Violence Prevention Reduce Personal and Community Violence to Improve Health Wednesday, April 8th - Seaside Health Plan

 
Violence Prevention Reduce Personal and Community Violence to Improve Health Wednesday, April 8th - Seaside Health Plan
April 6-12, 2020

                         Violence Prevention
                         Reduce Personal and Community Violence to Improve Health
                         Wednesday, April 8th

People who are surviving violence in their relationships and families may be experiencing
increased isolation and danger caused by social distancing measures during the Coronavirus
pandemic. Survivors often have specific needs around safety, health and confidentiality. We also
realize that people who are already more vulnerable to economic and health insecurity are facing
additional challenges during this unprecedented time. Social distancing does not have to lead to
social isolation. We can take care of each other in this crisis and reach out to loved ones, friends,
neighbors and colleagues to see if they have the care and support they need, and if they feel safe
at home.
              During this COVID-19 pandemic public health resources are still open!

   National Domestic Violence Hotline
1-800-799-SAFE (7233)
1-800-787-3224 (TTY)
Advocates are also available to chat 24/7.

National Center for Victims of Crime
1-855-4-VICTIM (1-855-484-2846)

Community Violence
Increased stress can lead to increased aggression, feeding a cycle of violence especially in
communities already under strain. Much of the stress people are feeling as a result of the COVID-
19 pandemic is linked to fear fed by misinformation. It is important us get information from
trusted websites like the World Health Organization, Center of Disease Control (CDC) and your
local county public health department websites.

Other Helpful Resources
•   Prevent Intimate Partner Violence
•   Preventing Youth Violence
•   Understanding Elder Abuse
Violence Prevention Reduce Personal and Community Violence to Improve Health Wednesday, April 8th - Seaside Health Plan
April 6-12, 2020

                        Violence Prevention
                        Wednesday, April 8th

For science.
Violence is a leading cause of premature death. In 2017, the U.S. was home to 39,773 gun-
related deaths. Sixty percent of those (23,854) were suicides.[1] About one in three women and
one in four men has experienced some form of physical intimate partner violence,[2] and one out
of every six women in the U.S. has been the victim of rape or attempted rape.[3] In the last year,
one in seven children reported being victims of child abuse and neglect, though CDC reports
that this is likely a low estimate.[4] Violence affects people of all ages and races but has a
disproportionate impact on young adults and communities of color. For example, black people
are killed by police at three times the rate of white people.[5]

For action.
As public health professionals,
violence prevention, particularly gun
violence, is the public health crisis of
our lifetime. Urge policymakers to
provide research funding[6] on par with
the nation's gun violence epidemic,
and call on lawmakers[7] to pass
commonsense measures that reduce
the risk of gun deaths and injuries.
Work with colleges and universities
on ways to prevent sexual violence,
such as offering bystander intervention training. Promote support for victims of sexual
violence, such as offering trauma-informed services.[8] Learn about community-based strategies
for creating the kinds of "safe, stable and nurturing" environments that help prevent child
abuse and neglect.[9] Advocate for community-driven solutions to violence prevention that
identify and target the root of violence.
Violence Prevention Reduce Personal and Community Violence to Improve Health Wednesday, April 8th - Seaside Health Plan
For health.
While much more study is needed, research already shows that commonsense gun safety laws
can make a difference. For example, researchers found that in the years following Connecticut’s

permit-to-purchase handgun law, firearm homicides went down 40%.[10] (See the Connecticut
study and much more in APHA’s American Journal of Public Health, which has committed to
making all of its gun violence research open access.[11]) More traditional public health
interventions can make a difference, too. Home-visiting models[12] have been shown to
significantly reduce the risk of child maltreatment. Community-led models can be especially
effective when it comes to violence prevention. The innovative Cure Violence model[13] — which
takes methods typically associated with disease control and applies them to violence
prevention — has resulted in significant drops in local gun violence.

