Women, Peace and Security - (2019 - 2022) The Norwegian Government's Action Plan - Regjeringen.no

Women, Peace and Security - (2019 - 2022) The Norwegian Government's Action Plan - Regjeringen.no

                        The Norwegian Government’s
                                        Action Plan

Women, Peace
and Security
(2019 - 2022)

 Norwegian Ministries
Women, Peace and Security - (2019 - 2022) The Norwegian Government's Action Plan - Regjeringen.no
Minister of Children and Equality
                                                                                                            Linda Hofstad Helleland


                                                                                                                                                                                                      sso     er
                                                                                                                                                                                                       . A nd
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Photo: Mar tin B
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Women, peace and security in a new plan period       6

Minister of
International Development                                                                                                                                                                                                           FOCUS AREAS
Nikolai Astrup
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Peace and reconciliation processes			             12

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Implementation of peace agreements		              20

                                  St ur la s o n / U te n r i                                                                                                                                                                       3. Operations and missions				                       26
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4. Humanitarian efforts				                          36

                                                                                                                                                 F oto

                                                                                                                                                     g g ø,
                                                                                                                                                                        Minister of Justice, Public

                                                                                                                                                                        Security and Immigration

                                                                                                                                                      Photo: Olaf H
                                                                                                                                                                        Tor Mikkel Wara
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5. Sustaining peace					4442
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    a. Women’s rights and gender equality in countries
                                                                                                                                                                             jø   rn K
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       affected by armed conflict 				                   48
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    b. Women, gender and violent extremism		 50
                                                                                                            o: To

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Implementation of the action plan			                 56
                                                                                                             r gei
                                                                                                               r Ha

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Results framework					64
                                                                                                                     a rd
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                                                                                                                          rs v
                                                                                                                            a re

                                                                                               Minister of Defence
                                                                                               Frank Bakke-Jensen                                                                  Minister of Foreign Affairs
                                                                                                                                                                                   Ine Eriksen Søreide
Women, Peace and Security - (2019 - 2022) The Norwegian Government's Action Plan - Regjeringen.no
4   ACTION PLAN                                                                                                                                                                  WOMEN, PEACE AND SECURITY   5


    This is Norway’s fourth Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security. In this new plan, we
    focus, among other things, on women’s participation and rights both in initial, informal
    peace talks and in formal peace negotiations. Norway will have a more systematic focus
    on women, peace and security in our efforts to support the implementation of peace
    agreements, strengthen the gender perspective in international operations and
    missions, and increase our efforts for women and girls in our humanitarian work.

    The people targeted by such measures must              Norway’s efforts for women’s participation in          Norway’s candidacy for the UN Security Council for the period 2021–2022
    also have influence. Men and women, boys and           and influence on peace and security work began         was launched as early as 2007. Norway wishes to contribute to targeted
    girls who are victims of sexual and gender-based       before the UN Security Council adopted Resolu-         and systematic follow-up of the commitment to women, peace and security
    violence must be safeguarded. Children who are         tion 1325 in 2000. We have learnt from experience      across the full breadth of the Security Council’s work. We emphasise that
    born as a result of such abuse must be followed        that we must recruit from the whole population,        women must be active participants in all peace and security efforts and that
    up. We must emphasise preventing and dealing           both women and men, if we are to achieve the           it is in both men’s and women’s interests that peace and security work is
    with conflict-related sexual violence in all our       best results. Our insight and capacity increase        inclusive.
    peace and security endeavours.                         when we involve more people and consult more
                                                           widely.                                                The gender perspective is also about men’s experiences, needs and gender
    A long-term, broad focus on women’s rights is                                                                 roles, and about the fact that, in the same way as women, men will prof-
    crucial if it is to be possible for women to play a    There is a long-standing tradition of endeavouring     it when the conditions for peace improve. It must always be a leadership
    part in conflict prevention and conflict resolution.   to promote women’s rights in Norway’s foreign          responsibility to ensure that peace and security endeavours benefit both
    Breadth and a long-term perspective are there-         and domestic policy, and this remains a priority. In   women and men, and girls and boys.
    fore emphasised in the plan. Women’s different         the context of Norway’s efforts to promote peace
    roles when encountering violent extremism, and         and security, this means that women’s rights,          The efforts for women, peace and security are not a gesture to women. They
    the importance of the gender perspective in rela-      needs and priorities must be taken seriously. This     are about effectively preventing and resolving conflicts and building peace in
    tion to this issue are also emphasised.                is necessary if the analyses are to be accurate, the   a sustainable manner. Norway remains a consistent, long-term partner for a
                                                           mandates appropriate and the measures taken            common, peaceful and secure future.
    Coordination is decisive. Norway will therefore        relevant and sufficient.
    promote cooperation on women, peace and
    security at country level and in multilateral organ-
    isations. The new plan also increases the focus on
    measuring results.
Women, Peace and Security - (2019 - 2022) The Norwegian Government's Action Plan - Regjeringen.no
6   ACTION PLAN                                                                                                                                                                                                                       WOMEN, PEACE AND SECURITY                              7

                                                                                                                       We have seen changes in the global conflict situation in recent
                                                                                                                       years. We are now facing several complex, intense and pro-                                                             Women human rights
                                                                                                                       longed conflicts and crises. Many civilians are affected. The                                                          defenders

                  W O M E N , PE A CE A ND                                                                             humanitarian suffering is enormous. Destroyed infrastructure,                                                          Women’s ability and possi-

                  S E C U R I T Y IN A N E W
                                                                                                                       poor health services and lost education have consequences for                                                          bility to participate in peace
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              and security efforts are linked
                                                                                                                       millions of people. Climate change and health pandemics are                                                            to their life situation and to

                  P LA N P E R I OD                                                                                    increasing the vulnerability of many societies. This, in turn, can                                                     what extent women’s rights
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              are safeguarded. There is
                                                                                                                       be detrimental to security.                                                                                            therefore a close connection
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              between our efforts in the field

