Education Fund: Leaving No Child Behind - 2021 Education Budget Analysis - BudgIT

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Education Fund: Leaving No Child Behind - 2021 Education Budget Analysis - BudgIT
Leaving No
Child Behind
2021 Education Budget Analysis
Education Fund: Leaving No Child Behind - 2021 Education Budget Analysis - BudgIT
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Education Fund: Leaving No Child Behind - 2021 Education Budget Analysis - BudgIT
This document examines
        the education sector data
     and its importance in helping
       the government spend the
           money disbursed to the
            sector. Speaking of the
             education data and its
             availability, budgetary
               allocations from the
           Federal government on
           salaries, infrastructures
                and overheads are
     available in the public space.


     Nigeria’s budget in
     nominal terms grew
     from N4.5trillion in 2015
     to N10.8trillion in 2020.

Education Fund: Leaving No Child Behind - 2021 Education Budget Analysis - BudgIT
able to mobilise private capital as its
                                                                     budget cannot plug an infrastructure
                                                                     deficit that requires $100billion
                                                                     annually for the next decade.

       Executive                                                     With its severe dependence on oil
                                                                     over the decades, Nigeria has finally
                                                                     accepted the reality that it cannot

       Summary                                                       sustain this dependence as prices
                                                                     have significantly tumbled while the
                                                                     cost of governance has ballooned.
                                                                     President Muhammadu Buhari’s
                                                                     government has intentionally
                                                                     increased Nigeria’s budget size
                                                                     despite its weak ability to improve
                                                                     revenues. Nigeria’s budget in nominal
                                                                     terms grew from N4.5trillion in 2015
                                                                     to N10.8trillion in 2020. With the
                                                                     inclusion of 60 Government-Owned
                                                                     Enterprises (GOEs) whose total
                                                                     expenditure stands at N1.35trillion,
                                                                     the Nigerian approved budget in
                                                                     2021 stands at N13.58trillion. While

                                        n October 8, 2020,
                                                                     the expenditure component of the
                                        President Muhammadu
                                                                     budget might have expanded, the
                                        Buhari presented the 2021
                                                                     federal government’s actual revenue
                              Budget for approval. Coincidentally,
                                                                     has only increased from N3.24trillion
                              on this day in 2019, the President
                                                                     in 2015 to N3.86trillion as of 2019.
                              presented the 2020 budget to the
                                                                     This represents a 19.3per cent
                              National Assembly for approval.
                                                                     increase. FG has continually met its
                                                                     expenditure through debt escalation
                              This year’s budget was presented in
                                                                     and unfunded deficits provided by

2.4m                          the context of a global pandemic
                              that has not only claimed over 2.4m
                              lives globally but has also caused
                                                                     the Central Bank of Nigeria.

                                                                     This document examines the
This year’s budget was        economic losses to citizens and
                                                                     education sector data and its
presented in the context      companies in Nigeria. To cushion the
                                                                     importance in helping the
                              resultant financial hardships due to
of a global pandemic that     this pandemic, the government has
                                                                     government spend the money
                                                                     disbursed to the sector. Speaking of
has not only claimed over     set up an MSME Survival Fund,
                                                                     the education data and its
2.4m lives globally but has   Nigeria Youth Investment Fund, CBN
                                                                     availability, budgetary allocations
                              Support programme to aid specific
also caused economic                                                 from the Federal government on
losses to citizens and                                               salaries, infrastructures and
                                                                     overheads are available in the public
companies in Nigeria.         As of Q2 2020², Nigeria has a high
                                                                     space. However, data on the number
                              unemployment rate of 27.1per cent
                                                                     of teachers and lecturers across the
                              and a high poverty incidence.
                                                                     country, the number of primary,
                              Nigeria also faces the constraint of
                                                                     secondary and tertiary students in
                              weak revenue growth, with its
                                                                     the country, enrollment and school
                              revenue per capita less than 8
                                                                     performance distribution across all
                              percent. The country has not been

Education Fund: Leaving No Child Behind - 2021 Education Budget Analysis - BudgIT
levels are not available in the public   improve the quality of education and
                             space. This could be achieved if the     expand access if it hopes to compete
                             government can finance data               in the increasingly competitive world
                             gathering in the sector.                 and end education tourism. The
                                                                      budgetary allocation to the
                             At BudgIT, we believe that a well-       education sector, as approved in the
                             educated and healthy workforce is        2021 budget, relative to the size of
                             vital if Nigeria hopes to reverse the    the budget and its population, is at
                             decline in education data concerning     8.1per cent with UBEC and tertiary
                             personnel, school performance,           (TETFund) intervention.
                             infrastructures and teaching aids.
                             Nigeria will need to significantly        UNESCO recommends that the

N2.07tn                      improve its health and education
                             sectors if the government and
                             citizens’ aspirations are to be met.
                                                                      government should commit 15 per
                                                                      cent to 20 per cent of the nation’s
                                                                      budget to education if we hope to
The 2021 education budget    Generally, colossal spending cum         reverse the decline trend. This means
                             investments must be pumped into          that the 2021 education budget
should be within the range
                             these two critical sectors in the        should be within the range of N2.03
of N2.03 trillion to
                             economy; the health and education        trillion to N2.7 trillion — not N
N2.7 trillion — not          sectors.                                 1.09trillion. The N1.09 trillion can
N 1.09trillion.                                                       even be contested since TETFund
                             The world is transitioning into a        intervention is not captured in the
                             knowledge-powered economy. With          budget.
                             the wave of automation and artificial
                             intelligence threatening labour
                             intensive jobs, Nigeria will need to

