National Sexuality Education Standards - Core Content and Skills, K-12

 
National Sexuality
Education Standards
Core Content and Skills, K–12
Special thanks to the following organizations for their         The Future of Sex Education (FoSE) Initiative is a
partnership in developing and disseminating the National        partnership between Advocates for Youth, Answer and
Sexuality Education Standards: Content and Skills, K–12:        the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the
                                                                U.S. (SIECUS) that seeks to create a national dialogue
The American Association of Health Education (www.
                                                                about the future of sex education and to promote the
aahperd.org/aahe) serves educators and other professionals
                                                                institutionalization of comprehensive sexuality education
who promote the health of all people through education
                                                                in public schools. To learn more, please visit
and health promotion strategies.
                                                                www.futureofsexed.org.
The American School Health Association (www.ashaweb.
                                                                This publication was generously supported by a grant from
org) works to build the capacity of its members to plan,
                                                                an anonymous source and The George Gund Foundation.
develop, coordinate, implement, evaluate and advocate for
effective school health strategies that contribute to optimal   The partners wish to thank Danene Sorace, consultant to the
health and academic outcomes for all children and youth.        FoSE Initiative for her hard work and dedication.
The National Education Association – Health Information
Network (www.neahin.org) works to improve the health
and safety of the school community through disseminating
information that empowers school professionals and              ©2011 the Future of Sex Education Initiative
positively impacts the lives of their students.                 Suggested citation: Future of Sex Education Initiative. (2012).
The Society of State Leaders of Health and Physical             National Sexuality Education Standards: Core Content and
Education (www.thesociety.org) utilizes advocacy,               Skills, K-12 [a special publication of the Journal of School
partnerships, professional development and resources to         Health]. Retrieved from http://www.futureofsexeducation.
build the capacity of school health leaders to implement        org/documents/josh-fose-standards-web.pdf
effective health education and physical education policies
and practices that support success in school, work and life.
Table of Contents
National Sexuality Education Standards:                   4
Core Content and Skills, K–12 Advisory Committee
Additional Reviewers                                      5
Introduction and Background                               6
Rationale for Sexuality Education in Public Schools       7
The National Sexuality Education Standards                8
    Role of Education Standards                           8
    Goal of the National Sexuality Education Standards    9
    Guiding Values and Principles                         9
    Theoretical Framework                                 9
    Topics and Key to Indicators                         10
    Standards by Grade Level                             12
    Standards by Topic Area                              24
National Resources                                       37
    For Teachers                                         36
    For School Administrators                            38
    For Parents                                          38
    For Middle and High School Students                  38
Glossary                                                 39
References                                               41
National Sexuality Education Standards

National Sexuality Education Standards:
Core Content and Skills, K–12 Advisory Committee
Laurie Bechhofer, MPH                                 Robert McGarry, EdD
HIV/STD Education Consultant                          Director of Training and Curriculum Development
Michigan Department of Education                      Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN)
Nora Gelperin, MEd                                    Linda Moore
Director of Training                                  Acting Executive Director
Answer                                                American Association for Health Education
Eva Goldfarb, PhD, LHD (hon)                          Linda Morse, RN, NJ-CSN, MA, CHES
Professor                                             President Elect
Montclair State University                            American School Health Association
Mal Goldsmith, PhD, MCHES, FASHA, FAAHE               Buzz Pruitt, EdD
Professor Emeritus                                    Professor
Southern Illinois University                          Texas A&M University
Debra Hauser, MPH                                     Monica Rodriguez, MS
Executive Vice President                              President & CEO
Advocates for Youth                                   Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United
                                                      States (SIECUS)
Nora L. Howley, MA
Manager of Programs                                   Deborah Roffman, MS, CSE
National Education Association–Health Information     Sexuality Educator and Consultant
Network                                               The Park School of Baltimore
Barbara Huberman, RN, BSN, MEd                        Elizabeth Schroeder, EdD, MSW
Director of Education and Outreach                    Executive Director
Advocates for Youth                                   Answer
Leslie M. Kantor, MPH                                 Jennifer Heitel Yakush
Director of National Education Initiatives            Director of Public Policy
Planned Parenthood Federation of America              Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United
                                                      States (SIECUS)
Kyle Lafferty, MPH, MST, CHES
HIV Program Director                                  Danene Sorace, MPP
The Society of State Leaders of Health and Physical   Consultant, Future of Sex Education Initiative
Education

