Waldverband Steiermark GmbH Styrian Forest Owners
Waldverband Steiermark GmbH Styrian Forest Owners
1 Massimo Negrin and Valter Francescato AIEL (Italian Agro-forestry energy Association) BIOMASS TRADE CENTRE II WORK PACKAGE 2: PROMOTION OF NEW INVESTMENTS IN WOOD BIOMASS PRODUCTION (D 2.1) Work package leader: Waldverband Steiermark GmbH Styrian Forest Owners Association Date and place: January 2012 www.biomasstradecentreII.eu REGIONAL REPORT ON PROMOTION OF NEW INVESTMENTS IN WOOD BIOMASS PRODUCTION Country: Italy
2 Summary 1. Wood biomass market ___ 2
2. Forest biomass production chain ___ 3
3. Biomass from short rotation coppices ___ 5
Biomass production from agricultural woody residues ___ 6
5. Existing policy measures ___ 8
6. Main barriers for further development ___ 12
Reference ___ 13
1. Wood biomass market The Italian target, according to Directive 2009/28/EC, is to produce by 2020 the 17% of energy needs from renewable energy sources; value that currently stands at 5.2%. Among renewables, solid biomass (wood fuels) is already the first renewable energy source: 40-43% of all RES. In Italy the energy consumption for heating purposes is about 59 Mtoe, compared with total energy demand: 133 Mtoe (44%).
40% of heat is used at domestic scale. 14% of thermal energy is produced with renewable sources and 76,5% of thermal renewable energy is produced from woody biomass (that amount at 11% of total demand of heat). In 2009 Italy consumed 16 million tons of firewood, 2 million tons of pellets and 2.6 million tons of wood chips for heat and power production.
Wood chips has three target markets: large power plants (45 plants, 450 MWe), which consume about 1.8 million tons annually, of which 1 million imported, - district heating (86 plants, 400 MWt ), in some cases with CHP applications (18 plants, 13.5 MW) and mini district heating and centralized boilers. The development and consolidation of market is highly related to the presence of an extensive network of professional biomass producers, offering to the market wood fuels which meet the quality standards defined by the European technical specifications (EN 14961).
The following graphic shows the differences between the costs of primary and end-energy, produced from different wood fuels in Italy.
3 20 41 31 56 88 149 158 219 45 73 64 82 102 181 183 248 50 100 150 200 250 300 LOGS SELF PRODUCED LOGS ACQUIRED WOOD CHIPS PELLET METHANE HEATING OIL LPGdefiscalised LPG €/MWh COSTOF PRIMARYENERGY COSTOF USEFUL ENERGY 2. Forest biomass production chain The forest area in Italy has increased significantly in the last 50 years, with an increase of forest cover from 5.5 M ha (1950) to 10.4 M ha (2000); with further 2-3 M ha are in natural conversion toward forest stands. 7.6 Mm3 are exploited annually, compared to the current annual increment of about 36 Mm3 (21%). 65% of this volume is used for firewood production, while 35% is oriented to wood industry.
In rosa = aree di montagna In nero = aree in conversione naturale Pink = mountain area Black = area with natural conversion to forest land
4 Most of the forest biomass is obtained from forest residues, derived from the conventional forest management practices. The producible forest biomass assortments are closely related to several factors, such as: - Species composition of forest; - type of forest stand (management, retractable assortments, commission, age); - silvicultural system (advance felling, harvest felling, thinning). The main sources of forest biomass may be: - thinning of young stands, which is obtained from small material otherwise used; - woody residues from harvest felling: - woody residues and basal trunks affected by fungal decay; - pruning and peaks; - small dimensions material; - whole plants or other no-timber industry.
The current availability of forest biomass is strongly influenced by the available harvesting technologies and by land orography. The market prices of woody assortments and the energy prices of fossil fuels, may affect significantly the convenience of biomass harvesting and investments.
The following graph shows the mean productivity (bulk m3 /h) of chips production in different forest stands and saw mills waste, with an high-size chipper in alpine area. 85 83 60 90 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Tondame Abete rosso Stanghe Abete rosso Cimali e ramaglia Sciaveri e refili Prod. netta (m3 st/h) Brown: logs and poles Green: peaks and prunings Yellow: sawmill residuals.
5 3. Biomass from short rotation coppices Short Rotation Forestry or Coppice (SRC) is standing crop established on agricultural lands made up of fast-growing species like poplar, willow, black locust and eucalyptus.
Poplar and willow varieties are those mainly used on the agricultural land. Coppice is characterized by a high planting density, harvested within very short periods of time, from 1 to 6-8 years, and intensive cultivation techniques. The market for solid biomass produced on agricultural land from short rotation energy crops has some difficult to take off, despite the economic aid introduced by the PAC reforms and the incentives allocated by some Italian regions.
One of the main barriers that hindering the development of this market is the limited availability of clear and transparent information for farmers. On the basis of which move towards the investments that they consider to be the most convenient as a function of different target crops opportunities and final energy use. To stimulate investments, we organized the technical, economical and market information showing best cases in using SRC biomass for energy purposes. SRC harvested on a 2-3 year cycle is the most common across Europe (European model); however, a growing interest for coppice with a lower planting density and rotation cycles up to 5-6 years (American model) can be registered.