                                                                             “The world is transitioning
                                                                              into a knowledge-powered
                                                                              economy. With the wave of
                                                                              automation and artificial
                                                                              intelligence threatening
                                                                              labour intensive jobs,
                                                                              Nigeria will need to improve
                                                                              the quality of education
                                                                              and expand access if it
                                                                              hopes to compete in the
                                                                              increasingly competitive
                                                                              world and end education
Education Fund: Leaving No Child Behind - 2021 Education Budget Analysis - BudgIT
                             Fiscal Framework                         however, to be noted that Nigeria is
                                                                      still facing the existential challenge of
                             The Federal Government (FG) plans        the coronavirus pandemic and its
                             to spend N13.58 trillion in 2021, with   aftermath. The budget deficit will be
                             significant resources allocated to        financed mainly by new borrowings,
                             capital expenditure. N4.13trillion       privatisation proceeds and
                             (including the capital projects in the   drawdowns on multilateral and
                             statutory transfers) or 30.4per cent     bilateral loans secured for specific
                             of its total budget will be devoted to   projects and programmes.
                             capital. Simultaneously, while the
                             remaining amount will be spent on        As of June 2020, Nigeria’s debt stock
                             recurrent items if the National          stood at N31 trillion, according to the

                             Assembly passes the budget.              debt management office. The new
                                                                      borrowing pushes the debt profile of
                             The sum of N7.98trillion is estimated    the cash-strapped government to
                             as the total Federal Government          over N35 trillion. The debt profile will
As of June 2020, Nigeria’s
                             revenue projection in 2021. This         continue to increase as long as we
debt stock stood at
                             comprises oil revenue at                 miss the revenue projection. For
N31 trillion, according to   N2.01trillion, non-oil tax revenues of   instance, in 2016, revenue projections
the debt management          N1.49 trillion and other revenues of     fell short by 23 percent; in 2017, it fell
office. The new borrowing     N4.48trillion. This is a 6.3 per cent    short by 47.73 per cent and in 2018 by
pushes the debt profile       decrease from the 2020                   45 per cent. Furthermore, the
of the cash-strapped         comparative estimate of                  projected revenue in 2018 was N7.1
government to over           N8.52trillion inclusive of the           trillion and Nigeria did miss the mark
N35 trillion.                Government Owned Enterprises.            by 45 per cent. In 2019 and 2020,
                             The federal government’s revenue in      Nigeria missed the mark by 32
                             2019 was N7.59 trillion, compared to     percent and 27percent respectively.
                             its N3.86trillion revenue in 2018 and    This indicates that overall, a good
                             the N2.66trillion it had in 2017.        part of our revenue projections has
                                                                      not been based on empirical
                             The N7.98trillion revenue indicates      evidence.
                             that the Federal Government would
                             have to fund the budget deficit of        Budget Performance
                             N5.6trillion through borrowing. The
                             deficit represents 3.7per cent of the     As of June 2020, the federal
                             estimated GDP, slightly above the 3      government projected a revenue of
                             per cent threshold set by the Fiscal     N2.92 trillion but only raised N1.65
                             Responsibility Act of 2007.” It is,      trillion, being 56 per cent budget

Education Fund: Leaving No Child Behind - 2021 Education Budget Analysis - BudgIT
performance. The surprise element is       total of about N1.2 trillion had been
                                that oil revenue outperformed              released for capital projects.
                                projections as FG share of oil revenue     According to the 2021 budget speech
                                was N820 billion, compared to a            by Mr President, every Federal MDA
                                target of N506 billion. Nigeria has        received at least 50 per cent of its
                                poorly complied with OPEC cuts; a          2020 capital expenditure budget.
                                measure meant to boost oil price           While revenues might remain grossly
                                that significantly tanked in half-year      deficient, Nigeria has not failed to
                                2020. While FG budgeted $28 per            keep up expenditure, rightly needed
                                barrel, average oil prices for the half    during the current fiscal atmosphere.
                                of the year stood at $37 per barrel.       With revenue of N1.65 trillion as of
                                                                           June 2020, FG still spent N4.46 trillion
                                As of July 2020, the Federal               as against a pro-rated budget of
                                Government’s actual revenue                N5.41 trillion. This means that Nigeria
                                available for the budget was N2.10         spends 2.7 times what it earns. About
                                trillion. This revenue performance         67 per cent of the total expenditure
                                was only 68 percent of our prorated        remained allocated to personnel
                                target in the revised 2020 budget. At      costs (N1.42 trillion) and debt service
                                N992.45 billion, oil revenue               costs (N1.56 trillion).
                                performed well above our budget

                                target, by 168 per cent. Non-oil tax       We could not ascertain the 2020
                                revenues totalled N692.83 billion,         education budget performance as at
                                which was 73 per cent of the revised       the time of this publication due to the
                                target.                                    lack of data/information. The
 As of July 2020, the Federal                                              quarterly implementation reports
 Government’s actual            On the expenditure side, as of July        available are Q1 and Q2, which has no
 revenue available for the      2020, a total of N5.37 trillion was        data on disbursement to the
 budget was N2.10 trillion.     spent against the pro-rated                education sector. The claim of at
 This revenue performance       expenditure of N5.82 trillion.             least 50 per cent disbursement to
 was only 68 percent of         Accordingly, the deficit was N3.27          MDAs as stated by President Buhari
 our prorated target in         trillion. This represents 66 per cent of   cannot be verified when we
 the revised 2020 budget.       the revised budgeted deficit for the        published this document. This is due
                                whole year. According to President         to a lack of information on Q1 and Q2,
                                Buhari, the 2020 capital budget            while Q3 and Q4 reports are yet to be
                                implementation started in the first         published by the Budget Office of the
                                quarter for the first time in recent        Federation.
                                years. As of 15th September 2020, a

Education Fund: Leaving No Child Behind - 2021 Education Budget Analysis - BudgIT
                                                                       The allocation to the Education
                                                                       sector in the 2021 budget shows an
                                                                       allocation of N771.5 billion (including
                                                                       the UBEC allocation) out of a total

                     Sector                                            budget size of N13.58 trillion. This
                                                                       means that the sector got a 5.68
                                                                       percent allocation. However, if

                                                                       TETFund (intervention funds for the
                                                                       tertiary institutions) allocation of
                                                                       N323.3 billion were included, then
                                                                       the total budget to the sector would

                   Analysis                                            be N1.09 trillion, which is an 8.6
                                                                       percent allocation.