                  Norway’s efforts for women, peace                                                                                                                                                                                           of women, peace and security
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              and our work on human rights,
                                                                                                                       Women and men, girls and boys                            Momentum for women, peace
                  and security shall contribute to                                                                     have different roles and positions                       and security
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              including efforts to promote
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              women’s rights and gender
                  achieving our common goal of                                                                         in the societies they live in. They
                                                                                                                       can be affected in different ways by
                                                                                                                                                                                The celebration of the 15th anniver-
                                                                                                                                                                                sary of Security Council Resolution                           Support for women human
                  sustainable peace.                                                                                   a conflict. Norway therefore has a
                                                                                                                                                                                (SCR) 1325 in 2015 set two records                            rights defenders is important if
                                                                                                                       clear focus on both women’s and                                                                                        we are to build a solid defence
                                                                                                                                                                                in the Security Council. Never
                                                                                                                       men’s security and rights. Having                                                                                      for women’s rights. Women
                                                                                                                                                                                before had so many statements                                 human rights defenders are
                                                                                                                       access to the whole population’s
                                                                                                                                                                                been made, and never before had                               often at greater risk than their
                                                                                                                       resources, knowledge and experi-
                                                                                                                                                                                so many supported a resolution as                             male colleagues because they
                                                                                                                       ence is decisive if we are to succeed
                                                                                                                                                                                when SCR 2242 was adopted. There                              break with traditional norms in
                                                                                                                       in building peaceful societies where                                                                                   many cases.
                                                                                                                                                                                is widespread international support
                                                                                                                       everyone is respected and included.
                                                                                                                                                                                for the Women, Peace and Security
                                                                                                                         Norway makes active endeavours                                                                                       A Norwegian-led resolution on
                                                                                                                                                                                Agenda. Despite the fact that a lot                           women human rights defend-
                                                                                                                       to ensure that women participate
                                                                                                                                                                                remains to be done in terms of im-                            ers was adopted by consensus
                                                                                                                       on an equal footing with men in
                                                                                                                                                                                plementing commitments, we note                               at the UN General Assembly
                                                                                                                       processes that concern their lives
                                                                                                                                                                                that there is optimism about what it                          in December 2013. Helping to
                                                                                                                       and affect their future. The Action                                                                                    ensure that women human
                                                                                                                                                                                is possible to achieve.
                                                                                                                       Plan on Women, Peace and Security                                                                                      rights defenders are protected
                                                                                                                       sets out important guidelines for                                                                                      is an important objective for
                                                                                                                                                                                The Peace Agreement of 2016 be-                               Norway, also in the context of
                                                                                                                       this work.
                                                                                                                                                                                tween the Colombian Government                                women, peace and security.
                                                                                                                                                                                and FARC has shown that women
                                                                      u g h to
                                                                                 n                                                                                              can influence peace processes and
                                                               m Ha
                                                  o to / K i
                               P h o t o:
                                          UN Ph                                                                                                                                 that it is possible to achieve a peace
                                                                                                                                                                                greement containing strong pro-
                                                               On 2 December 1952, the first meeting of the Security
                                                               Council was held in the UN Headquarters Building in
                                                               New York. The Security Council Chamber was a gift
                                                               from Norway to the UN.                                  1. Important normative references include the Security Council’s resolutions on women, peace and security, UNSCR 2250 on youth, peace and security, the fundamental
                                                                                                                          principle of the sustainable development goals (SDG) that no one shall be left behind, SDG 5 on women’s rights and SDG 16 on peaceful and inclusive societies.
                                                                                                                       2. See white paper no 10 on human rights (2014-2015) and the Action Plan on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality in Foreign Policy and Development Cooperation
Women, Peace and Security - (2019 - 2022) The Norwegian Government's Action Plan - Regjeringen.no
8            ACTION PLAN                                                                                                                                                                              WOMEN, PEACE AND SECURITY              9

    Women, gender and violent extrem-                  visions safeguarding both women’s and men’s rights, needs            New Norwegian action plan – focus areas and goals                             Women on the run
    ism                                                and priorities.
                                                                                                                            Many Norwegian policy areas are relevant to the Agenda for Women, Peace       When people flee their homes,
    Many violent extremist groups have made                                                                                 and Security. The Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security defines what       their vulnerability increases.
                                                       New and innovative inclusion mechanisms were established
    attacks on women’s rights and security part                                                                             Norway will emphasise in particular. It focuses on areas where we can         Individuals are torn from their
    of their strategy. Sexual violence is one form     in connection with the Geneva-based peace talks on Syria                                                                                           local communities. Social
                                                       (see page 16). The Peacebuilding Fund was the first fund             make a difference, be more effective and commit to achieving results.
    of extremist violence. Human trafficking, es-                                                                                                                                                         structures disappear. Law and
    pecially of girls and women, remains a critical    of its kind to succeed in ensuring that, in line with the UN’s                                                                                     order disintegrates when des-
    part of the funding flows of some extremist        objectives, more than 15 per cent of allocated funds went                                                                                          peration prevails. Both women
    groups.                                            to women’s rights and gender equality (36 per cent in 2017).           The first four chapters of the plan cover four focus areas:                 and men are more at risk than
                                                                                                                                                                                                          before: They lose their pos-
                                                       Civil society organisations that had long agitated for more
    Despite gross violations of women’s rights                                                                                1. Peace and reconciliation processes                                       sessions and their roots, their
    committed by extremists, they also recruit         financial support for their efforts were among the recipients.                                                                                     opportunities for an education
    women. Women are extremist ideologues              The UN Secretary-General’s Gender Parity Strategy of 20173             2. Implementation of peace agreements                                       and an income are taken from
    who recruit both men and women, and they           gave added momentum to women’s participation in and influ-                                                                                         them, and they are subjected
    put pressure on their families and acquaint-       ence over all levels of the organisation, including peace and          3. Operations and missions                                                  to abuse and human traffick-
    ances to take part in extremist violence.          security work. State-supported networks of women media-                                                                                            ing.
    Women play supporting roles in extremist                                                                                  4. Humanitarian efforts.
                                                       tors are emerging in more and more regions. These networks
    groups and also commit violent acts them-                                                                                                                                                             Girls and women are particu-
    selves.                                            work strategically to promote women’s participation in peace                                                                                       larly at risk. Sexual violence
                                                       and reconciliation efforts at all levels. New initiatives are also                                                                                 is a large and multi-faceted
    At the same time, however, women are influ-        being taken to increase the number of women in internation-                                                                                        problem. Child marriages and
    ential peace activists who build resistance to     al operations.                                                                                                                                     forced marriages are on the
    violent extremism and run effective de-rad-                                                                                                                                                           increase as a result of fear and
    icalisation, reintegration and reconciliation                                                                                                                                                         destitution. In a situation in
                                                       New topics emerging
    programmes.                                                                                                                                                                                           which there is an acute need
                                                       Since the previous Norwegian action plan on women, peace                                                                                           for sexual and reproductive
    Violent extremists make strategic use of           and security was finalised four years ago, there has been a                                                                                        health services, they are often
    traditional and modern ideas about society         greater focus on preventing and combating violent extremism                                                                                        in limited supply.
    and community. Men’s and women’s roles
                                                       in the security policy context. Security-related aspects of cli-
    are consciously exploited. The rise of violent                                                                                                                                                        We therefore endeavour to
    extremism has led to more focus on the             mate change are more to the fore. The number of refugees and                                                                                       ensure that women and men
    roles of men and women, and interest in            internally displaced persons has substantially increased.                                                                                          are heard and have their
    both women’s and men’s situation, experi-                                                                                                                                                             needs met when they have
    ences and insights has increased.                  The new humanitarian and security policy challenges require a                                                                                      had to flee their homes. This
                                                       response from us. That response must have a clear gender per-                                                                                      is a key part of our humani-
    Norway gives high priority to these perspec-                                                                                                                                                          tarian efforts and our work on
                                                       spective and it must involve women.
    tives and to cooperation with civil society in                                                                                                                                                        international migration issues.
    its work on preventing and combating violent                                                                                                                                                          Women’s rights are given
    extremism. See page 50.                            This development is reflected in new Security Council resolu-                                      Ph o to
                                                                                                                                                                    : Jason
                                                                                                                                                                              M ik lia n , PR             priority in Norway’s diplomatic
                                                       tions, for example SCR 2242 and SCR 2419, which link the ef-                                                                                       work in this field, for example
                                                       forts to combat violent extremism to commitments in the field                    A girl waits with the belongings of her displaced family.         in the recent UN negotiations
                                                       of women, peace and security, and SCR 2331 and SCR 2388,                         She and her family are about to cross the flooded                 on the Global Platform for Ref-
                                                                                                                                        River Kosi in South Nepal.                                        ugees and the Global Platform
                                                       which place human trafficking on the Security Council’s agenda.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          for Migration.

