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4/9/2019 1 Understanding the Link between Culture and Care: Sharing Knowledge about Indigenous Children and Pain @ACHHInitiative Margot Latimer & Diane Obed 27th Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conference April 5, 2019 Sensitive Material  Content in this presentation will include videos that individuals may find sensitive and/or emotional, and may be triggering. If you prefer to leave prior to the videos, please feel free to do so. Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 1 2

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4/9/2019 2 Land Acknowledgement  Nova Scotia is located in Mi’kma’ki, the ancestral, traditional and unceded territory of the Mi’kmaq.

 “We are all Treaty people” Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 Ownership & Control  We have the consent from community members and all data, photo images and video footage are owned by the First Nation community members who participated in this initiative. Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 3 4

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4/9/2019 3 Overview of presentation  History and Geography of Indigenous People  Social and Structural Determinants of Health Framework  Historical Influences on Population Health  Understanding the Role of Cultural Safety in Healthcare Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 Indigenous Peoples in Canada (National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health, 2017; Kirkup, 2017) 5 6

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4/9/2019 4 (Statistics Canada, 2002) 7 8

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4/9/2019 5 Human Development Index (HDI)  Canada: 3rd/177  First Nations (consideration): 68th/177  Academic Achievement Lower  Health status tied to colonization  Historical events, i.e.

IRS Lower Health Status/Social Development (Canadian UNICEF Committee, 2009) Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 Determinants of Health Structural • History • Colonialism Social Income & Social Status Social Support Networks Education Employment & Working Conditions Physical Environments Biology & Genetics Personal Health Practices & Coping Skills Healthy Child Development Health Services & Social Service Social Environments Gender Culture (Mantoura, et al., 2016; World Health Organization, 2018) 9 10

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4/9/2019 6 Determinants of Indigenous Peoples Health Adapted from Reading, C. (2009) Indian Residential Schools (IRS)  Not unique to Canada, US, New Zealand, etc.  1892 -1996, 150,000 children attended 80 ‘schools’  1 School in NS  Established to assimilate ‘Aboriginal’ into current society  Children were physically, sexually, mentally, spiritually abused  80,000 people alive today who attended residential school Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 11 12

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4/9/2019 7 Truth and Reconciliation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rRZYRIC69Bw (Bombay, Matheson & Anisman, 2014) Current Intergenerational Effects of Residential Schools 6.3 6.9 8.2 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 NON-IRS (0 PREVIOUS GENERATIONS) PARENT OR GRANDPARENT (1 PREVIOUS GENERATION) PARENT & GRANDPARENT (2 PREVIOUS GENERATIONS) Psychological Distress Familial IRS Attendance (no.

of previous generations who attended IRS) Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 13 14

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4/9/2019 8 Truth & Reconciliation Commission of Canada  Launched in 2008 as part of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement (IRSSA)  A process that would guide Canadians through the difficult discovery of the facts behind the residential school system  Meant to lay the foundation for lasting reconciliation across Canada  Final report and Calls to Action released in 2015 2008 2015 TRC TRC Report Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 Indigenous Views of Health Traditional Wellness Indigenous views of health is holistic encompassing: • Spiritual • Physical • Emotional • Mental • Indigenous patients (sometimes) like to explore traditional healing methods as well (Native Wellness Assessment, 2015) Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 15 16

4/9/2019 9 The ACHH Initiative is working with communities, clinicians and universities to bridge the gap in the understanding of Indigenous children’s pain and hurt. Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 Two-Eyed Seeing Approach Indigenous Knowledge Practice Policy Research Education Western Perspectives Two-Eyed Seeing is the merging of two ‘ways of knowing’ – Indigenous and Western – to view and overcome challenges and barriers. This approach takes the best from both worldviews, acknowledging that neither approach is superior. (Established by Elders Albert & Murdena Marshall) https://achh.ca/about-us/our-approach-two-eyed-seeing/ (Iwama, et al., 2009) Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 17 18

4/9/2019 10 Indigenous Children - High Rates of Pain Conditions  Musculoskeletal (Exercise & Play)  Dental/Stomach (Eat)  Chest (Breathe)  Headache (Think)  Ear (Hear) Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 Untreated Pain Negatively Influences…  growth  behaviour  social development  mental health  substance use  risk for future illness  future experiences with pain  participation in play  physical activity  academic performance  language development  sleep patterns (Several other authors contributed to these findings including Bidadi, et al., 2008; Bowd, 2005; Casamassimo, et al., 2009; Cooper, et al., 2012; Langan, et al., 2007; Lawrence, et al., 2009; Milnes, et al., 1993; Peressini, et al., 2004; Ratnayake, et al., 2005; Shepherd, et al., 1999; Spady, et al., 2004; Thorne, 2004.) Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 19 20

