Violence Prevention Reduce Personal and Community Violence to Improve Health Wednesday, April 8th - Seaside Health Plan
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April 6-12, 2020 Violence Prevention Reduce Personal and Community Violence to Improve Health Wednesday, April 8th People who are surviving violence in their relationships and families may be experiencing increased isolation and danger caused by social distancing measures during the Coronavirus pandemic. Survivors often have specific needs around safety, health and confidentiality. We also realize that people who are already more vulnerable to economic and health insecurity are facing additional challenges during this unprecedented time. Social distancing does not have to lead to social isolation. We can take care of each other in this crisis and reach out to loved ones, friends, neighbors and colleagues to see if they have the care and support they need, and if they feel safe at home. During this COVID-19 pandemic public health resources are still open! National Domestic Violence Hotline 1-800-799-SAFE (7233) 1-800-787-3224 (TTY) Advocates are also available to chat 24/7. National Center for Victims of Crime 1-855-4-VICTIM (1-855-484-2846) Community Violence Increased stress can lead to increased aggression, feeding a cycle of violence especially in communities already under strain. Much of the stress people are feeling as a result of the COVID- 19 pandemic is linked to fear fed by misinformation. It is important us get information from trusted websites like the World Health Organization, Center of Disease Control (CDC) and your local county public health department websites. Other Helpful Resources • Prevent Intimate Partner Violence • Preventing Youth Violence • Understanding Elder Abuse
April 6-12, 2020 Violence Prevention Wednesday, April 8th For science. Violence is a leading cause of premature death. In 2017, the U.S. was home to 39,773 gun- related deaths. Sixty percent of those (23,854) were suicides. About one in three women and one in four men has experienced some form of physical intimate partner violence, and one out of every six women in the U.S. has been the victim of rape or attempted rape. In the last year, one in seven children reported being victims of child abuse and neglect, though CDC reports that this is likely a low estimate. Violence affects people of all ages and races but has a disproportionate impact on young adults and communities of color. For example, black people are killed by police at three times the rate of white people. For action. As public health professionals, violence prevention, particularly gun violence, is the public health crisis of our lifetime. Urge policymakers to provide research funding on par with the nation's gun violence epidemic, and call on lawmakers to pass commonsense measures that reduce the risk of gun deaths and injuries. Work with colleges and universities on ways to prevent sexual violence, such as offering bystander intervention training. Promote support for victims of sexual violence, such as offering trauma-informed services. Learn about community-based strategies for creating the kinds of "safe, stable and nurturing" environments that help prevent child abuse and neglect. Advocate for community-driven solutions to violence prevention that identify and target the root of violence.
For health. While much more study is needed, research already shows that commonsense gun safety laws can make a difference. For example, researchers found that in the years following Connecticut’s permit-to-purchase handgun law, firearm homicides went down 40%. (See the Connecticut study and much more in APHA’s American Journal of Public Health, which has committed to making all of its gun violence research open access.) More traditional public health interventions can make a difference, too. Home-visiting models have been shown to significantly reduce the risk of child maltreatment. Community-led models can be especially effective when it comes to violence prevention. The innovative Cure Violence model — which takes methods typically associated with disease control and applies them to violence prevention — has resulted in significant drops in local gun violence. For justice. When there is disinvestment in communities, and there’s violence in their neighborhoods, kids are more likely to experience abuse or neglect at home. Community risk factors include high rates of poverty, residential instability, unemployment and a high concentration of places to buy alcohol. Community development is an effective way to interrupt the cycles of poverty through meeting basic community needs, making a good education available to everyone and investing in communities to improve residents’ financial security. A public health approach to violence prevention fosters healthy gender norms and relationships, bolsters trauma-informed services and addresses racism. Exposure to violence is a key predictor of future violence, so we must work to dismantle it at the root and employ an upstream approach recognizing violence as preventable and not inevitable. References  Pew Research Center  CDC  National Coalition Against Domestic  American Journal of Public Health Violence  AJPH  RAINN  Child Abuse and Neglect  CDC  Cure Violence  Mapping Police Violence  CDC  The Nation's Health  APHA advocacy  CDC  Community Foundation  APHA
