The status of women in the Canadian arts - Ontario Arts Council

THE STATUS OF WOMEN
IN THE CANADIAN ARTS
AND CULTURAL INDUSTRIES
RESEARCH REVIEW 2010-2018




               PREPARED FOR ONTARIO ARTS COUNCIL
               AUGUST 2018


               AUTHORS: Amanda Coles, Kate MacNeill, Jordan
               Beth Vincent, Caitlin Vincent with Philippe Barré
               RESEARCHERS: Laurence Dubuc, Sally Storey,
               Jane Howard, Rebecca Hutton
AUTHORS:

Dr. Amanda Coles
Department of Management
Faculty of Business and Law
Deakin University
Co-Researcher, Interuniversity Research Centre on Globalization and Work (CRIMT),
Montreal, Canada

Associate Professor Kate MacNeill
Director, Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences
Faculty of Arts
University of Melbourne

Dr Jordan Beth Vincent
Research Fellow in Creative Technologies, School of Communication and Creative Arts
Deakin University

Caitlin Vincent, PhD (ABD)
Faculty of Arts and Education
Deakin University
with
Associate Professor Philippe Barré
School of Industrial Relations
Faculty of Arts and Science
University of Montreal


Researchers: Laurence Dubuc, Sally Storey, Jane Howard, Rebecca Hutton




Any errors and omissions are those of the research team. Any opinions, views, or findings in
this report are those of the research team and do not necessarily reflect those of the Ontario
Arts Council as the report funder.



                                                                                                 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
         EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................................... 4


         SECTION 1 – INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................... 6

             Report structure ............................................................................................................ 8


         SECTION 2 – METHODOLOGY ........................................................................................... 9


         SECTION 3 – CROSS-SECTORAL ANALYSIS .................................................................. 13

             Workforce and occupational profiles ...........................................................................13

             Earnings and income ...................................................................................................17

             Education and training .................................................................................................19

             Governance ...................................................................................................................20

             Leadership....................................................................................................................21

             Career and industry recognition ..................................................................................24

             Summary ......................................................................................................................29


         SECTION 4 – SECTOR SYNOPSES .................................................................................. 30

             Media Arts/Screen........................................................................................................32

             Theatre .........................................................................................................................36

             Visual Arts ....................................................................................................................39

             Music ............................................................................................................................42

             Literature and Publishing ............................................................................................45

             Dance ............................................................................................................................48


         SECTION 5 – REFERENCES ........................................................................................... 50


         SECTION 6 – ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY.................................................................... 56

             Cross-Sectoral Reports on Canadian Artists and Cultural Workers ...........................57

             Media Arts / Screen ......................................................................................................58

             Theatre .........................................................................................................................67

             Visual Arts ....................................................................................................................70

             Music ............................................................................................................................73

             Literature and Publishing ............................................................................................77

             Dance ............................................................................................................................79




                                                                                                                                                    3
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

In January 2018, the Ontario Arts Council contracted                              However the gender distribution within nine key arts
the Deakin research team via a competitive process to                             occupational groups used by Statistics Canada1 varies
conduct a review of the existing research on the status                           considerably, as follows:
of women in the arts and cultural industries in Canada                                 – Four of the nine arts occupational groupings
with a particular focus on Ontario. The majority of                                      qualify as gender imbalanced, with more than
existing research on the status of women in the arts in                                  60% representation of one gender. Two of
Canada focuses on specific sectors, such as media arts/                                  these four are female dominated and two are
screen, or theatre, etc., rather than addressing the arts                                male dominated. The most gender imbalanced
and cultural industries as a whole. The purpose of this                                  occupation is “dancers”, at 86% female. “Artisans
report is to help fill this gap by providing an overarching                              and craftspersons” also qualify as gender
synthesis of existing data on the status of women in the                                 imbalanced, at 61% female. “Producers, directors,
arts in Ontario/Canada.                                                                  choreographers and related occupations” are
                                                                                         33% female, and “conductors, composers and
This report covers six sectors: visual arts, dance,
                                                                                         arrangers” are 35% female.
theatre, literature, music, and media arts/screen.
The report focuses on key quantitative indicators that                                 – Four of the occupational groupings qualify as
illuminate the professional experiences of women                                         gender balanced (i.e. no less than 40% and
artists and cultural workers in Ontario specifically and                                 no more than 60% of one gender): “Other
in Canada more broadly. This includes quantitative data                                  performers” (53% female), “visual artists” (54%
that informs our understanding of the organisation of                                    female), “authors and writers” (54% female),
work and labour markets, occupations, career paths,                                      and “actors and comedians” (46% female).
training and professional development, leadership and                                  – The only occupational group to qualify as gender-
governance, and reward and recognition programs. Data                                    equal (i.e. 49-51% gender distribution) is “singers
was sourced from published literature, with an emphasis                                  and musicians”, at a 50:50 male/female ratio.2
on scholarly research and high-quality industry reports.
                                                                                       The media arts/screen, theatre, and music sectors
Secondary sources, including mainstream media sources
                                                                                       demonstrate an observable gendered division of
and industry advocacy material, were used when credible
                                                                                       labour that closely mirrors traditional notions of
and appropriate, to fill in knowledge gaps.
                                                                                       “men’s” and “women’s” work. Women are over-
                                                                                       represented in professional roles that are generally
Key findings:                                                                          recognised as feminised occupations, such as
                                                                                       administration, marketing, and costumes, and men
Workforce and employment patterns                                                      are over-represented in technical occupations.
    Overall, the arts and cultural industries workforce
    in Ontario is gender equal. Fifty-two percent of                              Earnings and income
    Ontario artists, and fifty-one percent of cultural                                 Research shows a pervasive gender-based income
    workers in Ontario, are female. This is slightly higher                            gap across all six sectors under review. A gender
    than the total population of Ontario of 50.7% female,                              income gap, in which women’s average incomes
    49.3% male.                                                                        are lower than their male peers, is a defining feature
                                                                                       of work in the Canadian arts and cultural industries.