4/9/2019 11 Kids Pain Expression Most Common  Be brave ‘tough it out’  Quiet/Hide/Hold in  Delay telling /delay treatment  51% pain regularly keeps them from school/activities Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 ACHH Community Member Quotes 1. Expression: Communication discrepancies  “Hard to describe in words ‐it just hurts”  “We paint a picture”  “The more pain the more story” 2. Response: Distrust/Not believed/Don’t feel listened to  “Maybe they are listening but not hearing”  “We’re story tellers, describe in detail and then they don’t believe us” 3. Seeking Care Outcomes: Unsatisfactory experience  Waiting for care, Repeat trips for care, Racism/discrimination  Words ‐ pain/hurt Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 21 22

4/9/2019 12 Clinician Assessment • Were harder to assess & manage pain • Had a high tolerance for pain • Were ‘stoic’ about their pain • Had difficulty describing their pain • Needed to be given words to describe their pain • Sometimes wanted others to talk for them • Did not always have a parent present • Did not find pain scales to be helpful (Latimer, et al. 2014) (Hicks, et al., 2014) Clinicians reported that First Nations children/youth: Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 (Latimer et al., 2014) Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 23 24

4/9/2019 13 Similar Findings – Strong et al., 2015 1.

Burden of emotional pain from historical factors 2. Reluctance to report physical and emotional pain  “put on a brave face”  “we are quiet about pain because no one listens to us anyways” 3. Attitudes of health professionals  “not accorded respect or timely attention” 4. Communication issues  Difficulty describing their pain  Health professional language complex (Strong et al., 2015) Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 Health Council of Canada Report: Challenges:  Aboriginal people fearful, powerless  Discriminated, distrust  Refused painkillers Positive:  Interpreters, Patient navigators “Empathy, dignity, and respect: Creating cultural safety for Aboriginal people in urban health care” (Health Council of Canada, 2012) Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 25 26

4/9/2019 14 Tui’kn Partnership - Strength In Numbers Project  Creation of Nova Scotia First Nations Client Linkage Registry (NSFNCLR)  a unique registry of the First Nations population in Nova Scotia that is being linked with provincial health data sources to provide First Nations with better health surveillance data  Focus: Cancer; Diabetes; Mental Health & Addictions (Tui'kn Partnership, 2016) Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 Cancer Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 27 28

4/9/2019 15 Cancer Prevention & Screening  36.5% of First Nation women who should be going for breast screening actually do  Only 25% keep up with screening practices Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 Data shows low numbers, however the spike in early adulthood may suggest lack of mental health screening in kids Mental Health This chart shows all age groups from 20 to 69, have higher rates of mental illness than other Nova Scotians Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 29 30

4/9/2019 16 Addictions Opioids (pain medication) are either prescribed by doctors or sold on the street and have become our biggest addiction problem Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 • Healthy lifestyle • Early screening, assessment and intervention leads to prevention • Community based & culturally safe and appropriate services TAKEAWAY POINTS: Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 31 32

4/9/2019 17 SOGC Mental Health Recommendations (Society of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists of Canada , 2013) Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 ACHH Maritimes - 8 communities Research Methods ART SESSIONS 39 Youth SHARING CIRCLES 146 Youth 25 Parents 13 Elders 36 Clinicians HEALTHCARE UTILIZATION DATA First Nation & Non First Nation Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 33 34

4/9/2019 18  Emotional 74%  Physical 54%  Mental 31%  Spiritual 30% Art Sessions 39 Youth : 4 Communities, NS, PEI, NB  Subthemes: N=39 Persistence, sharing, tribal consciousness, stoicism, sadness, happiness will conquer, loneliness, darkness Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 Art Sessions https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KwCFJ2KzMZ4 35 36

4/9/2019 19 Healthcare Utilization Data 5 First Nation Communities vs. Non First Nation (Age, Sex & Location Matched) Health Utilization Data First Nation n=2631 Non‐ First Nation n=2631 (Latimer, et al., 2018) Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 37 38

4/9/2019 20 Physical Pain, Mental Health & Referrals  First Nation children who had chronic ear infections as a child were 1.8x more likely to have abdominal & headache pain as teens. The same is not true for non‐First Nation children.  Non‐First Nation children (0‐9 years) with certain physical pain diagnosis were more likely to have a mental health diagnosis as teens (10‐17 years). The same was not found in the non‐First Nation group.  First Nation children were significantly less likely to be referred to an ENT, pain and wound specialists.

 First Nation children were significantly more likely to be admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Units.

Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 39 40

4/9/2019 21 Recurrent Ear Infections Can Lead To: (Bidadi, et al., 2008; Bowd, 2005; Langan, et al., 2007; Thorne, 2004; Zumach, et al., 2010) Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019  More likely not to attend school  More likely to have problems learning at school  More likely to self‐rate fair/poor mental health  More likely to feel depressed for 2+ weeks in a row in the last 12 months 21% of 4700 First Nations youth reported dental pain in the month prior to the survey. Youth who reported pain were … First Nations Regional Health Survey Self-Report Dental Pain & Wellness (First Nations Information Governance Centre, 2012) Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 41 42

4/9/2019 22 Youth Self-Management- ‘Hide pain’ ‘Cope on own’  “but just deal with it’ , ignore,  “cope on own”  “you suck it up”  “if I forget about it my mind thinks it’s gone’  “I tell no one” “don’t talk about it”  “if it’s mental no one to talk about how I feel inside’  “food for physical and emotional’  “mental pain I used to hurt myself, but physical I deal with on my own’ Traditional Smudge Prayer ‘sage cleanses you’ ‘sage, or sweetgrass’ Distraction Video games TV ‘Lie down’ 'Rub it’ Tylenol, Advil Weed, drugs, alcohol Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 Sharing Circles: Elders, Clinicians, Parents, Teachers Clinicians need to know our history to understand our care needs.

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4/9/2019 23 (Society of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists of Canada, 2013) Recommendation #22 Health professionals should seek guidance about culturally specific communication practices and should tailor communications to the specific situations and histories of their patients Clinical Tips • Understand that there can be large cultural variations between patients.

Get to know your First Nations, Inuit, and Métis patients individually and do not make assumptions. • For many First Nations, Inuit and Métis a positive experience from first entering the clinic or hospital is critical to feeling welcome and safe.

• Educate front‐line staff, including front desk staff, on key principles of cultural safety… • It takes time to build and refine effective relationships with First Nations, Inuit, and Métis. Patience, compassion, curiosity, and genuine interest are needed. Health Professionals Working with First Nations, Inuit, and Métis Consensus Guidelines Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 Trauma-informed service provider, system and organization:  Realizes the widespread impact of trauma and understands potential paths for healing;  Recognizes the signs and symptoms of trauma in staff, clients, patients, residents and others involved in the system  Responds by fully integrating knowledge about trauma into policies, procedures, practices and settings.

The core trauma-informed principles are:  Acknowledgement – recognizing that trauma is pervasive  Safety  Trust  Choice and control  Compassion  Collaboration (Klinic, p. 16-17) Source: Klinic Community Health Centre (2013). Trauma-informed: A resource for service organizations and providers to deliver services that are trauma-informed. Government of Manitoba, Dept. of Health. 45 46

4/9/2019 24 Sensitivity around Stereotypes  Power imbalance  Reframe deficit model to be positive, and strengths- based  Alcoholism, opioids, tobacco use, nutrition, exercise  Asking about alcohol or drug usage when not obviously relevant  Reluctant to take pain medication due to worries about addiction  Housing, transportation, hospital or healthcare processes 47 48

4/9/2019 25 Health Professionals Working with First Nations, Inuit and Métis Consensus Guidelines Recommendation #8 • Health professionals should recognize that they have a vital role in advocating for First Nations and Inuit patients and assisting with obtaining these benefits. Health professionals should be aware that Métis do not have access to the Non‐ Insured Health Benefits and may face unique challenges accessing health care. (Society of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists of Canada, 2013) Non-Insured Health Benefits (NIHB)  Does not cover Métis or non‐ Status  Hospital care and physician fees are covered by provincial and territorial health plans  Difference in opinion on why these benefits are provided  Federal government ‐ National policy not based on treaty right  First Nations ‐ Inherent Indigenous and Treaty rights and thus constitutionally protected Coverage • Eye and vision care • Dental • Medical supplies and equipment (restricted list) • Medical transport • Mental health counselling • Drug benefits • Prescription (majority are covered) • Some over the counter medications if written as a prescription • NIHB Navigator Contact: 1‐800‐565‐3294 Federal funded health benefit plan that pays for medicine and services not covered by provincial health plans prescribed to recognized First Nations and Inuit individuals (Government of Canada, 2018) Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 49 50

4/9/2019 26 HISTORICAL EXPERIENCE & TRAUMA DELAYED TREATMENT, SELF- MEDICATION DECISION TO SEEK CARE, RELUCTANCE, LAST RESORT GEOGRAPHY AND TRAVEL Racism Feeling Unwelcome EXPERIENCE ON ARRIVAL HEALTH CARE ENCOUNTER Time between child pain & Health Encounter is Longer FOLLOW UP Western/Two- eyed care application 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Themed Considerations in Steps Towards Wellness Community Professionals Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 Clinical Implications & Impact  Knowledge of history and social context  Cultural safety: what does it look like in your setting?  Understanding of interplay between colonization, culture and health conditions  Recognition of strengths and challenges  Compassion and caring to work in partnership  Traditional Healing, what is valued by community?  Two-Eyed Seeing and cultural understanding  Advocacy Annual Rural and Remote Medicine Conf 2019 51 52

4/9/2019 27 Wela’lin - Thank you! @ACHHInitiative w w w . A C H H. ca 53

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