Prevención de la violencia Miércoles 8 de abril Para la ciencia. La violencia es una de las principales causas de muerte prematura. En 2017, se produjeron 39,773 muertes relacionadas con el uso de armas de fuego en los Estados Unidos. El 60% de esos casos (23,854) fueron suicidios. Aproximadamente una de cada tres mujeres y uno de cada cuatro hombres ha sufrido algún tipo de violencia física infligida por su pareja, y una de cada seis mujeres en los Estados Unidos ha sido víctima de violación o intento de violación. En el último año, uno de cada siete niños denunció haber sido víctima de abuso y negligencia infantil, aunque los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC, por sus siglas en inglés) informan que esta es probablemente una cifra aproximada baja. La violencia afecta a personas de todas las edades y razas, pero tiene un impacto desproporcionado entre los adultos jóvenes y las comunidades de color. Por ejemplo, el índice de personas de raza negra que la policía mata es tres veces mayor al de las personas de raza blanca. Para la acción. Como profesionales de la salud pública, consideramos que la prevención de la violencia, particularmente la violencia armada, es la crisis de salud pública de nuestra vida. Inste a quienes formulan políticas a proporcionar financiamiento para la investigación a la par con la epidemia de violencia armada de la nación, y pida a los legisladores que aprueben medidas sensatas que reduzcan el riesgo de muerte y lesiones por el uso de armas. Trabaje con colegios y universidades sobre formas de prevenir la violencia sexual, como ofrecer capacitación sobre la intervención de testigos. Promueva el apoyo a las víctimas de la violencia sexual, por ejemplo, ofreciendo servicios de información sobre traumas. Conozca las estrategias basadas en la comunidad para crear los tipos de entornos "seguros, estables y enriquecedores" que ayudan a prevenir el abuso y la negligencia infantil. Abogue por soluciones impulsadas por la comunidad para la prevención de la violencia que identifiquen y apunten a la raíz de la violencia. Para la salud. Si bien se necesita mucho más estudio, la investigación ya muestra que las leyes de seguridad en el uso sensato de armas pueden marcar la diferencia. Por ejemplo, los investigadores descubrieron que, en los años posteriores a la ley de permiso de compra de armas de
Connecticut, los homicidios con armas de fuego disminuyeron un 40%. (Consulte el estudio de Connecticut y mucho más en la publicación American Journal of Public Health (Revista Americana de Salud Pública) de la Asociación Americana de Salud Pública (APHA, por sus siglas en inglés). Esta asociación se ha comprometido a hacer que toda su investigación sobre la violencia armada sea de acceso abierto.) Las intervenciones en salud pública más tradicionales también pueden marcar la diferencia. Se ha demostrado que los modelos de visitas domiciliarias disminuyen considerablemente el riesgo de maltrato infantil. Los modelos liderados por la comunidad pueden ser especialmente efectivos a la hora de prevenir la violencia. El innovador modelo Cure Violence (La solución a la violencia) — que adopta métodos típicamente asociados con el control de enfermedades y los aplica a la prevención de la violencia — ha redundado en bajas significativas en la violencia armada en el ámbito local. Para la justicia. Cuando hay desinversión en las comunidades y hay violencia en los vecindarios, es más probable que los niños sufran abusos o negligencia en el hogar. Los factores de riesgo comunitarios incluyen altos índices de pobreza, inestabilidad residencial, desempleo y una alta concentración de establecimientos para comprar alcohol. El desarrollo de la comunidad es una manera efectiva de interrumpir los ciclos de pobreza mediante la satisfacción de las necesidades básicas de la comunidad, poniendo a disposición de todos una buena educación e invirtiendo en comunidades para mejorar la seguridad financiera de los habitantes. Un enfoque de salud pública para la prevención de la violencia fomenta normas y relaciones de género saludables, refuerza los servicios de información sobre traumas y aborda el racismo. La exposición a la violencia es un indicador clave de la violencia futura; por lo tanto, debemos trabajar para desmantelarla desde la raíz y emplear un enfoque ascendente que reconozca la violencia como prevenible y no inevitable. Referencias  APHA advocacy  American Journal of Public Health  Pew Research Center  AJPH  National Coalition Against Domestic  Child Abuse and Neglect Violence  Cure Violence  RAINN  CDC  CDC  Community Foundation  Mapping Police Violence  APHA  The Nation's Health