Provided in the following table is a summary of the productivity values of both commercial and experimental plantations that have been collected in Europe since the 1990s.
6 EUROPEAN CROP MODEL Harvesting is performed with mowers-shredders-loaders or smaller shredders-loaders; their productivity with reference to two-year coppice is approx. 15 and 4 tdb/h respectively. What can be obtained is fresh wood chips with an average 55% (M) water content, which is mostly sold to power stations or to the panel industry. AMERICAN CROP MODEL Cutting is performed with forestry machinery (fellers, shears, combined harvester head; productivity: approx. 3-9 tdb/h). It is possible to store the stems in piles for open-air seasoning before it is chipped. Generally, seasoning lasts approximately 3 months (from March to June) and chipped material reaches an average 40% (M) water content.
If wood chips are seasoned for a further three-month period under cover, they reach 30% M and they can be used in small-medium sized (fixed grid) boilers as well. 4. Biomass production from agricultural woody residues Italy is one of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world and one of the world's foremost producers, responsible for approximately one-fifth of world wine production (2005). Italy is the second largest wine producer after France and in 2008 it has surpassed France for the title of world's biggest with nearly six billion liters of wine (Mulligan et al., 2006).
7 The National Institute for Statistics (Istat) estimate that in Italy there is a surface of 778.376 ha covered by vineyards cultivation (2010). The most important vineyards regions are: Puglia (146.177 ha), Sicilia (140.386 ha), Veneto (76.595 ha) and Toscana (62.425 ha); here every here a huge amount of woody residues are collectable. Usually during winter time, the pruning of the vine are available on the ground and may be harvested with several machines at state of the art: shredder, baling and chipping harvesting-systems. Biomass from vineyard may be effectively used for energy purposes in heating plants, for example, in wineries and tourism resort, replacing heating oil or LPG.
Besides Italy has a large surface covers by orchards, olive trees and other woody crops. The following table reports the mean values of pruning yield per hectare of both vineyards and orchards (AA.VV., 2011) Total yeld Net yeld Lost Water content (M) Coltura % % Orchards 3,5 3,0 13% 43,4% Vineyards 2,9 2,0 30% 42,9% Average 3,1 2,3 24% 43,1% t/ha The graphic reports the average costs for collecting vineyard and orchards pruning using different harvesters. 5 3 4 7 27 18 24 32 40 43 39 34 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Peruzzo Facma Nobili Lerda Costounitario (€/ UM) Trattore (€/t) Macchina raccoglitrice (€/t) Costo orario tot.
(€/h) Unitcosts (€/U.M. Tractor(€/t) Collectingmachine (€/t) Totalhour cost (€/h)
8 5. Existing policy measures The National Action Plan for renewable energy in Italy The biomass sector is obtaining a strategic role in Italian policy for renewable energy: according to the National Action Plan (PAN), approved in June 2010, implementing Directive 28/2009, biomass should become by 2020 the main renewable resources in Italy, covering 44% of the consumption of renewable (20% electricity and 58% heat, 84% of biofuels), for a total of 22.3 M toe. In the next graph is shown the distribution of renewable energy, planned for 2020 in Italy, according to the PAN, expressed in ktoe.
Idroelettrico: hydroelectric Geotermico: geothermal Geot.
Pompa di calore: heat pump Fotovoltaico: photovoltaics Solare termico: solar thermal Eolico:wind power Biomasse: biomass Solare PV a concentrazione: solar concentrating PV Elettricità per trasporti: electricity for transport In the following graph is shows the breakdown of the three types of energy in Italy (planned for 2020) according to PAN data, referring to the production of total energy produced from all renewable. National Action Plan Renewable energy source at 2020
9 Trasporti: Transport (biofuel) Elettricità: electricity Termica e raffrescamento: Heating and cooling Compared to the total energy consumed in Italy (2008) the heating energy occupies an important fraction, approximately 45%. At this energy, however, is not associated with an equally focus with programmatic incentive. The graph below show the current distribution of energy consumption in Italy (,AIEL and PAN modified with updated data, 2012) and in particular what the impact on the woody biomass for heating energy. The assumptions relative to baseline consumption of woody biomass made in the PAN, are strongly underestimated: the main production of energy from solid biomass planned for 2020
10 (5.2 Mtoe) is probably a target already reached: current consumption rates estimated in the range of 18-22 M t, about 6.7 M toe. Teleriscaldamento: district heating Minireti: Small size district heating Consumi domestici convenzionali: domestic consumption Impianto di produzione di EE: Plant for electricity production PAN should be revised the programmatic assumptions and forecasts to better define the opportunities for development of the first source of renewable energy in the country (Pettenella, 2011).
ENEA communicates the amount of renewable heating energy in 2.4 Mtoe (2005).
