Supporting Safe and Healthy Schools for LGBTQ Students - Supporting Safe and Healthy Schools for LGBTQ Students

 
Supporting Safe and Healthy Schools for LGBTQ Students - Supporting Safe and Healthy Schools for LGBTQ Students
2/27/2019

            Supporting Safe and
            Healthy Schools for
            LGBTQ Students
                      Becca Mui, M. Ed.
February 27, 2019     Caitlin Clark, PhD

            Supporting Safe and
            Healthy Schools for
            LGBTQ Students

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Supporting Safe and Healthy Schools for LGBTQ Students - Supporting Safe and Healthy Schools for LGBTQ Students
2/27/2019

Learning outcomes:
After viewing this webinar you should be able to:
• Understand how school counselors are being prepared
  to support LGBTQ students, what their actual practice
  is, and what barriers they face in implementing these
  practices.
• Explain the importance of LGBTQ-specific mental
  health supports for students.
• Identify strategies and resources for creating safer and
  more supportive learning environments for LGBTQ
  students.

GLSEN Webinar Team
• Caitlin Clark, PhD          • Becca Mui, M. Ed.
• She/her pronouns            • She/her pronouns
• Research Associate          • Education Manager

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Supporting Safe and Healthy Schools for LGBTQ Students - Supporting Safe and Healthy Schools for LGBTQ Students
2/27/2019

Agenda
• GLSEN Overview
• GLSEN Research
  – National School Climate Survey
  – Supporting Safe and Healthy Schools
• GLSEN Resources
  – Best Practices and recommendations
  – Free Resources
• Q&A

GLSEN is the leading national education organization focused on ensuring
safe schools for all students. Established in 1990, GLSEN envisions a
world in which every child learns to respect and accept all people,
regardless of sexual orientation or gender identity/expression.

GLSEN seeks to develop school climates where difference is valued for
the positive contribution it makes to creating a more vibrant and diverse
community.

• Leading Research                        • Policy Advocacy
• Educational Resources &                 • Public Awareness
  Professional Development                • 40+ State & Local Chapters
• Student Leadership

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Supporting Safe and Healthy Schools for LGBTQ Students - Supporting Safe and Healthy Schools for LGBTQ Students
2/27/2019

                 GLSEN Annual Days of Action
We provide free planning resources, activity ideas, and support:

                                             Day of Silence
    Ally Week             No Name-
                          Calling Week            April
     September
                            January

                      GLSEN Research:
                      2017 National School
                      Climate Survey

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Supporting Safe and Healthy Schools for LGBTQ Students - Supporting Safe and Healthy Schools for LGBTQ Students
2/27/2019

Safety at School
78.9% of students felt unsafe because of at least one personal
characteristic.

Safety at School
In the past month, over a
third missed at least one
day of school (34.9%).

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Supporting Safe and Healthy Schools for LGBTQ Students - Supporting Safe and Healthy Schools for LGBTQ Students
2/27/2019

Biased Language
Anti-LGBTQ comments were common among
students…

Biased Language
Anti-LGBTQ comments were not uncommon from
educators.

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Supporting Safe and Healthy Schools for LGBTQ Students - Supporting Safe and Healthy Schools for LGBTQ Students
2/27/2019

Biased Language
School staff and peers rarely intervened in anti-LGBTQ remarks.

Biased Language
School staff and peers rarely intervened in anti-LGBTQ remarks.

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Supporting Safe and Healthy Schools for LGBTQ Students - Supporting Safe and Healthy Schools for LGBTQ Students
2/27/2019

Experiences of Harassment &
Assault
• Nearly 9 in 10 LGBTQ students were harassed or
  assaulted at school

• Sexual orientation and gender expression were the
  most commonly targeted characteristics.

Reporting Incidents of Harassment
& Assault
The most common reason for not reporting to school staff was:

Doubting that effective intervention would occur.

•   Over 6 in 10 (68.0%) did not think school staff would do anything.
•   Over 6 in 10 (61.4%) did not think school staff would be effective in
    handling the situation.
                             “While my school does have policies against
                             hate speech and harassment, the administration
                             usually takes no action against students
                             reported for such things.”