    3. UN Secretary General’s Gender Parity Strategy
Women, Peace and Security - (2019 - 2022) The Norwegian Government's Action Plan - Regjeringen.no
10         ACTION PLAN                                                                                                                                                                                 WOMEN, PEACE AND SECURITY               11

     Women act both together            The text of the plan explains the       rity perspective will be applied in      The plan in a broader context             Women, peace and security have high          Integration of the
     and individually                   objectives and rationale for our        national contingency plans. There is                                               priority in our cooperation with the         gender perspective
                                        efforts in these four areas, and the    also a stronger focus on how crime       Norway endeavours to ensure that          UN, NATO and regional organisations.
     Since women are often mar-                                                 and armed conflicts overlap. The         all relevant political plan documents     It is one of the main priorities in Nor-     The gender perspective
                                        approach that will be taken. The re-
     ginalised, women’s groups                                                  humanitarian efforts will have a         integrate women, peace and security.      way’s campaign for membership of             must be an integral part
     have had good reason to join       sults framework (See pages 64-71)                                                                                                                                       of our work on peace
                                        shows how the efforts are broken        stronger focus on refugees, inter-       For example, the fundamental princi-      the Security Council and in our efforts
     forces across dividing lines in                                                                                                                                                                            and security. The gen-
     order to thereby strengthen        down into individual goals, sub-        nally displaced persons and human        ples of the Women, Peace and Secu-        in relation to the Security Council and      der perspective is about
     women’s voice and position. It     goals and indicators. They include      trafficking, abuse of boys and men,      rity Agenda are reflected in the white    in the Peacebuilding Commission.             how societal institutions,
     is positive when this happens.     both Norwegian contributions            and a greater emphasis on women’s        paper Setting the Course for Norwegian                                                 structures and systems,
     At the same time, however, we                                              sexual and reproductive health and       Foreign and Security Policy and in the    Transnational challenges such as vi-         programmes, reforms
                                        and Norwegian support for global
     must take diversity seriously in                                           rights. Preventing and combating         Government’s Plan of Action against       olent extremism, climate change and          and measures affect
     our work and take into account     processes, as well as our own ex-                                                                                                                                       women’s and men’s, girls’
                                        pertise and capacity. The latter is a   conflict-related, sexual violence is a   Human Trafficking. The importance of      the huge number of refugees have led
     that women can have very dif-                                                                                                                                                                              and boys’ power and
     ferent needs and priorities.       prerequisite if we are to strengthen    priority throughout, and is reflected    women’s participation and the inte-       to changes in national action plans for      resource situation, and
                                        Norway’s contribution over time.        in all focus areas.                      gration of the gender perspective is      women, peace and security in many            their needs and priorities.
     Our endeavours for peace and                                                                                        emphasised in the Strategic Framework     countries. Coordination and work to          This action plan places
     security must reflect the fact                                             Chapter 5, ‘Sustaining peace’,           for Norwegian Efforts in Fragile States   achieve consistency are no longer just       particular emphasis on
                                        The purpose of measuring results
     that women are not a homoge-                                               shows how the different phases           and Regions, and in the white papers      about efforts abroad. More and more          how armed conflicts af-
     neous group. Both women and        is to improve goal attainment, to                                                                                                                                       fect women’s and men’s,
                                        monitor key trends during the plan      of peacebuilding are connected.          The Sustainable Development Goals and     countries that are not in conflict are
     men have different political                                                                                                                                                                               girls’ and boys’ experienc-
     sympathies. Women and men          period and to enable us to identify     Reconstruction and reconciliation        Norwegian Development Policy and          now including national measures in           es and needs.
     are both urban and rural,          needs and areas for improvement.        often turn into conflict prevention      Opportunities for All: Human Rights in    their action plans for women, peace
     educated and illiterate. Just                                              and conflict resolution. The broad       Norway’s Foreign Policy and Develop-      and security.                                The gender perspective
     like men, women are indige-                                                efforts for women’s rights have a        ment Cooperation. The new Norwegian                                                    is integrated when it influ-
                                        Certain adjustments have been
     nous people, belong to ethnic,                                             central place in this context, and       Humanitarian Strategy, which has been     Norway already has different national        ences our own and our
                                        made to the previous action
     religious and sexual minorities                                                                                                                                                                            partners’ initiatives and
                                        plan:                                   sub-chapter 5a, ‘Women’s rights          developed in connection with this         policy documents that govern the
     and have different functional                                                                                                                                                                              approaches to capacity,
     abilities.                                                                 and equality in countries affected       action plan, integrates the gender        domestic aspects of our efforts. We          analyses, goal hierar-
                                        As regards peace and reconcilia-        by armed conflict’, shows how we         perspective into the humanitarian         want to avoid duplication of efforts         chies, risk management,
     We must pay particular at-         tion, we will place more emphasis       will monitor follow-up of the nation-    response and emphasises women’s           and contribute to coordination. We           budget, monitoring and
     tention to women who face                                                  al action plan on women’s rights         needs, right to participation and         therefore emphasise how the Action           evaluation during differ-
                                        on women, peace and security
     discrimination on several                                                  and equality in these countries. The     influence. We also focus on women’s       Plan on Women, Peace and Security            ent phases of conflict and
     grounds, so that our efforts       in the initial, non-public phases                                                                                                                                       peace efforts.
                                        of peace processes. The chapter         effort to prevent and combat vio-        situation, roles and rights in our work   is linked to other ongoing efforts, also
     also safeguard their rights,
     needs and priorities.              that was previously a peacebuild-       lent extremism concerns all focus        on climate and security. The Long-term    in the domestic policy context. We
                                        ing chapter, will now be about          areas relating to women, peace and       Plan for the Armed Forces (2017–2020)     do this, for instance, by highlighting
                                        support for the implementation          security, as highlighted in sub-chap-    integrates women, peace and security      three examples in text boxes describ-
                                        of peace agreements. Operations         ter 5b, ‘Women, gender and violent       in both security policy and capacity      ing how we deal with women asylum
                                        and missions now also include           extremism’.                              building. The white paper Norway          seekers, how we approach radicali-
                                        national operations and missions,                                                and a Changing World (which will be       sation in Norway and how we work
                                        which means, among other things,                                                 presented in 2019) also integrates        to combat violence against women in
                                        that the women, peace and secu-                                                  women, peace and security.                our own country.
Women, Peace and Security - (2019 - 2022) The Norwegian Government's Action Plan - Regjeringen.no
12   ACTION PLAN                                                                                                                                                  WOMEN, PEACE AND SECURITY                             13

     C HA PT E R 1.

                                                                                                                                                                       Panel on South Sudan
                                                                                                                                                                       during the Oslo Forum.

                                                                                                                  Idun Tvedt, Norwegian
     Norway is working to ensure that peace and reconciliation processes are                                      Special Envoy to the
     inclusive and that peace agreements safeguard women’s and men’s rights,
     needs and priorities. We strive to ensure that more women participate at all
     levels in peace and reconciliation efforts, and that everyone who is involved                                                                                                       t o: I
                                                                                                                                                                                                lja   C. H
     in a peace process knows how to integrate the gender perspective in
     their work.