The heating energy planned for 2020 by PAN aims to produce 5.2 - 5.4 Mtoe, however, AIEL estimate, for 2010, that only consumption of domestic plants, small and large district heating, amounts to about 6.4 Mtoe, as described in the next graph.
11 Rural Development Programme SIZE 311-Action 3 - Promotion of energy production and biofuels from renewable sources. Objectives Specific objectives of the action for stimulating the production of energy and biofuels from renewable sources are: - strengthen the development of rural economy and contribute to the maintenance of the rural population in the active site exploiting local resources, and stimulating local economic diversification; - encourage the creation of employment opportunities, with particular attention to the reintegration of women; - promote the diversification of employment opportunities and income for farms expanding and consolidating the activities related to agriculture; - Promote activities complementary to the agricultural sector of bioenergy.
SIZE 121 - Modernization of agricultural holdings Objectives Prevision of PAN Woody biomass (67%) Heating renewable Energy (AIEL) PAN prevision and new estimations AIEL (PAN and FIRE data)
12 - improvement of the overall competitiveness of the system, ensuring environmental sustainability and territorial landscape of agriculture and its activities; - finalize upgrade paths towards effective business strategies; - improvement of the quality standards of agricultural products; - encourage redevelopment and restructuring of production in relation to reforms within the common market organizations; - promote an active role of agriculture in fighting climate change by reducing carbon emissions from fossil fuels, the development of conservation farming practices, better management of water resources.
MEASURE F 123 - Adding value to agricultural products and forestry - Forestry Submeasure Objectives - Encouraging economic development and sustainable utilization of resources, activities and forestry production, forestry and pastoral activities, including through improved infrastructure. - Further specific reference: ensure that appropriate technologies and access to innovative tools to improve the marketing of wood raw material in the production chain. Plan for the implementation of initiatives related to forest planning. 6. Main barriers for further development The further development of production and use of woody biomass in Italy is affected by: undeclared employment and market for woody biomass, in particular logs; incentive policies too much oriented for electricity production and not enough for renewable heat; Too low prices of biomass oriented to supply large power plants or large district heating plants; Infrastructural barriers for biomass mobilization: lack of forest roads and access to forest stands; High fragmentation of both forests and arable lands; Too high costs for carrying out biomass trade centers (BTC), because in many regions it not yet allowed to build up BTC over agricultural land.
13 Reference Benet,Energy Dalen, Jyvaskylan Ammattikorkeakoulu, 2000. Wood fuels basic information pack. Castellani Camillo. Tavole stereometriche ed alsometriche costruite per boschi italiani. Istituto Sperimentale per l’Assestamento Forestale e per l’Alpicoltura. Francescato V., Paniz A., Negrin M., Antonini E., Zuccoli Bergomi L., 2012. Legna, cippato e pellet. Produzione, requisiti qualitativi e compravendita. Manuale pratico. AIEL, Associazione Italiana Energie Agroforestali: Legnaro PD. 128 pp. Hippoliti G. e Piegai F., 2000. La raccolta del legno. Tecniche e sistemi di lavoro. Arezzo: Compagnia delle Foreste.
Hippoliti G., 1997. Appunti di meccanizzazione forestale. Firenze: Studio Editoriale Fiorentino. 318 pp. Negrin M., 2008. Produttività, costi e qualità nell’approvvigionamento di cippato ad uso energetico. Un’indagine su dieci cantieri della Magnifica Comunità di Fiemme. Tesi di laurea: relatore Pettenella D. Correlatore Grigolato S. Dipartimento Territorio e Sistemi Agro-Forestali, Facoltà di Agraria, Università degli Studi di Padova, Legnaro. Negrin M., 2011. Studio di fattibilità sulla realizzazione di una piattaforma logistica per la produzione e commercializzazione di cippato di alta qualità nella Magnifica Comunità di Fiemme.
Tesi di laurea: relatore Cavalli R. Correlatore Grigolato S. e Cattoi S. - Dipartimento Territorio e Sistemi Agro-Forestali, Facoltà di Agraria, Università degli Studi di Padova, Legnaro.
Ministero dello Sviluppo Economico, 2010 – Piano di azione Nazionale per le energie rinnovabili dell’Italia. 217 pp. Pettenella D., 2011. Il gigante nascosto. Una stima del ruolo delle biomasse legnose nel bilancio nazionale. Agriforenergy. 1 (1): 14-17. PROGRAMMA DI SVILUPPO RURALE per il Veneto 2007-2013 Regolamento (CE) n. 1698/2005 del Consiglio del 20 settembre 2005 Cavalli R., Grigolato S., 2011. Raccolta e trasformazione dei sarmenti di vite in cippato. Disponibilità potenziale e tecnica in provincia di Treviso. Agriforenergy 1-2011. Cavalli R., Albergucci M., Bietresato M., Breda N., Grigolato S.; 2011.
Filiere per la raccolta e il trattamento dei sarmenti di vite. Dip. TeSAF su cmmissione di AIEL (Associazione Italiana Energie Agroforestali).
14 The sole responsibility for the content of this publication lies with the authors. It does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Communities. The European Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein. www.biomasstradecentreII.eu