Author: Dr Christina Ballico Research Assistant: Jessica Willoughby - West Australian Music

 
Author: Dr Christina Ballico Research Assistant: Jessica Willoughby - West Australian Music
Author: Dr Christina Ballico
Research Assistant: Jessica Willoughby
Author: Dr Christina Ballico Research Assistant: Jessica Willoughby - West Australian Music
WAM Fair Play WA Report 2020                                                                                                                                            WAM Fair Play WA Report 2020

                                                                     Contents
                                                                                Acknowledgements............................................................................................................... 5

                                                                                Executive Summary............................................................................................................... 6

                                                                                Introduction....................................................................................................... 8

                                                                                     Introduction......................................................................................................................... 9
                                                                                     Methodology and Methods............................................................................................... 10
                                                                                     Research Limitations.......................................................................................................... 11
                                                                                     The Forgetting of Women in Popular Music Histories ................................................. 11
                                                                                     Gender Parity, Equality and Sexual Harassment in Music............................................ 13
                                                                                Thematic Analysis.................................................................................................................. 14

                                                                                     Introduction......................................................................................................................... 15
                                                                                     Participants’ Underlying Career Characteristics: Employer Support,
                                                                                     Career Support Networks, Career Commitment, Career Challenges
                                                                                     and Career Needs .............................................................................................................. 15
                                                                                     Gender Discrimination, Equality and Sexual Harassment ........................................... 18
                                                                                     Conclusion........................................................................................................................... 26
                                                                                Fair Play WA: Recommendations........................................................................................ 28

                                                                                     Introduction......................................................................................................................... 29
                                                                                     A database of female and broadly non-male artists and industry
                                                                                     practitioners in WA ............................................................................................................ 29
                                                                                     Female focused and engaged mentoring programs .................................................... 30
                                                                                     Female musician and industry practitioner networking events ................................. 30
                                                                                     Purposeful female presence at conferences, workshops and sundowners.............. 30
                                                                                     Female showcasing events and an enacting of gender parity policies
                                                                                     for venues and festivals .................................................................................................... 30
                                                                                     Female music compilations .............................................................................................. 31
                                                                                     Public awareness campaigns around zero tolerance policies at venues................... 31
                                                                                     Events, performance and touring opportunities aimed at supporting
                                                                                     primary caregivers............................................................................................................. 31
                                                                                     Grants and/or subsidies aimed at encouraging greater gender parity
                                                                                     in areas where women are currently underrepresented ............................................. 32
                                                                                     Formation of a WA music industry advisory group to develop and implement
                                                                                     the Fair Play WA report findings and lobby local, state and federal governments
                                                                                     regarding gender equity interests relevant to the industry......................................... 32
                                                                                     Develop an online resource hub to list and connect WA female, trans and
                                                                                     non-binary music makers and industry practitioners with initiatives that
                                                                                     could benefit their careers................................................................................................ 32
                                                                                References............................................................................................................................... 34

2    Carla Geneve at SOTA 2018, photographer: Castaway Photography                                                                                                                                                             3
Author: Dr Christina Ballico Research Assistant: Jessica Willoughby - West Australian Music
WAM Fair Play WA Report 2020                                   WAM Fair Play WA Report 2020

                                   I would like to thank Jessica Willoughby for her work
                                   on the initial report research, survey and interview
                                   design and implementation. I also acknowledge the
                                   work undertaken by the team at Culture Counts in
                                   distributing the survey and undertaking initial statistical
                                   analysis. Thank you also to Linda Butcher, Claire
                                   Hodgson, Bel Skinner, Aysha Amani, Chris Edmondson,
                                   Ellen Oosterbaan, Georgia Kennedy, Em Burrows, Mike
                                   Harris, Dr Louise Devenish and Natasha Shanks, for their
                                   feedback on initial drafts of this report and Julia Hobson
                                   for editing the final version. Most of all, thank you to
                                   all who gave their time to participate in this research,
                                   without whom this report would not be possible.

4                                                                                                 5
Author: Dr Christina Ballico Research Assistant: Jessica Willoughby - West Australian Music
WAM Fair Play WA Report 2020                                                                                                                                                                WAM Fair Play WA Report 2020

                                                                                                             Significantly, Fair Play WA has found that:               Recommendations from this research are centred
                                                                                                                                                                       around increasing and supporting a stronger
                                                                                                              Female industry practitioners are ten times            female presence across the sector, as well as
                                                                                                                more likely to experience gender discrimination        inclusive and safe live music experiences: the
                                                                                                                than their male counterparts.                          development and/or promotion of a database
                                                                                                              67% of females believed a female mentor would          of female and broadly non-male artists and
                                                                                                                improve their career development and 65%               industry practitioners in WA, female focused
                                                                                                                identified that female role models would im-           and engaged mentoring programs, female
                                                                                                                prove their career development (only 25% of            musician and industry practitioner networking
                                                                                                                males identified having a male mentor as an            events, purposeful female representation at
                                                                                                                opportunity to improve career development).            industry events, female showcasing events and
                                                                                                              Women were more than twice as likely as men            an enacting of gender parity policies for venues
                                                                                                                to agree that flexible caring hours would help to      and festivals, female music compilations, public
                                                                                                                further develop their music careers.                   awareness campaigns around zero tolerance
                                                                                                              While 73% of consumers are ‘used to’ the male          policies at venues, performance and touring
                                                                                                                dominance of the live performance space, there         opportunities aimed at supporting primary
                                                                                                                is a strong desire (94%) for there to be more          caregivers, grants and/or subsidies aimed at
                                                                                                                women performing live.                                 encouraging greater gender parity in areas
                                                                                                                                                                       where women are currently underrepresented,
                                                                                                              Female music consumers are almost eight times
                                                                                                                                                                       formation of a Fair Play WA advisory group and
                                                                                                                more likely to experience sexual harassment or
                                                                                                                                                                       the development of an online resource hub to
                                                                                                                violence at live music events than males, and
                                                                                                                                                                       list and connect WA female, trans and non-
                                                                                                                on average, do not feel completely safe at live
                                                       Fair Play WA presents the first comprehensive                                                                   binary music makers and industry practitioners
                                                                                                                music events.
                                                       examination of the gendered experience of                                                                       with initiatives that could benefit their careers.
                                                                                                              Venues recognised that they needed to be
                                                       women working in and engaging with the Western
                                                                                                                proactive in having gender parity in their live
                                                       Australian contemporary music industry and
                                                                                                                performance bookings, noting that this has not
                                                       scene from the perspective of musicians, industry
                                                                                                                always been the case for their line ups.
                                                       practitioners and consumers. It brings together
                                                       the voices of musicians, industry representatives      Overall the WA music industry is viewed by 67%
                                                       and consumers across an in-depth examination             of consumers as being gender inclusive and ac-
                                                       of incidences of gender discrimination, sexual           cording to 78% of consumers is becoming more
                                                       harassment and sexual assault. Contextualised            inclusive. Despite this positive response, strong
                                                       within historical debates around the representation      negative opinions about inclusivity exist, which
                                                       of women in creative and industry musical                demonstrates that work is still required in order
                                                       settings at local, national and international            for the sector to be truly gender inclusive.
                                                       levels, Fair Play WA reports and reflects on the       Live music venues were identified as being the
                                                       lived experiences of a broad cross section of            primary space in which gender discrimination
                                                       the WA music community. Building upon the                and harassment occurred for both industry
                                                       previous work that aims to increase women’s              practitioners and consumers. This was despite
                                                       prominence in the music industry and provide             venues having a zero-tolerance policy for vio-
                                                       safe spaces and experiences for musicians and            lence and being proactive in ensuring gender
                                                       music consumers, Fair Play WA seeks to further           parity in their staffing as well as providing a safe
                                                       inform and outline a way forward for the sector.         environment for attendees and staff.
6    Higher Note 2019, photographer: Monique Ceccato                                                                                                                                                                           7
Author: Dr Christina Ballico Research Assistant: Jessica Willoughby - West Australian Music
WAM Fair Play WA Report 2020                                                                                           WAM Fair Play WA Report 2020