1   Data on the nine key arts occupations is sourced from the 2011 National Household Survey based on 2010 income data, available in: Hill Strategies
    Research. (2014a). A Statistical Profile of Artists and Cultural Workers in Canada Based on the 2011 National Household Survey and the Labour Force Survey.
    Retrieved from http://www.hillstrategies.com/sites/default/files/Artists_CW_Canada2011.pdf
2   Hill Strategies Research. (2014a). A Statistical Profile of Artists and Cultural Workers in Canada Based on the 2011 National Household Survey and the Labour
    Force Survey. Retrieved from http://www.hillstrategies.com/sites/default/files/Artists_CW_Canada2011.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                    4
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY




Education and training                                        There are tentative indicators of change, most
  Gender inequality in the arts and cultural industries       notably in the media arts/screen and literature
  cannot be explained by the education or skill of            and publishing sectors. The issue of women’s
  professional female artists and cultural workers.           representation in the arts and cultural workforce,
  A cross sectoral analysis of available data on              and the dissemination and recognition of women’s
  education and training clearly shows that across all        artistic accomplishments, is a matter of sectoral
  six sectors, women are as highly educated as men.           interest and in some instances, progressive action.
                                                              The goods and services generated by the arts and
Leadership                                                    cultural industries not only reflect our social world,
                                                              but shape it. The issue of gender inequality in the
  Women are well represented in organisational
                                                              Ontario arts and cultural industries is thus both an
  leadership roles in visual arts, publishing, and
                                                              employment equity issue, and an issue of national
  theatre, and in the top tier of Canadian orchestras.
                                                              socio-cultural significance.
  Executive and organisational leadership roles in
  the music industry are male dominated. There is a
                                                            Assessment of the available data
  notable shortage of data on organisational leadership
  in broadcasting, film and television production, the        The review of existing research revealed significant
  interactive digital media sector and dance.                 knowledge gaps. Notably, there is very little data
                                                              available on organisational, industrial and/or sectoral
  Women are severely under-represented in key artistic        governance in the arts and cultural industries, as
  leadership roles in media arts/screen, theatre and          well as significant gaps on organisational leadership
  music. In contrast, key artistic leadership roles in        across several of the sectors. Given that governance
  visual arts and publishing, such as curators and            bodies and organisational leadership structures are
  editors, are female dominated.                              key fulcrum points for strategic organisational and
                                                              sectoral development, closing these knowledge gaps
Career and industry recognition                               is an important dimension of addressing the status
  Across all sectors, women’s artistic and creative           of women in the arts in the long term.
  outputs receive significantly less public exposure
                                                              Finally, the authors note important differences in data
  than those of men. The systemic and relative (in)
                                                              gathering and analysis between the 250+ sources
  visibility of women’s artistic works indicates that
                                                              consulted for this report that make both direct
  women, as a group, experience gender-based
                                                              comparative analyses between sectors, as well as
  disadvantage in the arts and cultural industries
                                                              time-series analyses challenging. Thus, the report
  overall. Key indicators such as the gendered profile
                                                              should be read as an indicative analysis of major
  of productions, exhibitions and awards demonstrate
                                                              trends in the literature.
  that the dissemination of women’s creative works,
  and recognition of the significance of women’s artistic
  achievements, is not of equal status to that of their
  male peers.




                                                                                                                        5
SECTION 1:
   INTRODUCTION




                  6
SECTION 1 - INTRODUCTION

The past five years have produced a growing interest           cultural workers tell stories through their work. Stories
from industry bodies and policy makers on the                  are a means by which we share our personal and
persistence of gender inequality as a defining feature         collective experiences as a society. The products of the
of work and labour markets in the arts and cultural            arts and cultural industries not only reflect our social
industries in Canada and internationally. Building upon        world, but shape it. The issue of gender inequality in
decades of prior activism and research, the renewed            the Ontario arts and cultural industries is thus both an
interest in the status of women in the arts and cultural       employment equity issue, and an issue of national socio-
industries focuses on the ways in which gender impacts         cultural significance.
on the professional experiences of artists and cultural
                                                               The report covers six sectors: visual arts, dance, theatre,
workers.
                                                               literature, music, and media arts/screen. These sectors,
In January 2018, the Ontario Arts Council contracted           and the professional artists and cultural workers that
the Deakin research team via a competitive process to          drive them, constitute the core of Ontario’s creative
conduct a review of the existing research on the status        economy. The report focuses on key indicators that
of women in the arts and cultural industries in Canada         illuminate the professional experiences of women
with a particular focus on Ontario. The majority of the        artists and cultural workers in Ontario specifically and
research on the status of women in the arts and cultural       Canada more broadly. This includes quantitative data
industries is sector-specific (media arts/screen, dance,       that informs our understanding of the organisation of
theatre, visual arts, etc.). This approach has been            work and labour markets, occupations, career paths,
determinate in focusing industry and scholarly attention       training and professional development, leadership and
on the dynamics, and pressure points/change levers to          governance, and reward and recognition programs.
promote gender equity specific to the sector under study.
                                                               This report seeks to bridge the sectoral focus and
A sector-specific approach to understanding gender
                                                               develop a more holistic understanding of the status
inequality, and the status of women in the arts and
                                                               of women in the arts and cultural industries overall.
cultural industries overall, has two key shortcomings.
                                                               The analysis of the existing research captures the
First, sectoral studies fail to capture commonalities
                                                               ways in which gender shapes the professional lives
and/or differences in the gendered dynamics of work
                                                               of women artists and cultural workers across sectors,
and careers for professional artists and cultural workers
                                                               and in so doing, provides insight into the overarching
across sectors. Secondly, and consequently, we fail to
                                                               gender dynamics of the arts and cultural ecology.
capture the systemic nature of the ways in which gender
                                                               As discussed in the methodology section below,
shapes the individual and collective experiences of
                                                               the review of existing research revealed significant
female artists and cultural workers as a whole. There
                                                               knowledge gaps and differences in data gathering that
is no study we found that provides an overall picture of
                                                               make both direct comparative analyses between sectors,
the status of women in the arts in Ontario/Canada. The
                                                               as well as time-series analyses challenging. Thus, the
purpose of this report is to help fill this gap by providing
                                                               report should be read as an indicative analysis of major
a synthesis of existing data on the status of women in
                                                               thematic trends in the literature.
the arts in Ontario/Canada and to identify gaps in the
research.                                                      The data presented herein is drawn from published
                                                               literature, with an emphasis on scholarly research
An analysis of the status of women in the arts in Ontario
                                                               and high-quality industry reports. Secondary sources,
provides an exemplar case study on the ways in which
                                                               including media and industry advocacy material, were
gender shapes the professional experiences of Canadian
                                                               used when credible and appropriate to fill in knowledge
arts and cultural workers more generally. Artists and
                                                               gaps. The volume of material reviewed includes