                                                                                                                                     Three former FARC soldiers
                                                                                                                                     celebrate the peace agree-
                   o to
                          : Ra                                                                                                       ment in November 2016.
                                               Q QA F /
                                                          U N Wo m en 2018
                                                                             The Syrian Women’s Advisory Board,
                                                                             pictured with Staffan de Mistura,
                                                                             UN Special Envoy for Syria.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Photo: Hilde Salvesen
Women, Peace and Security - (2019 - 2022) The Norwegian Government's Action Plan - Regjeringen.no
14   ACTION PLAN                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               WOMEN, PEACE AND SECURITY                15

     In many cases, women are still left on the sidelines when peace agreements                                                                                       Women’s participation                                       balance in our own teams is impor-                               Women mediators – still
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  tant in itself, but it is also important                         some way to go
     are negotiated. There are few women facilitators and peace mediators, and                                                                                        Norway has long focused on wom-                             as motivation for others to do the
     few women at the negotiating table. Civil society has little access and influ-                                                                                   en’s participation and influence at                         same.                                                            The UN Secretary-General has
                                                                                                                                                                      all levels of peace and reconciliation                                                                                       made it a goal that women
     ence, and there are still very few peace agreements that integrate the gender                                                                                                                                                The head of the Norwegian facili-                                shall fill half of all leading po-
     perspective and women’s rights in a satisfactory way.                                                                                                                                                                        tation team has chief responsibility                             sitions in the organisation by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  for ensuring that women, peace                                   2028. In 2018, gender balance
                                                                                                                                                                      One of these levels is the facilitator/                                                                                      was achieved for the first time
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  and security is an integral part of
                                                                                                                                                                      mediator level. According to stud-                                                                                           in the Secretary-General’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  the team’s work, and is responsible                              management team. There is
                                                                                                                                                                      ies carried out by the Council on
     Peace agreements often lay the political and                                                                                                                                                                                 for appointing a member of the                                   also a strong focus on increas-
                                                                                                                                                                      Foreign Relations, only two per cent
     institutional foundation for a country’s future,                                                                                                                                                                             team to follow this up systematical-                             ing the number of women
                                                                                                                                                                      of facilitators/peace mediators in
     stability and development. It is crucial, therefore,                                                                                                                                                                         ly in the team’s day-to-day work. A                              peace mediators. Neverthe-
                                                                                                                                                                      all major peace processes between                                                                                            less, there are still few women
     that peace agreements are not discriminatory, but                                                                                                                                                                            good gender balance must be en-
                                                                                                                                                                      1990 and 2017 were women.6 In                                                                                                leading mediation teams.
     take account of the rights and needs of all citizens.                                                                                                                                                                        sured in our own facilitation teams.
                                                                                                                                                                      recent years, Norway has therefore
     Women’s participation is key in this connection, but                                                                                                             placed strong emphasis on its work                                                                                           This is not unique to the UN.
     everyone who is involved in a peace process, both                                               WOMEN´S REPRESENTATION                                           with the Norwegian and Nordic net-                          The parties appoint their own                                    More than before, the focus
     men and women, have a responsibility to strive for                                       Women remain under-represented and unrec-                                                                                           delegations to negotiations. The                                 is on handling and resolving
                                                                                                                                                                      work of women mediators. In 2017,
     holistic, non-discriminatory solutions.                                                  ognized for their efforts and successes in peace                                                                                                                                                     conflicts regionally, and it is
                                                                                                                                                                      within the framework of the Nordic                          fact that few women are included
                                                                                                    and political processes at all levels.                                                                                                                                                         only in exceptional cases that
                                                                                                                                                                      network, Norway took the initiative                         in part reflects women’s under-rep-                              the African Union (AU), OSCE
     Inclusive processes can strengthen the credibility                                                                                                               to cooperate with other regional                            resentation in the prevailing power                              and other mediation bodies
     and legitimacy of an agreement, as well as the pop-                                          WOMEN´S REPRESENTATION IN                                           women mediator networks. (See                               structures, both in government                                   appoint women to lead peace
     ulation’s sense of ownership to it.4 Such processes                                            MAJOR PEACE PROCESSES                                             page 17.)                                                   and among armed groups. Norway                                   processes.
     often lead to more complex agreements because                                                   between 1990 and 2017                                                                                                        therefore focuses on raising the
     more people are involved, but the probability of the                                                                                                                                                                         parties’ awareness of the impor-
                                                                                                                                                                      The Ministry of Foreign Affairs in-
     agreement being implemented is also higher.5 For                                                                                                                                                                             tance of having a certain gender
                                                                                                                                                                      cludes both women and men in its
     that reason, inclusive processes are often about                                                                                                                                                                             balance in their delegations. Nor-
                                                                                                                                                                      delegations to peace negotiations.
     taking steps to ensure that peace agreements are                                                                                                                                                                             way also focuses on supporting
                                                                                                                                                                      Our first female special repre-
     actually implemented and that the peace lasts.                                                                                                                                                                               the women who participate in the
                                                                                                2%                        5%                        8%
                                                                                                                                                                      sentative to a peace process was
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  process if desirable.
                                                                                                                                                                      appointed in 2014. In 2018, we had
     Norway is involved in a number of peace initiatives
                                                                                                                                                                      women special representatives in
     in different parts of the world, not just formal peace                                                                                                                                                                       Women’s presence is no guaran-
                                                                                              Mediators                Witnesses &               Negotiators          both peace processes where Nor-
     processes as in Colombia and the Philippines, but                                                                 signatories                                                                                                tee, however, of a gender-sensitive
                                                                                                                                                                      way is a formal facilitator: Colombia
     also in dialogue initiatives with one or more parties                                                                                                                                                                        peace agreement. Norway there-
                                                                                                                                                                      and the Philippines. The proportion
     to a conflict, where the goal is to bring the parties                                     * www.unwomen.org/en/digital-library/multimedia/2018/10/infographic-                                                               fore works with both the men and
                                                                                                 womens-meaningful-participation-builds-peace                         of women in Norwegian facilitation
     to the negotiating table.                                                                                                                                                                                                    the women in the delegations in
                                                                                                                                                                      teams has varied from 46 to 65 per
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  order to ensure a good result.
                                                                                                                                                                      cent in recent years.7 The gender

     4. T. Paffenholz, N. Ross, S. Dixon, A.-L. Schluchter og J. True: Making Women Count - Not Just Counting Women: Assessing Women’s Inclusion and Influence on     6. https://www.cfr.org/interactive/womens-participation-in-peace-processes
     Peace Negotiations.                                                                                                                                              7. It must be pointed out, however, that the numbers are small, and that there are large variations from year to year.
     5. Jana Krause, Werner Krause, Piia Bränfors. Women’s Participation in Peace Negotiations and the Durability of Peace. University of Amsterdam
Women, Peace and Security - (2019 - 2022) The Norwegian Government's Action Plan - Regjeringen.no
16            ACTION PLAN                                                                                                                                                                                                                           WOMEN, PEACE AND SECURITY                 17