                                                                                          Ali Flintoff at Girls Rock! WA 2019, photographer: Marnie Richardson

                                   1. Introduction
                                   Fair Play WA explores women’s experience of            local, national and international contexts in order
                                   engaging with and undertaking contemporary             to support and increase women’s prominence in
                                   music activity in Western Australia. It brings         the music industry and promote inclusive and safe
                                   together the perspectives of musicians,                experiences for musicians and consumers alike.
                                   industry practitioners and consumers in an in-
                                   depth examination of incidences of gender              This research comes at a time in which there is
                                   discrimination, sexual harassment and sexual           an increased interest in women’s contribution
                                   assault. In addition, it provides commentary           to music: their histories, their lived experiences
                                   and analysis on the challenges associated with         of pursuing careers, the need for gender parity
                                   pursuing careers in music in Western Australia, as     in business and creative settings and the
                                   well as barriers for consuming music, particularly     acknowledgement of the impact of a historically
                                   in relation to perceptions of venue and nightlife      male dominated sector which has resulted in a
                                   safety. In doing so, it provides a way forward for     range of power abuses. To this end, Fair Play WA
                                   musicians, industry practitioners, and consumers       offers a way forward for the Western Australian
                                   to ensure a safe, supportive sector in which they      contemporary music sector to: encourage women
                                   can create, encourage and consume local music          in their music careers, support gender parity
                                   activity. It is contextualised within historical       across a range of contexts, and importantly ensure
                                   debates around the representation of women in          a safe and inclusive experience for musicians,
                                   music – in both creative and industry settings – and   industry practitioners and consumers alike.
                                   considers initiatives which have been enacted in
8                                                                                                                                                                9
Author: Dr Christina Ballico Research Assistant: Jessica Willoughby - West Australian Music
WAM Fair Play WA Report 2020                                                                                                                                                                     WAM Fair Play WA Report 2020