                                                                       Certain schools of thought will argue
                                                                       that the TETfund allocation should
                                                                       not be added as part of the
                               The education sector has been           government’s funding since it does
                               deteriorating over the last 20 years    not appear in the budget and
                               due to inadequate funding. It is        because it is funded through an
                               essential to state the importance of    education tax of 2 percent on the
                               adequate funding in the education       profit of all registered companies
                               sector. With proper funding,            operating in Nigeria.
                               teachers’ training, infrastructure in

 N1.09tn                       all schools (basic, secondary and
                               tertiary levels), teaching and
                               learning aids can be executed.
                                                                       Table 1 below breaks down the
                                                                       Education sector allocation,
                                                                       including Recurrent allocation
  If TETFund (intervention                                             (personnel and overheads), Capital
 funds for the tertiary        This will limit educational tourism.    allocation and UBEC allocation. In
 institutions) allocation of   The education system in Nigeria is      contrast, table 2 shows the allocation
 N323.3 billion were           not functioning at the optimal level,   breakdown of Recurrent allocation
 included, then the total      which is a threat to the country’s      (personnel and overheads), Capital
                               future social and economic              allocation, UBEC allocation, TETFund
 budget to the sector
                               development. The out-of-school          and the percentage of the total
 would be N1.09 trillion,
                               children and half-baked graduates       allocation against the total budget
 which is an 8.6 percent       Nigeria produces every quarter          size.
 allocation.                   transcends into high unemployment
                               rates, which is a ripple effect of the
                               decay in the sector.

Education Fund: Leaving No Child Behind - 2021 Education Budget Analysis - BudgIT
Table 1: Education Sector, without TETFund
                                    Expenditure Details                                                                Amount (N)
                                    Personnel Cost (including UBEC allocation of N70.05billion)                    579,858,298,292
                                    Overhead                                                                        35,430,765,996
                                    Recurrent (Personnel+Overhead)                                                 615,289,064,288
                                    Capital                                                                         156,172,307,765
                                    Total Allocation to Education Ministry (Recurrent + Capital)
                                    including UBEC allocation                                                      771,461,372,053

                                    Total allocation to Education sector (without TETFund)                         771,461,372,053
                                    per cent of the allocation of Education against the total
                                    budget size
                                    Total Budget Size                                                            13,588,027,886,175

                                    Table 2: Education Sector, with TETFund

    N2.7tn                          Expenditure Details
                                    Personnel Cost (without UBEC allocation)
                                                                                                                       Amount (N)
    The 2021 budget of              Recurrent (Personnel+Overhead)                                                   545,237,211,116
    education should be in          Capital                                                                         156,172,307,765

    the region of N2.7 trillion —   Total Allocation to Education Ministry (Recurrent + Capital)
                                    excluding UBEC allocation                                                      701,409,518,881
    not the N1.09trillion if        Amount Provided for UBEC                                                         70,051,853,172
    TETFund allocation of                                                                                          323,290,000,00
                                    Transfers to TETFund
    N323.3billion is included
                                    Total allocation to the Education sector                                      1,094,751,372,053
    (if excluded, the sector
                                    Percent of the allocation of Education against the total                                   8.06
    got an allocation of            budget size
    N771.5 billion).                Total Budget Size                                                            13,588,027,886,175

                                    The UNESCO’s Incheon Declaration                       budget of education should be in the
                                    recommends that the government                         region of N2.7 trillion — not the
                                    should commit 15 per cent to 20                        N1.09trillion if TETFund allocation of
                                    percent of the nation’s budget to                      N323.3billion is included (if
                                    education if we hope to reverse the                    excluded, the sector got an
                                    trend of decline, meaning the 2021                     allocation of N771.5 billion).

The UNESCO’s Incheon
Declaration recommends
that the government
should commit 15% to
20% of the nation’s budget
to education if we hope
to reverse the trend of

Education Fund: Leaving No Child Behind - 2021 Education Budget Analysis - BudgIT
Table 3
          Education Budget Trend Analysis

                                  Personal Cost
     Amount in N’bn


     500                                                  456.3
           441.3                                  429.6
                      426.9              407.8
     400                         376.2




           2015       2016       2017    2018     2019    2020    2021

                                  Overhead Cost

     Amount in N’bn
                                         31.5     33.8    33.9






           2015       2016       2017    2018     2019    2020    2021

                              Recurrent Expenditure

     Amount in N’bn


           459.6                                  463.4
                      444.8     398.8




           2015       2016       2017    2018     2019    2020    2021

Table 3
               Education Budget Trend Analysis
                                   Total Budget Size
         Amount in N’tn

       16,000                                                           13.59


                                            9.12              10.59

        6000                                           8.91


                   2015    2016    2017     2018       2019    2020     2021

                            Education Budget as % of Total



         10                9.17

          8                        7.31     7.04       7.10
          6                                                             8.60


                   2015    2016    2017     2018       2019    2020     2021

     The education sector has 218 agencies. Thus, the allocation of N771.5 billion will be shared amongst
     the 218 agencies. Since we already know the sector's total budget, it is crucial to break down the
     allocations into Basic Education (UBEC), Federal Secondary Schools (Unity Schools) and Tertiary
     Schools. We will also look at the allocations to the examination bodies, commissions, councils and

Table 3
             Education Budget Trend Analysis
                                  Capital Expenditure
        Amount in N’bn

         160                                                       156.2


                                           102.9           84.7

         60                                        58.7


               2015      2016      2017    2018    2019    2020    2021

                                     UBE Budget

        Amount in N’bn

                                                   112.4   111.7
        100                        92.5
        80               77.1




               2015      2016      2017    2018    2019    2020    2021

                                  *Education Budget
        Amount in N’bn

        800                                                        771.5
        600              557





               2015      2016      2017    2018    2019    2020    2021

     *without UBEC and TETfund.