4
Additional Reviewers

Additional Reviewers
Drafts of the sexuality education core content and skills       Nancy Hudson, RN, MS, CHES, Council of Chief State
document were reviewed by a diverse group of profes-            School Officers
sionals with expertise in sexuality, public education, public   Linda Juszczak, National Assembly on School-Based
health, child and adolescent medicine, and psychology. We       Health Care
wish to thank these individuals for their work:                 Maureen Kelly, Planned Parenthood of the Southern
                                                                Finger Lakes
JeNeen Anderson, MPH, National Association of State             Emily Kitchen, Indiana University Student
Boards of Education
                                                                Douglas Kirby, PhD, ETR Associates
Deborah Arrindell, American Social Health Association
                                                                Cynthia Lam, Sex, Etc. Teen Editorial Staff
Elissa M. Barr, PhD, University of North Florida
                                                                Jessica Lawrence, MS, Bogli Consulting, Inc.
Heather Boonstra, Guttmacher Institute
                                                                Konstance McCaffree, PhD, CFLE, CSE, Widener University
Diane Brown, EdD, Widener University
                                                                Ronna Popkin, MS, Columbia University
Kim Robert Clark, DrPH, San Bernardino County
Superintendent of Schools, CA                                   Valerie Rochester, Black Women’s Health Imperative
Stephen Conley, PhD, American School Health Association         John Santelli, MD, MPH, Columbia University
Sam Dercon, Sex, Etc. Teen Editorial Staff                      Debra Shapiro, Society for Public Health Education
Bonnie J. Edmondson, EdD, Connecticut State Department          Samantha Shinberg, Advocates for Youth Intern
of Education
                                                                Susan Telljohann, HSD, CHES, University of Toledo
Barb Flis, Parent Action for Healthy Kids, MI
                                                                Melanie Tom, Asian Communities for Reproductive Justice
Veronica Bayetti Flores, National Latina Institute for
Reproductive Health                                             Al Vernacchio, MSEd, Friends’ Central School, PA
Elizabeth Gallun, MA, Prince George’s County Public             Jenna Weiss, University Middle School, NJ
Schools, MD
                                                                David Wiley, PhD, Texas State University
Melissa Grigal, East Brunswick School District, NJ
                                                                Kelly Wilson, PhD, CHES, Texas State University
The Rev. Debra W. Haffner, MPH, M.Div., Religious Institute
                                                                Pam Wilson, MSW, Sexuality Educator and Trainer
Bonni C. Hodges, PhD, State University of New York College
at Cortland                                                     Susan N. Wilson, MSEd, Sexuality Education Consultant
Heather Holaday, District of Columbia Public Schools            Michael Young, PhD, FAAHB, New Mexico State University
Mark Huffman, MTS, Independent Trainer and Consultant
Pete Hunt, MPH, MEd, Centers for Disease Control and            The reviewers above provided many valuable comments
Prevention (CDC),Division of Adolescent and School Health       to the draft documents. Organizational affiliations are
                                                                included for identification purposes only.

                                                                                                                             5
National Sexuality Education Standards

Introduction and Background
The goal of the National Sexuality Education Standards:           • Provide a clear rationale for teaching sexuality educa-
Core Content and Skills, K–12 is to provide clear, consistent       tion content and skills at different grade levels that
                                                                    is evidence-informed, age-appropriate and theory-
and straightforward guidance on the essential minimum,              driven.
core content for sexuality education that is developmen-          • Support schools in improving academic performance
tally and age-appropriate for students in grades K–12.The           by addressing a content area that is both highly rel-
development of these standards is a result of an ongoing            evant to students and directly related to high school
initiative, the Future of Sex Education (FoSE). Forty individ-      graduation rates.
uals from the fields of health education, sexuality educa-        • Present sexual development as a normal, natural,
                                                                    healthy part of human development that should be a
tion, public health, public policy, philanthropy and advo-          part of every health education curriculum.
cacy convened for a two-day meeting in December 2008
                                                                  • Offer clear, concise recommendations for school per-
to create a strategic plan for sexuality education policy and       sonnel on what is age-appropriate to teach students
implementation. A key strategic priority that emerged from          at different grade levels.
this work was the creation of national sexuality education        • Translate an emerging body of research related to
standards to advance the implementation of sexuality                school-based sexuality education so that it can be put
education in US public schools.                                     into practice in the classroom.
Specifically, the National Sexuality Education Standards         The National Health Education Standards2 (NHES) heav-
were developed to address the inconsistent implementa-           ily influenced the development of the National Sexuality
tion of sexuality education nationwide and the limited time      Education Standards. First created in 1995 and updated in
allocated to teaching the topic. Health education, which         2007, the NHES were developed by the Joint Committee on
typically covers a broad range of topics including sexuality     National Health Education Standards of the American Can-
education, is given very little time in the school curricu-      cer Society and widely adopted by states and local school
lum. According to the School Health Policies and Practices       districts. The NHES focus on a student’s ability to under-
Study, a national survey conducted by the Centers for            stand key concepts and learn particular skills for using that
Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Adolescent          content. These standards were developed to serve as the
School Health to assess school health policies and practic-      underpinning for health education knowledge and skills
es, a median total of 17.2 hours is devoted to instruction in    students should attain by grades 2, 5, 8 and 12. The NHES
HIV, pregnancy and STD prevention: 3.1 hours in elemen-          do not address any specific health content areas, includ-
tary, 6 hours in middle and 8.1 hours in high school.1           ing content for sexuality education.
Given these realities, the National Sexuality Education          The National Sexuality Education Standards were further
Standards were designed to:                                      informed by the work of the CDC’s Health Education Curric-
  • Outline what, based on research and extensive profes-        ulum Analysis Tool (HECAT)3; existing state and internation-
    sional expertise, are the minimum, essential content         al education standards that include sexual health content;
    and skills for sexuality education K–12 given student        the Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality Education:
    needs, limited teacher preparation and typically avail-
    able time and resources.                                     Kindergarten – 12th Grade4; and the Common Core State
  • Assist schools in designing and delivering sexuality ed-     Standards for English Language Arts and Mathematics5,
    ucation K–12 that is planned, sequential and part of a       recently adopted by most states.
    comprehensive school health education approach.