     1.2 Methodology and Methods                          in the West Australian music industry. A likert          recorded, with detailed transcripts developed by         The researchers recognise and acknowledge
                                                          scale was utilised for measuring attitudinal             the interviewer. Instead of providing a verbatim         that the experiences of those who are sexually,
     Fair Play WA brings together findings from three     responses to a set of eighteen custom dimension          record these transcripts focused on key themes           gender and/or racially diverse and those who live
     separate industry/artist, venue and consumer         statements (CDS) which focused on how                    and findings from the interviews, with some quotes       in regional and remote areas of the state, and/or
     surveys as well as interviews with eleven            accommodating participants’ employers were               noted for use in the analysis included in this report.   are differently abled are not discussed in detail.
     industry representatives and a questionnaire         to a range of commitments, including those                                                                        We understand that those who may identify with
     administered with venue operators. The findings      relating directly to their artistic commitments,         An additional survey was administered for                one or more of these categories can experience
     were triangulated and are organised thematically     and other commitments such as study, caring/             consumers. This survey was conducted during              even greater challenges and/or disadvantage than
     to present a well-rounded discussion on the          parenting, and provisions for leave (sick, annual        WAMFest 2017 in early November of that                   that which we predominantly discuss herein.
     experiences of women in their pursuit of careers     and maternity); plus the impact of gender on             year and attracted a total of 39 participants.
     and in engaging with music as a consumer. The        career opportunities and development.                    Survey participants were asked demographic               1.4 The Forgetting of Women in
     surveys, interviews and questionnaires were                                                                   information, before being requested to provide
     designed by a researcher with a background in        Qualitative unstructured interviews were then            details on their consumer habits – including genre       Popular Music Histories
     music journalism and a strong understanding          undertaken to provide depth and nuance to                preferences and frequency of attendance at live          Fair Play WA offers a critical evaluation and
     of the contemporary music sector in Western          the key themes and findings revealed by the              shows. Perceptions and attitudes toward gender           analysis on women’s experiences of pursuing
     Australia, alongside members of the West             survey. These interviews were with eleven female         parity were then sought, before participants             careers in music and engaging as a consumer,
     Australian Music (WAM) team. The two surveys         members of the Western Australian music industry         were asked questions relating to their personal          and sits within a body of discourse that examines
     were administered by Culture Counts who              who were chosen based on their prominence in             experiences of sexual harassment and assault             the ways women’s contributions to music have
     undertook initial statistical analysis of the        the sector and with the aim to obtain a cross-           when engaging in live music activity. Barriers to        historically been overlooked and forgotten with
     findings. The interviews were undertaken by the      section of experiences and perspectives. Of these        engaging with live music were also examined.             women’s experiences of pursuing music careers
     researcher who designed the interview questions      interviewees, six were industry representatives                                                                   largely missing from archival work (Strong,
     and initial structure of the study. The in-depth     and five were musicians. Industry representatives        Four venue owners were interviewed with a fifth
                                                                                                                                                                            2011). These considerations demonstrate the
     findings, and overall authoring of this report was   worked across a range of music industry and              response received via the Culture Counts online
                                                                                                                                                                            importance and significance of Fair Play WA,
     undertaken by an experienced contemporary            ancillary positions including as an Artist Manager,      survey focusing on the ways in which they support
                                                                                                                                                                            while also illuminating how widespread and
     music researcher who has a strong background         Festival Director, Music Retailer, Journalist, Label     gender parity in their programming decisions and
                                                                                                                                                                            ingrained is the ‘forgetting’ of women in music.
     in academic and industry engaged research            Manager, Public Relations Consultant, Radio              provide a safe and inclusive environment for their
     examining music careers and broadly music sector     Announcer, and Sound Engineer. Musicians                 performers, staff and patrons. Within this, dress        In her examination of the ways in which female
     development in Western Australia. Additional         included those who performed solo and/or in              codes, door policy and security procedures were          musicians have been largely forgotten in the
     feedback and guidance was also provided by           bands, creating original music in a range of genres      examined, as was the gender parity of venue and          enduring history of Seattle’s grunge music scene,
     members of the WAM Board, and select music           such as Electronic, Folk, Rock, Punk, Jazz, Metal/       booking staff, and the venues’ overall attitudes         Strong (2011) puts forward that this forgetting
     industry practitioners and gender theorists.         Doom, Country, Soul/Rnb and Pop, and included a          to supporting and facilitating gender parity             has been the result of a range of cultural and
                                                          combination of those who lived in Perth, in regional     and inclusiveness within their establishment.            societal factors which relate to the ways in which
     The first of the two surveys was conducted           areas of the state as well as practitioners who                                                                   record keeping takes place (being largely the
     with industry practitioners who identified as        identified as having indigenous heritage. These          1.3 Research Limitations                                 work of men), as well as women’s lack of control
     working across a range of roles in the local music   interviews brought together in-depth reflections                                                                  perpetuated through the use of language and
     industry. It was online for six weeks between late                                                            While this research contributes to global debates
                                                          on the participants’ experiences of developing                                                                    symbols that maintain power structures. Crucially,
     November 2017 - January 2018 and attracted a                                                                  about the role and experience of women in music
                                                          and sustaining their careers in the WA music                                                                      however, when relating to how this has occurred in
     total of 303 responses from practitioners whose                                                               and provides guidance for the Western Australian
                                                          industry. Interviews included discussions relating                                                                popular culture, she puts forth (2011, p. 401) that,
     roles cut across creative and business positions                                                              music industry to engage, support and encourage
                                                          to their formal music related training (if relevant),    women in their music careers and to support safe
     – including Musician/Songwriter, Live Sound/         the ways in which they initially engaged in music                                                                 women [are] disappearing [from histories]
     or Recording Engineer, Manager, Promoter or                                                                   spaces of music engagement and consumption,
                                                          and music sector work, and broadly the ways in                                                                    well before their deaths, and in circumstances
     Booking Agent, - at a label/publishing company                                                                there are limitations to the data included here
                                                          which they have traversed, and were committed                                                                     where, in rock music, their work is as well-
     - Radio Broadcaster and Music Journalist.                                                                     which must be acknowledged. Most notably, there
                                                          to continuing their careers. Included within this                                                                 catalogued and as easily accessible as men’s,
     Representative of the multifaceted nature of local                                                            is a lack of nuance to the sample group included in
                                                          were the challenges and barriers experienced by                                                                   suggest that being female is in and of itself
     music industries and scenes, the survey also                                                                  the surveys, for example respondents in the Main
                                                          the interviewees, including the ways in which they                                                                enough to make being forgotten more likely.
     attracted responses from people who identified                                                                Survey (the survey most frequently referenced in
                                                          do/do not maintain a work-life balance (such as          Fair Play WA) identify as 50% Female, 48% Male
     as educators, students, administrators, and          stress and mental health challenges/impacts).                                                                     The forgetting of women within the popular
     consumers. Participants were asked a range of                                                                 and 2% In Another Way, resulting in the report           music cannon can be further attributed to the
                                                          Reflective of the focus in the survey, issues relating   having a strong binary female/male focus. The data
     questions, including demographics and income         to gender discrimination and sexual harassment,                                                                   ways in which female musicians are not taken
     levels for the prior financial year. The survey                                                               also lacks details on participants’ ethnicity, sexual    as seriously as their male counterparts. This
                                                          and recommendations to support and facilitate            orientation, postcode/locative data and does not
     focused on workplace conditions and employment       stronger female representation were central                                                                       includes being sexualised as vocalists (as opposed
     as well as the gendered experience of working                                                                 track whether participants were differently abled.       to being viewed as talented instrumentalists),
                                                          across all interviews. All interviews were audio
10                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   11
Author: Dr Christina Ballico Research Assistant: Jessica Willoughby - West Australian Music
WAM Fair Play WA Report 2020                                                                                                                                                                       WAM Fair Play WA Report 2020