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Supporting Safe and Healthy Schools for LGBTQ Students - Supporting Safe and Healthy Schools for LGBTQ Students
2/27/2019

Reporting Incidents of Harassment
& Assault
When students did report to staff, the most common response:

Staff Did Nothing or Told Student to Ignore It (60.4%)

                           “A few guys have pushed me against the walls and
                           groped me. I’ve only gone to school staff once
                           after this incident and I was questioned if I had
                           done something to provoke this sort of response
                           from my peers.”

Effectiveness of Staff Intervention
                                   Students reported that staff
                                   members’ responses were more
                                   likely to be effective when:

                                   • Staff took disciplinary action against
                                     the perpetrator

                                   • Staff educated the perpetrator about
                                     bullying

                                   • Staff contacted the perpetrator’s
                                     parents

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Supporting Safe and Healthy Schools for LGBTQ Students - Supporting Safe and Healthy Schools for LGBTQ Students
2/27/2019

School Discipline

Effects of a Hostile School Climate
Students who experienced high levels of harassment and assault and/or
discriminatory practices had poorer educational outcomes.

                                          ↓Academic
                                          achievement

                                         ↓ Educational
              Victimization               aspirations
                    and
              Discrimination               ↓ School
                                           belonging

                                           ↑ Missing
                                            school

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2/27/2019

Effects of a Hostile School Climate
Students who experienced high levels of harassment and assault and/or
discriminatory practices had lower psychological well-being.

                                              ↑ Depression

            Victimization and
             Discrimination

                                              ↓ Self-Esteem

LGBTQ-Related School Resources
and Supports
          Student Clubs               were related to:
              (GSAs)
                                  •    Negative school experiences
                                       (homophobic remarks, feeling
        Inclusive Curricular           unsafe, victimization)
             Resources
                                  •    School staff intervention in biased
                                       language
       Supportive Educators
                                  •    Positive educational outcomes
                                       (less absenteeism, higher
         Inclusive Policies            educational aspirations, greater
                                       academic achievement)

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2/27/2019

             GLSEN Research:
             Supporting LGBTQ Students’ Well-
             Being and Educational Success: New
             Survey Findings and Best Practices of
             School Mental Health Providers

Attitudes about Unsafety
• Perspectives

•

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2/27/2019

Attitudes towards Work with
LGBTQ Students
                 • Majority agree it is their
                   responsibility to provide
                   supportive counseling
                   (87.2%)
                 • A small portion disagree
                   (3.6%).
                 • Some remain neutral.

Attitudes regarding LGBTQ School
Practices

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2/27/2019

Attitudes re: LGBTQ School
Practices
                                     • Majority did not think it is
                                       better for students to
                                       conform to gender norms
                                       (55.5% for males, 57.1% for
                                       females)

School Mental Health Professionals
feel most confident…
• Intervening in anti-LGBTQ remarks, bullying, and/or harassment of
  students (93.1%)

• Using culturally sensitive terminology when talking with or about
  LGB people (89.1%), about transgender people (75.9%)

• Creating a safe space for LGBTQ students (86.9%)

• Providing counseling and support to an LGBTQ student (82.0%)

• Bringing up SOGI issues in conversation with “all” students (74.5%)

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2/27/2019

School Mental Health Professionals
feel least confident…
• Conducting support groups specifically for LGBTQ students (47.4%)

• Serving as a GSA sponsor/advisor in their school (46.3%)

• Addressing the unique health and mental health needs of
  transgender youth (35.3%)

LGBTQ-Related Competency
Training in Graduate School
• 7 in 10 received little to no training on working with LGB populations
• 8 in 10 received little to no training in working with transgender populations
• Over 3/4ths received little to no training in working with LGBTQ youth

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2/27/2019

Counselor Preparation

Meeting with LGBTQ Students in
their School

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Individual-Level Practices

School-Level Practices

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2/27/2019

Counselor Practices

             Factors Related to LGBTQ-Supportive Practices

     Specific training to serve LGBTQ students
 (including pre-service preparation & in-service PD)

      Confidence in abilities to engage in LGBTQ-
        supportive practices (i.e., self-efficacy)
                                                        LGBTQ-supportive
                                                       practices (individual-
                                                         and school-level)
          Familiarity with LGBTQ people
       (esp. students, coworkers, & parents)

         Awareness of school climate
            for LGBTQ students

           Positive attitudes toward LGBTQ
             students & school practices

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2/27/2019

 GLSEN Blog: 5 Tips and Best Practices

  By Kit McCann, LMFT, she/her, a queer/gender therapist in New Hampshire.