     Basic education is the
     local and state governments
     responsibility; however,
     federal government support
     has shifted the responsibility
13   from the state government
     to the Federal government.
The Examination Bodies

                                      The sector has 4 examination                        project in 2021, but JAMB has an
                                      bodies, though the West African                     allocation of -N15 million, which
                                      Examination Council (WAEC) has                      raises lots of questions.
     The local and                    local and international while the
                                      other 2 comprises the National                      To avoid assumptions, BudgIT wrote
     international WAEC
                                      Examination Council (NECO) and                      the agency (JAMB) and the Education
     offices will spend
                                      Joint Admissions Matriculation                      Ministry to explain why JAMB has a

                                      Board.                                              minus (-15 million Naira) for its capital
                                                                                          allocation. However, as of the time
                                      The local and international WAEC                    the publication was released, BudgIT
      though the local                offices will spend N4.14billion                      is yet to get feedback to the Freedom
     office takes a more               though the local office takes a more                 of Information (FOI) request that was
     significant chunk                 significant chunk of N3.43billion.                   delivered and acknowledged by the
     of N3.43billion.                 NECO has no capital expenditure,                    agency.
                                      which means that the agency will
                                      not be implementing any capital

     Table 4: 2021 Budgetary Allocation to the Examination Bodies
               Agency           Personnel Cost       Overhead Cost        Recurrent Expenditure      Capital Expenditure           Total
     (INTERNATIONAL)                  579,512,062            37,171,291                616,683,353               92,141,198       708,824,551

     MATRICULATION BOARD           3,628,800,880                     0              3,628,800,880             -15,000,000       3,613,800,880

     (LOCAL)                         3,218,558,457          30,212,341               3,248,770,798             183,061,370       3,431,832,168

     COUNCIL                        8,486,229,958                    0               8,486,229,958                         0    8,486,229,958

     Total                          15,913,101,357         67,383,632              15,980,484,989             260,202,568      16,240,687,557

                                      The Commissions
                                      There are over 6 commissions and                    Enterprise Institutions (VEIs) and
                                      agencies in the Education sector,                   Technical College.
                                      namely Universal Basic Education
                                      Commission (UBEC), Nomadic                          These commissions oversee the
                                      Education Commission, National                      affairs of the education
     The total capital                Commission For College Education                    systems/levels in Nigeria, the 6-3-3-4
     allocation for the               (NCCE) Secretariat, National Board                  formation. For example, UBEC takes
     6 commissions                    For Technical Education (NBTE),                     care of the basic education system,
                                      National Universities Commission                    the newly established National
     stands at
                                      (NUC) Secretariat, and National                     Senior Secondary Education

     N27.9bn                          Senior Secondary Education
                                      Commission (NSSEC).
                                                                                          Commission (NSSEC) was
                                                                                          established to monitor secondary
     with 80 per cent of                                                                  education. Nomadic Commission
     the capital projects             Though the NBTE does not have a                     was established by Decree 41 0f 1989
     being administrative             commission in its acronym, it                       (now Cap 243 LFN 1990) to provide
     capital projects and             oversees Polytechnics,                              education to the nomadic
     not developmental                Monotechnics; Innovation Enterprise                 pastoralists and migrant fisher folks
                                      Institutions (IEIs); Vocational                     whose population exceeds 9.4
     capital projects.

million people and of recent migrant                total allocation of N103.6 billion. The
                                        farmers whose population is yet to be               total capital allocation for the 6
                                        determined.                                         commissions stands at N27.9 billion,
                                                                                            with 80 per cent of the capital
                                        Tertiary institutions have commissions              projects being administrative capital
                                        for each institution. NUC coordinates               projects and not developmental
                                        the Universities, while NCCE and                    capital projects.
                                        NBTE coordinate colleges and
                                        polytechnics. The 6 agencies have a

     Table 5: 2021 Budgetary Allocation to the Commissions in the Education sector
                     MDA                   PERSONNEL          OVERHEAD               RECURRENT         CAPITAL          ALLOCATION

     NOMADIC EDUCATION COMMISSION              537,559,595         95,527,330           633,086,925       901,270,551       1,534,357,476

     EDUCATION SECRETARIAT                     760,663,202        282,233,566          1,042,896,768      624,092,894       1,666,989,662

     EDUCATION                                 857,645,856        265,817,728          1,123,463,584      596,789,212       1,720,252,796

     EDUCATION COMMISSION (NSSEC)                         0      250,000,000           250,000,000       380,00 0,000       630,000,000

     SECRETARIAT                              1,764,487,530       737,540,850         2,502,028,380     1,042,936,464      3,544,964,844

     COMMISSION                              70,051,853,172                      0    70,051,853,172   24,408,546,089      94,460,399,261

     TOTAL                                  73,972,209, 355      1,631,119,474       75,603,328,829    27,953,635,210    103,556,964,039

                                                                                            contribution (matching grant); the
                                        The Universal Basic Education
                                                                                            presentation of an Action Plan
                                        The Universal Basic Education (UBE)                 detailing proposed projects of how
                                        Programme was introduced in 1999                    to spend the funds for education for
                                        by the Nigerian government as a                     every fiscal year.
                                        reform programme to provide
                                        greater access to and ensure quality                Basic education is the local and state
                                        basic education throughout Nigeria.                 governments responsibility; however,
                                        The UBE Act provides the 36 states                  federal government support has
                                        of the federation and the Federal                   shifted the responsibility from the
                                        Capital Territory (FCT) with                        state government to the Federal
                                        intervention funds, which can be                    government. The funds that are yet
                                        accessed upon meeting certain                       to be accessed may have led to the
                                        conditions. The conditions to be                    reduction of UBEC allocation, as seen
                                        met include, among others,                          in the table below.
                                        providing a fifty per cent (50 per
                                        cent) counterpart funding to match
                                        the Federal Government's

Table 6: UBEC Budget Allocation Trend

           Year      Budget (N billion)      Amount Released (N billion)          Unaccessed Amount

          2015               63.12                        63.12                        952.29 million
          2016               77.11                        77.11                          3.55 billion
          2017               95.19                        95.19                          6.22 billion
          2018               113.73                      113.73                         18.14 billion
          2019             112.47                        112.47                         22.72 billion
          2020               111.79                          -                                 -
          2021                70.1                           -                                 -

                               Recently, Thisday Newspaper               without jobs while the unqualified
                               published a report titled 'UBEC And       teachers are getting the jobs with its
                               Shortage of Teachers in Nigeria' gave     effects seen in the increase of
                               an insight on how state governments       illiteracy. The National Commission
                               have seen the FG UBEC support as a        for Mass Literacy, Adult and Non-
                               slush fund while others seem not to       Formal Education (NMEC) has
                               care about accessing the fund by          established that the percentage of
                               presenting a counterpart funding.         people from the age of 15 and above
                               However, the damage was                   who can read and write simple
                               mentioned by UBEC, which has led          statements is an unacceptable 35
     UBEC places the
                               to a shortage of teachers across the      per cent. This high rate of illiteracy
     shortage number           country.                                  partly accounts for the low level of
     of teachers at                                                      development in Nigeria.