     Women’s influence                                         Norway takes steps to enable                            civil society and local women will            spective in their agreements. This advice is not always followed, howev-         Network of women
     on the Syria talks                                        different women’s groups and                            often lag behind if and when a                er. What we can do is to increase our capacity to promote the gender             mediators t
                                                               civil society organisations to be                       formal process starts.                        perspective in negotiations and to build bridges between civil society
     Participation by women and rep-                                                                                                                                 and the negotiating table.                                                       In 2015, the Nordic Network of
                                                               heard and to provide input during
     resentatives of civil society in the                                                                                                                                                                                                             Women Mediators was launched
     peace process for Syria is a polit-                       the negotiations. The Colombia                          Gender-sensitive peace                                                                                                         in Oslo. It took its inspiration
                                                               process contributed to several                          agreements                                    Conflict-related sexual violence is a widespread problem and it there-
     ical priority for Norway. Norway                                                                                                                                                                                                                 from a South African initiative
     supports the UN Special Envoy                             innovative mechanisms that were                                                                       fore has a central place in peace and reconciliation processes. Such             that brought together women
     and his initiative to make the polit-                     intended to ensure that women’s                         The fact that few peace agree-                violence affects women, men and children, but girls and women are                with mediation experience from
     ical process more inclusive.                              experiences and needs were                              ments sufficiently integrate a                disproportionately affected and in a different way than boys and men.            Southern Africa for courses and
                                                                                                                                                                     It is therefore particularly important to involve both women and men             the exchange of experience. Since
                                                               taken seriously and women’s                             gender perspective and safeguard
     We support the Civil Society                                                                                                                                                                                                                     then the five Nordic countries
                                                               rights respected, for example                           women’s rights and needs could                and to approach these issues from a gender perspective.
     Support Room (CSSR) in Geneva,                                                                                                                                                                                                                   have developed their own nation-
     where NOREF (the Norwegian                                a sub-commission on gender                              be due to a number of different                                                                                                al networks and drawn up goals
     Centre for Conflict Resolution)9                          issues.8 We have also seen inno-                        factors. It could be because the              Norwegian support for civil society efforts for peace and reconciliation         for the Nordic umbrella network.
     contributes administrative and                            vations in connection with the                          parties or the peace mediators                is not limited to countries where Norway has a formal role in peace              The Norwegian network has more
     technical support for holding con-                        Geneva-based Syria talks. (See                          do not regard this as important. It           processes. Women’s organisations do an important job for lasting                 than 50 members, most of whom
     sultations with civil society.                                                                                                                                  peace – locally, nationally and globally.                                        are participating in or have partici-
                                                               page 16.)                                               could be due to limited knowledge
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      pated actively in peace processes.
                                                                                                                       on the mediation team’s part,                                                                                                  This forum has become an impor-
     Through UN Women, Norway
     contributes funding for the work                          It is an important goal for Norway                      varying and unsystematic use                                                                                                   tant arena for sharing experience
     of building a consolidated and                            to strengthen the link between                          of relevant expertise, or inade-                                                                                               and network building.
     strong Syrian women’s movement.                           peace and reconciliation initiatives                    quate consultation of civil society.
     UN Women also contributes to                              at the grassroots level and formal                      Norway therefore offers expert                                                                                                 In parallel, new regional networks
     women’s representation through                                                                                                                                    In March 2018, representatives of all                                          are emerging. The African Union
                                                               peace processes, and in many                            assistance and endeavours to                    regional networks of women mediators
     an advisory board consisting of 12                                                                                                                                                                                                               (AU) has launched AU FemWise,
                                                               cases Norway endeavours to build                        raise awareness and competence                  met for the first time in Oslo.
     women (Women’s Advisory Board                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Italy has started the Mediterrane-
     - WAB), who advise the UN Special                         bridges between these levels.                           among the negotiating parties and                                                                                              an Network and the UK has taken
     Envoy for Syria.                                                                                                  mediators. One example of the                                                                                                  the initiative for a Commonwealth
                                                               The room for manoeuvre is dif-                          latter is the annual UN High-Level                                                                                             network.
     Both CSSR and WAB are inno-                               ferent in dialogue initiatives and                      Seminar on Gender and Inclusive
     vative mechanisms in the UN                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Within the framework of the
                                                               informal preliminary negotiations.                      Mediation Processes to which
     context. Norwegian funds have                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Nordic network, Norway therefore
                                                               It is difficult to involve sever-                       Norway contributes.10
     ensured that more than 100 rep-                                                                                                                                                                                                                  invited representatives of all the
     resentatives of Syrian civil society,                     al actors in processes that the                                                                                                                                                        established networks of women
     including several dozen women,                            parties themselves have not yet                         In formal peace processes in                                                                                                   mediators to an initial meeting. The
     have been able to contribute to                           formally committed to. However, a                       which Norway plays a role, we                                                                                                  meeting, which was held in Oslo
     the UN-led political process. This                        facilitator can contribute to raising                   urge the parties to listen to the                                                                                              in March 2018, demonstrated the
     support has helped more than                                                                                                                                                                                                                     benefits of getting together.
                                                               awareness and boosting knowl-                           experiences and input of women
     50 women’s organisations in and
     outside Syria to come together,                           edge among those involved and                           and representatives of civil society                                                                                           The networks agreed to take steps
     challenge each other and agree                            to increasing civil society’s capac-                    concerning the different issues                                                           Ph oto: B r ian C li ff O lg uin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      towards establishing a global alli-
     on a common message.                                      ity. If the ground is not prepared                      discussed during the negotiations,                                                                                             ance of regional networks that will
                                                               already in the preliminary stages,                      and to integrate a gender per-                                                                                                 promote women’s participation in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      peace and reconciliation processes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      at all levels, and to work to ensure
     8. Dag Nylander and Hilde Salvesen. Women and the gender approach in the Colombia peace process. NOREF report. October 2017.                                                                                                                     that peace agreements safeguard
     9. Together with Swisspeace.
     10. The seminars are organised in cooperation between the UN Department of Political Affairs (DPA), the Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO), and the Finnish
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      women’s rights.
         organisation Crisis Management Initiative (CMI).
Women, Peace and Security - (2019 - 2022) The Norwegian Government's Action Plan - Regjeringen.no
18            ACTION PLAN                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            WOMEN, PEACE AND SECURITY   19

              Norway’s goals are as follows:                                                                                                                                                                      THE BUILDING BLOCKS
                                                                                                                                                                                   Create a space for women to enter, remain and contribute effectively
              We will work systematically to ensure that peace and reconciliation processes                                                                                        in peace processes requires an enabling environment. This includes:
              facilitate participation by women in all phases, and that both women’s and
              men’s rights, needs and priorities are respected.

              We will contribute to more women taking part in                                     We will support civil society initiatives for peace
              peace negotiations and peace processes. We will                                     and reconciliation and facilitate participation by
              contribute to increasing the number of women fa-                                    women’s organisations in conflict prevention and                                        Equality before                             Inclusivity as a                            Security &
              cilitators and peace mediators internationally, and                                 conflict resolution processes, also where a formal                                         the law                                 social & cultural                         protection from
                                                                                                  peace process has yet to be established.                                                                                                 norm                                    violence
              work to ensure that men also promote women’s
              participation and influence.
                                                                                                  We will endeavour to ensure that the gender per-
              We will urge the parties to include women in their                                  spective is included in peace agreements and peace
              delegations.                                                                        processes. We will strategically promote the gen-
                                                                                                  der perspective and consideration for women’s
              We will endeavour to prepare the ground for an                                      rights with the goal of ensuring that more facilita-
              inclusive process by raising the parties’ awareness                                 tors/peace mediators – both women and men –
              at an early stage, also in informal processes where                                 actively support women’s rights and integrate the                                        Social services                                                                   Presence & support
              the parties have not yet come to the negotiating                                    gender perspective in their work.                                                        (e.g childcare)                                                                      for women´s
              table.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             movement
                                                                                                  We will raise the issue of conflict-related sexual
              We will contribute to enabling local women’s or-                                    violence, work to ensure that survivors’ rights are
              ganisations and activists to present their priorities,                              safeguarded and ensure that perpetrators are
              among other things by supporting civil society                                      held criminally liable and that transitional justice11
              through technical assistance and by building                                        is put in place.
              bridges between civil society and the formal nego-
              tiating table.                                                                      As part of the Nordic network of women medi-
                                                                                                  ators, Norway will be a driving force for close                                             Access to                                   Financial                             Logistic support
                                                                                                  cooperation with the other regional networks of                                            knowledge                                    support                                   (e.g visas,
                                                                                                  women mediators in order to achieve these goals.                                           & training                                                                          transportation)

                                                                                                                                                                                          * www.unwomen.org/en/digital-library/multimedia/2018/10/infographic-womens-meaningful-participation-builds-peace

     11. The concept of ‘transitional justice’ refers to processes and initiatives that are intended to ensure that those responsible for abuses are held liable for them during
         the transitional pha1se between armed conflict and peace, or between dictatorship and democracy. Such processes are important in order to establish trust in and
         the legitimacy of a new regime – in the eyes of the population and of the international community. The final goal will be to establish a basis for reconciliation and
         prevent recurrences. White paper 13 (2008–2009) Climate, conflict and capital – Norwegian development policy adapting to change.
20   ACTION PLAN                                                                                                                                                                                                       WOMEN, PEACE AND SECURITY                              21

     C HA PT E R 2.