     having their gender be the central focus in media         deep misogyny. These tensions are reinforced by       1.5 Gender Parity, Equality and Sexual                  and/or broader attitudes towards women in the
     coverage, and broadly not having their talents            the Oz Rock tradition of the masculine ideology                                                               public sphere also change. This male dominance is
                                                                                                                     Harassment in Music
     and abilities respected in the same way – or to           of ‘mateship’, as well as broader attitudes toward                                                            also credited with perpetuating gendered abuses
     the same degree – as their male counterparts              what Glitsos (2017) calls a “prescribed model of      In recent years there has been an increased             of power. These power abuses range from the
     (Strong, 2011; Glitsos, 2017; 2019). As Strong            womanhood” (p. 204). In a post-war context,           interest in ensuring an equal platform for women        financial and artistic control of female artists (for
     ultimately goes on to explain, the forgetting of          this “model” saw women encouraged to migrate          in music. This has included the questioning             example, see Taylor Swift vs Scooter Braun, cf
     women in grunge has been further perpetuated              to Western Australia for the express purpose          of the lack of gender parity across a range of          Kaplan, 2019), to instances where women have
     by the segmentation between Grunge and Riot               of marrying men. It also resulted in their public     settings such as festival line-ups, listener voted      been sexually harassed, abused and assaulted.
     Grrrl movements, which, while both emerging               deviancy being heavily regulated in order to ensure   radio polls, board representation/executive             The trajectory of such experiences ranges from
     from the same underlying musical movement, are            they remained on the “right” side of the Madonna/     management roles, radio airplay and music               the extreme (such as in the case of R Kelly, cf
     often positioned as somehow being separate. This          whore complex (cf Straw, 2013). These factors         awards, as well as examining the impacts of the         Savage, 2019), to more insidious cases (such as
     separation further perpetuates the forgetting of          reinforced women’s perceived role in the home,        male dominance with positions of power across           the allegations against Ryan Adams, cf Coscarelli
     women from the history of grunge, which in turn           their expected desire to become mothers (as well      the sector. Taken collectively, dialogues from both     and Ryzik, 2019), and within Western Australia,
     contributes to the broader masculine focused              as be particular kinds of mothers), and a perceived   academia and industry reveal the following:             the allegations against former promoter and
     dialogue around contemporary music activity               lack of their contributions to society. These                                                                 radio announcer Dave Cutbush (Pari, 2017) and a
                                                                                                                      Major record labels are run predominantly by
     and associated memories. Acknowledging and                histories underlay ongoing attitudes that reinforce                                                           quickly reversed requirement for female bar staff
                                                                                                                        men (Ingham, 2019)
     recognising the lack of representation of women           a lack of recognition for women’s contribution                                                                to dress a particular way (cf Finnigan, 2019). In
     in contemporary music histories and dialogues             to music and have influenced performers and            Men undertake the majority of music pro-             addition, this recognition has supported, and been
     can be further illuminated by the lived experiences       patrons, and in some cases have been internalised        duction, songwriting, and performing (Smith,         supported by, research undertaken on the rates
     of women pursuing music as a career or hobby.             by women in how they interpret their lived               Choueiti and Pieper, 2019; APRA, n.d.)               of occurrence of sexual harassment and assault
                                                               experiences of pursuing a career in music.             Men hold over two thirds of senior and strate-       at Australian music festivals (Nazaroff, 2019).
     Glitsos (2017; 2019) for example, has examined                                                                     gic roles in key Australian music organisations
     the personal experiences of female musicians in           Despite strong contributions to music and                and win the majority of national music awards        Recognising the continued challenges women face
     Perth, Western Australia in the early Rock’n’Roll         associated culture through a combination of              in Australia (Cooper, Coles and Hanna-Osborne,       in being able to develop their careers and engage
     music scene between the 1950s and 1970s,                  female vocalists becoming prominent in the               2017)                                                safely in music activity, a range of programs and
     and their experiences engaging with the local             local rock’n’roll scene, considerable coverage of                                                             initiatives have been enacted and/or put forward
                                                                                                                      Male performers are programmed in the majori-
     Metal scene in a present-day context. Glitsos’            female musicians on local Perth television, and                                                               in recent years within Australia and around the
                                                                                                                        ty of festival slots (Davies, 2018)
     findings, similar to the Fair Play WA findings, are       an overall increase in female instrumentalists                                                                world in order to reduce and prevent instances
     that women have not been taken as seriously as            between the 1950s and early 1970s, women’s             Male musicians receive the majority of radio         of sexual harassment and assault in the music
     their male counterparts in their music-making             contributions to music history have still largely        airplay across Australian radio outlets and con-     industry and to support women to pursue their
     endeavours. This ranges from having to prove              gone unrecognised (Glitsos, 2017). While this            sistently chart more frequently in listener voted    music careers. These include the funding of
     one’s musical abilities and skills on stage, to           in part can be attributed to the ways in which           polls such as triple j’s Hottest 100 (Moran, 2019;   state based sexual assault prevention programs
     not being expected to be very knowledgeable               women’s careers were stifled due to family ties          Esposito, 2016)                                      (Stockwell, 2017), the establishment of global
     about musical equipment (2017, p. 11).                    and commitments, preventing them relocating           The male dominance revealed in this snapshot            databases for women in music (Jones, 2018), and
                                                               in order to continue pursuing their career (which     highlights challenges women experience in being         the global proliferation of the Girls Rock! Camps
     Negative perceptions about women’s musical                then ended suddenly), the masculine dominance         able to develop, sustain and progress their music       (GRCF, n.d). Initiatives such as these ensure that
     abilities, skills and knowledge are further fuelled       of the industry, as well as the active exclusion of   careers. While there have been some positive            women are provided with guidance, support
     by the lack of recognition of their contributions to      women from scene activities (such as post-show        changes in recent years (cf Davies, 2018), much         and safety as they navigate their careers. Similar
     music. This lack of recognition is, in turn, influenced   socialising), serve to reinforce a masculine, and     work remains. When women’s career progression           initiatives and approaches are recommended
     by a range of cultural and societal attitudes toward      therefore, male dominant discourse. This discourse    is limited and/or they do not continue to pursue        in this report based on the participants’
     women, their creative and cultural influence, and         further strengthened perceptions about the role of    music careers at the same rate as their male            perspectives and the analysis undertaken of
     contributions to life outside the home. Where             women in music, whereby women were reduced            counterparts, their capacity to have their              their experiences and the recognition of best
     Strong’s work (2011) has focused on the Grunge            to being viewed as hypersexualised performers         contributions recognised is also diminished. To this    practices. We now turn our attention to an
     and associated Riot Grrrl scene, examining this           and/or hypersexualised consumers (i.e. ‘groupies’)    end, the ‘forgetting’ of women in popular music         analysis of the research findings before presenting
     in relation to the experiences of women in Perth,         (Glitsos, 2017). Such perceptions persist today,      histories as discussed above will continue to occur     our recommendations in greater detail.
     particularly in the 1950s – 1970s, reveals tensions       and as revealed in the findings from Fair Play WA,    until such time that gender parity is achieved
     specific to living in a geographically isolated and       continue to influence women’s experiences of
     largely suburban locale as well as a place heavily        pursuing their careers and/or consuming music.
     steeped in colonialism, a frontier mythology and

12                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     13
Author: Dr Christina Ballico Research Assistant: Jessica Willoughby - West Australian Music
WAM Fair Play WA Report 2020                                                                                                            WAM Fair Play WA Report 2020

                                                             2. Introduction
                                                             Drawing from a combination of the industry             Workplace support was examined in relation to a
                                                             and consumer surveys as well as the qualitative        range of leave and flexible working arrangements,
                                                             research interviews and venue questionnaires, this     such as that required for artistic commitments,
                                                             chapter presents the thematically grouped findings     study, annual leave, carers leave and maternity
                                                             from the Fair Play WA fieldwork. It first provides     leave. On average respondents agreed that their
                                                             an overview of the underlying characteristics of       workplace was accommodating toward their
                                                             the industry members’ careers, with a specific         commitments. The survey revealed that artistic
                                                             focus on support offered by employers, their           commitments were the most accommodated, with
                                                             broader peer and familial networks, their career       74% in agreeance, and 39% strongly agreeing.
                                                             commitment and career challenges. It then delves       Study commitments were seen as supported by
                                                             into findings relating to gender discrimination        the workplaces of 69% of respondents (with a
                                                             and equality before leading into a discussion          12% rate of disagreement). Overall, agreeance
                                                             regarding rates of sexual harassment and the           for maternity leave was the lowest (at 52%)
                                                             ways in which select venues work to address and        of the sample, with annual leave receiving the
                                                             prevent such instances. Taken collectively, the        strongest level of disagreement. Furthermore,
                                                             findings presented in this chapter reveal that while   34% of the sample disagreed that their workplaces
                                                             industry members and musicians are positive            were accommodating to annual leave, with
                                                             about, and committed to continuing their careers,      25% in strong disagreement. Examining career
                                                             work remains to be done in order to overcome           support more broadly, in relation to support and
                                                             issues of gender discrimination, instances of sexual   encouragement of family and friends, the survey
                                                             harassment, increase overall safety at live music      revealed that while 84% agreed that family and
                                                             events and keep women in music beyond school           friends constituted their support network, only
                                                             and working in the industry beyond the early           66% agreed that they received encouragement
                                                             stages of their careers. The findings discussed        from this particular support network. Overall,
                                                             here, as well as the broader data sets, are the        similar response rates were gleaned across
                                                             basis of Fair Play WA’s recommendations.               the genders in relation to workplace leave and
                                                                                                                    flexible working arrangements. Male respondents
                                                             2.1 Participants’ Underlying Career                    were, however, in a slightly higher percentage of
                                                             Characteristics: Employer Support,                     agreement than female respondents that they
                                                                                                                    were encouraged in their careers (0.30 vs 0.21).
                                                             Career Support Networks, Career                        In terms of confidence to voice their concerns,
                                                             Commitment, Career Challenges and                      62% of overall participants agreed that they were
                                                             Career Needs                                           confident to voice their concerns, while 28% of
                                                                                                                    participants disagreed with this statement. More
                                                             The industry members interviewed and surveyed          male respondents agreed on average that they
                                                             were generally positive about their music careers,     felt confident voicing their concerns to employers,
                                                             despite 72% of survey respondents (female/male/        while female respondents were essentially
                                                             other) earning under $20,000 annually from music.      neutral in their response to this statement (0.41
                                                             The survey revealed that overall 86% of female         vs 0.04). While the industry participants were
                                                             musician respondents believed they had the talent      generally positive about their music careers,
                                                             required to succeed, with 58% strongly agreeing        from the perspective of their talents, as well as
                                                             with this sentiment. Only 6% disagreed with the        the support and encouragement they received
                                                             statement that they had the talent to succeed.         from their workplaces and networks of family
                                                             In turn, participants were broadly supported in        and friends, they were not immune from the
                                                             their music careers through a combination of           challenges associated with developing, sustaining
                                                             understanding and accommodating workplaces             and navigating their careers in the music industry.
                                                             (the majority of which were non-music related ‘day
                                                             jobs’), as well as supportive friends and family.