                                                                                                                             7
SECTION 1 | INTRODUCTION




significant variation in data gathering and analytical                            This cross-sectoral thematic analysis of key indicators
methodology. Consequently, the report does not offer                              provides the research evidence base upon which we
a comparative analysis of the six sectors per se. The                             draw our conclusions with respect to the data outlining
content of the report is the research team’s evaluation                           the status of women in the Ontario/Canada arts and
of the data available on key indicators across the six                            cultural industries.
sectors under study.3
                                                                                  Section Four is a summary of the sectorally-focused
                                                                                  data that informs the thematic analysis presented in
Report structure                                                                  section three. We present six brief sectoral synopses,
Section Two presents detail on the research                                       one for each sector under review: visual arts, dance,
methodology and the strengths and limitations                                     theatre, literature, music and media arts/screen. Each
of the study.                                                                     sectoral synopsis opens with a concise analysis of the
                                                                                  available data from which the synopses were drawn.
Section Three is the overarching thematic analysis                                The synopses then provide a succinct overview of the
of the research from across each of the six sectors under                         most recent quantitative data findings using the key
review. The overarching thematic analysis is presented in                         indicator groupings presented in section three.
relation to the following four key indicator groupings:
                                                                                  Section Five is the list of references cited in the report.
• Workforce and employment – includes gender-based
  data on sectoral workforce profile, occupational                                Section Six is a select annotated bibliography of relevant
  groups, and employment and income data, where                                   sources reviewed for this report.
  available;
• Education and training – includes gender-based data
  on participation rates in post-secondary training and
  professional development programs, where available;
• Leadership – includes gender-based data on key
  creative and organisational decision makers roles
  at both project and organisational levels, where
  available;
• Career and industry recognition – includes gender-
  based data on various forms of industry recognition
  specific to the sector, such as exhibitions, reviews,
  awards and so forth, where available.




3   All errors and omission are those of the research team and do not reflect the opinions, views, or findings of the Ontario Arts Council as the report funder.

                                                                                                                                                                   8
SECTION 2:
  METHODOLOGY




                9
SECTION 2 - METHODOLOGY

Project scope                                                  related data sources and studies within the last decade.
                                                               Step three comprised a targeted search for relevant
The report comprises a review and analysis of the
                                                               material from the websites of key industry bodies and
existing published scholarly and research literature on
                                                               organisations, including:
the status of the women in the arts in Ontario. The report
covers six sectors, which constitute the core of the arts      1 Arts service organisations and other organisations
and cultural industries:                                         representing the cultural workforce, e.g. unions and
• Visual arts                                                    professional associations
• Theatre                                                      2 Workforce development organisations e.g. the
• Dance                                                          Cultural Human Resources Council, the Cultural
• Literature / Publishing                                        Careers Council of Ontario, and the Dancer Transition
                                                                 Resource Centre
• Music
• Media arts/Screen-based industries                           3 Public policy, arts funding and cultural industries
                                                                 development agencies
This review focuses on available quantitative gender-          4 Arts advocacy and research organisations
based data that relate to work and employment issues,
including but not limited to:                                  Finally in step four, we undertook a media scan of major
• The organisation of work and labour markets                  news and trade industry publications to obtain additional
                                                               supplementary quantitative data. This augmented the
• Occupations and career paths
                                                               citation tracing for the scholarly and industry research
• Training and professional development
                                                               literature.
• Leadership and governance
• Reward and recognition programs                              These four steps allowed the research team to reach
                                                               citation saturation whereby the sources we referenced
This analysis uses the most recent, leading studies in         were citing many of the other documents we have
each sector as a focal point. The research focused on          reviewed for this report. In total, the research team
identifying relevant findings and data specific to Ontario     studied 250+ reports, documents and articles. This
in the first instance. As there is a paucity of quantitative   report thus is based on recent research that has been
data specific to Ontario across many of the indicators         formative in advancing the knowledge base on the status
and many of the sectors, the research expanded to              of women in the arts and cultural industries. The review
include sourcing national level data. We elaborate on          thereby represents a comprehensive analysis of gender-
the challenges related to data collection and analysis         related quantitative research for the arts and cultural
in the limitations to the study section below.                 industries in Ontario/Canada over the past decade.


Stage One: Identification and collection                       Stage Two: Analysis and write-up
of existing research reports
                                                               Stage two involved a cross-sectoral analysis to draw
The research was conducted in two stages between               out key thematic findings about the status of women
February and July, 2018. The identification and collection     in the arts and cultural industries. Our first step was
of existing research reports and data sources involved         to draft sectoral summaries of the evidentiary basis
four steps. In step one, the research team conducted           on the status of women in each of the sectors under
advanced keyword searches in scholarly databases and           review. This approach enabled us to capture sectoral
search engines to develop a preliminary list of resources      specificities in the organisation of work and labour
and key works per sector. Step two used citation tracing       markets. Additionally, the sectoral analysis enabled us
of references in the most recent key works to map              to identify gaps in analysis and/or areas of research that