     I M PL EME N TATI O N                                                                                                                                                                                           The boot of a female Afghan soldier.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Norway has helped to increase the

                                                                                                                                                                                                                     participation of Afghan women in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     the military and police forces.

     Norway will contribute to women participating in and
     influencing the implementation of peace agreements. We
     will endeavour to ensure that women’s and men’s rights,                                                                                                                  P h o t o:
                                                                                                                                                                                           Her man B ask år

     needs and priorities are safeguarded in the implementa-
     tion of peace agreements.

                                                                                                                                                                                          en                                                                                       øy
                                                                                                                                                     P h o t o: B e a t e L a u r i t z                                                                                      ran
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   vst   ad T
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              F o to :M o   na L ø

                                                                                                                                        Beate Lauritzen is an instructor on the
                                                                                           Norway often works closely with civil        Mid-Level Management Course organised
                                                                                           society organisations. Sanam Anderlini       by the UN as part of the Training for                                 South Sudanese women have built a
                                                                                           is Founder and Executive Director of the     Peace programme, which Norway sup-                                    powerful coalition. They have provided
                                                                                           International Civil Society Network (ICAN)   ports.                                                                input to the peace negotiations and
                                                                                           and head of the Women’s Alliance for                                                                               are now preparing for the
                                                                                           Security Leadership (WASL).                                                                                        implementation phase.

                                                                      f   t- B
                                                      i tli
                                            o:   Ca
                                    P   hot
22   ACTION PLAN                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              WOMEN, PEACE AND SECURITY                              23

     The implementation phase of a peace agreement is a critical part of the peace and rec-                                                                                                                                   The obligations of the State
     onciliation process, which involves putting what has been negotiated into practice. The                                                                                                                                  UN Security Council Resolution 1325 obliges UN member
     implementation of a peace process does not just mean the end of an armed conflict, it                                                                                                                                    states to work to ensure women’s participation and rights
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              in connection with the implementation of peace agree-
     is also an opportunity to initiate structural changes and develop institutions based on                                                                                                                                  ments. This is not only a matter of implementing special
     rule of law principles, respect for democracy and human rights. It will not succeed if half                                                                                                                              provisions concerning women’s rights, it is also a matter of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ensuring that the interpretation of other provisions safe-
     the population is excluded from the process and their rights and needs are not safe-                                                                                                                                     guards both women and men.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              We have indications that the provisions of peace agree-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ments that safeguard women’s rights are not implemented
     Inclusive implementation                                                     Rights and needs                                                                                                                            to the same extent as other parts.13 This means that good
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              agreements do not function as intended. The interpreta-
     Targeted efforts are being made to ensure that                               In many cases, insecurity and violence, including                                                                                           tion of other provisions in a peace agreement must also be
     women are represented in and have influence                                  gender-based violence, continue after a formal                                                                                              monitored, so that the agreement attends to the needs of
     on negotiations. Some peace processes have                                   peace agreement has been signed. The level of vi-                                                                                           the whole society. The implementation phase must there-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              fore be followed up as systematically and with as much
     succeeded in including civil society and various                             olence sometimes even increases. The implemen-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              determination as the negotiation phase.
     women’s groups in such a way that women’s rights                             tation phase should therefore focus on protection
     have been taken into account in the peace agree-                             and due process for both women and men.
     ment. The agreement between the Colombian                                    Violence and abductions targeting women human
     authorities and FARC is one example of this.                                 rights advocates undermine their possibility of                                                                                             Resource distribution and reintegration
                                                                                  setting the agenda in their countries. It is neces-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Working from a gender perspective also entails looking
     For an agreement to create change, however, it                               sary, therefore, to have a particular focus on their                                 Phot
                                                                                                                                                                              o : U N Wo m e n A f g h a n i s t a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              more closely at how resources are prioritised. In post-con-
     has to be implemented. Women are often mar-                                  needs and to support their efforts.                                                                                                         flict situations. Job creation is often prioritised as a stabilis-
     ginalised in the bodies tasked with monitoring                                                                                                                                                                           ing measure, but women are often overlooked. The focus
     the peace agreement, in legislative bodies whose                             Women’s participation in decision-making pro-          Norway does not work alone. Our contribution                                         tends to be on economic opportunities for men.
     job is to turn the peace agreement into practical                            cesses and reintegration programmes that are           primarily consists of resources and policies on
     politics, and in the budget discussions that make                            gender sensitive are decisive if women who have        the partner countries’ terms and based on their                                      When the peace agreement between FARC and the Colom-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              bian authorities was signed, many former FARC soldiers
     practical follow-up possible.                                                been members of rebel groups are to have the           needs. We often work through civil society or-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              gave birth to children. This gave rise to extensive socioeco-
                                                                                  same opportunities as men in a corresponding           ganisations, other states and multilateral organ-                                    nomic needs, particularly among single mothers.
     Coalitions of women that have grown stronger                                 situation.12                                           isations, including the UN Secretariat, UN Wom-
     during the negotiating phase often split up once a                                                                                  en, the UN’s funds and programmes, and various                                       Stabilisation and reintegration programmes must be
     peace agreement has been signed. This is nat-                                Awareness-raising work relating to women’s and         regional organisations. Many of them have a                                          gender sensitive, support women’s access to the labour
     ural given that they represent different interest                            men’s gender roles is important. Both women and        key role in implementation at country level. It                                      market and provide opportunities to break gender stereo-
     groups, but such splits can undermine women’s                                men who have belonged to rebel groups return to        is therefore important to cooperate with these
     voices and influence. Support for women’s or-                                their local communities, and power structures are      organisations if we are to change conditions on                                      Economic opportunities for women can also help to fulfil
     ganisations should therefore continue after the                              renegotiated to some extent.                           the ground for both women and men.                                                   other rights, for example women’s political rights and right
     negotiations have ended. Work with coalitions and                                                                                                                                                                        to participate.
     networks should be prioritised when needed.

     12. Wenche Iren Hauge (2016). Gender Dimensions of Disarmaement, Demobilization and Reintegration (DRR). PRIO Paper, Oslo           13. See, for example, data collected by the Peace Accords Matrix Barometer Initiative in Colombia ved Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies, University of Notre
                                                                                                                                             Dame, and Rebecca Gindele et al. Implementing the Final Colombian Peace Agreement, 2016–2018. Are gender stipulations and women’s inclusion lagging behind?
                                                                                                                                             PRIO GPS Policy Brief 1. PRIO: Oslo, 2018.
24   ACTION PLAN                                                                                                                                                                                                           WOMEN, PEACE AND SECURITY                              25

                                                                                                                     SIGNED                 PEACE                       AGREEMENTS

     Norway’s goals are as follows:                                                                                                  ONLY 3 OUT OF 11
                                                                                                                                     peace agreements signed in 2017 contained
     Where Norway is involved in the implementation of peace agreements, we will endeav-                                             gender-sensitive provisions
     our to facilitate women’s participation and to safeguard both women’s and men’s rights,
     needs and priorities. Norway will endeavour to ensure that multilateral organisations’
                                                                                                                                     * www.unwomen.org/en/digital-library/multimedia/2018/10/infographic-womens-meaning-
     efforts in support of the implementation of peace agreements involve women and inte-                                            ful-participation-builds-peace

     grate the gender perspective.