Advocate with other School Leaders
• Display LGBTQ-affirming signs or
   stickers
• Interrupt anti-LGBTQ language and
   mispronouning/misgendering
• Start or support GSAs
• Know the school’s policies and,
if needed, advocate for LGBTQ-
supportive policies

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2/27/2019

Explore LGBTQ-Community Resources
• Research therapists and clinics that are
  LGBTQ-friendly
• Compile a list of referrals for students who are
  looking for therapy outside of school
• Know your limits
• Check out CampusPrideIndex.org for LGBTQ-
  friendly college recommendations

Be Transparent About Confidentiality
• Research and understand your particular
  obligations to share information with teachers,
  administrators, or family members
• Read the ACLU’s open letter on Student Right to
  Privacy
• Be transparent with your students that you will
  have to break confidentiality if you are concerned
  about their safety either due to potential self-
  harm or harm from someone else.

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2/27/2019

Follow Their Lead With “Coming Out”
  • Read and share GLSEN Coming Out Guide at
    glsen.org/comingout
  • Gender and sexual orientation identities are
    often fluid, especially for students
  • Students determine when and with whom to
    share their identities and pronouns
  • Always ask first and follow their lead

   Students Are their Own Experts
• Keep learning about pronouns
  and LGBTQ identity
• Don’t assume what worked for
  one student will work for
  another with the same or
  similar identities
• Hold an open, honest space
  where each individual student
  can teach you about their
  specific experience

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2/27/2019

                           GLSEN Resources

GLSEN’s 4 Supports to Create Inclusive Schools:
       • Enumerated Policies
            Implement comprehensive anti-bullying policy that specifically
            includes protections based on sexual orientation or gender
            identity/expression among a list of enumerated categories.
                         See GLSEN’s Trans Model Policy.

       •   Supportive Educators
            Educators who show their support for LGBTQ students.
            Educators who have had staff trainings on how to address anti-
            LGBT bullying.

       •   Student-led Clubs
            Support for student interventions such as Gender-Sexuality Alliance
            (GSA) clubs and participation in events such as the Day of Silence.

       • Inclusive Curriculum
            Positive representations of LGBTQ people, history, and events in
            school curriculum.

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2/27/2019

                   4
                   5

Video: Nonbinary Identity

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2/27/2019

                              GLSEN Resources
        www.glsen.org/trans

• Trans Model Policy
• Gender Visual and Discussion
  Guide
• Pronoun Resource
• Identity Videos
• Blogs by trans students and trans
  educators

Ready, Set, Respect!
• GLSEN’s Ready, Set, Respect!

• The lessons focus on name-
  calling, bullying and bias,
  LGBT-inclusive family diversity
  and gender roles and diversity
  and are designed to be used as
  either standalone lessons or as
  part of a school-wide anti-bias
  or bullying prevention program.

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2/27/2019

                        Q&A

                                                      Contact Us

For Research                      For Educator Resources

•   glsen.org/research to         •   glsen.org/educators to
    subscribe to Research             subscribe to Educator Network
    Newsletter                        emails

•   @GLSENResearch on Twitter     •   @GLSEN_Education on Twitter

•   Email glsenresearch@glsen.org •   Email educators@glsen.org

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Schools Can Be the Difference for
Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Youth
    Transgender and gender nonconforming (trans/GNC) youth face enormous obstacles
      to a safe and welcoming school environment, but students who attend supportive
             schools have better personal mental health and academic outcomes.

Trans/GNC youth                             83.7% of                  Over 4 in 10                        trans/GNC students
                                            transgender               face gender-related discrimination at school, including:
are experiencing                            & 69.9%
extremely hostile                           of GNC
climates in                                 students                  42.1% of trans/GNC 46.5% of trans/
                                            were bullied/harassed     students have been GNC students have
US schools.                                 at school because of
                                            their gender.
                                                                      prevented from using their     been required to use the
                                                                      preferred name or pronoun.     incorrect bathroom.