6
Rationale for Sexuality Education in Public Schools

Rationale for Sexuality
Education in Public Schools
For years, research has highlighted the need to provide         Evaluations of comprehensive sexuality education pro-
effective, comprehensive sexuality education to young           grams show that many of these programs can help youth
people. The US has one of the highest teen pregnancy            delay the onset of sexual activity, reduce the frequency of
rates in the industrialized world.6 Each year in the US,        sexual activity, reduce the number of sexual partners, and
more than 750,000 women ages 15–19 become pregnant,7            increase condom and contraceptive use.16 17 Researchers
with more than 80 percent of these pregnancies unin-            recently examined the National Survey of Family Growth to
tended.8 Furthermore, while young people in the US ages         determine the impact of sexuality education on sexual risk-
15–25 make up only one-quarter of the sexually active           taking for young people ages 15-19, and found that teens
population, they contract about half of the 19 million sexu-    who received comprehensive sexuality education were 50
ally transmitted diseases (STDs) annually. This equates to      percent less likely to report a pregnancy than those who
one in four sexually active teenagers contracting a sexually    received abstinence-only education.18
transmitted disease each year.9 And young people ages           The CDC has also repeatedly found that student health
13–29 account for about one-third of the estimated 50,000       behaviors and good grades are related, stating: “…students
new HIV infections each year, the largest share of any age      who do not engage in health-risk behaviors receive higher
group.10                                                        grades than their classmates who do engage in health-risk
There is also a pressing need to address harassment, bul-       behaviors.”19
lying and relationship violence in our schools, which have      Further, studies show that physical and emotional health-
a significant impact on a student’s emotional and physical      related problems may inhibit young people from learning
well-being as well as on academic success. According to         by reducing their motivation to learn; diminishing their
the 2009 National School Climate Survey, nearly 9 out of        feelings of connectedness to school; and contributing to
10 lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) students        absenteeism and drop out.13 20
reported being harassed in the previous year. Two-thirds of
LGBT students reported feeling unsafe and nearly one-third      An example related to sexuality education is teen pregnancy.
skipped at least one day of school because of concerns          Teen pregnancy often takes a particular toll on school con-
about their personal safety. LGBT students who reported         nectedness for both partners, representing a major disrup-
frequent harassment also suffered from lower grade point        tion in many teens’ lives and making it difficult to remain
averages.11                                                     in and/or engaged in school. Many pregnant and parenting
                                                                teens experience lower grades and higher dropout rates
Similarly, teen relationship violence continues to be a         than their non-parenting peers. In fact, research shows
pressing problem. Although frequently under-reported, ten       that only 51 percent of pregnant and parenting teens
percent of teens are physically harmed by their boyfriend       graduate from high school as compared to 89 percent of
or girlfriend in a given year.12                                their non-pregnant and parenting peers.21
Studies have repeatedly found that health programs in           Given the evidence that connects lower risk behaviors
school can help young people succeed academically.              to academic success, schools clearly have as vested an
The most effective strategy is a strategic and coordinated      interest in keeping students healthy as do parents and
approach to health that includes family and community           other community members. In providing comprehensive
involvement, school health services, a healthy school           sexuality education programs, schools support student
environment and health education, which includes sexual-        health and as such further foster young people’s academic
ity education.13 14 15 In fact, an extensive review of school   achievement.
health initiatives found that programs that included health
education had a positive effect on overall academic out-        Parents overwhelmingly favor comprehensive sexual-
comes, including reading and math scores.15                     ity education in public school at the national and state

                                                                                                                                7
National Sexuality Education Standards

levels.22 23 24 25 In 2004, National Public Radio (NPR), the    fulfill a key recommendation of the White House Office of
Kaiser Family Foundation and the Kennedy School of Gov-         National AIDS Policy’s National HIV and AIDS Strategy for
ernment released a poll that indicated:                         the United States, which calls for educating all Americans
  • Ninety-three percent of parents of junior high school       about the threat of HIV and how to prevent it. This recom-
    students and 91 percent of parents of high school stu-      mendation includes the goal of educating young people
    dents believe it is very or somewhat important to have      about HIV and emphasizes the important role schools can
    sexuality education as part of the school curriculum.
                                                                play in providing access to current and accurate informa-
  • Ninety-five percent of parents of junior high school
    students and 93 percent of parents of high school           tion. The strategy notes that it is important to provide
    students believe that birth control and other methods       access to a baseline of information that is grounded in the
    of preventing pregnancy are appropriate topics for          benefits of abstinence and delaying or limiting sexual activ-
    sexuality education programs in schools.                    ity, while ensuring that youth who make the decision to
  • Approximately 75 percent of parents believed that           be sexually active have the information they need to take
    the topic of sexual orientation should be included in
    sexuality education programs and “discussed in a way        steps to protect themselves.27
    that provides a fair and balanced presentation of the
    facts and different views in society.”                      In addition, the National Sexuality Education Standards sat-
                                                                isfy a key recommendation of the Office of the Surgeon
  • Eighty-eight percent of parents of junior high school
    students and 85 percent of parents of high school stu-      General’s National Prevention and Health Promotion
    dents believe information on how to use and where to        Strategy, which calls for the provision of effective sexual
    get contraceptives is an appropriate topic for sexuality    health education, especially for adolescents. This strategy
    education programs in schools.26
                                                                notes that medically accurate, developmentally appropri-
The National Sexuality Education Standards set forth mini-      ate, and evidence-based sexual health education provides
mum, essential sexuality education core content and skills      students with the skills and resources that help them make
responsive to the needs of students and in service to their     informed and responsible decisions.28
overall academic achievement and sexual health. They

National Sexuality
Education Standards
The Role of Education Standards                                 develop at different rates and some content may need to
                                                                be adapted based on the needs of the students.
Educational standards are commonplace in public educa-
tion and are a key component in developing a rich learning      Sexuality education standards specifically should accom-
experience for students. The purpose of standards in gen-       plish the following:
eral is to provide clear expectations about what students         • Provide a framework for curriculum development,
should know and be able to do by the conclusion of certain           instruction and student assessment.
grade levels. Other equally important components of the           • Reflect the research-based characteristics of effective
student learning experience include pre-service teacher              sexuality education.
training, professional development and ongoing support            • Be informed by relevant health behavior theories and
and mentoring for teachers, clear school policies that sup-          models.
port sexuality education implementation and the teachers          • Focus on health within the context of the world in
who deliver sexuality education, a sequential, age-appro-            which students live.
priate curriculum that allows students to practice key skills     • Focus on the emotional, intellectual, physical and
                                                                     social dimensions of sexual health.
and assessment tools for all of these elements.
                                                                  • Teach functional knowledge and essential personal
Standards are an important part of the educational pro-              and social skills that contribute directly to healthy
cess, but they do not provide specific guidance on how a             sexuality.
topic area should be taught. They also generally do not           • Focus on health promotion, including both abstinence
address special needs students, students for whom English            from and risk reduction pertaining to unsafe sexual
                                                                     behaviors.
is their second language, or students with any of the other
unique attributes of a given classroom or school setting.         • Consider the developmental appropriateness of mate-
                                                                     rial for students in specific grade spans.
In addition, although recommendations made here are               • Include a progression from more concrete to higher-
based on grade level, children of the same age often                 order thinking skills.