14    The Bird at WAMFest 2019, photographer: Annie Harvey                                                                                                                  15
Author: Dr Christina Ballico Research Assistant: Jessica Willoughby - West Australian Music
WAM Fair Play WA Report 2020                                                                                                                                                                                              WAM Fair Play WA Report 2020

     Average Agreeance Scores for Custom Dimension Statements by Gender                                                      Please indicate if you believe more opportunities for, or an increase in, the following would help your career?

                                       Talent to Succeed                                                      0.61
                                                                                                             0.58                                                                                                            55%
                                                                                                            0.53                                     Networking                                                                      64%
                             Family and Friends Support                                                      0.57
                                                                                                                                                       Promotion                                                         52%
                                                                                                     0.30                                                                                                              48%
                      Receive Encouragement in Career                                             0.21                                                                                                                             60%
                                                                                                                                                           Wages                                                            54%
                                                                                                        0.41                                                                                                     43%
                                                                                          0.04                                                        Experience                                                   45%
                                       Easy to Find Work                         -0.03                                                                                                           26%
                                                                             -0.17                                                                  Skills training                                             41%
                                                                             -0.17                                                                Female mentor                              21%
                                          Career Change                                      0.13                                                                                                                                         67%
                                                                                                                                                                                        17%
                                                                               -0.11                                                         Female role models                                                                      65%
                                                                                                           0.50
                                                                                                                                                    Male mentor                                 25%
                                                                   -0.46                                                                                                              14%
                                                                                                    0.30                                                                                             30%
                                                                -0.53                                                                                                                                            42%
                      Sexually Harassed while Employed                                             0.24                                                                        7%
                                                                                                                                            Flexible caring hours                       16%
                         Gender Discrimination Barriers       -0.58                                                                                                           7%
                                                                                             0.12                                                           Other            5%
                                                            -0.63
                                                                                 -0.06                                                                                0%     10%       20%      30%       40%       50%      60%         70%    80%

                                                           -0.80 -0.60 -0.40 -0.20 0.00     0.20    0.40   0.60   0.80                                                                          Male      Female
                                                                                  Male   Female

     Culture Counts 2018, Main Artists/Industry Survey; n=~198 (Varies per dimension)                                        Culture Counts 2018, Main Artists/Industry Survey; base n = 303; effective sample size = 184 (61%).
                                                                                                                             Note respondents could choose multiple options.

     Participants were asked to identify the main                       strategy employed for career development             Reflective of this desire to have female mentors,                  Getting some of these talented ladies from WA
     challenges they experienced in their music                         was engaging in informal networking events           numerous interviewees reflected on how female                      in schools taking up music classes, with a focus
     careers in relation to a range of financial and                    (22%), with attendance at industry events and        mentors would have assisted in the development                     on contemporary music. Having a good music
     employment factors as well as those relating to                    organisation memberships also proving useful         of their music careers, particularly in their early                teacher is key; but having a ladies roadshow
     workplace conditions and experiences. In addition,                 to 15% and 13% of the sample respectively.           experiences of engaging with the industry. As one                  would be great. Like Girls Rock. Pre-entry to
     participants were asked about their own levels of                  Male respondents on average found it easier to       interviewee, a radio announcer, reflected a lack of                industry. If they grow up with parity there,
     confidence and instances of personal risk, as well                 find work in the music industry than females.        a female mentor impacted how her music career                      the guys will not think about the disparity.
     as opportunities for further educational attainment.                                                                    developed,
     Financial pressure was identified as the main                      Across both genders, respondents believed that                                                                          In recent years work has been undertaken to
                                                                                                                             because I haven’t had a lot of female mentorship,
     challenge for the participants working in the music                networking, promotion and wage increases                                                                                support a stronger engagement of women in the
                                                                                                                             that has held me back. As a 31 year old,
     industry, with 16% identifying this as a challenge                 would be of most assistance to develop their                                                                            WA music industry. As previously discussed in the
                                                                                                                             sometimes I think if I’d been more sure of myself,
     for them. In addition, limited career development, a               careers, and reduce challenges associated with                                                                          Introduction, this has included the establishment
                                                                        working in the industry, particularly in relation    or had more guidance, or had more examples of
     shortage of job opportunities, and poor job security                                                                                                                                       and expansion of a range of programs and
                                                                        to their engagement with the live music sector.      women in these roles – maybe I could have done
     were also identified as significant challenges                                                                                                                                             events that specifically support, encourage
                                                                        In addition, 67% of females believed a female        this five years ago. I think it took me a long time
     to career development and sustentation.                                                                                                                                                    and celebrate women in music. While these are
                                                                        mentor would improve their career development        to get the [confidence] to do what I’ve done.
                                                                                                                                                                                                important and significant developments, it is
     Quizzed about the strategies they employed to                      and 65% identified that female role models would     I’m also seeing a lot more women coming out
                                                                                                                                                                                                also important to ensure that these and other
     develop their careers, participants were asked                     improve their career development. Only 25%           and talking about their experience. I used to be
                                                                                                                                                                                                initiatives do not result in a ‘quota for quota’s
     about whether they engaged in a range of formal                    of males identified having a male mentor as an       not comfortable talking about my experience as                     sake’ perception, where women are invited to
     and informal networking, formal and informal                       opportunity to improve career development.           female because I thought it was a bit whingey.                     engage and represent at particular events purely
     mentoring arrangements, attending industry                         Female respondents notably wanted skills training,   But now I feel like it’s okay to talk about it.                    for the sake of trying to demonstrate diversity
     events through industry organisations and                          an increase in confidence, female mentorship/                                                                           in voices, experiences and opinions. As one
     undertaking volunteer work. The most common                        role models and flexible caring hours.               Two other interviewees reflected on the importance
                                                                                                                                                                                                interviewee, a radio announcer, reflected:
                                                                                                                             of female mentors, particularly in schools, as
                                                                                                                             one, a guitar technician/sales person explained:
16                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            17
Author: Dr Christina Ballico Research Assistant: Jessica Willoughby - West Australian Music
WAM Fair Play WA Report 2020                                                                                                                                                                                       WAM Fair Play WA Report 2020