And too few schools                         Good news!
have supportive policies.                   Research shows that schools can help trans/GNC students by enacting supportive
In fact, only 1 in 10 trans/GNC students    and inclusive policies. In fact, trans/GNC students in schools with trans/GNC
report their school has policies or         student policies are face less discrimination and are more engaged in school.
guidelines supporting trans/GNC students.

             Less likely to be
             prevented from using                                                         Less likely to
             their preferred name              Less likely to be required to              miss school
             or pronouns                        use the wrong bathrooms                   (54.7% vs. 67.0%)
             (22.5% vs. 47.5%)
                                                     (23.5% vs. 51.9%)

     Together, we can make our schools safe and inclusive for LGBTQ youth. Here’s how you can help:

       Advocate for trans/                        Create a trans/GNC-                      Train educators to
      GNC-inclusive policies                      inclusive curriculum                  support trans/GNC youth
             glsen.org/policy                       glsen.org/curriculum                      glsen.org/training

                                            Data from the 2017 National School Climate Survey: The Experiences of Lesbian,
                                            Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Youth in Our Nation's Schools.
                                            Learn more at glsen.org/nscs
Gender Terminology: Discussion Guide

Gender studies are for everyone!
Gender is much more complex than “boys” and “girls,” but not too complicated for students of any age to learn about.
All students have a gender, express that gender each day, and are affected by gender stereotypes. You can use GLSEN’s
Gender Terminology Visual to explain these basic gender terms.

Gender identity is how you identify and see yourself. Everyone gets to decide their gender identity for
themselves. You may identify as a girl or a boy. If you don’t feel like a boy or a girl, you might identify
as agender, genderqueer, nonbinary or just as a person. You may choose not to use any specific term
to define your gender identity, or you may use a term today that you decide later doesn’t fit. You have a
right to identify however you want, and your identity should be respected.

Sex assigned at birth is the sex that the medical community labels a person when they are born. If your
gender identity matches the sex assigned to you at birth, then you are cisgender. For example, if you
identify as a girl and you were assigned female at birth, then you are cisgender. People whose gender
identity does not match their sex assigned at birth may be transgender.

Regardless of our gender identity and sex assigned at birth, people express their gender in a variety of
ways. This includes the way that we talk, our mannerisms, how we interact with others, our clothing,
accessories, hairstyles, activities we enjoy, and much more! You should never use a person’s gender
expression to guess their gender identity.

Gender attribution describes how your gender is perceived by others. This can change depending on the
people you’re around, the country you’re in, or even the time period. For example, although we might
consider dresses to be stereotypically feminine, ancient Romans wore dresses or “togas” regardless of
their gender, and a man wearing one at that time would be perceived as masculine.

DISCUSSION TOPICS:                                                example, “girls like pink” or “boys don’t cry.”
 Take
nn     a moment to think about your gender                        These stereotypes can make people feel bad
 identity. How do you identify today? Is this the                 for the things they like to do and for being
 same as the sex you were assigned at birth?                      who they are. Even though nonbinary people
 Gender expression can be really fun when we
nn                                                                aren’t boys or girls, they may still be teased
 give people the space to explore what feels                      for breaking stereotypes associated with their
 good to them. There are so many different                        sex assigned at birth or the gender they are
 ways to show off our gender and ourselves.                       perceived as being.
 nn What are some ways you are expressing or                      nn What are some ways that you break gender
    showing your gender today?                                       stereotypes?
 nn How might this change on a different day?                     nn How could you encourage your friends and
 There are gender stereotypes that try to tell
nn                                                                   classmates to express their gender in a way
 us that people who identify as girls or boys                        that feels right to them?
 should act and dress a certain way. For

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Cis-privilege:
nn              The more all of these identities are aligned, the more cis-privilege you benefit from. For
  example, if you identify as a boy who was assigned male at birth, and your gender expression stays
  in what is considered “masculine” in your culture, AND you stay around people who perceive and
  read your expression as masculine, then your gender is not questioned. You might even get to move
  through the world without thinking about gender, being misgendered*, or feeling limited by gender
  stereotypes.
  nn What ways do you experience cis-privilege?
  nn What changes can you make to make your classroom or GSA more inclusive of transgender people?