8
National Sexuality Education Standards

 • Allow for the integration of more general health con-
   tent as appropriate.2
                                                                  CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE
                                                                  SEXUALITY EDUCATION
Goal of the National Sexuality Education Standards
                                                                  Focuses on specific behavioral outcomes.
The goal of the National Sexuality Education Standards:
Core Content and Skills, K–12 is:                                 Addresses individual values and group
To provide clear, consistent and straightforward guidance
                                                                  norms that support health-enhancing
on the essential minimum, core content for sexuality edu-
                                                                  behaviors.
cation that is age-appropriate for students in grades K–12.       Focuses on increasing personal
                                                                  perceptions of risk and harmfulness of
Guiding Values and Principles                                     engaging in specific health risk behaviors,
                                                                  as well as reinforcing protective factors.
The National Sexuality Education Standards are informed
by the following guiding values and principles based on           Addresses social pressures and
current theory, research in the field and the National            influences.
Health Education Standards Review and Revision Panel:
                                                                  Builds personal and social competence.
 1. Academic achievement and the health status of stu-
    dents are interrelated, and should be recognized as           Provides functional knowledge that is
    such.                                                         basic, accurate and directly contributes
                                                                  to health- promoting decisions and
 2. All students, regardless of physical or intellectual          behaviors.
    ability, deserve the opportunity to achieve personal
    health and wellness, including sexual health.                 Uses strategies designed to personalize
 3. Instruction by qualified sexuality education teachers is
                                                                  information and engage students.
    essential for student achievement.                            Provides age-and developmentally-
 4. Sexuality education should teach both information and         appropriate information, learning
    essential skills that are necessary to adopt, practice,       strategies, teaching methods and
    and maintain healthy relationships and behaviors.             materials.
 5. Students need opportunities to engage in cooperative          Incorporates learning strategies, teaching
    and active learning strategies, and sufficient time must      methods and materials that are culturally
    be allocated for students to practice skills relating to      inclusive.
    sexuality education.                                          Provides adequate time for instruction
 6. Sexuality education should encourage the use of tech-         and learning.
    nology to access multiple valid sources of information,
    recognizing the significant role that technology plays
                                                                  Provides opportunities to reinforce skills
    in young people’s lives.
                                                                  and positive health behaviors.
 7. Local curriculum planners should implement existing           Provides opportunities to make
    or develop new curricula based on local health needs.         connections with other influential
                                                                  persons.
 8. Students need multiple opportunities and a variety of
    assessment strategies to determine their achievement          Includes teacher information and plan for
    of the sexuality education standards and performance          professional development and training to
    indicators.                                                   enhance effectiveness of instruction and
 9. Improvements in public health, including sexual health,
                                                                  student learning.2
    can contribute to a reduction in health care costs.
10. Effective health education can contribute to the estab-     “learning occurs not merely within the learner but also in a
    lishment of a healthy and productive citizenry.2            particular social context,”29 there are several key concepts
                                                                addressed within the National Sexuality Education Stan-
Theoretical Framework                                           dards, including:
The National Sexuality Education Standards seek to ad-              Personalization. The ability of students to perceive
dress both the functional knowledge related to sexuality            the core content and skills as relevant to their lives
and the specific skills necessary to adopt healthy behaviors        increases the likelihood that they will both learn and
and reflect the tenets of social learning theory, social cog-       retain them. Ensuring that students see themselves
nitive theory and the social ecological model of preven-            represented in the materials and learning activities
tion. From social learning theory, which recognizes that            used can assist in furthering personalization.

                                                                                                                             9
National Sexuality Education Standards

     Susceptibility. It is widely understood that many               Skills. Mastery of functional knowledge is necessary
     young people do not perceive that they are suscep-              but not sufficient to influence behaviors. Skill devel-
     tible to the risks of certain behaviors, including sexual       opment is critical to a student’s ability to apply core
     activity. Learning activities should encourage students         content to their lives.29
     to assess the relative risks of various behaviors, with-    In addition to social learning theory, social cognitive theory
     out exaggeration, to highlight their susceptibility to      (SCT) is reflected throughout the National Sexuality Educa-
     the potential negative outcomes of those behaviors.         tion Standards. Like social learning theory, SCT emphasizes
     Self-Efficacy. Even if students believe they are suscep-    self-efficacy, but adds in the motivation of the learners and
     tible, they may not believe they can do anything to         an emphasis on the affective or emotional learning do-
     reduce their level of risk. Helping students overcome       main, an invaluable component of learning about human
     misinformation and develop confidence by practicing         sexuality.30
     skills necessary to manage risk are key to a successful     Finally, the social ecological model of prevention also
     sexuality education curriculum.                             informed the development of these standards. This model
     Social Norms. Given that middle and high school             focuses on individual, interpersonal, community and soci-
     students are highly influenced by their peers, the per-     ety influences and the role of these influences on people
     ception of what other students are, or are not, doing       over time. Developmentally, the core content and skills for
     influences their behavior. Debunking perceptions and        kindergarten and early elementary focus on the individual
     highlighting positive behaviors among teens (i.e., the      student and their immediate surroundings (e.g., their
     majority of teens are abstinent in middle school and        family). At the middle and high school levels, core content
     early high school and when they first engage in sexual      and skills focus on the expanding world of students that
     intercourse many use condoms) can further the adop-         includes their friends and other peers, the media, society
     tion of health-positive behaviors.                          and cultural influences.31