     Where peace negotiations have       the local and national level. Elec-   We will continue to prioritise      We will endeavour to ensure that
     been inclusive and the agree-       toral and constitutional commis-      preventing and combating sexual     adapted measures are put in place dur-
     ment has safeguarded wom-           sions are particularly important,     violence.                           ing the reintegration phase for women
     en’s rights, we will continue to    but women also need to have a                                             who have previously been members of
     support civil society and to work   place in the mechanisms estab-        We will endeavour to maintain       rebel movements.
     with the parties in order to con-   lished to monitor follow-up and       the gender perspective in all
     tribute to implementation of the    implementation of the peace           Norwegian efforts to promote
     agreement.                          agreement.                            security sector reform and tran-    We will support awareness-raising
                                                                               sitional justice in post-conflict   measures that combat gender stereo-
     Where the negotiations have not     We will endeavour to ensure           countries.                          types, challenge discriminatory gender
     been inclusive, we will endeavour   that women’s organisations                                                norms and promote gender equality.
     to ensure an inclusive imple-       are strengthened, that they are       We will endeavour to ensure
     mentation phase. Where peace        formally affiliated to the bodies     that the gender perspective is
     agreements do not safeguard         that are tasked with implement-       included in the reconstruction
     women’s rights, we will endeav-     ing the peace agreement, and          of post-conflict countries. Being
     our to make the most of the         that they are in a position to        able to provide for themselves
     opportunities that arise when       contribute.                           and their family and having         Victoria Sandino was a repre-
     the peace agreements are im-                                              access to education and health      sentative of FARC in the peace
     plemented, so that both women       We will endeavour to ensure           services, freedom from violence     negotiations, and now rep-
     and men benefit.                    that legitimate and representa-                                           resents the FARC party in the
                                                                               and being able to pursue their
                                         tive security structures are put                                          Colombian Senate. Luz Mendez
                                                                               case in the legal system are fun-   is a member of the Advisory
     We will endeavour to ensure         in place that meet the security       damental preconditions if both      Council of the Global Fund for
     that women participate in key       needs of both women and men.          women and men are to make a         Women, Guatemala.
     decision-making processes in                                              new life for themselves in peace-
     post-conflict situations, at both                                         time. (See also page 48.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      al v
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            P h o t o: H i l d
26      ACTION PLAN                                                                                                                                                                                                                      WOMEN, PEACE AND SECURITY   27

                                                                                                                                                                                                   A conscript in the Hunter Troop (Jegertroppen),
                                                                                                                                                                                                   the Norwegian Armed Forces’ all-female special-
        C HA PT E R 3.                                                                                                                                                                             forces training programme.

        M I S S I ON S
        In all operations and missions, a goal is to ensure the
        security and safety of the whole population: women,
        men, girls and boys. A gender perspective will be
        applied as regards how the organisation and person-
        nel operate, in the selection of participants and when
        building competence.


                                                                                                                                                 vo   ld,
                                                                                                                                         K jos
                                                                                                                Ph oto: To r b j ø r n

                                                                                                                                     A Norwegian UN soldier on
                                                                                                                                     foot patrol in Bamako, Mali, in 2016.
                                                                                                       a re t

     Major-General Kristin Lund (right),
                                                                                                      rs v

     Force Commander of the                                                                                                                                                   Ph

                                                                                                                                                                                   o to

                                                                                                                                                                                          : To
     UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus                                                                                                                                                             rbj


                                                                                             n                                                                                                               K jos
     (UNFICYP) in the period 2014-2016.                                                   ør                                                                                                                         vold
                                                                                     bj                                                                                                                                     , F or
                                                                                or                                                                                                                                                   s v a re
                                                                          o   :T
28   ACTION PLAN                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       WOMEN, PEACE AND SECURITY                  29

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The gender perspective in the
     Peace operations have developed from military monitoring operations to become                                                                                                                                                                    Armed Forces
     increasingly complex operations with significant peacebuilding elements. These opera-                                                                                                                                                            NATO defines gender as follows: ‘the
     tions contribute to security, while at the same time supporting political processes and                                                                                                                                                          social attributes associated with be-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ing male and female learned through

     reconciliation measures, reform and development of the security sector, development

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                s vold, F or s v ar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      socialisation and that determine a
     of the rule of law and the facilitation of humanitarian efforts and long-term social and                                                                                                                                                         person’s position and value in a given
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      context. This also means the relation-
     economic development.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ships between women, men, girls and

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              rn K jo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      boys, as well as the relations between

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      women and those between men.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          : To
     The security policy landscape in Europe has             Following Government decisions, Norwegian                                                                                                                                                Notably, gender does not equate to

                                                                                                                                                                                                                         o to
     shown that geopolitics involving the use of military    military forces, police advisers and other advisers       Colleagues deployed to the Multidi-                                                                                            an exclusive focus on women.’
     force between states has again become relevant.         from the judicial sector participate in operations        mensional Integrated Stabilization
                                                                                                                       Mission (MINUSMA) in Mali.                                                                                                     Armed conflicts, natural disasters
     The situation is such that Norway, to a greater         outside Norway. Participation in international
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      and other humanitarian crises affect
     extent than for many years, may be challenged on        missions and operations in order to contribute                                                                                                                                           women, men, girls and boys in differ-
     its own territory. We are also being challenged in      to international stability and security is an estab-   A comprehensive approach to human security in operations                                                                          ent ways. When planning operations,
     new ways, for example in the digital world. Op-         lished part of Norway’s security policy. Norwe-                                                                                                                                          the Armed Forces therefore system-
     erations and missions in Norway, or in Norway’s         gian participation takes place within a number of      In relation to the concept of security, this action plan places particu-                                                          atically include the gender perspec-
     vicinity, are therefore relevant to this action plan,   organisational frameworks, such as the UN, NATO        lar emphasis on human security. This contributes to more integrat-                                                                tive as a factor. It is included in plans
                                                                                                                    ed and comprehensive planning and handling of armed conflict.14                                                                   in accordance with NATO’s operations
     on a par with operations and missions in other          and other organisations and coalitions. Norwegian
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      planning. The Armed Forces’ work on
     parts of the world. When operations and missions        support aims, among other things, to strengthen        One of the main tasks of military forces and the police in an area of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      the gender perspective is part of the
     are mentioned, this refers to operations and mis-       the UN’s and NATO’s capacity to plan and carry         operations is to protect the civilian population. In modern conflicts,                                                            effort to understand and deal with
     sions by the Armed Forces and the police both in        out operations, including taking measures aimed        the civilian population is often very badly affected, compared with                                                               sociocultural conditions in the area
     and outside Norway. When measuring results, we          at including the gender perspective and at ensur-      uniformed personnel. Civilians are often targets in modern con-                                                                   of operations. In operations, gender
     nonetheless put most emphasis on international          ing increased participation by women.                  flicts. Sexual and gender-based violence is used as a tactic of war or                                                            is included together with other social,
                                                                                                                    terrorism, either separately or as an integrated part of other opera-                                                             cultural and demographic dimensions
     operations and missions, where we can make a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      in the operational environment that
     difference globally.                                    All participation shares a general focus on safe-      tional methods. The intensification of transnational threats and the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      can influence how we act.
                                                             guarding the security and safety of the civilian       complexity of today’s conflicts requires a better overall understand-
     Developments in recent years have shown how             population in the area of operations. Moreover,        ing of the threat situation.                                                                                                      A consistent and thorough under-
     crime and armed conflict overlap. This makes            Norwegian forces and police advisers are expect-                                                                                                                                         standing of the operational environ-
     crises and conflicts more unpredictable. It is more     ed to contribute to ensuring that local authorities    Security Council resolutions on women, peace and security cover                                                                   ment and its demography is crucial.
                                                                                                                    many extensive activities that governments, the UN and interna-                                                                   The gender perspective helps to
     difficult to understand and deal with situations.       and international forces respect the rights of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      provide insight into how an armed
     The military and the police need to cooperate           everyone in the area of operations. Our goal is to     tional and national actors, including the military and police, are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      conflict affects women and men,
     closely in order to find expedient ways of dealing      influence our alliance partners and the organisa-      responsible for following up. It is therefore necessary to clarify the                                                            girls and boys in different ways. The
     with situations.                                        tions in which Norway participates to include the      division of roles and responsibility between those who, together,                                                                 gender perspective is used to achieve
                                                             gender perspective in a way that is in compliance      are working towards the common goal of peace and security.                                                                        results and attain goals.
                                                             with human rights and other international norms
                                                             and rules.