For justice.
When there is disinvestment in communities, and there’s violence in their neighborhoods, kids
are more likely to experience abuse or neglect at home. Community risk factors include high
rates of poverty, residential instability, unemployment and a high concentration of places to
buy alcohol.[14] Community development is an effective way to interrupt the cycles of poverty
through meeting basic community needs, making a good education available to everyone and
investing in communities to improve residents’ financial security.[15] A public health approach to
violence prevention fosters healthy gender norms and relationships, bolsters trauma-informed
services and addresses racism.[16] Exposure to violence is a key predictor of future violence, so
we must work to dismantle it at the root and employ an upstream approach recognizing
violence as preventable and not inevitable.

References
[1] Pew Research Center                              [9] CDC
[2] National Coalition Against Domestic              [10] American Journal of Public Health
Violence                                             [11] AJPH
[3] RAINN                                            [12] Child Abuse and Neglect
[4] CDC                                              [13] Cure Violence
[5] Mapping Police Violence                          [14] CDC
[6] The Nation's Health
[7] APHA advocacy
[8] CDC
[15] Community Foundation
[16] APHA
Prevención de la violencia
                       Miércoles 8 de abril
                       Para la ciencia.
La violencia es una de las principales causas de muerte prematura. En 2017, se produjeron
39,773 muertes relacionadas con el uso de armas de fuego en los Estados Unidos. El 60% de
esos casos (23,854) fueron suicidios.[1] Aproximadamente una de cada tres mujeres y uno de
cada cuatro hombres ha sufrido algún tipo de violencia física infligida por su pareja,[2] y una de
cada seis mujeres en los Estados Unidos ha sido víctima de violación o intento de violación.[3] En
el último año, uno de cada siete niños denunció haber sido víctima de abuso y negligencia
infantil, aunque los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC, por sus
siglas en inglés) informan que esta es probablemente una cifra aproximada baja.[4] La violencia
afecta a personas de todas las edades y razas, pero tiene un impacto desproporcionado entre
los adultos jóvenes y las comunidades de color. Por ejemplo, el índice de personas de raza
negra que la policía mata es tres veces mayor al de las personas de raza blanca.[5]

Para la acción.
Como profesionales de la salud pública, consideramos que la prevención de la violencia,
particularmente la violencia armada, es la crisis de salud pública de nuestra vida. Inste a
quienes formulan políticas a proporcionar financiamiento para la investigación[6] a la par con la
epidemia de violencia armada de la nación, y pida a los legisladores[7] que aprueben medidas
sensatas que reduzcan el riesgo de muerte y lesiones por el uso de armas. Trabaje con colegios
y universidades sobre formas de prevenir la violencia sexual, como ofrecer capacitación sobre
la intervención de testigos. Promueva el apoyo a las víctimas de la violencia sexual, por
ejemplo, ofreciendo servicios de información sobre traumas.[8] Conozca las estrategias basadas
en la comunidad para crear los tipos de entornos "seguros, estables y enriquecedores" que
ayudan a prevenir el abuso y la negligencia infantil.[9] Abogue por soluciones impulsadas por la
comunidad para la prevención de la violencia que identifiquen y apunten a la raíz de la
violencia.

Para la salud.
Si bien se necesita mucho más estudio, la investigación ya muestra que las leyes de seguridad
en el uso sensato de armas pueden marcar la diferencia. Por ejemplo, los investigadores
descubrieron que, en los años posteriores a la ley de permiso de compra de armas de
Connecticut, los homicidios con armas de fuego disminuyeron un 40%.[10] (Consulte el estudio
de Connecticut y mucho más en la publicación American Journal of Public Health (Revista
Americana de Salud Pública) de la Asociación Americana de Salud Pública (APHA, por sus siglas
en inglés). Esta asociación se ha comprometido a hacer que toda su investigación sobre la
violencia armada sea de acceso abierto.[11]) Las intervenciones en salud pública más
tradicionales también pueden marcar la diferencia. Se ha demostrado que los modelos de
visitas domiciliarias[12] disminuyen considerablemente el riesgo de maltrato infantil. Los
modelos liderados por la comunidad pueden ser especialmente efectivos a la hora de prevenir
la violencia. El innovador modelo Cure Violence[13] (La solución a la violencia) — que adopta
métodos típicamente asociados con el control de enfermedades y los aplica a la prevención de
la violencia — ha redundado en bajas significativas en la violencia armada en el ámbito local.