Topics and Key Indicators
There are seven topics chosen as the minimum, essential content and skills for K–12 sexuality education:
     Anatomy and Physiology (AP) provides a foundation for understanding basic human
     functioning.
     Puberty and Adolescent Development (PD) addresses a pivotal milestone for every
     person that has an impact on physical, social and emotional development.
     Identity (ID) addresses several fundamental aspects of people’s understanding of
     who they are.
     Pregnancy and Reproduction (PR) addresses information about how pregnancy hap-
     pens and decision-making to avoid a pregnancy.
     Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV (SH) provides both content and skills for
     understanding and avoiding STDs and HIV, including how they are transmitted, their
     signs and symptoms and testing and treatment.
     Healthy Relationships (HR) offers guidance to students on how to successfully navi-
     gate changing relationships among family, peers and partners. Special emphasis is
     given in the National Sexuality Education Standards to the increasing use and impact
     of technology within relationships.
     Personal Safety (PS) emphasizes the need for a growing awareness, creation and
     maintenance of safe school environments for all students.
These seven topics are organized following the eight National Health Education Standards.

10
Topics and Key Indicators

The National Sexuality Education Standards present per-                Key To Indicators
formance indicators – what students should know and be
                                                                                                  AP.2.CC.2
able to do by the end of grades 2, 5, 8, and 12 – based on
the eight National Health Education Standards listed in the
following table. In addition, the standards are divided into
seven specific sexuality education topics. The key to read-            Topic Abbreviation                   NHES Standard Item Number
                                                                                                             Abbreviation
ing the indicators appears to the right. The tables on the                                Grade Level
                                                                                        (i.e., by end of
following pages present the standards and performance                                  grade 2, 5, 8, 12)
indicators first by grade level and then by topic areas.

National Health Education Standards
 Core Concepts     Standard 1 Students will comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention to enhance
 CC                health.

 Analyzing         Standard 2 Students will analyze the influence of family, peers, culture, media, technology and other factors on
 Influences        health behaviors.
 INF

 Accessing         Standard 3 Students will demonstrate the ability to access valid information and products and services to enhance
 Information       health.
 AI

 Interpersonal     Standard 4 Students will demonstrate the ability to use interpersonal communication skills to enhance health and
 Communication     avoid or reduce health risks.
 IC

 Decision-Making   Standard 5 Students will demonstrate the ability to use decision-making skills to enhance health.
 DM

 Goal–Setting      Standard 6 Students will demonstrate the ability to use goal-setting skills to enhance health.
 GS

 Self Management   Standard 7 Students will demonstrate the ability to practice health-enhancing behaviors and avoid or reduce health
 SM                risks.

 Advocacy          Standard 8 Students will demonstrate the ability to advocate for personal, family and community health.
 ADV

                                                                                                                                          11
12
     Standards by Grade Level
     Grade K-2
                       Core Concepts        Analyzing           Accessing        Interpersonal            Decision-Making   Goal Setting   Self-Management Advocacy ADV
                       CC                   Influences INF      Information AI   Communication IC         DM                GS             SM
     Anatomy & Physiology
     By the end of     Use proper
     the 2nd grade,    names for body
                                                                                                                                                                          National Sexuality Education Standards

     students should   parts, including
     be able to:       male and
                       female anatomy
                       AP.2.CC.1
     Puberty and Adolescent Development
                       No items
     Identity
     By the end of     Describe             Provide examples
     the 2nd grade,    differences and      of how friends,
     students should   similarities in      family, media,
     be able to:       how boys and         society and
                       girls may be         culture influence
                       expected to act      ways in which
                       ID.2.CC.1            boys and girls
                                            think they should
                                            act
                                            ID.2.INF.1
     Pregnancy and Reproduction
      By the end of   Explain that all
      the 2nd grade,  living things
      students should reproduce
      be able to:     PR.2.CC.1
     Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV
                       No items
     Healthy Relationships
     By the end of     Identify different                                        Demonstrate ways
     the 2nd grade,    kinds of family                                           to show respect for
     students should   structures                                                different types of
     be able to:       HR.2.CC.1                                                 families
                                                                                 HR.2.IC.1

                       Describe the                                              Identify healthy ways
                       characteristics                                           for friends to express
                       of a friend                                               feelings to each other
                       HR.2.CC.2                                                 HR.2.IC.2
Core Concepts       Analyzing        Accessing              Interpersonal            Decision-Making   Goal Setting   Self-Management Advocacy ADV
                       CC                  Influences INF   Information AI         Communication IC         DM                GS             SM
     Personal Safety
     By the end of     Explain that all                     Identify parents       Demonstrate how to                                        Demonstrate how
     the 2nd grade,    people, including                    and other trusted      respond if someone                                        to clearly say no,
     students should   children, have                       adults they can tell   is touching them in a                                     how to leave an
     be able to:       the right to                         if they are feeling    way that makes them                                       uncomfortable
                       tell others not                      uncomfortable          feel uncomfortable                                        situation, and how
                       to touch their                       about being            PS.2.IC.1                                                 to identify and
                       body when they                       touched                                                                          talk with a trusted
                       do not want                          PS.2.AI.1                                                                        adult if someone
                       to be touched                                                                                                         is touching them
                       PS.2.CC.1                                                                                                             in a way that
                                                                                                                                             makes them feel
                                                                                                                                             uncomfortable
                                                                                                                                             PS.2.SM.1

                       Explain what
                       bullying and
                       teasing are
                       PS.2.CC.2

                       Explain why                          Identify parents       Demonstrate how to
                       bullying and                         and other trusted      respond if someone
                       teasing are                          adults they can tell   is bullying or teasing
                       wrong                                if they are being      them
                       PS.2.CC.3                            bullied or teased      PS.2.IC.2
                                                            PS.2.AI.2