     280,000                   UBEC places the shortage number of
                               teachers at 280,000, especially at
                                                                         Primary Education is the foundation
                                                                         of all forms of Education, and if it is
     especially at the         the public primary schools.               not well laid, the damage will lead to
     public primary            In Zamfara, the Education Board           having half-educated graduates who
     schools. In Zamfara,      Chairman complained bitterly about        cannot write a formal letter nor
                               the lack of teachers in the state with    understand simple arithmetic.
     the Education Board
                               pupils' ratio to a teacher placed at
                               300:1. It is the same situation in most   It starts from having sound lecturers
     complained bitterly       schools in remote areas in Nigeria,       at the colleges of Education who will
     about the lack of         where teachers' shortage has led to       impart knowledge to the students -
     teachers in the state     the pupils' lack of interest in           who then become graduate teachers
     with pupils' ratio to     Education.                                then transfer the same knowledge to
     a teacher placed                                                    the primary school pupils across the
     at 300:1.                 The irony is that the few teachers        country. This can be achieved if the
                               available may be incompetent as           curriculum/syllabuses are reviewed,
                               they may have been recruited with         which will require lots of funds.
                               bias (nepotism), as stated by the         However, few states are yet to make
                               Education Minister, Adamu Adamu,          Education a priority.
                               that the qualified teachers are

Universal Basic Education Projects                                                                                                  Amount

     Payment Of 5000 Federal Teachers Scheme Allowance At The Rate Of 30000 Per Month For 12 Months                               1,998,000,0005

     Construction Of Classrooms Blocks / Supply Of Instructional Materials To Support The Integration Of Almajiri System Of
     Education Into The Conventional System Of Education At Various Location                                                        600,000,000

     Provision Of Instructional Materials, Textbooks, Furnishing And Equipments In Abara Comm. Etche LGA, Rivers State              542,240,000

     Provision Of Instructional Materials And Equipment Of Primary And Junior Secondary Across Educational Disadvantages
     States                                                                                                                         500,000,000

     Rehabilitation/Reconstruction Of Classrooms In Selected Primary And Junior Secondary School With Provision Of Pupils
     And Teachers Furniture Across North East Some Selected Geo Political Zones                                                     400,000,000
     Provision Of Grants To 22 Existing Mah ad/Islamiyya Schools @ 5,000,000 * 22 To Improve Their Infrastructures (Classrooms,
     Rehabilitation, Toilets, Boreholes etc.)                                                                                         230,000,000

                                            Federal Unity Schools                                   has changed as favouritism has taken
                                                                                                    over the selection process.
                                            The British colonial masters
                                                                                                    According to a Guardian back page
                                            established the first set of unity
                                                                                                    story titled “Unity colleges and the
                                            schools. Three new ones were
                                                                                                    battle for survival”, the schools have
                                            added in Warri, Sokoto, and Enugu
                                                                                                    lost their glory.
                                            in 1966, while General Yakubu
                                            Gowon, in 1973, ensured there were
                                                                                                    The infrastructural conditions of the
                                            such schools in all the 12 states back
                                                                                                    schools have worsened. These issues
                                            then. For at least two decades, the
                                                                                                    include a decrepit septic tank
                                            schools brought about cultural and
     The number of unity                                                                            discharging waste into water source
                                            religious integration, along with
     schools has increased to                                                                       meant for drinking; dirty kitchen
                                            academic excellence. The number
                                                                                                    taken over by defiant rodents;
     104                                    of unity schools has increased to
                                            104, an average of 3 schools per
                                                                                                    hostels that looked like refugee
                                                                                                    camps; the cholera outbreak in
     an average of 3                        state.
     schools per state.                                                                             Queens College, Yaba, where 200
                                                                                                    students were admitted but still lost
                                            These schools have great alumni as
                                                                                                    3 students in 2017, and many more.
                                            head of companies, directors in
                                            public institutions, and even
                                                                                                    Though, Queens College was shut
                                            political leaders - governors and
                                                                                                    down with the hope that there would
                                            presidents. The school carefully
                                                                                                    be a total revamp of the situation.
                                            selects students based on merit and
                                            automatically picks the best brains
                                            for the common entrance
                                            examinations; however, the story

     YEAR     PERSONNEL               OVERHEAD            RECURRENT             CAPITAL         ALLOCATION

     2021   25,453,190,382          20,748,649,383       46,201,839,765      14,958,691,415     61,160,531,180

     2020   20,795,061,592          20,748,649,392       41,543,710,984      10,411,839,525     51,955,550,509

     2019   20,940,152,673          20,914,649,386       41,854,802,059      10,001,697,004     51,856,499,063

     2018   19,991,748,728           18,794,819,154      38,786,567,882      13,821,492,976    52,608,060,858

                             A breakdown of allocation to these           is urgently expedient to increase
                             schools in the last 3 years has shown        funding for the unity schools to avoid
                             that a tiny amount goes to capital           a situation where PTAs will be hiring
                             projects, between the range of N10           and funding the salaries of about 40
                             billion to N15 billion, while the            percent of the teachers in the unity
                             recurrent allocation to these schools        schools in Nigeria. (Iyabo Lawal,
                             is four times (4x) the capital               2019). Among the Federal Unity
                             allocation. For example, in 2018,            Colleges, we looked at the capital
                             N13.8 billion was allocated as capital       allocation and ranked the college
                             spending, while N10 billion was              with the highest capital allocation.
                             earmarked for 2019. N10.4 billion            For this publication, we looked at the
                             was allocated in 2020, while N14.9           top 5 federal unity colleges and few
                             billion will be spent on capital             capital projects as listed in the
                             expenditure in 2021. The allocation          budget.
                             has decreased over the years, and it