                                                                                                                            10
SECTION 2 | METHODOLOGY




warrant updating. The sectoral analyses allowed us to         Hill Strategies’ national-level occupational statistics
develop an overarching gender-based thematic analysis         as the point of entry for an overview of the gender
under the following categories:                               distribution within occupations. The size of the Ontario
• Workforce and occupational profiles                         arts and cultural industries workforce provides the
• Earnings and income                                         methodological rationale for this approach. As noted
                                                              in the opening of section three, 2011 data from Hill
• Education and training
                                                              Strategies demonstrates that Ontario has more than
• Governance and leadership
                                                              twice the amount of artists than any other province, as
• Career and industry recognition
                                                              well as the largest number of cultural workers in the
                                                              country. Thus, we can reasonably use national data as a
Limitations to the study                                      representative, if not province-specific, sample
There are a number of excellent sources that serve as         from which to start the analysis.
key research documents and/or as suite of research
                                                              Sectors with robust bodies of research, most notably
interventions that inform the overall analysis. Most
                                                              media arts/screen and theatre yielded the richest source
notable is Hill Strategies, whose research provides the
                                                              of Ontario-specific data. Nordicity’s 2015 report on
most comprehensive statistical analysis of key workforce
                                                              women in the Ontario (recorded) music industry is also
profile and income indicators at the occupational level at
                                                              noteworthy for its provincial focus. However, much of the
this point in time. While the currency of Hill Strategies’
                                                              data presented in the sectoral analyses is largely drawn
research is limited by changes to the collection of census
                                                              from the national-level sectoral studies in which we
data by Statistics Canada, the quality and scope of the
                                                              highlight the Ontario-specific findings where available.
research provides a foundational starting point for this
                                                              We have ordered the sectoral summaries from largest to
analysis.
                                                              smallest research-base to draw attention to the variation
There is considerable variation in the quantity of data       in the available data.
across the sectors. Theatre, media arts/screen, and
                                                              As a body of research, there is insufficient data on
visual arts are notable for the extent of high quality
                                                              the diversity of women within the arts and cultural
data that analyses the degree to which gender is a
                                                              workforce. We acknowledge that the report fails to
determining variable in the organisation of work and
                                                              address important axes of intersectionality that inform
labour markets. In contrast, the literature/publishing
                                                              the gendered experiences of artists and cultural workers
and music sectors yielded a less comprehensive set
                                                              in their professional careers, including but not limited
of data across the various indicators we studied. The
                                                              to racialization, linguistic diversity, age, sexuality, and
research team found very little research on classical
                                                              ability. We further acknowledge that gender is not a
music generally across Canada. Similarly, there is little
                                                              binary, although this is the predominant framing in the
gender-based research on the dance sector in Canada
                                                              existing research data. Our use of the terms ‘female/
despite (or perhaps as a consequence of) being female-
                                                              male,’ ‘woman/man’ includes all individuals who identify
dominated.
                                                              as such.
The original aim of this work was to develop an analysis
                                                              Finally, the review reflects the most current data
of the status of women in the arts in Ontario. However,
                                                              available at the time of writing. It draws primarily
publicly available Ontario-focused data on the status of
                                                              on reports produced between 2010 and 2018. Some
women in the arts is under-developed. Hill Strategies’
                                                              of the older data may not accurately reflect current
2014 report on Arts and Cultural workers in Canada’s
                                                              circumstances. Thus we underscore the need for
Provinces and Territories provides a gender breakdown for
                                                              ongoing reporting on key indicators as a foundation
the aggregate artists and cultural workers categories,
                                                              for tracking progress toward gender equality.
but does not provide any occupational-specific data at
the provincial level. To address this deficit, we have used

                                                                                                                            11
SECTION 3:
   CROSS-SECTORAL
   ANALYSIS




                    12
SECTION 3 | CROSS-SECTORAL ANALYSIS




SECTION 3 – CROSS-SECTORAL ANALYSIS

Workforce and occupational profiles                                            • producers, directors, choreographers and related
                                                                                 occupations
Overall, the arts and cultural industries workforce in
                                                                               • visual artists
Ontario is gender equal. Fifty-two percent of Ontario
artists, and fifty-one percent of cultural workers in                          We sort the gender distribution within these occupations
Ontario, are female. This is slightly higher than the total                    into three categories: gender equal, gender balanced,
population of Ontario of 50.7% female, 49.3% male.4                            and gender imbalanced. The gender equal category
                                                                               represents a gender distribution of 49-51% within an
Yet a sophisticated understanding of the status of women
                                                                               occupational group, mirroring the gender distribution
in the arts requires analysis of the gendered dimensions
                                                                               of the general population in the 2016 Canadian census.7
of key occupational groups. This data is currently only
                                                                               Drawing from the work of the Council of Europe and
available at the national level in published reports.5
                                                                               the European Institute for Gender Equality, the gender
However, given that Ontario artists account for 43% of
                                                                               balanced category represents a gender distribution of
the national total, and that Ontario has twice as many
                                                                               no less than 40% and no more than 60% of one gender
professional artists than any other province, we can
                                                                               as a participation threshold for gender parity.8 Gender
reasonably use the national data as representative of the
                                                                               imbalanced represents an occupational group that is
gender distribution in the artistic occupations in Ontario.6
                                                                               dominated by one gender category.
Analysis of the national level data reveals that while the
                                                                               Of the nine artistic occupational groups, only musicians
arts and cultural industries workforce overall closely
                                                                               and singers qualify as gender equal with a 50:50 male/
reflects the gender distribution of the population of
                                                                               female ratio.
Ontario, gender distribution within occupational groups
varies considerably. The following section uses Hill
Strategies’ data from the 2011 National Household
                                                                               GENDER EQUAL
                                                                               (49-51% gender distribution)
survey to examine the gender distribution within key
artistic occupations.
                                                                                           MUSICIANS AND SINGERS

Gender distribution of key artistic occupations
Nine key occupational groupings in the 2011 National
Household Survey have been identified as artistic
occupations by significant arts funding agencies and
policy bodies:
• actors and comedians
                                                                                             50%               50%
• artisans and craftpersons
• authors and writers
• conductors, composers and arrangers
• dancers
• musicians and singers
                                                                                               % female          % male
• other performers




4   Hill Strategies (2014a).
5   Hill Strategies (2014a).
6   Hill Strategies (2014a).
7   Statistics Canada (2018).
8   European Parliament (2012); European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE) (2018).

                                                                                                                                          13
SECTION 3 | CROSS-SECTORAL ANALYSIS




Four of the occupational groups are gender balanced:
actors and comedians, authors and writers, visual artists,
and other performers. Three of those four occupational
groups have a higher percentage of women than men:
authors 54% female; visual artists 54% female and other
performers 53% female. Only the actor and comedian
occupational group has fewer women – 46% – than men.


GENDER BALANCED
(+40% / -60% gender distribution)

                OTHER PERFORMERS                                VISUAL ARTISTS




               53%               47%                          54%             46%




                 % female          % male                      % female        % male



              AUTHORS AND WRITERS                            ACTORS AND COMEDIANS




               54%                46%                         46%             54%




                 % female          % male                      % female        % male




                                                                                                     14
SECTION 3 | CROSS-SECTORAL ANALYSIS




Four of the occupational groups qualify as gender
imbalanced. Two are female dominated: artisans and
craftspersons at 61% female, and dancers, the most
sharply gender imbalanced occupation, at 86% female.
Two are male dominated: conductors, composers and
arrangers at 35% female, and producers, directors,
choreographers and related occupations at 33% female.