Para la justicia.
Cuando hay desinversión en las comunidades y hay violencia en los vecindarios, es más
probable que los niños sufran abusos o negligencia en el hogar. Los factores de riesgo
comunitarios incluyen altos índices de pobreza, inestabilidad residencial, desempleo y una alta
concentración de establecimientos para comprar alcohol.[14] El desarrollo de la comunidad es
una manera efectiva de interrumpir los ciclos de pobreza mediante la satisfacción de las
necesidades básicas de la comunidad, poniendo a disposición de todos una buena educación e
invirtiendo en comunidades para mejorar la seguridad financiera de los habitantes.[15] Un
enfoque de salud pública para la prevención de la violencia fomenta normas y relaciones de
género saludables, refuerza los servicios de información sobre traumas y aborda el racismo.[16]
La exposición a la violencia es un indicador clave de la violencia futura; por lo tanto, debemos
trabajar para desmantelarla desde la raíz y emplear un enfoque ascendente que reconozca la
violencia como prevenible y no inevitable.

Referencias                                         [7] APHA advocacy
                                                    [8] American Journal of Public Health
[1] Pew Research Center                             [9] AJPH
[2] National Coalition Against Domestic             [10] Child Abuse and Neglect
Violence                                            [11] Cure Violence
[3] RAINN                                           [12] CDC
[4] CDC                                             [13] Community Foundation
[5] Mapping Police Violence                         [14] APHA
[6] The Nation's Health
Prevent Intimate Partner Violence
Help create safer, healthier relationships and
communities now and for everyone in the future.

1 in 4 women                                         Among high school students who
                                                     dated in the past year,
and 1 in 9 men                                       20% of females
have experienced contact sexual
violence*, physical violence, or stalking            and 10% of males
by an intimate partner with a negative
                                                     reported either physical violence, sexual
impact (e.g., injury, fear, concern for
                                                     violence, or both from a dating partner.
safety, or needing services).

        Prev
        Preventing
            enting Intimate
                   Intimate Partner
                               Partner Vio
                                         Violence
                                            lence (IPV)
                    is a priorit
                         priority
                                y for CDC.

               Prevention is possible.
             You can help make it happen by changing the
           contexts and underlying risks that contribute to IPV
               in homes, schools, and neighborhoods.

CDC’s technical package helps
states and communities use the best
available evidence to prevent IPV.

                                    Teach safe and healthy
                                       relationship skills

Support survivors                                                                Engage
to increase safety                                                           influential adults
and lessen harms                                                                and peers

                                               6
                                             strategies
                                            to prevent
                                                IPV

      Strengthen                                                              Disrupt
      economic                                                             developmental
     supports for                                                         pathways toward
        families                                                          partner violence
                                       Create protective
                                        environments

It is important to monitor and evaluate
your e˜orts while the field of violence
prevention continues to evolve.

                  Be part of the solution.
                       www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention

Your prevention e˜orts may involve developing
new partnerships & working across sectors.

                                                                      Including:
                                              Public Health, Government, Education,
                                                     Social Services, Health Services,
                                                   Business, Labor, Justice, Housing,
                                              Community Organizations, Media, and
                                                       Domestic Violence Coalitions

ACT NOW!
   Use CDC’s IPV prevention technical
   package to begin or expand your e˜orts.

Find planning & prevention resources:

       www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention
           vetoviolence.cdc.gov

* Contact sexual violence includes rape, being made to penetrate, sexual coercion, and/or
      unwanted sexual contact.
Understanding Elder Abuse

