder as suitable for limited use on the
                   vehicle in special circumstances at a speed less than the speed applying to the
                   vehicle under subrule (3); or
             (b)   is being used in an emergency as a temporary replacement for a tyre
                   complying with this rule.
   (3)   A tyre fitted to a motor vehicle must, when first manufactured, have been rated by the
         tyre manufacturer as suitable for road use at the lesser of—
             (a)   a speed of at least—
                       (i)   for a car with special features for off-road use—140 kilometres an
                             hour; or
                      (ii)   for another car—180 kilometres an hour; or
                      (iii) for another motor vehicle—120 kilometres an hour; and
             (b)   the vehicle's top speed.
         Example—
                   Example for paragraph (a)(i):
                   A four-wheel drive vehicle.
   (4)   This rule applies to a vehicle instead of the tyre speed category requirements in the
         relevant ADR.
54—Retreads
   (1)   A tyre that is retreaded before the commencement of this rule must not be used on a
         vehicle if—
             (a)   Australian Standard AS 1973–1976 Retreaded Pneumatic Passenger Car and
                   Light Truck Tyre or Australian Standard AS 1973–1985 Retreaded Pneumatic
                   Passenger Car and Light Truck Tyres applies to the tyre; and
             (b)   the tyre was retreaded after publication of the Australian Standard; and
             (c)   the tyre was not retreaded in accordance with Australian Standard AS 1973–
                   1976 Retreaded Pneumatic Passenger Car and Light Truck Tyre, Australian
                   Standard AS 1973–1985 Retreaded Pneumatic Passenger Car and Light Truck
                   Tyres or Australian Standard AS 1973–1993 Pneumatic Tyres—Passenger
                   Car, Light Truck and Truck/Bus—Retreading and Repair Processes.
   (2)   A tyre that is retreaded after the commencement of this rule must not be used on a
         vehicle if—
             (a)   Australian Standard AS 1973–1993 Pneumatic Tyres—Passenger Car, Light
                   Truck and Truck/Bus—Retreading and Repair Processes applies to the tyre;
                   and
             (b)   the tyre was not retreaded in accordance with the Australian Standard.




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Division 1—All vehicles

     Note—
           The Australian Standards mentioned in this rule require various markings on retreaded tyres. These
           may include a speed rating less than the rating originally marked on the tyre.

55—Tyre tread
     (1)   A tyre on a motor vehicle must not have cleats or other gripping devices that could
           damage road surfaces.
     (2)   Except at tread wear indicators, a tyre fitted to the vehicle must have a tread pattern at
           least 1.5 millimetres deep in a band that runs continuously—
              (a)    across the tyre width that normally comes into contact with the road; and
              (b)    around the whole circumference of the tyre.
     (3)   A vehicle must not be fitted with a tyre that has been treated by recutting or
           regrooving the tread rubber, unless the tyre was—
              (a)    constructed with an extra thickness of rubber designed for recutting or
                     regrooving; and
              (b)    labelled to indicate the construction.

Division 2—Additional requirements for motor bikes
56—Steering gear and handlebars
     (1)   The handlebars on a motor bike must extend at least 250 millimetres, but not over
           450 millimetres, on each side of the centre line of the vehicle.
     (2)   In taking a measurement for subrule (1), mirrors and lights mounted on the handlebars
           of the motor bike are disregarded.
     (3)   The lowest part of the hand grip on the handle bars must not be higher than
           380 millimetres above the attachment point of the handlebars to the motor bike.
     (4)   Hand grips on the handle bars must be fitted symmetrically.
     (5)   If a motor bike has the head stem as the steering pivot point, the horizontal distance
           from the midpoint between the head stem bearings to the centre of the front wheel
           must not be over 550 millimetres.




     Maximum horizontal distance from midpoint between head stem bearings of motor bike to
                                     centre of front wheel


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                                                      Additional requirements for motor bikes—Division 2

57—Foot rests
         A motor bike must be fitted with foot rests for the driver, and for any passenger for
         whom a seating position is provided.
58—Chain guards
   (1)   If the engine power of a motor bike is transmitted to the rear wheel by a chain, the
         driver and any passenger must be protected from the front sprocket and at least the
         upper part of the chain by—
             (a)   the frame or equipment of the motor bike; or
             (b)   a chain guard.
   (2)   A chain guard must cover the chain to a point—
             (a)   at least 300 millimetres to the rear of the rearmost foot rest; or
             (b)   above the centre of the rear drive sprocket.
59—Sidecars
         A sidecar on a motor bike must be positioned on the left hand side of the motor bike.

Part 6—Vehicle marking
Note—
         This Part contains requirements for a vehicle that help to identify the vehicle and, if the vehicle is
         unusually long, to warn other motorists.

60—Vehicle and engine identification numbers
   (1)   In this rule—
         number includes letter.
   (2)   A motor vehicle must have an individual engine identification number clearly
         stamped, embossed or otherwise permanently marked on it.
   (3)   A motor vehicle built after 1930 must have the engine identification number on its
         engine block or the main component of its engine.
   (4)   A vehicle must have an individual vehicle identification number clearly stamped,
         embossed or otherwise permanently marked on a substantial part of its frame or
         chassis.
   (5)   A vehicle or engine identification number must be located where a person can read it
         easily without having to use tools to remove a part of the vehicle that would otherwise
         obstruct the person's view.
61—White or silver band on certain vehicles
   (1)   This rule applies to a vehicle that—
             (a)   is at least 2.2 metres wide; and
             (b)   has a body with a vertical measurement under 300 millimetres at the rear,
                   measured from the lowest point of the body above ground level to the highest
                   point; and



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              (c)    is not fitted with rear marking plates.
     (2)   For subrule (1)(a), the width of a vehicle is measured disregarding any anti-skid
           device mounted on wheels, central tyre inflation systems, lights, mirrors, reflectors,
           signalling devices and tyre pressure gauges.
     (3)   The vehicle must have a white or silver band at least 75 millimetres high across the
           full width of the rearmost part of the body of the vehicle.