GENDER IMBALANCED
(more than 60% representation of one gender)

         ARTISANS AND CRAFTSPERSONS                                   DANCERS




                                                                             14%


              61%               39%
                                                                  86%




                % female         % male                           % female       % male



PRODUCERS, DIRECTORS AND CHOREOGRAPHERS                 CONDUCTORS, COMPOSERS AND ARRANGERS




              33%                                               35%

                                67%                                             65%




                % female         % male                           % female        % male




                                                                                                        15
SECTION 3 | CROSS-SECTORAL ANALYSIS




Data from professional organisations representing            The most recent, published, gender-based occupational
the cultural workforce provides additional insight           data on the theatre workforce in Canada comes from
into the gender distribution at the occupational level.      Burton’s 2006 report using national census data.
Women represent approximately half of the members            Similar patterns to media arts/screen emerge: women
of both the Canadian Actors’ Equity Association and          represent the majority of general managers (69%),
the Playwrights Guild of Canada, 72% of members of           costume designers (70%), assistant directors (59%),
the Canadian chapter of the Literary Managers and            and dramaturgs (60%). 12 Given this dataset is now
Dramaturgs of America, and 43.8% of working members          twelve years old, an update is clearly in need so to
of the Associated Designers of Canada.9 In 2011, women       track any changes, or the lack thereof, over time.
represented 136 of the 788, or 17% of the associate
                                                             While the singers and musicians occupational group
composers catalogued and promoted by the Canadian
                                                             is the only one to qualify as gender equal, other data
Music Centre.10
                                                             sources indicate that the recorded music industry
The gender profile of these nine key artistic occupational   overall is male dominated across a variety of major
groups across the arts and cultural industries begins        areas of work. Notably, data from Nordicity’s 2015 study
to signal gender imbalances in general employment            of women working in Ontario’s music industry again
patterns within sectors that then allow us to see            shows a familiar pattern in terms of the gendered
gendered patterns across sectors, as the following           division of labour. Almost 70% of women professionals
analysis shows.                                              in the Ontario music industry are concentrated in the
                                                             following four areas:
Gendered division of labour                                     Promotion and marketing (20%)
There is an observable gendered division of labour
                                                                Event production (17%),
in sectors that are characterised by the collective
coordination of specialised skills in the production            Artist management / Agent (16%),
process. This is particularly evident in patterns in media      Administration and professional services (15%)
arts/screen, theatre and music sectors. Data signals an
over-representation of women in professional roles that      The lowest concentration of women in the Ontario music
are generally recognised as feminised occupations. For       industry is in sales and business development (7%) –
example, data from 2011-2012 period indicates that in        a key feeder occupation for industry leadership, which
the Canadian independent film and television production      we will turn to shortly – and in music production (6%),
sector, women are over-represented in the following          a technical role that signals a larger observable trend.13
categories: hair (77% female), makeup (79% female),
and costumes (88% female) script supervision (93%
female), publicity (85% female), accounting (73% female),
and the production office (75% female).11




9   MacArthur (2015).
10 Elliott (2012).
11 Coles (2013).
12 Burton (2006).
13 Nordicity (2015b).

                                                                                                                          16
SECTION 3 | CROSS-SECTORAL ANALYSIS




Women are generally under-represented in technical           economic value and occupational prestige is an analysis
roles. Women account for only 25% of the Interactive         of available data on any gender income gaps, to which
Digital Media workforce in Ontario. Those women appear       we turn now.
to be concentrated in comparatively few firms; while 20%
of the nearly 900 IDM companies employ only men, 10%
                                                             Earnings and income
of the companies report employing over 75% women.14
Additional national-level studies demonstrate that media     Research shows a pervasive gender-based income gap
arts/screen and theatre technical roles are also sharply     across all six sectors under review. Our main point of
male dominated.15 For example, a 2013 report for the         reference is Hill Strategies’ 2014 analysis of the gender
Canadian Unions for Equality on Screen found that key        income gap of the nine key arts occupational groups.
technical departments in the film and television unions      This data set demonstrates that in eight of the nine
are male dominated, including camera (17% female),           categories, women’s average annual incomes are lower
grip (5% female), lighting (5% female) sound (6%             than those of their male peers.
female), construction (6% female) special effects (20%
                                                             Figure 1 demonstrates the largest gender pay gap
female), and editing (28% female).16
                                                             is experienced by female visual artists, who earn on
It is important to note that women are very well             average 65% of the annual income of their male peers.
represented in a range of roles in both the literature and   On the other end of the scale is female dancers, who,
publishing, as well as visual arts sectors. For example,     according to the NHS data on 2010 incomes, earned
in addition to representing 54% of the writers and           102% of what male dancers made on average.
authors, as well as visual artists occupational groups,
                                                             These NHS data findings align with other sector-specific
women comprise 81% of editorial positions, 62% of
                                                             data sources that document a gender income gap.
sales departments, and 75% of marketing and publicity
                                                             Notably, there is some differentiation in terms of the size
departments in Quill & Quire’s 2013 salary survey.17 Data
                                                             of the gap, but not the existence of the gender income
from the 2017 Government of Canada Survey of Heritage
                                                             gap. For example, a 2012 report from Canadian Actors’
institutions shows that women account for 63.1% of the
                                                             Equity reports that female members earn on average
workforce at Ontario not-for-profit art galleries and
                                                             91% of what men earn, with an average annual income
68.8% of the workforce at Ontario museums.18
                                                             of $15,849 for women compared to $17,323 for men.19
General trends in the gendered division of labour noted      According to Maranda’s income data from 2012, female
here are not to be read as an analysis of occupational       visual artists earn 40 cents for every dollar earned
prestige. The presence or absence of women in a              by male visual artists when measured in terms of an
particular occupation or area of work is not necessarily     average hourly income.20 A 2015 Writers Union of Canada
a reflection of economic status, or waged value, of the      report shows a gender income gap between 49% and
work, nor the prestige associated with specific roles per    55% for female authors and writers.21
se. Key to understanding the gendered dimensions of the




14 Nordicity (2017).
15 Burton (2006); Coles (2013); MacArthur (2015).
16 Coles (2013)
17 Quill & Quire (2013).
18 Department of Canadian Heritage (2017).
19 Equity (2012)
20 Maranda (2014)
21 Writers Union of Canada (2015)