     There have been situations that have pissed me       2.2 Gender Discrimination, Equality                         Have you experienced discrimination or disadvantage in the WA music industry because of your gender?
     off [for example, for one event] someone asked       and Sexual Harassment
     me last minute to [be the Master of Ceremonies]
     and I said no because I wouldn’t be very good. I     I rienced gender discrimination. Analysis of                                    100%
     just wanted some more notice, because it was a       average agreeance scores strongly indicated
                                                          females were significantly more likely to have                                                     31%
     busy time. And [my boss received] a call saying                                                                                       80%
     their ‘attempts at affirmative action didn’t work,   faced gender discrimination in the WA music
                                                          industry than males. A Fisher’s Exact Test                                       60%                                          82%                       Not Experienced
     did you want to MC?’. I was so angry, because                                                                                                                                                                Discrimination due to
     I knew I was just being asked because I was a        estimated an odds ratio of around 10, implying
                                                                                                                                           40%                                                                    Gender
     woman. I could think of plenty of great women        females were 10 times more likely to have
                                                          faced gender discrimination than males.                                          20%
     who could MC and I don’t think enough thought
     was given. It made me feel that imposter thing
                                                                                                                                            0%
     again; these old guys run the system and they’ve                                                                                                      Female                       Male
     given me this chance that I’ve given up.
                                                                                                                      Culture Counts 2018, Main Artists/Industry Survey; Total sample: base n = 303; effective sample size = 96 (32%)
     Supporting and encouraging more women in
     music, working to overcome instances of gender
     discrimination, and broadly encouraging an                                                                       Specifics of the experiences of gender                             The letdowns will never override the good
     equitable and safe experience across the industry,                                                               discrimination against women in the music industry                 that’s happened in my career. The generation
     as practitioners and consumers, requires a nuanced                                                               included: not being taken as seriously as their                    now didn’t need to work as hard as us. It’s
     approach, clear dialogues around motivations,                                                                    male counterparts (comments such as “you’re                        always been male dominated; aboriginal culture
     and a long term plan that utilises female role                                                                   good for a girl” or having one’s technical abilities               has always been male-dominated. But that is
     models to normalise women in positions of power                                                                  questioned were common), not being provided with                   starting to change a bit now; and the males need
     in music, while at the same time experiences of                                                                  similarly high-profile performance slots which are                 to encourage their women to be involved.
     discrimination and harassment are eliminated.                                                                    provided to their male counterparts (and instead
                                                                                                                      being programmed as an opener), being under paid                   It was also not uncommon for women to feel or
                                                                                                                      and/or under-valued as a performer, and broadly                    to be expressly excluded from areas and facets of
                                                                                                                      not receiving the same recognition as their male                   activity considered as ‘boys clubs’. One participant
                                                                                                                      peers. This was broadly experienced by survey                      for example, who had been performing at an
                                                                                                                      respondents and interviewees alike, and in one                     event “was denied entry backstage as it was boys
                                                                                                                      case, an Indigenous musician living in a regional                  only”, while another reflected on how certain
                                                                                                                      area of the state found that she was offered far less              sectors of the industry can become exclusionary
                                                                                                                      prominent performance opportunities than her                       to women due to the dominance of men, stating
                                                                                                                      male counterparts in her local music community:                    that “producing is a very male dominated ‘club’
                                                                                                                                                                                         which can be challenging for women in the
                                                                                                                      A separate set of barriers [exist for me]                          industry.” In addition, several participants shared
                                                                                                                      as an indigenous female artist. A lot of                           experiences of being sexualised as a musician
                                                                                                                      men still like to control that. I haven’t been                     and/or being judged for their looks, while eleven
                                                                                                                      asked to play in Broome for many years,                            women shared explicit stories of being sexually
                                                                                                                      but I still get asked to play in Perth.                            harassed, and/or assaulted while working in the
                                                                                                                                                                                         music industry. These experiences included:
                                                                                                                      To reiterate, as mentioned in the Research                         sexist remarks and verbal abuse, being assaulted
                                                                                                                      Limitations section we are unable to delve fully                   at performances, having jobs offers act as a
                                                                                                                      into an intersectional career experience of the                    pretext for sexual advances, and in one case, a
                                                                                                                      additional barriers experienced by musicians                       respondent had a male promoter expose himself
                                                                                                                      who are racially, ethnically, gender and/or                        to her while in a backstage area. Reflective of
                                                                                                                      sexually diverse, and/or of different abilities.                   the insidious nature of gender discrimination and
                                                                                                                      For this interviewee, her opportunities to                         sexual harassment, one participant reflected:
                                                                                                                      perform are further limited by her indigeneity,
                                                                                                                      and programmers and audiences perceptions
                                                                                                                      about which indigenous performers are
                                                                                                                      allowed to take up space. As she explained:
18                                                        MissGenius at WAMFest 2019, photographer: Adrian Thompson                                                                                                                                    19
WAM Fair Play WA Report 2020                                                                                                                                                                    WAM Fair Play WA Report 2020