Part 7—Vehicle configuration and dimensions
Note—
           This Part sets out various requirements covering the suspension on vehicles and size limits for
           single vehicles and combinations of vehicles, so that they can be operated safely with other traffic,
           without taking up too much road space or damaging the road and structures on the road.
           Generally, the limits in this Part apply to a vehicle and any load it may be carrying.
           Specific requirements for loaded vehicles are covered by other laws.

Division 1—Axles
62—Axle configuration
     (1)   A motor vehicle must have only—
              (a)    1 axle group, or single axle, towards the front of the vehicle; and
              (b)    1 axle group, or single axle, towards the rear of the vehicle.
     (2)   A trailer must have only—
              (a)    1 axle group or single axle; or
              (b)    2 axle groups, 2 single axles, or 1 axle group and single axle, in the following
                     configuration:
                        (i)    1 axle group, or single axle, towards the front of the vehicle, with all
                               the wheels on the axle group or single axle connected to the steering
                               mechanism for that part of the trailer;
                        (ii)   1 axle group, or single axle, towards the rear of the vehicle.
     (3)   A semi-trailer that is extendible, or is fitted with sliding axles, must—
              (a)    have a securing device that—
                        (i)    can securely fix the extendible part or sliding axles to the rest of the
                               vehicle in any position of adjustment provided; and
                        (ii)   is located in a position that can prevent accidental or inadvertent
                               release, if the device is mounted on the chassis of the vehicle; and
                        (iii) is fitted with a visible or audible warning system to indicate to a
                              person standing beside the vehicle that the device is not engaged; and
                        (iv) is fitted with a way of preventing loss of air from the air brake
                             supply, if the device uses air from the brake system and fails in a
                             way allowing air to escape; and




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                                                                                     Axles—Division 1

                      (v)    is held in the applied position by direct mechanical action without
                             the intervention of an electric, hydraulic or pneumatic device; and
             (b)   be built so the adjustable parts of the vehicle remain connected if the securing
                   device fails.

Division 2—Dimensions
63—Width
   (1)   A vehicle must not be over 2.5 metres wide.
   (2)   For subrule (1), the width of a vehicle is measured without taking into account any
         anti-skid device mounted on wheels, central tyre inflation systems, lights, mirrors,
         reflectors, signalling devices and tyre pressure gauges.
64—Length of single motor vehicles
         A motor vehicle must not be over 12.5 metres long.
65—Length of single trailers
   (1)   On a semi-trailer or a dog trailer—
             (a)   the distance between the point of articulation at the front of the trailer and the
                   rear overhang line must not be over 9.5 metres; and
             (b)   the distance between the point of articulation at the front of the trailer and the
                   rear of the trailer must not be over 12.3 metres.




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Division 2—Dimensions

     (2)   A projection forward of the point of articulation at the front of a semi-trailer must be
           contained within a radius of 1.9 metres from the point of articulation.




                                Maximum dimensions of a semi-trailer
66—Length of combinations
           A combination must not be over 19 metres long.
67—Rear overhang
     (1)   The rear overhang of a semi-trailer, or dog trailer consisting of a semi-trailer and
           converter dolly, must not exceed the lesser of—
              (a)   60% of the distance between the point of articulation at the front and the rear
                    overhang line; and
             (b)    3.7 metres.
     (2)   The rear overhang of a trailer with only 1 axle group or single axle (except a
           semi-trailer) must not exceed the lesser of—
              (a)   the length of the load carrying area ahead of the rear overhang line; and
             (b)    3.7 metres.
     (3)   The rear overhang of a vehicle not mentioned in subrule (1) or (2) must not exceed the
           lesser of—
              (a)   60% of the distance between the centre of the front axle and the rear overhang
                    line; and
             (b)    3.7 metres.



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                                                                               Dimensions—Division 2

   (4)   In this rule—
         load carrying area, in relation to a trailer, means the part of the trailer on which a load
         may safely be carried, and may include the drawbar of the trailer.
68—Trailer drawbar length
   (1)   The distance between the coupling pivot point on the drawbar of a dog trailer, and the
         centre line of the front axle group or of the front single axle of the trailer, must not be
         over 5 metres long.




                                 Length of a drawbar on a dog trailer
   (2)   The distance between the coupling pivot point on a drawbar, and the centre line of the
         axle group or single axle on a trailer with only 1 axle group or single axle (except a
         semi-trailer) must not be over 8.5 metres.
69—Height
         A vehicle must not be over 4.3 metres high.
70—Ground clearance
   (1)   In this rule—
         ground clearance, of a vehicle, means the minimum distance to the ground from a
         point on the underside of the vehicle, except a point on a tyre, wheel, wheel hub, brake
         backing plate or flexible mudguard or mudflap of the vehicle.
   (2)   A motor vehicle or combination must have a ground clearance of—
             (a)   at least 100 millimetres at any point within 1 metre of an axle; and
             (b)   at least one-thirtieth of the distance between the centres of adjacent axles at
                   the midpoint between them; and
             (c)   at any other point—at least the distance that allows the vehicle or
                   combination to pass over a peak in the road with a gradient on either side of
                   1:15, if the wheels of 1 axle of the vehicle or combination are on the slope on
                   1 side of the peak and the wheels of the next axle are on the slope on the other
                   side.




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