  Fact Sheet								                                                                                          2016
Elder abuse is an intentional act or failure to act that        violence. Victims often have to decide whether to tell
causes or creates a risk of harm to an older adult. An          someone they are being hurt or continue being abused
older adult is someone age 60 or older. The abuse occurs        by someone they depend upon or care for deeply.
at the hands of a caregiver or a person the elder trusts.
Six frequently recognized types of elder abuse include:                      How does elder abuse
• Physical—This occurs when an elder experiences                             affect health?
  illness, pain, or injury as a result of the intentional use
  of physical force and includes acts such as hitting,          Elder abuse can have several physical and emotional
  kicking, pushing, slapping, and burning.                      effects on an older adult. Many victims suffer physical
• Sexual—This involves forced or unwanted sexual                injuries. Some are minor, like cuts, scratches, bruises,
  interaction of any kind with an older adult. This may         and welts. Others are more serious and can cause lasting
  include unwanted sexual contact or penetration or             disabilities. These include head injuries, broken bones,
  non-contact acts such as sexual harassment.                   constant physical pain, and soreness. Physical injuries
                                                                can also lead to premature death and make existing
• Emotional or Psychological—This refers to verbal or           health problems worse.2, 3, 4, 5
  nonverbal behaviors that that inflict anguish, mental
  pain, fear, or distress on an older adult. Examples           Elder abuse can have emotional effects as well. Victims
  include name calling, humiliating, destroying property,       are often fearful and anxious. They may have problems
  or not letting the older adult see friends and family.        with trust and be wary around others.2
• Neglect—This is the failure to meet an older adult’s
  basic needs. These needs include food, water, shelter,                    Who is at risk for perpetrating
  clothing, hygiene, and essential medical care.                            elder abuse?
• Financial—This is illegally or improperly using an
  elder’s money, benefits, belongings, property, or assets      Several factors can increase the risk that someone will
  for the benefit of someone other than the older adult.        hurt an older adult. However, having these risk factors
  Examples include taking money from an older adult’s           does not always mean violence will occur.
  account without proper authority, unauthorized credit         Some of the risk factors for hurting an older adult
  card use, and changing a will without permission.             include:
                                                                • Using drugs or alcohol, especially drinking heavily
              Why is elder abuse a
                                                                • High levels of stress and low or ineffective coping
              public health problem?                              resources

Elder abuse is a serious problem in the United States.          • Lack of social support
There is a lack of data, but past research found that:          • High emotional or financial dependence on the
                                                                  older adult
• In 2008, one in 10 elders reported emotional, physical,
  or sexual abuse or potential neglect in the past year.1       • Lack of training in taking care of older adult
                                                                • Depression
Many cases are not reported because elders are afraid
or unable to tell police, friends, or family about the

          National Center for Injury Prevention and Control
          Division of Violence Prevention
Understanding Elder Abuse

                                                                   Step 3: Develop and test prevention strategies
             How can we prevent                                    Using information gathered in research, CDC develops
             elder abuse?                                          and evaluates strategies to prevent violence.
The goal is to stop elder abuse before it starts. While            Step 4: Ensure widespread adoption
not much research has been done, there are several                 In this final step, CDC shares the best prevention
important things we can do to prevent it:                          strategies. CDC may also provide funding or technical
• Listen to older adults and their caregivers to                   help so communities can adopt these strategies.
  understand their challenges and provide support.
• Report abuse or suspected abuse to Adult Protective                            Where can I learn more?
  Services.
• Educate oneself and others about how to recognize
  and report elder abuse.                                          Elder Abuse Helplines and Hotlines
                                                                   Call 1-800-677-1116
• Learn how the signs of elder abuse differ from the
                                                                   Always dial 911 or local police during emergencies.
  normal aging process.
                                                                   National Center on Elder Abuse
• Check in often on older adults who may have few
                                                                   www.ncea.aoa.gov
  friends and family members.
                                                                   National Institute on Aging
• Provide over-burdened caregivers with emotional
                                                                   www.nia.nih.gov
  and instrumental supports such as help from friends,
  family, or local relief care groups; adult day care              National Institute of Justice
  programs; counselling; or outlets intended to promote            www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/topics/crime/elder-abuse/
  emotional well-being.                                            welcome.htm
• Where prudent and possible involve more people than              For more information on elder abuse, visit www.cdc.gov/
  just family, formal caregivers, and guardians in health          violenceprevention.
  care or financial matters.
• Encourage and assist persons (either caregivers or
  older adults) having problems with drug or alcohol                             References
  abuse in getting help.
                                                                   1. Acierno R, Hernandez MA, Amstadter AB, Resnick HS,
           How does CDC approach                                      Steve K, Muzzy W, Kilpatrick DG. Prevalence and Correlates
                                                                      of Emotional, Physical, Sexual, and Financial Abuse and
           elder abuse?                                               Potential Neglect in the United States: The National Elder
                                                                      Mistreatment Study. American Journal of Public Health
CDC uses a 4-step approach to address public health
                                                                      2010; 100:292–7.
problems like elder abuse.
                                                                   2. Anetzberger, G. The Clinical Management of Elder Abuse.
Step 1: Define the problem                                            New York: Hawthorne Press, 2004.
Before we can prevent elder abuse, we need to know how
                                                                   3. American Medical Association. American Medical
big the problem is, where it is, and whom it affects. CDC
                                                                      Association white paper on elderly health. Report of the
learns about a problem by gathering and studying data.                Council on Scientific Affairs. Archives of Internal Medicine
These data are critical because they help decision makers             1990; 150:2459-72.
send resources where they are needed most.
                                                                   4. Lachs MS, Williams CS, O’Brien S, et. al. The Mortality of Elder
Step 2: Identify risk and protective factors                        Mistreatment. Journal of the American Medical Association
It is not enough to know that elder abuse is affecting a certain    1998; 280:428-32.
group in a certain area. We also need to know why abuse          5. Lindbloom EJ, Brandt J, Hough L, Meadows SE. Elder
occurs. CDC conducts and supports research to answer this           Mistreatment in the Nursing Home: A Systematic Review.
question. We can then develop programs to reduce or get rid         Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2007;
of risk factors and increase protective factors.                    8(9):610-16.