Prevent Intimate Partner Violence Help create safer, healthier relationships and communities now and for everyone in the future. 1 in 4 women Among high school students who dated in the past year, and 1 in 9 men 20% of females have experienced contact sexual violence*, physical violence, or stalking and 10% of males by an intimate partner with a negative reported either physical violence, sexual impact (e.g., injury, fear, concern for violence, or both from a dating partner. safety, or needing services). Prev Preventing enting Intimate Intimate Partner Partner Vio Violence lence (IPV) is a priorit priority y for CDC. Prevention is possible. You can help make it happen by changing the contexts and underlying risks that contribute to IPV in homes, schools, and neighborhoods. CDC’s technical package helps states and communities use the best available evidence to prevent IPV. Teach safe and healthy relationship skills Support survivors Engage to increase safety inﬂuential adults and lessen harms and peers 6 strategies to prevent IPV Strengthen Disrupt economic developmental supports for pathways toward families partner violence Create protective environments It is important to monitor and evaluate your e˜orts while the ﬁeld of violence prevention continues to evolve. Be part of the solution. www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention Your prevention e˜orts may involve developing new partnerships & working across sectors. Including: Public Health, Government, Education, Social Services, Health Services, Business, Labor, Justice, Housing, Community Organizations, Media, and Domestic Violence Coalitions ACT NOW! Use CDC’s IPV prevention technical package to begin or expand your e˜orts. Find planning & prevention resources: www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention vetoviolence.cdc.gov * Contact sexual violence includes rape, being made to penetrate, sexual coercion, and/or unwanted sexual contact.
Understanding Elder Abuse Fact Sheet 2016 Elder abuse is an intentional act or failure to act that violence. Victims often have to decide whether to tell causes or creates a risk of harm to an older adult. An someone they are being hurt or continue being abused older adult is someone age 60 or older. The abuse occurs by someone they depend upon or care for deeply. at the hands of a caregiver or a person the elder trusts. Six frequently recognized types of elder abuse include: How does elder abuse • Physical—This occurs when an elder experiences affect health? illness, pain, or injury as a result of the intentional use of physical force and includes acts such as hitting, Elder abuse can have several physical and emotional kicking, pushing, slapping, and burning. effects on an older adult. Many victims suffer physical • Sexual—This involves forced or unwanted sexual injuries. Some are minor, like cuts, scratches, bruises, interaction of any kind with an older adult. This may and welts. Others are more serious and can cause lasting include unwanted sexual contact or penetration or disabilities. These include head injuries, broken bones, non-contact acts such as sexual harassment. constant physical pain, and soreness. Physical injuries can also lead to premature death and make existing • Emotional or Psychological—This refers to verbal or health problems worse.2, 3, 4, 5 nonverbal behaviors that that inflict anguish, mental pain, fear, or distress on an older adult. Examples Elder abuse can have emotional effects as well. Victims include name calling, humiliating, destroying property, are often fearful and anxious. They may have problems or not letting the older adult see friends and family. with trust and be wary around others.2 • Neglect—This is the failure to meet an older adult’s basic needs. These needs include food, water, shelter, Who is at risk for perpetrating clothing, hygiene, and essential medical care. elder abuse? • Financial—This is illegally or improperly using an elder’s money, benefits, belongings, property, or assets Several factors can increase the risk that someone will for the benefit of someone other than the older adult. hurt an older adult. However, having these risk factors Examples include taking money from an older adult’s does not always mean violence will occur. account without proper authority, unauthorized credit Some of the risk factors for hurting an older adult card use, and changing a will without permission. include: • Using drugs or alcohol, especially drinking heavily Why is elder abuse a • High levels of stress and low or ineffective coping public health problem? resources Elder abuse is a serious problem in the United States. • Lack of social support There is a lack of data, but past research found that: • High emotional or financial dependence on the older adult • In 2008, one in 10 elders reported emotional, physical, or sexual abuse or potential neglect in the past year.1 • Lack of training in taking care of older adult • Depression Many cases are not reported because elders are afraid or unable to tell police, friends, or family about the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Division of Violence Prevention