     [There are] too many instances to describe.            work so much harder just to be at the same level.        While the experiences of gender discrimination       Several male respondents recalled instances where
     [I’ve] been offered jobs that turned out to be         People consistently question the work. Getting put       and sexual harassment were predominantly             they or a male peer were turned down for or
     pretexts for being hit on. [I’ve] been initially       down or assuming you don’t know what you’re doing        experienced by women (as one male respondent         removed from a line up to ensure gender balance
     passed over for jobs because I was seen as less        right away without giving you a chance. As a female      noted “I’m a male, I don’t get discriminated         in the line-up or in a band. Perspectives such as
     physically capable due to my gender but then           in this industry, you have to work so much harder just   against. I’m lucky”), it is important to note        these, while in the minority in this data, reveal that
     hired to fill in and doing the job anyway. [I’ve]      to be respected on a normal level. There’s all these     that sexual harassment can, and does happen,         work remains to be done in shifting perceptions
     been working gigs and being asked for pashes           preconceived ideas that you have to battle against.      to men. For example, one male participant            around why gender parity matters and reaching
     from colleagues because that was seen as OK.                                                                    shared a detailed account of being sexually          a shared understanding that gender parity is a
                                                            One regionally-based female artist highlighted the       harassed by a female record label executive:         work in progress, and when it occurs it will benefit
     Another participant reflected that attitudes           risks faced by female musicians leaving venues                                                                not only women but the industry as a whole.
     toward particular roles in the industry perpetuated    after performing and of playing solo gigs at regional    I had a female A&R rep from a major record
     sexist attitudes and inappropriate behaviour:          music venues, recalling one particular incident:         label fly out to Perth to check out my band          Interviewees’ experiences of gender discrimination
                                                                                                                     and hang and get to know us. After a show she        similarly ranged from perceptions about an
     As door staff you’re facing, head-on, to a lot of      There had been a brawl outside [during my gig], and I    started making very strong advances, chasing         inability to carry out their job, their careers,
     punters that don’t understand boundaries or            wasn’t able to leave this venue for 2 hours anyway.      me about and touching me up under the table          and the perceptions about the roles which they
     what’s appropriate, and it’s fairly hard to be taken   Before that happened at the end of my show, a            we were all sitting at. She said that she thought    should be holding in the industry. For example,
     seriously when 99% of people refer to your job         guy was trying to pick me up – to which I said I was     we had a connection and I pointed out that           as a high-profile music manager reflected:
     title as either “door girl” or “door bitch”. There’s   flattered but I was a happily married woman. His         I’m generally friendly and professional and
                                                                                                                                                                          When the boys were really young and I was
     a constant treading the line between being a           mate said ‘don’t think I don’t know what you’re          as this was a business trip, the point was to
                                                                                                                                                                          their tour manager and on the road with them
     “bitch” or being a sweet-as-pie “girl” [and] that      doing up here touring on your own, away from             bond over our shared love of music and plan
                                                                                                                                                                          and everyone used to ask if I was their mum. If
     is exhausting. I’ve also had issues where those        your husband – we all know that you want it’. So         to make some cool records and build the band
                                                                                                                                                                          that was a guy, that wouldn’t have happened.
     above in the chain of command haven’t taken            after I was able to leave the venue, that guy and        together. It was flattering but very frustrating
                                                                                                                                                                          That was an interesting thing for me. Why
     threatening or aggressive patrons seriously, then      his mate and another mate were actually down             and I can only guess as to why no deal was ever
                                                                                                                                                                          does no one think I could be their manager?
     I have to deal with them not only at that venue        the road waiting for me. They tried to block my          presented to us after her being so incredible
     where they’ve been allowed to continue to attend,      way to get out and I finished up locking the car         enthusiastic and positive about the band.            This manager also reflected on an experience
     but at other venues I’ve had to work at also.          doors and kept driving. I didn’t want to kill him,                                                            during a ‘bidding war’ for the band’s publishing
                                                            but I figured I was better clipping him with my car      As a result of this and other experiences of this    rights. With three companies interested, they met
     One high-profile WA female musician                    than the scenario where I’m left with three guys         participant, he believed that “females are treated   with each to determine which one they would sign
     mentioned that despite her success she has             in the dark on my own. He threw something at my          with far more consideration and respect [than        with and recounted an instance in which a label
     often been the target of discrimination:               car and punching it, but I got out of there safely.      men]” in the music industry. In several other        head commented on her physical appearance:
                                                                                                                     cases, male participants expressed that attempts
     Still, to this day, I’d rock up to a show with my      One participant shared a particularly detailed           to correct the gender imbalance in the music         ‘What are you? Their back-up singer?’ Which
     guitar and my amp and the sound person will            account of how gender discrimination                     industry amounted to discrimination and sexism       was unbelievable and we didn’t sign with them.
     come up and ask me if I know how to set it all up.     resulted in them leaving the industry:                   against men. As one participant put forth:           That wouldn’t have been said to a man.
     Even just not even being acknowledged. Or just
     rocking up to a gig that my boyfriend is playing,      In the 90s I was often the “token female” on the         Radio shows and courses that only promote            The perceptions about the roles women are
     because he’s a musician as well, at a show where       bill and as a DJ not a performer- I also experienced     female artists are sexist and would not be           ‘expected’ to play in the music industry revealed
     we’re both playing the line-up and being asked if      fellow music industry member patronising                 allowed to exist if they were male only. Music       in the survey data were similarly revealed in the
     I’m holding his gear for him – when I’m headlining.    me, ridiculing me if I challenged their sexual           and art should have nothing to do with gender.       interviews and range from: being expected to
                                                            comments harassment and pigeon holing me into                                                                 dress in a particular manner to only participate
     Echoing similar comments about being undermined        marginalised areas- as cute indie pop regardless if      While another reflected:                             in particular industry functions. Broadly the
     professionally one of the interviewees, an award-      I had knowledge of wider music genres. I often was                                                            data shows a perception that women are not
     winning female electronic producer, commented:                                                                  This is a different perspective, but scholarships
                                                            excluded from playing events or participating in                                                              seen as holders of positions of power and
                                                                                                                     and programs that are for women only are
                                                            them even if I had been championing the act prior                                                             authority. As a Festival Director reflected:
     [One of the main barriers], as a writer and                                                                     discriminating against men. Women in youth
                                                            to them becoming more known- I once pestered             programs are held up to the limelight and
     producer, is when people doubt how much you                                                                                                                          So often I’ll be somewhere in the music world and
                                                            a promoter to bring an electronic artist over to         given a few more opportunities than men.
     know. Drumming and production – it happens                                                                                                                           I’ve met people – men – and then I’ll say who I
                                                            Perth after flogging their music only to find any        I’m not trying to be petty, I am completely
     all the time here. [It’s] very male dominated.                                                                                                                       am and they will go ‘oh!’ and then they treat me
                                                            DJ support and interviews were to be given to            aware men have dominated the workplace
     It’s really common for people to see a female                                                                                                                        differently. I’ve had a couple of artists come to the
                                                            males as I was known as an indie cutesy persona.         for ages, but these programs are going to
     drummer or producer and undervalue them. You                                                                                                                         festival and treat me like I must be the cleaner and
                                                            Shortly after this I decided to wind down my music       throw the balance the other way and men are
     get dismissed really quickly. And you have to                                                                                                                        then I’ll introduce myself and they will apologise.
                                                            journalism/DJ ventures and move into education.          being discriminated against and left out.
20                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  21
WAM Fair Play WA Report 2020                                                                                                                                                                   WAM Fair Play WA Report 2020