                                Top 5 Unity Schools Capital Allocation

                                 Suleja Academy                                   King’s College

                                 173.6m                                           146.7m

                                 FGC Portharcourt

                                 155.0m                                           FTC Zuru

                                 Queens College Lagos


Table 10: Some Notable Projects in Unity Schools, 2021 budget
         Unity Schools                                                                                              Amount

         Provision Of Security Infrastructure In 104 Colleges : Perimeter Fencing, Solar Street Lights, Solar
         Powered Motorized Borehole and CCTV                                                                    500,000,000

         Rehabilitation And Equiping Of Laboratories In 104 FUCs                                                252,100,000

         Rehabilitation Of Classrooms And Hostels In FUCs                                                       404,000,000

         Upgrading Of Infrastructure, Erosion Control, Repairs Of Flooding, Rainstorm And Damages In
         FUCs                                                                                                    377,402,175

         Procurement Of Classroom Furnitures And Learning Equipment In Federal Unity Colleges (FUCs)             397,275,573

                                         Federal Colleges of Education                 594,653 primary school teachers in
                                                                                       2018, only 410,699 were qualified to
                                          The current situation in colleges of         teach, showing a gap in the quality of
                                          education in Nigeria is critical. This       skilled personnel in the primary
                                          started during the days of                   education system. It simply means
                                          matriculation examinations as a              that 69 percent of the qualified
                                          prerequisite for tertiary institutions.      teachers would have to impart
                                          The best students with high scores           knowledge into the gross enrolment
                                          often gain admission into                    of 22,384,755 in primary schools

 N2.89bn                                  universities. The ones with average
                                          scores are shipped into
                                          polytechnics, while those with bad
                                                                                       across the country.

                                                                                       The combined capital allocation of all
Capital allocations in 2019               grades are admitted into colleges of         21 colleges of education in the 2021
and 2018 were relatively                  education.                                   budget stands at N9.97 billion in the
small, with a sum of                                                                   table above. This shows an increase
N2.39 billion and 2.82                    Oblivious of the fact that many              of N4.25 billion when compared to
billion, respectively.                    graduates from colleges of                   the 2020 allocation of N5.73 billion.
                                          education are responsible for                Capital allocations in 2019 and 2018
                                          grooming pupils across the                   were relatively small, with a sum of
                                          education system because they are            N2.39 billion and 2.82 billion,
                                          seen as potential teachers. Most of          respectively.
                                          these graduates see teaching as
                                          their last option, resulting in the          Recurrent expenditure still takes over
                                          education system being eroded                85 per cent of the total allocated
The combined capital                      with average teaching officials.              budget to the colleges of education.
allocation of all 21 colleges                                                          In 2020, 2019 and 2018, recurrent
                                          According to the 2019 UBEC                   expenditure stands at 91 per cent, 95
of education in the 2021
                                          personnel audit data, a significant           percent and 94 percent, respectively.
budget stands at                          investment is needed to improve

in the table above.
                                          teaching staff's skills in government-
                                          owned primary schools and junior
                                          secondary schools. Out of the

According to the 2019 UBEC
personnel audit data, a
significant investment is
needed to improve teaching
staff's skills in
government-owned primary
schools and junior
secondary schools.

Table 11: Budget allocations, Colleges of Education.
                  Personnel Cost                                                      Overhead
     Amount in N’bn                                                      Amount in N’bn


     60    57.9
                       50.1                                                            1.67           43.9
                              47.6                                                             47.6




           2021       2020    2019   2018                                    2021      2020    2019   2018

                      Recurrent                                                      Total Capital
     Amount in N’bn                                                      Amount in N’bn

     60    59.7
                                                                              9.96     5.73
                              49.1                                                             2.34




           2021       2020    2019   2018                                    2021      2020    2019   2018

                                                   Total Allocation
                                     Amount in N’bn


                                            2021      2020    2019    2018

The combined capital allocation of all    N2.39 billion and 2.82 billion,
                                          21 colleges of education in the 2021      respectively. Recurrent expenditure
                                          budget stands at N9.97 billion in the     still takes over 85 per cent of the
                                          table above. This shows an increase       total allocated budget to the
                                          of N4.25 billion when compared to         colleges of education. In 2020, 2019
                                          the 2020 allocation of N5.73 billion.     and 2018, recurrent expenditure
                                          Capital allocations in 2019 and 2018      stands at 91 per cent, 95 per cent
                                          were relatively small, with a sum of      and 94 per cent, respectively.

 N2.89bn                                    Table 12: The top 5 colleges of education with the highest
                                            capital allocation.
Capital allocations in 2019
and 2018 were relatively                      Federal College of Education              King’s College
small, with a sum of                          Eha-amufu
N2.39 billion and 2.82
                                              2.16bn                                    867.3m
billion, respectively.

                                                                                       Federal           Federal
                                                                                       College of        College of
                                              Federal College of                       Education         Education
                                                                                       Katsina           Kano
The combined capital                          Education Oyo
                                                                                       539.7m 533.7m
allocation of all 21 colleges
of education in the 2021                      1.58bn
budget stands at

in the table above.

         Table 13: Notable Projects in Colleges of Education, 2021 budget
         Federal Colleges of Education                                                                            Amount

         CONSTRUCTION OF 2,000 CAPACITY HALL, FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION OYO                                170,000,000

         KONTAGORA                                                                                           100,000,000

         COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, POTISKUM                                                                        164,692,789


         IBAGWA, IGBO -EZE SOUTH, FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION EHA -AMUFU                                    250,000,000

     This shows an increase of
     N4.25 billion when compared
     to the 2020 allocation of
     N5.73 billion.

                             Federal Polytechnics
                             Nigeria can still be described as a     needed must be taken.One of the
                             country that has not embraced the       decisions is funding which will be
                             creation of tech fully. This suggests   analyzed based on the financing in
                             that technical education has been       the last 4 years. Funding is critical to
                             dramatically undermined, and it         technical education as technical
                             raises the question of whether          education will enable any country's
                             polytechnics have outlived their        technological growth and
                             usefulness in Nigeria.                  development.