Understanding Elder Abuse Step 3: Develop and test prevention strategies How can we prevent Using information gathered in research, CDC develops elder abuse? and evaluates strategies to prevent violence. The goal is to stop elder abuse before it starts. While Step 4: Ensure widespread adoption not much research has been done, there are several In this final step, CDC shares the best prevention important things we can do to prevent it: strategies. CDC may also provide funding or technical • Listen to older adults and their caregivers to help so communities can adopt these strategies. understand their challenges and provide support. • Report abuse or suspected abuse to Adult Protective Where can I learn more? Services. • Educate oneself and others about how to recognize and report elder abuse. Elder Abuse Helplines and Hotlines Call 1-800-677-1116 • Learn how the signs of elder abuse differ from the Always dial 911 or local police during emergencies. normal aging process. National Center on Elder Abuse • Check in often on older adults who may have few www.ncea.aoa.gov friends and family members. National Institute on Aging • Provide over-burdened caregivers with emotional www.nia.nih.gov and instrumental supports such as help from friends, family, or local relief care groups; adult day care National Institute of Justice programs; counselling; or outlets intended to promote www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/topics/crime/elder-abuse/ emotional well-being. welcome.htm • Where prudent and possible involve more people than For more information on elder abuse, visit www.cdc.gov/ just family, formal caregivers, and guardians in health violenceprevention. care or financial matters. • Encourage and assist persons (either caregivers or older adults) having problems with drug or alcohol References abuse in getting help. 1. Acierno R, Hernandez MA, Amstadter AB, Resnick HS, How does CDC approach Steve K, Muzzy W, Kilpatrick DG. Prevalence and Correlates of Emotional, Physical, Sexual, and Financial Abuse and elder abuse? Potential Neglect in the United States: The National Elder Mistreatment Study. American Journal of Public Health CDC uses a 4-step approach to address public health 2010; 100:292–7. problems like elder abuse. 2. Anetzberger, G. The Clinical Management of Elder Abuse. Step 1: Define the problem New York: Hawthorne Press, 2004. Before we can prevent elder abuse, we need to know how 3. American Medical Association. American Medical big the problem is, where it is, and whom it affects. CDC Association white paper on elderly health. Report of the learns about a problem by gathering and studying data. Council on Scientific Affairs. Archives of Internal Medicine These data are critical because they help decision makers 1990; 150:2459-72. send resources where they are needed most. 4. Lachs MS, Williams CS, O’Brien S, et. al. The Mortality of Elder Step 2: Identify risk and protective factors Mistreatment. Journal of the American Medical Association It is not enough to know that elder abuse is affecting a certain 1998; 280:428-32. group in a certain area. We also need to know why abuse 5. Lindbloom EJ, Brandt J, Hough L, Meadows SE. Elder occurs. CDC conducts and supports research to answer this Mistreatment in the Nursing Home: A Systematic Review. question. We can then develop programs to reduce or get rid Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2007; of risk factors and increase protective factors. 8(9):610-16. 1-800-CDC-INFO (232-4636) • www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention
2019 Preventing Youth Violence What is youth violence? Youth violence is the intentional use of physical force or power to threaten or harm others by young people ages 10-24.1 It typically involves young people hurting other peers who are unrelated to them and who they may or may not know well. Youth violence can take different forms. Examples include fights, bullying, threats with weapons, and gang-related violence. A young person can be involved with youth violence as a victim, offender, or witness. Youth violence starts early. Physical aggression can be common among toddlers, but most children learn alternatives to using violence to solve problems and express their emotions before starting school. Some children may remain aggressive and become more violent. Some early childhood risk factors include impulsive behavior, poor emotional control, and lack of social and problem-solving skills.1 Many risk factors are the result of experiencing chronic stress,* which can alter and/or harm the brain development of children and youth. Youth violence is an adverse childhood experience and is connected to other forms of violence, including child abuse and neglect, teen dating violence, adult intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and suicide. Different forms of violence have common risk and protective factors, and victims of one form of violence are more likely to experience other forms of violence. How big is the problem? Thousands of people experience youth violence every day. While the magnitude and types of youth violence vary across communities and demographic groups, youth violence negatively impacts youth in all communities—urban, suburban, rural, and tribal. • Youth violence is common. Nearly 1 in 5 high school students reported being bullied on school property in the last year, and about 1 in 7 were electronically bullied (texting, Instagram, Facebook, or other social media).2 • Youth violence kills and injures. Homicide is the 3rd leading cause of death for young people ages 10-24. Each day, about 14 young people are victims of homicide and about 1,300 are treated in emergency departments for nonfatal assault-related injuries.3 • Youth violence is costly. Youth homicides and nonfatal physical assault-related injuries result in more than $21 billion annually in combined medical and lost productivity costs alone, not including costs associated with the criminal justice system, psychological and social consequences for victims, perpetrators and their families, or costs incurred by communities.3 Estimated Cost 1 in 5 high school students reported being of Youth Violence bullied at school in the last year. More than About 14 young $2 1 B illi o n people die from a n n u a ll y * homicide each day. *Medical and lost productivity costs associated with youth homicides and nonfatal physical assault-related injuries * Chronic stress includes such issues as living in impoverished neighborhoods, living in dilapidated housing, frequently moving, experiencing food insecurity, experiencing racism, limited access to support and medical services, and living in homes with violence, mental health problems, substance abuse, and other instability. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Division of Violence Prevention
What are the consequences? A Comprehensive Youth violence has serious and lasting effects on the physical, mental, and social health of young people. It is a leading cause of death for young people and results in more Technical Package than 475,000 nonfatal injuries each year.3 The impact of youth violence goes beyond for the Prevention physical consequences. Adverse childhood experiences, like youth violence, are associated with negative health and well-being outcomes across the life course. Youth of Youth Violence violence increases the risk for behavioral and mental health difficulties, including future and Associated Risk violence perpetration and victimization, smoking, substance use, obesity, high-risk sexual behavior, depression, academic difficulties, school dropout, and suicide.1 Behaviors Youth violence affects entire communities. Violence increases health care costs, A technical package is a collection decreases property value, and disrupts social services. Youth violence negatively of strategies based on the best impacts perceived and actual safety, participation in community events, youth’s available evidence to prevent or school attendance, and viability of businesses. Addressing the short- and long-term reduce public health problems. The consequences of violence strains community resources and limits the resources that strategy lays out the direction and states and communities have to address other needs and goals. actions to prevent youth violence. The approach includes the specific How can we stop youth violence before it starts? ways to advance the strategy through programs, policies and practices. The The good news is youth violence is preventable. CDC’s technical package for evidence for each of the approaches preventing youth violence helps communities and states prioritize prevention in preventing youth violence and strategies based on the best available evidence.1 The strategies and approaches associated risk factors is also included. in the technical package are intended to shape individual behaviors as well as the relationship, family, school, community, and societal factors that influence risk and protective factors for violence. They are meant to work together and to be used in combination in a multi-level, multi-sector effort to prevent violence. Promote family environments that support healthy development • Early childhood home visitation • Parenting skill and family relationship programs Provide quality education early in life • Preschool enrichment with family engagement References Strengthen youth’s skills 1. David-Ferdon C, Vivolo-Kantor AM, Dahlberg LL, Marshall KJ, Rainford N, Hall • Universal school-based programs JE. A Comprehensive Technical Package for the Prevention of Youth Violence and Associated Risk Behaviors. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Connect youth to caring adults and activities Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016. Available from https:// • Mentoring programs www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/yv- • After-school programs technicalpackage.pdf. 2. Kann L, McManus T, Harris WA, et al. (2018). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United Create protective community environments States, 2017. Morbidity and Mortality • Modify the physical and social environment Weekly Report--Surveillance Summaries; 67(SS-08):1-479. Available from https:// • Reduce exposure to community-level risks www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/ • Street outreach and community norm change pdf/2017/ss6708.pdf. 3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Intervene to lessen harms and prevent future risk Prevention and Control. Web-based Injury • Treatment to lessen the harms of violence exposures Statistics Query and Reporting System • Treatment to prevent problem behavior and further involvement in violence (WISQARS) [online] 2017; [cited 2019 Feb 27] Available from www.cdc.gov/injury. • Hospital-community partnerships 1-800-CDC-INFO (232-4636) • www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention
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