    GENDER IS MUCH MORE COMPLEX
    THAN “BOYS” AND “GIRLS.”
WHY DO WE NEED SO MANY TERMS?                                     Inuit
                                                                 nn     people have 50 different words for that
In case you or someone you know are wondering                     we call “snow.” That’s because it’s important
why we have so many terms when talking about
                                                                  to them. We need language to talk about
gender, here are some talking points:
                                                                  gender and sexual identities because it helps
 We
nn    are a language-based society, and using
                                                                  people feel seen and validated when they fall
  language is the best way that we learn about
                                                                  outside of people’s assumptions.
  new things with each other. If you’ve ever
                                                                  In addition, having the language to describe
                                                                 nn
  seen a paint strip in a hardware store, think
                                                                  one’s gender identity outside of the gender
  about how many words we use to describe
                                                                  binary is liberating and creates community
  shades of one color. And that’s just paint, not
                                                                  among people experiencing gender in similar
  people’s identities!
                                                                  ways. We all have the right to have language
                                                                  to define ourselves.

                Check out GLSEN’s
                Gender Terminology Visual.

*Misgendering refers to the experience of being labeled by others as a gender other than one that a person identifies with.
The essential thing to do after learning someone’s pronouns is remembering to use those pronouns when referring to
that person. If you accidentally use the wrong pronoun when identifying someone, please correct yourself in front of that
person and begin using the right pronoun. Everyone makes mistakes, and making visible your work to respect and use
someone’s pronoun after a mistake is an important moment to take. It is not the responsibility of the transgender or gender
nonconforming person to address your feelings after you misgender them.

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PRONOUNS: A RESOURCE
SUPPORTING TRANSGENDER AND GENDER NONCONFORMING
(GNC) EDUCATORS AND STUDENTS

Why focus on pronouns?
You may have noticed that people are sharing their pronouns in
introductions, on nametags, and when GSA meetings begin. This is
happening to make spaces more inclusive of transgender, gender
nonconforming, and gender non-binary people. Including pronouns is a first
step toward respecting people’s gender identity, working against
cisnormativity, and creating a more welcoming space for people of all
genders.

How is this more inclusive?
People’s pronouns relate to their gender identity. For example, someone
who identifies as a woman may use the pronouns “she/her.” We do not want
to assume people’s gender identity based on gender expression (typically
shown through clothing, hairstyle, mannerisms, etc.) By providing an
opportunity for people to share their pronouns, you're showing that
you're not assuming what their gender identity is based on their
appearance. If this is the first time you're thinking about your pronoun, you
may want to reflect on the privilege of having a gender identity that is the
same as the sex assigned to you at birth.

Where do I start?
Include pronouns on nametags and during introductions. Be cognizant of
your audience, and be prepared to use this resource and other resources
(listed below) to answer questions about why you are making pronouns
visible. If your group of students or educators has never thought about
gender-neutral language or pronouns, you can use this resource as an entry
point.

What if I don’t want to share my pronouns?
That’s ok! Providing space and opportunity for people to share their pronouns
does not mean that everyone feels comfortable or needs to share their
pronouns. Some people may choose not to share their pronouns for a variety
of reasons, e.g. they are questioning or transitioning their pronouns, they
don’t use or like any pronouns, they don’t feel comfortable sharing them at
that moment or in that space, or they fear bullying or harassment after
sharing.

In the case that someone has left pronouns off the nametag or chosen not to
share their pronouns, please refrain from using pronouns for that person and
refer to the person by name.
Misgendering
Misgendering refers to the experience of being labeled by others as a gender
other than one that a person identifies with. The essential thing to do after
learning someone’s pronouns is remembering to use those pronouns when
referring to that person. If you accidentally use the wrong pronoun when
identifying someone, please correct yourself in front of that person and begin
using the right pronoun. Everyone makes mistakes, and making visible your
work to respect and use someone’s pronoun after a mistake is an important
moment to take. It is not the responsibility of the transgender or GNC person
to address your feelings after misgendering.

What about PGP?
There has been a shift away from the term “preferred gender pronoun” or
“PGP” to using “pronoun.” This change was made because a person’s
pronouns are not just preferred; they're the pronouns that must be used.

Make your support visible!
  • Include “pronoun:” under “name:” in nametags and introductions as
     an opportunity for participants to make visible their gender pronouns.
  • Put up a sign or statement like this near the nametags, classrooms, or
     GSA meeting spaces:

   •   [Your School or Group Name] is including pronouns because we
       are working to make our spaces more inclusive of transgender,
       gender nonconforming, and gender non-binary people.