     I find it really insulting because it doesn’t matter    women as well – about my abilities and my             in cases where particular genres of music are          stronger responses across these questions.
     who you are, you should treat people with respect.      interests. Undervaluing my skills a bit. I remember   perceived to be gender inclusive. For example,
                                                             starting at [the station] and immediately getting     as one interviewee, a TAFE student who                 Overall, males generally felt safer than females,
     Similarly, as the live Sound Engineer related,          stereotyped as someone who wanted to just be a        performed in a pop-punk band reflected:                had fewer overall concerns, and did not feel
     she also deals with such misconceptions:                producer or do news reading, not someone who                                                                 that safety was as high a priority for them when
                                                                                                                   One of the main issues I have, especially coming       engaging in live music activity. For example,
                                                             wanted to produce a music show or be in a band.
     [Some people will say] ‘Oh are you the event                                                                  from punk, is that – particularly with consumers       female consumers reported at a rate of 57%
     manager/door girl/bar staff?’. I don’t get a            Reflecting a similar misperception about              – they are used to this female-fronted punk and        that they had experienced some form of sexual
     negative response when I say I’m a sound                their capabilities, a guitar technician/sales         rock bands. I feel like that’s easier to market        harassment on a night out, in comparison to
     engineer – it’s just they assume I’m not.               person reflects:                                      to consumers. Playing guitar or bass, the              25% of the male participants. Half of the male
     Sometimes you have a few bands/acts telling                                                                   obstacles are in female stereotypes. I want to         consumers suggested they had never experienced
     you what to do – by the end of it, they go ‘ oh         There seems to be this shock when customers           just be a pop-punk band; why can’t I be on the         sexual harassment or violence, while only 29% of
     really like what you did’. I just show them that        find out I’m in the guitar department. Getting                                                               females in the sample reported the same. From
                                                                                                                   same level as bands with just guys in them?
     I’m good and their attitude is their problem.           over that barrier to convince customers [that] it’s                                                          the perspective of the industry survey, female
                                                             okay and I have the knowledge – to get them to        Broadly, however, 67% of consumers agreed that         industry practitioners on average agreed that they
     Importantly, not all interviewees inherently            trust and have confidence in them. And dealing        the WA live music community is gender inclusive,       had faced sexual harassment when engaging with
     viewed their experiences of working in the music        with the sexist remarks every day. When I tell        and that live music is becoming more accessible        the live music sector. While these findings draw
     industry through a lens of gender inequality or         people the stories, people don’t believe me. I do     for women (78%). It should be noted however,           on a relatively small sample set (n = 44), a Fishers
     discrimination. As one, a journalist, explained, she                                                          that 27% of respondents disagreed that the WA          Exact Test supports that while the sample is small
                                                             stand my ground and retort a bit when I need to
     only began doing so, as “gender is a topic right                                                              live music community was inclusive of all genders,     the gendered differences in experience are highly
                                                             – and get cheeky, and sometimes they get taken
     now and it’s out there enough that people are                                                                 with 12% strongly disagreeing with the statement.      significant in relation to sexual harassment. With
                                                             aback. Some even apologise for their behaviour.
     considering it, and it’s opening more opportunities                                                           This finding, and particularly when coupled with       an odds ratio of 7.74, the survey data implies that
     that weren’t available before. I never considered       Despite these challenges, this interviewee also       the finding that 38% of respondents stated that        females were almost eight times more likely to
     it before.“ These perceptions can be credited           views her gender to be of a benefit in that she       they felt intimidated at live music events reveals     have experienced sexual harassment or violence
     to male dominance of the music industry, as             is viewed as approachable. As she explains:           that work remains in order to both increase gender     at live music events in WA than males. These
     outlined in the Introduction to this report as                                                                inclusivity in the live music community and to         results also strongly speak to established and
     well as a normalisation of gender discrimination        Sometimes, people are refreshed to see a              support a safer environment for consumers,             ongoing dialogues around sexual harassment and
     and inequality. At the same time, it can also be        woman in a role like this and gravitate towards       performers and industry members alike. This            assault within and beyond the music and broader
     a result of these interviewees having otherwise         you or the mums and teenage girls affiliate           is particularly important given the experiences        entertainment industries, particularly the Me
     very positive experiences in the music industry,        with you. Music stores, especially guitar             of industry practitioners discussed earlier in         Too movement which has gained considerable
     where they have not overtly found that their            shops, talk down to you. People feel more             relation to the rates of gender discrimination and     mainstream recognition and coverage in recent
     gender has hindered their careers in any way.           comfortable talking to me sometimes.                  sexual harassment revealed in the survey data.         years, and that which was touched on the
                                                                                                                                                                          Literature Review (Glitsos, 2019; Me Too, 2018).
     That said, initiatives which support and                Reflecting a similar benefit that her gender          In addition, examining discrimination in relation to
     encourage women in music, as well as those              has played in her career, a live sound                the spaces in which it occurs, 28% of the industry     While both male and female consumer respondents
     which celebrate their accomplishments, not              technician recalled:                                  respondents who reported experiencing gender           agreed that they would always report witnessed
     only bring awareness to the gender divide                                                                     discrimination noted that this had occurred in a       sexual harassment, female respondents agreed
     that exists in the industry, but also work to           I’ve been super lucky. Maybe even my gender           live music venue. Gender discrimination after a        on average more strongly with this statement.
     overcome perceptions about the role of women            has benefitted me – they are willing to give          performance was 4% more frequent than gender           At the same time, however, females on average
     in music. As discussed in the Introduction, it          me a go. I’ve always been offered help and            discrimination before a performance. In addition,      gave a neutral response to the statement that
     has historically not been uncommon for female           nobody has treated me any differently,                workplaces were also frequently identified as          they would always report their own experience
     contemporary music performers in Western                especially at [my first employer].                    being a location in which gender discrimination        of sexual harassment to venue staff while males
     Australia to be underestimated in their abilities                                                             had been experienced. When examining issues            on average agreed with the statement. Reflecting
     (cf Glitsos 2017, 2019). Several interviewees, for      The consumer survey revealed a strong demand,         and perspectives relating to gender discrimination,    on a particularly distressing experience for
     example, shared experiences in which they were          of 94%, to see more females performing live.          equality and sexual harassment from the                example, one interviewee, a university student
     underestimated in their abilities, career goals, or     This is despite a 73% of consumers responding         perspective of consumers, their experiences            who also performs in cover bands reflects:
     the roles they held, as a result of their gender. For   that they are ‘used to’ seeing all-male line ups,     are more closely focused on the live music
     example, as one, a radio announcer, reported:           and a 60% agreeance that at most performances         experience and their engagement with the live          I feel like I can’t remember being harassed myself
                                                             they attend there are no female performers.           music space. Examining perceptions of safety           recently… [But] I was doing a gig in Geraldton last
     Early on, and occasionally now with people              Furthermore, 65% of respondents state that            and incidences of sexual harassment reveals a          year in a cover band. There were some [men].
     that don’t know me, men particularly make               gender had no impact on whether or not they           gendered variance in responses to these questions,     They verbally harassed me as I was going into
     assumptions about me and they do it to other            attended a show. These nuances remain even            with female identifying consumers revealing            the venue. I played a gig and couple of hours

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