                                                                                                                           17
SECTION 3 | CROSS-SECTORAL ANALYSIS




FIGURE 1: GENDER PAY GAP BY OCCUPATION, 2010
    FIGURE 1: GENDER PAY GAP BY OCCUPATION, 2010

                  $60,000
                                                                                                        84%                                 102%
                  $50,000                                                                                           87%          88%
                                                                                           73%
 Average income




                  $40,000                          68%        68%           70%
                                      65%

                  $30,000

                  $20,000

                  $10,000

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                                                                        Men          Women                Women’s earnings compared to men

Source: Hill Strategies(2014a)




Drawn from a survey of 947 Union members, the data                                       sound recording segment of the music industry across
identified the largest income gap (49%) existing for                                     Canada.23
female authors who indicated writing as their primary
                                                                                         Female screenwriters and female performers earn less
occupation.22
                                                                                         on average than their male counterparts. Data from
 Additional sources provide further data that underscores                                a 2010 survey of 266 members of the Writer’s Guild
the degree to which the gender income gap is a defining                                  of Canada shows 89% of female screenwriters earn
feature of the status of women in the arts. Nordicity                                    less than $40,000 per year compared to 67% of male
reports that women employed by Ontario music                                             screenwriters.24 The 2013 report for the Canadian Unions
companies earn 10% less than the average salary of                                       for Equality on Screen documents that on average, male
music company employees, while the annual salaries                                       screen performers work more often, have higher average
of women in the music industry overall in 2014 were                                      annual incomes, and have longer careers than female
27% lower than average annual salaries reported in the                                   screen performers.25



22 Writers Union of Canada (2015)
23 Nordicity (2015b)
24 Coutanche & Davis (2013)
25 Coles (2013)

                                                                                                                                                     18
SECTION 3 | CROSS-SECTORAL ANALYSIS




A 2018 report for the Screen Composers Guild of Canada                        The variation in findings speaks to the need for
reports a stark income gap that has worsened over time.                       consistent data collection, analysis and reporting to track
The analysis of SOCAN payments to Canadian screen                             gender equity indicators. Yet despite a variation in findings
composers from 2006-2016 demonstrates that the                                about the size of the gender income gap, the existence of a
proportion of total income SOCAN distributes to female                        gender pay gap across the arts and cultural industries for
screen composers has decreased from 50% in 2006 to                            women is empirically well documented.
21% in 2016. In 2016, female screen composers earned
                                                                              Understanding factors that shape income levels,
30% (an average of $463) of men’s income (an average of
                                                                              including the gender-based income gap, is complex
$1553) from SOCAN payments.26
                                                                              terrain. Work in the arts and cultural industries is
Data on the gender income gap in the dance sector is the                      characterised by freelance and self-employment in
most variable. In contrast to the findings from the 2011                      project-based work. Personal and professional networks
NHS data that report female dancers earn 102% of their                        and hiring practices of decision makers, in addition to
male colleagues, data from the 2006 Census finds that                         policy and funding frameworks, shape labour market
female dancers earn, on average, $12,502 compared to                          dynamics. A large body of work on the gender income
$17,105 for male dancers, for a gender income gap in                          gap in work and employment relations more generally
which female dancers earn on average 73% of the annual                        references the broader socio-political context of gender
earning of their male peers.27 Notably, these findings                        inequality as an important contextual consideration.29
represent lower average wages for women and higher                            For the specific context of this report, the next step to
average wages for men than the 2011 NHS data. An even                         understanding the status of women in the arts is to
larger gender income gap is reported in the 2014 Yes I                        examine three key income indicators – education levels,
Dance! Study by EKOS. The survey findings report lower                        organisational and artistic leadership roles, and the
average earnings for dancers overall, but significantly                       public profile of women’s creative outputs, to which we
lower average earnings for female dancers. The study                          turn now.
reports an income average of $12,778 for professional
male dancers compared to average earnings of $5,617
                                                                              Education and training
for professional female dancers, with a resulting gender
income gap of women earning only 56% of men’s                                 Overall, Hill Strategies notes that Ontario artists are
earnings as professional dancers. Data collected from                         highly educated, with 47% of the professional artistic
650 professional dancers in Quebec in 2010 provides                           workforce having completed a bachelor’s degree or
some further context to these figures. According to the                       above.30 A cross sectoral analysis of available data on
data, female dancers under the age of 35 constitute 39%                       education and training clearly shows that across all six
of the dance workforce in Quebec but share 20% of the                         sectors, women are highly educated. For example:
total dance income. The report also found that female                             2011 NHS data from Hill Strategies’ 2015 study
dancers are more likely to work without pay in the sector,                        Educating Artists finds that women constitute
constituting 58.1% of unpaid dancers compared to 44%                              59% of all graduates of visual and performing
of men.28                                                                         arts programs.31




26 Gautier & Freeman (2018)
27 Hill Strategies (2014a)
28 Provençal (2012).
29 For a comprehensive analysis of the complexity of the gender gap and related scholarly literature, see World Economic Forum (2017).
30 Hill Strategies (2014a).
31 Hill Strategies (2015).