13
                                                                                                                                                                            Standards by Grade Level
14
     Grade 3-5
                       Core Concepts       Analyzing          Accessing             Interpersonal      Decision-Making   Goal Setting   Self-Management Advocacy ADV
                       CC                  Influences INF     Information AI        Communication IC   DM                GS             SM
     Anatomy & Physiology
     By the end of     Describe male                          Identify medically-
     the 5th grade,    and female                             accurate
     students should   reproductive                           information about
     be able to:       systems including                      female and male
                       body parts and                         reproductive
                       their functions                        anatomy
                       AP.5.CC.1                              AP.5.AI.1
                                                                                                                                                                                     National Sexuality Education Standards

     Puberty and Adolescent Development
     By the end of     Explain the         Describe how       Identify medically-                                                       Explain ways to
     the 5th grade,    physical, social    friends, family,   accurate                                                                  manage the physical
     students should   and emotional       media, society     information and                                                           and emotional
     be able to:       changes that        and culture can    resources about                                                           changes associated
                       occur during        influence ideas    puberty and                                                               with puberty
                       puberty and         about body image   personal hygiene                                                          PD.5.SM.1
                       adolescence         PD.5.INF.1         PD.5.AI.1
                       PD.5.CC.1

                       Explain how the                        Identify parents
                       timing of puberty                      or other trusted
                       and adolescent                         adults of whom
                       development                            students can ask
                       varies                                 questions about
                       considerably                           puberty and
                       and can still                          adolescent health
                       be healthy                             issues
                       PD.5.CC.2                              PD.5.AI.2

                       Describe how
                       puberty prepares
                       human bodies
                       for the potential
                       to reproduce
                       PAD.5.CC.3
     Identity
     By the end of     Define sexual                          Identify parents                                                          Demonstrate ways       Demonstrate
     the 5th grade,    orientation as                         or other trusted                                                          to treat others with   ways students can
     students should   the romantic                           adults of whom                                                            dignity and respect    work together to
     be able to:       attraction of an                       students can ask                                                          ID.5.SM.1              promote dignity
                       individual to                          questions about                                                                                  and respect for all
                       someone of the                         sexual orientation                                                                               people
                       same gender or a                       ID.5.AI.1                                                                                        ID.5.ADV.1
                       different gender
                       ID.5.CC.1
Core Concepts     Analyzing           Accessing              Interpersonal             Decision-Making   Goal Setting   Self-Management Advocacy ADV
                       CC                Influences INF      Information AI         Communication IC          DM                GS             SM
     Pregnancy and Reproduction
     By the end of     Describe
     the 5th grade,    the process
     students should   of human
     be able to:       reproduction
                       PR.5.CC.1
     Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV
     By the end of     Define HIV and
     the 5th grade,    identify some
     students should   age appropriate
     be able to:       methods of
                       transmission,
                       as well as ways
                       to prevent
                       transmission
                       SH.5.CC.1
     Healthy Relationships
     By the end of     Describe the      Compare positive    Identify parents       Demonstrate positive                                       Demonstrate ways
     the 5th grade,    characteristics   and negative ways   and other trusted      ways to communicate                                        to treat others with
     students should   of healthy        friends and peers   adults they can        differences of opinion                                     dignity and respect
     be able to:       relationships     can influence       talk to about          while maintaining                                          HR.5.SM.1
                       HR.5.CC.1         relationships       relationships          relationships
                                         HR.5.INF.1          HR.5.AI.1              HR.5.IC.1
     Personal Safety
     By the end of     Define teasing,   Explain why         Identify parents       Demonstrate ways to                                        Discuss effective       Persuade others to
     the 5th grade,    harassment and    people tease,       and other trusted      communicate about                                          ways in which           take action when
     students should   bullying and      harass or bully     adults they can tell   how one is being                                           students could          someone else
     be able to:       explain why       others              if they are being      treated                                                    respond when they       is being teased,
                       they are wrong    PS.5.INF.1          teased, harassed or    PS.5.IC.1                                                  are or someone          harassed or bullied
                       PS.5.CC.1                             bullied PS.5.AI.1                                                                 else is being teased,   PS.5.ADV.1
                                                                                                                                               harassed or bullied
                                                                                                                                               PS.5.SM.1

                       Define sexual                         Identify parents       Demonstrate refusal
                       harassment and                        or other trusted       skills (e.g. clear “no”
                       sexual abuse                          adults they can tell   statement, walk
                       PS.5.CC.2                             if they are being      away, repeat refusal)
                                                             sexually harassed      PS.5.IC.2
                                                             or abused PS.5.AI.2

15
                                                                                                                                                                                             Standards by Grade Level
16
     Grades 6-8
                       Core Concepts       Analyzing              Accessing             Interpersonal            Decision-Making Goal Setting   Self-Management   Advocacy ADV
                       CC                  Influences INF         Information AI        Communication IC         DM                   GS        SM
     Anatomy and Physiology
     By the end of     Describe male                              Identify accurate
     the 8th grade,    and female sexual                          and credible
     students should   and reproductive                           sources of
     be able to:       systems including                          information about
                       body parts and                             sexual health
                       their functions                            AP.8.AI.1
                       AP.8.CC.1
                                                                                                                                                                                      National Sexuality Education Standards

     Puberty and Adolescent Development
     By the end of     Describe the        Analyze how            Identify medically-                            Demonstrate the
     the 8th grade,    physical, social,   friends, family,       accurate sources                               use of a decision-
     students should   cognitive and       media, society         of information                                 making model
     be able to:       emotional           and culture can        about puberty,                                 and evaluate
                       changes of          influence self-        adolescent                                     possible outcomes
                       adolescence         concept and body       development and                                of decisions
                       PD.8.CC.1           image                  sexuality                                      adolescents might
                                           PD.8.INF.1             PD.8.AI.1                                      make
                                                                                                                 PD.8.DM.1
     Identity
     By the end of     Differentiate       Analyze external       Access accurate       Communicate                                                               Develop a plan to
     the 8th grade,    between gender      influences that        information about     respectfully with                                                         promote dignity
     students should   identity, gender    have an impact         gender identity,      and about people                                                          and respect for
     be able to:       expression          on one’s attitudes     gender expression     of all gender                                                             all people in the
                       and sexual          about gender, sexual   and sexual            identities, gender                                                        school community
                       orientation         orientation and        orientation           expressions and sexual                                                    ID.8.ADV.1
                       ID.8.CC.1           gender identity        ID.8.AI.1             orientations
                                           ID.8.INF.1                                   ID.8.IC.1