                          1-800-CDC-INFO (232-4636)            •    www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention
2019

          Preventing Youth Violence
                                                     What is youth violence?
Youth violence is the intentional use of physical force or power to threaten or harm others by young people ages 10-24.1 It
typically involves young people hurting other peers who are unrelated to them and who they may or may not know well. Youth
violence can take different forms. Examples include fights, bullying, threats with weapons, and gang-related violence. A young
person can be involved with youth violence as a victim, offender, or witness.
Youth violence starts early. Physical aggression can be common among toddlers, but most children learn alternatives to using
violence to solve problems and express their emotions before starting school. Some children may remain aggressive and become
more violent. Some early childhood risk factors include impulsive behavior, poor emotional control, and lack of social and
problem-solving skills.1 Many risk factors are the result of experiencing chronic stress,* which can alter and/or harm the brain
development of children and youth.
Youth violence is an adverse childhood experience and is connected to other forms of violence, including child abuse and neglect,
teen dating violence, adult intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and suicide. Different forms of violence have common risk
and protective factors, and victims of one form of violence are more likely to experience other forms of violence.

                                                     How big is the problem?
Thousands of people experience youth violence every day. While the magnitude and types of youth violence vary across communities
and demographic groups, youth violence negatively impacts youth in all communities—urban, suburban, rural, and tribal.
    •    Youth violence is common. Nearly 1 in 5 high school students reported being bullied on school property in the last year,
         and about 1 in 7 were electronically bullied (texting, Instagram, Facebook, or other social media).2
    •    Youth violence kills and injures. Homicide is the 3rd leading cause of death for young people ages 10-24. Each day,
         about 14 young people are victims of homicide and about 1,300 are treated in emergency departments for nonfatal
         assault-related injuries.3
    •    Youth violence is costly. Youth homicides and nonfatal physical assault-related injuries result in more than $21 billion
         annually in combined medical and lost productivity costs alone, not including costs associated with the criminal justice
         system, psychological and social consequences for victims, perpetrators and their families, or costs incurred by communities.3

                                                                                                          Estimated Cost
   1   in    5  high school
   students reported being
                                                                                                         of Youth Violence
   bullied at school in the
   last year.