   •   Put up this sign near nametags with pronoun sections:

   •   We encourage you to fill in the pronoun section along with your name,
       so that we use the correct pronouns with each other from the
       beginning. We have left the pronoun section blank so that you can fill
       in any/all pronouns you use.

   •   Wear and distribute pronoun buttons or nametags at school.

Tips for Gender-neutral Language:
   • If you feel comfortable, introduce yourself with your pronouns as a
      model. For example: “Hi, I’m Anjelique. I use she/her and they/them
      pronouns” or “I’m Milo, and I use they/them pronouns.”
   • Practice, practice, practice! Use gender-neutral pronouns such as
      “they” and “ze” while visualizing the person who uses them.
   • Whenever possible, take the lead from the transgender and GNC
      students and educators in your school, especially during the planning
      stages.
   • Welcome feedback, and be ready to make adjustments as you
      continue to make your spaces more inclusive: “If you have any
      feedback for us on how to make this GSA a more welcoming space for
transgender, gender nonconforming and gender non-binary people,
       please let us know!”
   •   When addressing groups of people or people whose pronouns you
       haven’t been told, use gender-neutral language such as, “friends,”
       “folks,” “all,” or “y’all,” rather than “guys,” “ladies,” “ma’am,” or “sir.”

Other resources from GLSEN for supporting Trans/GNC Youth
   •   Webinar for Educators: Supporting Trans and GNC Students
   •   Be a Better Ally to Trans and GNC Youth
   •   Know Your Rights: A Guide for Transgender and GNC Students
   •   Video on genderfluidity by one of GLSEN's National Student Council
       members
   •   Blogs on nonbinary identity and transgender binary-privilege
   •   Make your GSA more Trans and GNC Inclusive

Leading Organizations for Transgender Advocacy:
   •   National Center for Transgender Equality – transequality.org
   •   Transgender Law Center - transgenderlawcenter.org
   •   Trans Student Educational Resources (TSER) - transstudent.org
   •   Trans Women of Color Collective - twocc.us

IMPORTANT TERMS:

Cisgender: A person whose gender identity and expression are
aligned with the gender they were assigned at birth.

Cisnormativity: The assumption that cisgender identity is the norm,
which plays out in interpersonal interactions and institutional privileges
that further the marginalization of transgender people.

Gender: A set of cultural identities, expressions and roles – codified as
feminine or masculine – that are assigned to people based upon the
interpretation of their bodies, and more specifically, their sexual and
reproductive anatomy. Since gender is a social construction, it is
possible to reject or modify the gender one is assigned at birth, and to
develop, live and express a gender that feels truer and just to oneself.

Gender Binary: A socially constructed system of viewing gender as
consisting solely of two categories, “male” and “female,” in which no
other possibilities for gender are believed to exist. The gender binary
is a restrictive and inaccurate way to view gender because it does not
take into account the diversity of gender identities and gender
expressions among all people. The gender binary is oppressive to
anyone that does not conform to dominant societal gender norms.
Gender Expression: The multiple ways (e.g., behaviors, dress) in
which a person may choose to communicate gender to oneself and/or
to others.

Gender Identity: A personal conception of oneself as male, female,
both, neither and/or another gender. Gender identity can be the same
as or different from the gender a person is assigned at birth. Gender
identity is a matter of self-identification; no one can tell anyone else
how to identify or what terms to use. Gender identity is different from
sexual orientation, and everyone has both a gender identity and a
sexual orientation.

Gender Non-binary: An umbrella term for gender identities used by
people whose gender is not exclusively male or female

Gender Nonconforming: A descriptive term and/or identity of a
person who has a gender identity and/or expression that does not
conform to the traditional expectations of the gender they were
assigned at birth. People who identify as “gender nonconforming” or
“gender variant” may or may not also identify as “transgender.”

Pronouns: The pronoun or set of pronouns that a person identifies
with and would like to be called when their proper name is not being
used. Examples include “she/her/hers,” “he/him/his,” ze/hir/hirs,” and
“they/them/theirs.” Some people prefer no pronouns at all.

Transgender: An umbrella term describing people whose gender
identity does not match the gender they were assigned at birth.
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