                                                                                                                                              19
SECTION 3 | CROSS-SECTORAL ANALYSIS




    MacArthur finds that women constitute more than                          Thus, the drivers of gender inequality in the arts and
    half of all theatre school students and cites the                        cultural industries cannot be explained by the education
    National Theatre School of Canada as a key example:                      or skill of professional female artists and cultural
    in 2014/15, female students constituted 58% of the                       workers. This leads us to analyse the degree to which
    total student body.32                                                    women have access to decision-making roles that shape
                                                                             the six sectors under review here. We first turn to an
    Nordicity’s 2015 survey of 455 women in the Ontario
                                                                             analysis of the available data on governance as a point
    music industry reports 41% of women completed
                                                                             of entry.
    undergraduate programs as their highest education
    level. An additional 13% of women in the industry hold
    graduate degrees.                                                        Governance
    Quill & Quire’s 2013 survey of 393 publishing industry                   Notably, there is very little data available on governance
    professionals found that 86% of female employees                         in the arts and cultural industries. The current Standing
    had completed a post-secondary publishing course                         Committee on Canadian Heritage’s hearings on Gender
    compared to 45% of male employees.33                                     Parity on the Boards and Senior Leadership Levels of
                                                                             Canadian Artistic and Cultural Organizations are making
    EKOS’ 2014 survey of 2197 professional dancers                           a significant contribution to existing knowledge gaps.37
    in Canada, 84% of which identified as female, finds                      Much of the following data comes from policy briefs filed
    that 44% of female professional dancers report                           in the current session
    formal dance training through post-secondary                             at time of writing.
    education compared to 31% of men.34
                                                                                  As reported by Christina Loewen, Executive
    Survey responses from 31 female and 208 male                                  Director of Opera.ca in 2018, 90 of the 200
    screen composers in Canada conducted for the                                  positions on Opera.ca member company boards,
    Screen Composers Guild of Canada in 2017 found that                           or 46%, are held by women.38
    39% of women and 16% of men completed a graduate
    program. Furthermore, 65% of women studied “music                             According to Orchestras Canada, 62% of the board of
    formally,” compared with 53% of men.35                                        directors for professional orchestras in Canada with
                                                                                  revenues above $1 million have male chairs.39
    Coutanche and Davis’ 2010 survey of 266 members
    of the Writers Guild of Canada found that 49% of                              From 2009-2017, average female representation
    men and 46% of women screenwriters have a                                     on the board of directors for the Canadian Media
    university degree.36                                                          Producers Association was 32%. An organisational
                                                                                  commitment to improve gender equity on the board in
                                                                                  the last election cycle resulted in women holding 43%
                                                                                  (10 out of 23) board positions.40




32 MacArthur (2015).
33 Quill & Quire (2013).
34 EKOS (2014).
35 Gautier & Freeman (2018), p. 12.
36 Coutanche & Davis (2013).
37 Canada. 42nd Parliament, 1st session. Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage. (2018, May-June).
38 As reported by Christina Loewen, Executive Director of Opera.ca, to the Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage hearings on “Gender Parity on the
   Boards and Senior Leadership Levels of Canadian Artistic and Cultural Organizations,” May 1, 2018.
39 Orchestras Canada (2018).
40 Canadian Media Producers Association (2018).

                                                                                                                                                       20
SECTION 3 | CROSS-SECTORAL ANALYSIS




     MacArthur reports that women account for 60% of                               Women hold only 23% of named executive positions
     board members at theatre companies with annual                                in a survey of 30 music companies in Ontario, and
     operating budgets of $100,000 or less and 43% of                              48% of the companies have no women at all in their
     board members at companies with annual operating                              executive tier.43
     budgets of $2,000,000 or more.41
                                                                                   In 2008 women represented 29% of general directors
     In 2018, the Canadian Academy of Recording Arts and                           in professional Canadian opera companies.44
     Sciences doubled the number of women serving on
                                                                               Yet this gender imbalance is not necessarily indicative of
     their Board of Directors from two to four, bringing
                                                                               the sectors under review. In visual arts, publishing, and
     the gender distribution to 33% women. They further
                                                                               theatre, women are well represented in organisational
     committed to gender parity by 2019.42
                                                                               leadership positions, as well as in the top tier of
                                                                               Canadian orchestras:
Leadership
                                                                                   Women hold 70% of director positions in the 80
For the purposes of this analysis, we are using two broad                          Canadian art galleries and museums who receive
leadership categories: organisational leadership, and                              core funding from the Canada Council.45
artistic leadership. Organisational leadership refers
to key management decision-making roles in arts and                                Women hold 52% of executive roles in publishing.46
cultural organisations. Artistic leadership refers to key
                                                                                   Women hold 70% of the Executive Director positions
creative positions that are central to creative production
                                                                                   in a survey of 86 performing arts companies.47
processes.
                                                                                   Female CEOs lead 50% of the professional orchestras
Organisational leadership                                                          in Canada with revenues above $1 million48
There are several important data gaps on organisational
leadership for this review. Pointedly, despite a large
                                                                               Artistic leadership
amount of research on the media arts/screen sector
generally, there is a paucity of comprehensive or                              Artistic leadership includes key creative roles that have
indicative data on organisational leadership in the                            a formative impact on the storytelling and cultural
broadcasting, film and television production, and                              landscape. The following section examines the available
interactive digital media sector in Ontario or Canada.                         data that details the degree to which women occupy
Similarly, there is no substantive data available on                           leadership roles that shape the cultural landscape
organisational leadership in dance. What data is                               in Ontario and Canada more broadly. The national
available reveals a mixed story on the gender balance                          workforce occupational data reviewed above begins
of organisational leadership across the arts and cultural                      to signal an uneven gender distribution in the creative
industries in Canada.                                                          and artistic leadership positions that shape the creative
                                                                               content offered to audiences and consumers.



41 MacArthur (2015).
42 MacDonald (2018).
43 Nordicity (2015b).
44 Women’s Opera Network (2015).
45 Maranda (2017).
46 Quill & Quire (2013).
47 Lesage (2018). This survey was only conducted in English, and so does not necessarily reflect leadership participation in French language performing
   arts. Lesage further notes that data from the larger performing arts organisations are not accounted for in this study, as over half the respondents
   represent organisations with budget sizes less than $1 million.
48   Orchestras Canada (2018).

                                                                                                                                                          21
SECTION 3 | CROSS-SECTORAL ANALYSIS




For example, two major occupational leadership groups             Only 13% of women in Canada’s videogame workforce
from the NHS data, namely producers, director and                 are in creative roles.54
choreographers; and conductors, composers and
                                                                  In the 91 feature films Telefilm Canada funded
arrangers, are both male dominated. These occupational
                                                                  in 2013-14 women comprised:
groups include key leadership positions in media arts/
screen, music and performing arts. The following                  – 17% of directors
indicators provide additional information on the degree           – 22% of screenwriters
to which women are under-represented in artistic                  – 12% of cinematographers55
leadership roles in the theatre, music and media arts/
                                                                  In the 29 live-action English-language TV series
screen sectors.
                                                                  funded by the Canada Media Fund in 2012-13,
MacArthur’s 2015 study finds that for the past thirty             women comprised:
years, women constitute approximately 30% of the                  – 17% of directors
“artistic triumvirate,” of artistic director, stage director      – 38% of screenwriters
and playwright.49 To illustrate the point:                        – 0% of cinematographers56
     A 2010 PACT survey of 597 productions in the                 In the 36 English-language web series funded by the
     2010-11 theatre season by shows that women                   Independent Production Fund between 2010-2014,
     accounted for:                                               women comprised:
     – 28% of artistic directors                                  – 14% of directors
     – 29% of playwrights                                         – 27% of screenwriters
     – 33% of directors                                           – 2.4% of cinematographers57
     Women comprise only 14% of music directors in                18 of these 36 series employed no female writers,
     a survey of 50 Canadian professional orchestras.50           directors or cinematographers at all.58
     Female music directors lead only 15% (4 of 26)            Of the 30 Ontario-based feature films funded by
     of professional Canadian orchestras with revenues         Telefilm Canada in 2013-14, women held only 12%
     over $1 million51                                         of the directing roles, 15% of screenwriter roles,
     Women account for 13-17% of screen composers              and 7% of cinematography positions.59
     in Canada.52