                                                                                                                           More than
                                                        About 14 young                                                  $2 1 B illi o n
                                                          people die from                                                   a n n u a ll y *

                                                        homicide each day.                               *Medical and lost productivity costs associated with youth
                                                                                                          homicides and nonfatal physical assault-related injuries

* Chronic stress includes such issues as living in impoverished neighborhoods, living in dilapidated housing, frequently moving, experiencing food
  insecurity, experiencing racism, limited access to support and medical services, and living in homes with violence, mental health problems, substance
  abuse, and other instability.

            National Center for Injury Prevention and Control
            Division of Violence Prevention
What are the consequences?                                                      A Comprehensive
Youth violence has serious and lasting effects on the physical, mental, and social health
of young people. It is a leading cause of death for young people and results in more
                                                                                                    Technical Package
than 475,000 nonfatal injuries each year.3 The impact of youth violence goes beyond                 for the Prevention
physical consequences. Adverse childhood experiences, like youth violence, are
associated with negative health and well-being outcomes across the life course. Youth                of Youth Violence
violence increases the risk for behavioral and mental health difficulties, including future        and Associated Risk
violence perpetration and victimization, smoking, substance use, obesity, high-risk
sexual behavior, depression, academic difficulties, school dropout, and suicide.1                        Behaviors
Youth violence affects entire communities. Violence increases health care costs,              A technical package is a collection
decreases property value, and disrupts social services. Youth violence negatively             of strategies based on the best
impacts perceived and actual safety, participation in community events, youth’s               available evidence to prevent or
school attendance, and viability of businesses. Addressing the short- and long-term           reduce public health problems. The
consequences of violence strains community resources and limits the resources that            strategy lays out the direction and
states and communities have to address other needs and goals.                                 actions to prevent youth violence.
                                                                                              The approach includes the specific
    How can we stop youth violence before it starts?                                          ways to advance the strategy through
                                                                                              programs, policies and practices. The
The good news is youth violence is preventable. CDC’s technical package for                   evidence for each of the approaches
preventing youth violence helps communities and states prioritize prevention                  in preventing youth violence and
strategies based on the best available evidence.1 The strategies and approaches               associated risk factors is also included.
in the technical package are intended to shape individual behaviors as well as the
relationship, family, school, community, and societal factors that influence risk and
protective factors for violence. They are meant to work together and to be used in
combination in a multi-level, multi-sector effort to prevent violence.

                Promote family environments that support healthy development
                • Early childhood home visitation
                • Parenting skill and family relationship programs

                Provide quality education early in life
                • Preschool enrichment with family engagement

                                                                                                          References
                Strengthen youth’s skills                                                     1. David-Ferdon C, Vivolo-Kantor AM,
                                                                                                 Dahlberg LL, Marshall KJ, Rainford N, Hall
                • Universal school-based programs
                                                                                                 JE. A Comprehensive Technical Package
                                                                                                 for the Prevention of Youth Violence and
                                                                                                 Associated Risk Behaviors. Atlanta, GA:
                                                                                                 National Center for Injury Prevention and
                Connect youth to caring adults and activities                                    Control, Centers for Disease Control and
                                                                                                 Prevention, 2016. Available from https://
                • Mentoring programs                                                             www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/yv-
                • After-school programs                                                          technicalpackage.pdf.
                                                                                              2. Kann L, McManus T, Harris WA, et al. (2018).
                                                                                                 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United
                Create protective community environments                                         States, 2017. Morbidity and Mortality
                • Modify the physical and social environment                                     Weekly Report--Surveillance Summaries;
                                                                                                 67(SS-08):1-479. Available from https://
                • Reduce exposure to community-level risks
                                                                                                 www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/
                • Street outreach and community norm change                                      pdf/2017/ss6708.pdf.
                                                                                              3. Centers for Disease Control and
                                                                                                 Prevention, National Center for Injury
                Intervene to lessen harms and prevent future risk                                Prevention and Control. Web-based Injury
                • Treatment to lessen the harms of violence exposures                            Statistics Query and Reporting System
                • Treatment to prevent problem behavior and further involvement in violence      (WISQARS) [online] 2017; [cited 2019 Feb
                                                                                                 27] Available from www.cdc.gov/injury.
                • Hospital-community partnerships

                               1-800-CDC-INFO (232-4636)              •    www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention
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