                             From all indications, as far as         Regrettably, the polytechnics
                             polytechnic education is concerned,     established to provide technical
                      “      Nigeria has reached a crossroad,        education have been neglected and
                             where critical decisions about          relegated to the background over the
                             whether or not polytechnics are still   years.

Table 14: Budget Allocations, Federal Polytechnics.

                  Personal Cost                                                       Overhead
     Amount in N’bn                                                      Amount in N’bn

     70    83.0

                                                                                       2.58    2.56
     30                                                                                               2.53


           2021       2020    2019   2018                                    2021      2020    2019   2018

                      Recurrent                                                      Total Capital
     Amount in N’bn                                                      Amount in N’bn

     60    86.3
                                                                              14.6     2.63
                              69.7                                                             2.67




           2021       2020    2019   2018                                    2021      2020    2019   2018

                                                   Total Allocation
                                     Amount in N’bn


                                            2021      2020    2019    2018

Budgetary allocation to FG-owned          dissecting the sum of N3.42 billion to
                         polytechnics is grossly inadequate        the institution, it was revealed that 41
                         when placed side-by-side with the         projects make up the considerable
                         education system's challenge. The         sum. Out of the 41 projects, only 10
                         combined allocation for all the 22        capital projects will be implemented
                         federal polytechnics in 2021 stands       in the school with a sum of N187.08
                         at N100.93 billion.                       million.

                         Compared with the 2020 allocation         The remaining 31 projects worth
                         of N77.37 billion, there is an increase   N3.24 billion are constituency
                         of N23.56 billion, representing a 30.5    projects inserted by the lawmakers.
                         percent increase. Over the 3 years,       These are projects that are not
Over the 3 years, the
                         the capital allocation has never gone     related to the school.
capital allocation has
                         beyond N3.5 billion, which speaks
never gone beyond                                                  For instance, SUPPLY OF TRICYCLES
                         volumes of the government's neglect

which speaks volumes
                         and abandonment. The budget
                         shows that the capital allocation
                                                                   TO SELECTED COMMUNITIES OF
                                                                   UKELLE, YACHE, IBIL, MBUBE AND
                                                                   IGODOR and CONSTRUCTION OF
                         increased from N2.63 billion in 2020
of the government's      to N14.67 billion in 2021.                ACCESS ROAD WITH SURFACE
neglect and                                                        DRESSING/ DRAINAGES FROM
                         This represents a 457 per cent            IGBOANO SPECIALIST HOSPITAL TO
                         increase which is quite impressive.       OVOKO-ORBA ROAD, ENUGU STATE
                         However, allocations do not always        with project sum of N250 million and
                         equal actuals (fund release).             N200 million respectively. The 10
                                                                   beneficiary states will share the 31
                         With a capital expenditure of N3.42       projects, with Akwa-Ibom having 6
                         billion, the National Institute for       projects, followed by Delta with 5,
                         Construction Technology, Uromi,           Kogi, 4; Edo, Niger, Rivers and
                         tops the institutions with the highest    Bayelsa all having 3 projects each.
                         capital allocation, followed by           Taraba has 2 projects, while Cross
                         Kaduna Polytechnic with an                River and Anambra got 1 project
                         allocation of N891.65 million. After      each.

With a capital expenditure of
N3.42 billion, the National
Institute for Construction
Technology, Uromi, tops the
institutions with the highest
capital allocation, followed by
Kaduna Polytechnic with an
allocation of N891.65 million.

Table 15: The top 5 Polytechnic with the highest
                                         capital allocation.

                                          National Institute for
                                          Construction Technology                       891.6m
                                          Uromi, Edo State
                                          3.42bn                                        Polytechnic,
                                                                                                           College of



     Table 16: Some Notable Projects in Federal Polytechnics
     Polytechnics                                                                                             Amount

     POLYTECHNIC BONNY                                                                                        135,000,000


     CONSTRUCTION OF ACADEMIC AFFAIRS DIVISION, FED. POLY. GWANDU                                               217,125,328


     PERIMETER FENCING OF THE SCHOOL (3.4KM) OF THE PERMANENT SITE, FED. POLY. UKANA                           63,000,000

                                     Federal Universities                          universities in the 2021 budget.
                                      There has been an increase in
                                      Nigerians' education tourism in the         The table below shows that budgetary
                                      last 10 years. One of the responsible       allocation to Federal Government-
                                      factors is the sad state of Nigeria's       owned universities increased in 2021,
                                      education system. As a result of this,      from N291.92 billion in 2020 to
                                      Nigerians don't even mind travelling to     N335.48 billion in 2021. This shows an
                                      countries like Benin Republic to study.     increase of N43.56 billion. The capital
                                                                                  allocation also increased from N11.79
                                      The issue of lack of funds has been         billion in 2020 to N28.95 billion, more
                                      over flogged; however, the budgeted          than twice the allocation. It is assumed
                                      budget should be goal-driven not just       this would translate into more capital
                                      to make up the number with the              development. Capital development
                                      construction of buildings, lecture          might be the first step; however, other
                                      halls, etc. but also to have capital        things have to be put in place to make
                                      projects have a direct impact on the        Nigerians stop travelling out of the
                                      education system. Having said this,         country to study. Curriculum
                                      we will still have to look at the           upgrades, teachers' training are part
                                      budgetary allocation to the                 of the things Nigeria has to do.

Table 17: Budget allocations, Federal Universities.

                   Personal Cost                                      Overhead
     Amount in N’bn                                        Amount in N’bn

     300                                               6
                                                                       5.27    5.24
     250                                               5                               4.89
     200                                               4

     150                                               3

     100                                               2

     50                                                1

      0                                                0
           2021        2020    2019    2018                  2021      2020    2019    2018

                      Recurrent                                      Total Capital
     Amount in N’bn                                        Amount in N’bn

     300               282.1
                                       250.3                  28.9                     27.7




           2021        2020    2019    2018                  2021      2020    2019    2018

                   Total Allocation
      Amount in N’bn
                                               The 44 Federal Universities in Nigeria have a
                                               combined capital expenditure of N28.95billion.
                                               Amongst the universities, National Open
                       291.9                   University got the higher capital allocation of
                               276.7   278.1   N4.75billion. Some notable projects were
                                               highlighted in some of the universities below.