     Between 2012 and 2016, 92% of 1024 publicly funded
     audio-visual productions employed no female screen
     composers at all.53



49   McArthur (2015).
50   Groen (2016).
51   Orchestras Canada (2018).
52   Gautier & Freeman (2018).
53   Gautier & Freeman (2018).
54 Nordicity (2015a).
55 Fraticelli (2015).
56 Fraticelli (2015).
57 Fraticelli (2015).
58 Fraticelli (2015).
59 Fraticelli (2015).

                                                                                                                        22
SECTION 3 | CROSS-SECTORAL ANALYSIS




  FIGURE
FIGURE 2:2: TELEFILM FUNDEDFEATURE
          TELEFILM/FUNDED    FEATUREFILMS,
                                      FILMS,ONTARIO,
                                             ONTARIO,2013-2014
                                                      2013-2014
          KEY CREATIVE ROLES, BY GENDER
            KEY CREATIVE ROLES, BY GENDER

    100                                        93
                         88          85
     90
     80
     70
     60
     50
     40
     30
     20                                                           12         15
                                                                                        7
     10
      0
                                   % Male                               % Female

                                    Director        Writer        Cinematographer

 Source: Fraticelli (2015)




 Of 27 feature films funded by the Ontario Media
 Development Corporation and Telefilm Canada in
 2013-14, women accounted for 22% of directors,
 30% of screenwriters, and 4% of cinematographers.60


  FIGURE 3: TELEFILM / OMDC FUNDED FEATURE FILMS, ONTARIO, 2013-2014,
FIGURE 3: TELEFILM/OMDC FUNDED FEATURE FILMS, ONTARIO, 2013-2014
            KEY
          KEY   CREATIVE
              CREATIVE   ROLESBY
                        ROLES, BYGENDER
                                  GENDER

                                                                                   96
    100
     90
                              78
     80                                                70
     70
     60
     50
     40                                                           30
     30                               22
     20
     10                                                                                        4
      0
                              Directors                      Screenwriters                  Cinematographers

                                                     % Male            % Female
 Source: Fraticelli (2015)




 60 Fraticelli (2015).

                                                                                                                                           23
SECTION 3 | CROSS-SECTORAL ANALYSIS




Positive change, however, is underway. In March                                Career and industry recognition
2016, the National Film Board of Canada announced a
                                                                               The question of artistic leadership is fundamentally
commitment to ensure half of its films would be directed
                                                                               tied to the visibility of women’s creative works in the
by women who would also receive half of all production
                                                                               public sphere, and the degree to which audiences,
spending.
                                                                               consumers and publics have routine access to women’s
    In March 2018, the NFB announced that in 2017-18:                          creative works. Awards, commissions and competitions
    – 46% of production spending was allocated to                              such as festivals and prizes are also key indicators of
      women                                                                    professional recognition by peers and audiences and play
                                                                               an important role in an artist’s professional and public
    Women comprised:
                                                                               profile. We now turn to the available data for various
    – 47% of directors
                                                                               forms of career and industry recognition as the final
    – 47% of key creative screenwriters61
                                                                               thematic area of analysis for this report. The data shows
We note that again, the visual arts and literature/                            that across all sectors, women’s artistic and creative
publishing sectors stand as an exception. Both                                 outputs receive significantly less public exposure than
sectors are female dominated, including professional                           those of men.
occupations that shape the visibility of women’s creative
                                                                               The Canadian Women Working in Music 2017 crowd-
outputs. For example:
                                                                               sourced and self-reported festival scorecard data shows
    Women hold 81% of editorial positions in Quill &                           a challenging landscape with regard to showcasing
    Quire’s 2013 salary survey.62                                              women’s artistic outputs in music festival lineups.
                                                                                We have categorised the festivals here according to
    Women hold 70% of curator positions in the 80                              the gender equal/gender balanced/gender imbalanced
    Canadian art galleries and museums who receive                             framework used above for consistency. Of 83 festivals
    core funding from the Canada Council.63                                    in total for which data is available on the CWWIM
                                                                               website:
    Between 1998 – 2013, women held 65% of curator
    roles for the Canadian pavilion at the Venice                                   41 had male dominated lineups, 7 of which had less
    Biennale.64                                                                     than 10% women-led acts.
                                                                                    9 had female dominated lineups
However, evidence demonstrates enduring gender bias
in the dissemination of the work of women artists and                               25 had gender balanced lineups
cultural workers. This leads us to the final section of                             8 had gender equal lineups65
the cross-sectoral analysis, in which we examine the
gendered dimensions of various career and industry
recognition indicators.




61 National Film Board of Canada (2018).
62 Quill & Quire (2013).
63 Maranda (2017).
64 Zemans & Wallace (2013).
65 Canadian Women Working in Music (CWWIM) (2017). CWWIM defines women-led acts as follows:
   • a solo woman-identifying performer
   • a duo with at least one woman-identifying person
   • a larger group in which a woman-identifying person or women-identifying people play a significant role (more than a backup singer r side player)
   The festival report card includes several instances in which the CWWIM analysis of the line-up (i.e., in terms of what qualifies as a women-led)
   differs from the data submitted by festival representatives. In the case of discrepancies between the CWWIM’s evaluation and the self-reported data, the
   research team used the data reported by the festival organisers. This decision reflects the use, where applicable, of self-reported organizational data
   elsewhere in the report, rather than an evaluation of the veracity or robustness of CWIMM’s scorecard methodology per se.

                                                                                                                                                              24
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