                       Explain the range
                       of gender roles
                       ID.8.CC.2
     Pregnancy and Reproduction
     By the end of     Define sexual
     the 8th grade,    intercourse and
     students should   its relationship
     be able to:       to human
                       reproduction
                       PR.8.CC.1

                       Define sexual       Examine how                                  Demonstrate the
                       abstinence          alcohol and other                            use of effective
                       as it relates       substances, friends,                         communication skills
                       to pregnancy        family, media,                               to support one’s
                       prevention          society and culture                          decision to abstain
                       PR.8.CC.2           influence decisions                          from sexual behaviors
                                           about engaging in                            PR.8.IC.1
                                           sexual behaviors
                                           PR.8.INF.1
Core Concepts         Analyzing           Accessing             Interpersonal              Decision-Making Goal Setting          Self-Management      Advocacy ADV
                       CC                    Influences INF      Information AI        Communication IC           DM                  GS                SM
     Pregnancy and Reproduction (continued)
     By the end of     Explain the health                        Identify medically-   Demonstrate the            Apply a decision-                     Describe the steps
     the 8th grade,    benefits, risks and                       accurate resources    use of effective           making model                          to using a condom
     students should   effectiveness rates                       about pregnancy       communication              to various sexual                     correctly
     be able to:       of various methods                        prevention and        and negotiation            health decisions                      PR.8.SM.1
                       of contraception,                         reproductive          skills about the use       PR.8.DM.1
                       including                                 health care           of contraception
                       abstinence                                PR.8.AI.1             including abstinence
                       and condoms                                                     and condoms
                       PR.8.CC.3                                                       PR.8.IC.2

                       Define                                    Identify medically-
                       emergency                                 accurate
                       contraception                             information
                       and its use                               about emergency
                       PR.8.CC.4                                 contraception
                                                                 PR.8.AI.2

                       Describe the                              Identify medically-
                       signs and                                 accurate sources of
                       symptoms of                               pregnancy-related
                       a pregnancy                               information and
                       PR.8.CC.5                                 support including
                                                                 pregnancy options,
                                                                 safe surrender
                                                                 policies and
                                                                 prenatal care
                                                                 PR.8.AI.3

                       Identify prenatal
                       practices that can
                       contribute to a
                       healthy pregnancy
                       PR.8.CC.6
     Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV
     By the end of     Define STDs,                              Identify medically-
     the 8th grade,    including HIV,                            accurate
     students should   and how they                              information about
     be able to:       are and are not                           STDs, including HIV
                       transmitted                               SH.8.AI.1
                       SH.8.CC.1

                       Compare and           Analyze the                               Demonstrate the                                Develop a plan    Describe the steps
                       contrast behaviors,   impact of alcohol                         use of effective                               to eliminate or   to using a condom
                       including             and other                                 communication skills                           reduce risk for   correctly
                       abstinence,           drugs on safer                            to reduce or eliminate                         STDs, including   SH.8.SM.1
                       to determine          sexual decision-                          risk for STDs, including                       HIV
                       the potential         making and                                HIV                                            SH.8.GS.1
                       risk of STD/HIV       sexual behaviors                          SH.8.IC.1
                       transmission          SH.8.INF.1
                       from each

17
                                                                                                                                                                                            Standards by Grade Level

                       SH.8.CC.2
18
     Grades 6-8 (continued)
                       Core Concepts       Analyzing             Accessing            Interpersonal           Decision-Making Goal Setting        Self-Management        Advocacy ADV
                       CC                  Influences INF        Information AI       Communication IC        DM               GS                 SM
     Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV (continued)
     By the end of     Describe the                              Identify local STD
     the 8th grade,    signs, symptoms                           and HIV testing
     students should   and potential                             and treatment
     be able to:       impacts of STDs,                          resources
                       including HIV                             SH.8.AI.2
                       SH.8.CC.3
     Healthy Relationships
                                                                                                                                                                                        National Sexuality Education Standards

     By the end of     Compare and         Analyze the ways                                                                                       Explain the criteria
     the 8th grade,    contrast the        in which friends,                                                                                      for evaluating
     students should   characteristics     family, media,                                                                                         the health of
     be able to:       of healthy          society and culture                                                                                    a relationship
                       and unhealthy       can influence                                                                                          HR.8.SM.1
                       relationships       relationships
                       HR.8.CC.1           HR.8.INF.1

                       Describe the
                       potential impacts
                       of power
                       differences such
                       as age, status or
                       position within
                       relationships
                       HR.8.CC.2

                       Analyze the                                                    Demonstrate
                       similarities and                                               communication skills
                       differences                                                    that foster healthy
                       between                                                        relationships
                       friendships                                                    HR.8.IC.1
                       and romantic
                       relationships
                       HR.8.CC.3

                       Describe a                                                     Demonstrate effective
                       range of ways                                                  ways to communicate
                       people express                                                 personal boundaries
                       affection within                                               and show respect for
                       various types                                                  the boundaries of
                       of relationships                                               others
                       HR.8.CC.4                                                      HR.8.IC.2