           2021        2020    2019    2018

Table 15: The top 5 University with the highest
                                       capital allocation.

                                        National Open University
                                        4.74bn                                     University of

                                                                                                         of Maiduguri

                                         University of Abuja

                                         1.90bn                                   1.52bn
                                                                                  Nigerina Army University, BIU

     Table 19: Some Notable Projects in Federal Universities
     Federal Universities                                                                                            Amount

     PROCUREMENT OF TEACHING & RESEARCH EQUIPMENTS, UNIJOS                                                          78,710,3271


     TEACHING & RESEARCH EQUIPMENT FOR VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS, UNIJOS                                                  70,678,641

     CONSTRUCTION AND FURNISHING OF PHARMACEUTICAL DEPARTMENT, UNIABUJA                                           500,000,000


Key Issues and
          A Clear Budget Line Item                   got a capital allocation of N3.42
                                                     billion for the 41 capital projects in
          Most acts of embezzlement or               2021 approved budget. Only ten
          misappropriation tend to take              (10) out of the 41 projects are
          place from the budget while                projects related to the school or
          procurement is another phase.              projects that will be implemented
          However, it is what is approved in         in the school. These 10 projects in
          the budget that moves to                   total, have a sum of N187.08
          p ro c u re m e n t . To t h i s e n d ,   million.
          Nigerians - legislators should be
          the change agents to ensure that           The 31 remaining projects will be
          the budget is corrupt free. It is also     implemented in 10 other states
          important to include capital               worth N3.2billion which are
          projects that would add impacts to         c o n s t i t u e n cy p ro j e c t s a s i t
          citizens' lives.                           involves distribution of tricycles,
                                                     solar street lights and skills
          Most people showed excitement              acquisition etc.
          when the National Institute of
          Construction Technology, Uromi

Embezzlement and Misappropriation          meet the world's current needs.
     of Funds                                   Nigeria has not fully embraced
                                                technology in all education systems.
     The high level of corruption in the        For example, other developed
     sector is worrisome. Corrupt               countries started online classes
     practices like sex for grades, bribe for   during the global health pandemic -
     grades, money gulping snakes and           COVID 19 while schools were on
     abandoned construction projects            lockdown. In Nigeria's case, students
     have incessantly beguiled the sector.      were told to go home without any
     The misappropriation level shows the       contingency or alternative plan for
     cost of corruption in the sector           the student's continuous learning.
     through the lack of quality teachers,
     half-baked graduates and students'         Lack of Education Data
                                                When citizens complain of lack of
     It has become imperative to                data within the sector, it goes
     efficiently manage the little allocation    beyond actual spending in the sector
     as a prelude to how larger funds           but the exact number of out-of-
     would be managed.                          school children in the country across
     We understand that most tertiary           all levels of education that is the
     institutions collect revenue and           primary, secondary and tertiary
     spend outside the standard                 (public and private) institutions, the
     budgetary provisions. The public           total number of public school
     needs to understand higher                 teachers, school performances from
     institutions' finance holistically, as is   primary to tertiary institutions and
     the standard worldwide. We urge the        the actual population of the country.
     National Assembly to compel
     universities, polytechnics and             Without this data, it is not easy to
     colleges of education to publish audit     cater to or plan appropriately for the
     reports and financial statements, as        sector. The lack of data has given
     budget implementation reports only         room for assumptions that could be
     cover a fraction of the university         accurate or flawed. The sector needs
     spending.                                  to partner with state primary school
                                                boards and private and international
     Also, the anti-corruption agencies         bodies to carry out proper data
     and the Judiciary in Nigeria should be     collection as it relates to education.
     on their game to take up corruption
     matters as urgently as possible,           Demographic challenge
     sending a message to other corrupt-
     minded citizens to run away from           Nigeria's population growth is putting
     corruption. For instance, the JAMB         pressure on the country's resources,
     corruption cases (Ex-JAMB registrar        public services, and infrastructure.
     and the money gulping snake cases)         With kids under 15 years of age
     are still in court after 4 years of        accounting for 45 per cent of the
     committing such acts.                      200 million population, the burden of
                                                education has become
     Curriculum Upgrade and                     overwhelming.
     Introduction of Technology in
     schools                                    Primary school enrollment has
                                                increased in recent years, but net
     The world is now a global village          attendance is only about 70 per cent.
     thanks to information technology.          Nigeria still has 10.3 million out-of-
     Most of the subjects and course            school children — the world's
     outlines have not been upgraded to         highest, and 60 per cent of those

children are, incidentally, residing in   teacher is brilliant or not, the pupils
     the northern part of the country.         will be significantly affected by the
                                               level of education he or she dishes
     About 60 per cent of out-of-school        out. Allowing the best students in the
     children are girls, many of whom do       Unified Tertiary Matriculation
     enrol drop out early. Low perceptions     Examination (UTME) into Universities,
     of the value of education for girls and   while the average students will be
     early marriages are among the             moved into the Polytechnics and
     reasons. In the urge to reduce the        Colleges of Education, has created a
     number of out-of-school children,         complex education system.
     some northern States are introducing
     laws requiring girls' education and       The Colleges of Education produces
     prohibiting their withdrawal from         the main teachers, and not picking the
     school. Girls' primary school             best students has had a ripple effect
     attendance has been improving, but        on Nigeria's poor quality of education.
     this has not been the case for girls      For example, some teachers cannot
     from the poorest households.              communicate well in both oral or
                                               written format, and they are expected
                                               to train the school children in primary
     Poor Quality of Education                 school. A revamp of the selection
                                               process of admission into the colleges
     There is a significant connection          of education is the first step, the
     between the teachers and the pupils,      second step is to improve the
     especially in imparting knowledge to      curriculum in the schools, and the last
     the pupils or students. Whether the       step is to fund the colleges of

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