                                                                                                                    14. See, among others, Houge, Anette Bringedal & Inger Skjelsbæk (2018). Securitising Sexual Violence: Transitions from War to Peace, and Chapter 1 in Kate
                                                                                                                    Fitz-Gibbon, Sandra Walklate, J McCulloch & JaneMaree Maher (eds.). Intimate Partner Violence, Risk and Security. Securing Women’s Lives in a Global World. Rout-
30                             ACTION PLAN                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          WOMEN, PEACE AND SECURITY                  31

                                                                                                                                                          On duty as police adviser for the
                                                                                                                                                          Police Support Unit of the Liberian
                                                                                                                                                          National Police.

                            Sustainable Devel-            The Armed Forces have a special              The Armed Forces try to develop their                                                                                                                                            The role of the police
                            opment Goal 16                role as an actor that creates securi-        competence in how controlled power
                                                          ty and endeavours to take a holistic         can be used to create security in rela-                                                                                                                                          The police are responsible for
                            Sustainable Develop-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        maintaining public order and safety,
                                                          approach to human security in opera-         tion to different forms of vulnerability
                            ment Goal 16 is about                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       enforcing the law and preventing,
                            promoting peaceful and        tions at the strategic, operational and      that can arise among women, men,                                                                                                                                                 detecting and investigating criminal
                            inclusive societies for       tactical level. This means that the role     girls and boys in areas of operations,                                                                                                                                           activities, The police play a central

                            sustainable develop-          and responsibility of the military, as       both in the short and long term. It                                                                                                                                              role in society’s overall efforts to

                            ment, providing access        one among several actors, are both           is important to continue to work on                                                                                                                                              ensure the safety and general welfare

                            to justice for all and        re-examined and clarified when faced         reducing the negative consequences                                                                                                                           ar                  of citizens, in particular through
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           n   eM
                            building effective, ac-                                                                                                                                                                                            o: H
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      an                                preventive and law-enforcing activi-
                                                          with modern security threats.                of operations.                                                                                                                  Pho
                            countable and inclusive                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ties. Carrying out tasks relating to the
                            institutions at all levels.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Action Plan on Women, Peace and
                                                          Our military forces are trained to           Women, peace and security must be                                                                                                                                                Security is therefore a key concern
                                                          carry out a broad spectrum of tasks.         seen in connection with protecting                                                                                                                                               for the police.
                                                          The use of military force is at one end      civilians, civil-military cooperation and
                                                                                                                                                   Conflict-related sexual violence                                                                                                     Expertise in this field is emphasised
                                                          of the spectrum. At the other end,           compliance with international human-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        in both basic training and further
                                                          they engage in efforts to ensure that        itarian law.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        education at the Norwegian Police
                                                          the use of force is not necessary, by                                                    Sexual violence in armed conflicts constitutes serious abuse. It is a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        University College, for example in
                                                          engaging in close cooperation with           The police are a core component in          violation of humanitarian law and a major and persistent security                                                                    the form of training in questioning
                                                          civilian actors and authorities. They        security sector reform, whether by          challenge. Sexual violence is sometimes used strategically and tac-                                                                  children and adolescents, ques-
                                                          carry out mentoring, and seek to             working directly to protect civilians or    tically by armed groups, while at other times it is part of the height-                                                              tioning vulnerable individuals and
Photo: Torbjørn Kjosvold,

                                                          include all parties that contribute to       through building the capacity of local      ened level of violence.15 In both cases, this kind of violence poses a                                                               investigating violent and sexual
                                                                                                                                                   major threat and has a destabilising effect both during and after a                                                                  crimes. The topics ‘domestic violence’
                                                          stability, while identifying destabilising   police, and thereby helping to ensure
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        and ‘violence against and sexual
                                                          factors. The gender perspective is one       that abuse and other criminal offenc-       conflict.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        abuse of children’ are part of the
                                                          of several aspects that must be taken        es are prevented, investigated and                                                                                                                                               three-year curriculum for the bach-
                                                          into consideration.                          prosecuted.                                 Research has shown that this kind of violence does not necessarily                                                                   elor’s programme in several of the
                                                                                                                                                   decrease after a conflict has ended. It is therefore necessary that                                                                  five main areas: Police and Society,
                                                          The goal of military operations is           The police have a particular focus on       preventive measures are based on a long-term perspective.16 It is                                                                    Methodology, Public Order Policing
                                                                                                                                                   necesary to be aware of this issue in the period prior to, during and                                                                and Preparedness, Crime Prevention
                                                          always to create peace and stability,        resolving conflicts by building trust,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        and Investigations. Units with special-
                                                          and a well-functioning society that          without using force or threatening          after a conflict.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ist responsibility, national assistance
                                                          is capable of looking after its own          to use force. The human-rights per-                                                                                                                                              schemes and local specialists in this
                                                          security and of restoring vital societal     spective is an integral part of this        For the Norwegian police service, preventing and dealing with sexu-                                                                  field help to ensure that the neces-
                                                          functions.                                   approach.                                   al violence is an integral part of the national approach. These issues                                                               sary expertise is in place.
                                                                                                                                                   are part of police training, and Norwegian police officers encounter
                                                                                                                                                   and deal with them on a daily basis. Our police advisers therefore                                                                   The expertise of the Norwegian
                            Local woman in Senou,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       police force in this field is in demand
                                                                                                                                                   bring important knowledge and expertise with them when they
                            near Bamako in Mali.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        internationally – for instance in
                                                                                                                                                   go on international missions. The topic has a central place in the                                                                   connection with participation in UN
                                                                                                                                                   training of police advisers and military personnel before they are                                                                   peacekeeping missions.
                                                                                                                                                   deployed abroad.

                                                                                                                                                   15. Inger Skjelsbæk (2018). Perpetrators of Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict. I Timothy Williams & Susanne Buckley-Zistel (red.). Perpetrators and Perpetration of Mass Violence:
                                                                                                                                                       Action, Motivations and Dynamics. Routledge.
                                                                                                                                                   16. Inger Skjelsbæk (2012). Responsibility to protect or prevent? Victims and perpetrators of sexual violence crimes in armed conflicts.
                                                                                                                                                       In Global Responsibility to Protect, 4 (2), 154-171.
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