                       Describe the        Analyze the impact                         Demonstrate effective                   Develop a plan      Describe strategies
                       advantages and      of technology                              skills to negotiate                     to stay safe when   to use social media
                       disadvantages of    and social media                           agreements about the                    using social        safely, legally
                       communicating       on friendships                             use of technology in                    media               and respectfully
                       using technology    and relationships                          relationships                           HR.8.GS.1           HR.8.SM.2
                       and social media    HR.8.INF.2                                 HR.8.IC.3
                       HR.8.CC.5
Core Concepts       Analyzing        Accessing           Interpersonal           Decision-Making Goal Setting   Self-Management       Advocacy ADV
                       CC                  Influences INF   Information AI      Communication IC        DM               GS            SM
     Personal Safety
     By the end of     Describe                             Identify sources    Demonstrate ways to                                    Describe ways to      Advocate for safe
     the 8th grade,    situations and                       of support such     communicate with                                       treat others with     environments
     students should   behaviors that                       as parents or       trusted adults about                                   dignity and respect   that encourage
     be able to:       constitute                           other trusted       bullying, harassment,                                  PS.8.SM.1             dignified and
                       bullying, sexual                     adults that they    abuse or assault                                                             respectful
                       harassment,                          can go to if they   PS.8.IC.1                                                                    treatment
                       sexual abuse,                        are or someone                                                                                   of everyone
                       sexual assault,                      they know is                                                                                     PS.8.ADV.1
                       incest, rape and                     being bullied,
                       dating violence                      harassed, abused
                       PS.8.CC.1                            or assaulted
                                                            PS.8.AI.1

                       Discuss the                                                                                                     Demonstrate ways
                       impacts of                                                                                                      they can respond
                       bullying, sexual                                                                                                when someone is
                       harassment,                                                                                                     being bullied or
                       sexual abuse,                                                                                                   harassed
                       sexual assault,                                                                                                 PS.8.SM.2
                       incest, rape and
                       dating violence
                       and why they are
                       wrong
                       PS.8.CC.2

                       Explain that no
                       one has the right
                       to touch anyone
                       else in a sexual
                       manner if they
                       do not want
                       to be touched
                       PS.8.CC.3

                       Explain why
                       a person who
                       has been raped
                       or sexually
                       assaulted is not
                       at fault
                       PS.8.CC.4

19
                                                                                                                                                                                 Standards by Grade Level
20
     Grades 9-12
                        Core Concepts        Analyzing           Accessing           Interpersonal           Decision-Making      Goal Setting   Self-Management      Advocacy ADV
                        CC                   Influences INF      Information AI      Communication IC        DM                   GS             SM
     Anatomy and Physiology
      By the end of     Describe the
      the 12th grade,   human sexual
      students should   response cycle,
      be able to:       including the role
                        hormones play
                        AP.12.CC.1
     Puberty and Adolescent Development
                                                                                                                                                                                        National Sexuality Education Standards

      By the end of     Analyze              Analyze how                                                     Apply a decision-
      the 12th grade,   how brain            friends, family,                                                making model to
      students should   development          media, society                                                  various situations
      be able to:       has an impact on     and culture can                                                 relating to sexual
                        cognitive, social    influence self-                                                 health
                        and emotional        concept and body                                                PD.12.DM.1
                        changes of           image
                        adolescence and      PD.12.INF.1
                        early adulthood
                        PD.12.CC.1
     Identity
      By the end of     Differentiate        Analyze the                                                                                         Explain how to       Advocate for
      the 12th grade,   between              influence of                                                                                        promote safety,      school policies
      students should   biological           friends, family,                                                                                    respect, awareness   and programs
      be able to:       sex, sexual          media, society                                                                                      and acceptance       that promote
                        orientation, and     and culture on                                                                                      ID.12.SM.1           dignity and
                        gender identity      the expression                                                                                                           respect for all
                        and expression       of gender, sexual                                                                                                        ID.12.ADV.1
                        ID.12.CC.1           orientation and
                                             identity
                                             ID.12.INF.1

                        Distinguish
                        between sexual
                        orientation,
                        sexual behavior
                        and sexual
                        identity
                        ID.12.CC.2
     Pregnancy and Reproduction
      By the end of     Compare and          Analyze             Access medically-   Demonstrate ways to     Apply a decision-                   Describe the steps
      the 12th grade,   contrast the         influences          accurate            communicate decisions   making model                        to using a condom
      students should   advantages and       that may have       information about   about whether or        to choices about                    correctly
      be able to:       disadvantages        an impact on        contraceptive       when to engage in       contraception,                      PR.12.SM.1
                        of abstinence        deciding whether    methods,            sexual behaviors        including
                        and other            or when to          including           PR.12.IC.1              abstinence and
                        contraceptive        engage in sexual    abstinence and                              condoms
                        methods,             behaviors           condoms                                     PR.12.DM.1
                        including            PR.12.INF.1         PR.12.AI.1
                        condoms
                        PR.12.CC.1
Core Concepts        Analyzing           Accessing           Interpersonal      Decision-Making     Goal Setting   Self-Management   Advocacy ADV
                       CC                   Influences INF      Information AI      Communication IC   DM                  GS             SM
     Pregnancy and Reproduction (continued)
     By the end of     Define                                   Access medically-
     the 12th grade,   emergency                                accurate
     students should   contraception                            information
     be able to:       and describe its                         and resources
                       mechanism of                             about emergency
                       action                                   contraception
                       PR.12.CC.2                               PR.12.AI.2

                       Identify the
                       laws related to
                       reproductive
                       and sexual
                       health care
                       services (i.e.,
                       contraception,
                       pregnancy
                       options, safe
                       surrender
                       policies, prenatal
                       care)
                       PR.12.CC.3

                       Describe             Analyze internal    Access medically-
                       the signs of         and external        accurate
                       pregnancy            influences on       information about
                       PR.12.CC.4           decisions about     pregnancy and
                                            pregnancy options   pregnancy options
                                            PR.12.INF.2         PR.12.AI.3

                       Describe prenatal    Analyze factors     Access medically-                      Assess the skills
                       practices that       that influence      accurate                               and resources
                       can contribute       decisions about     information about                      needed to become
                       to or threaten       whether and         prenatal care                          a parent
                       a healthy            when to become a    services                               PR.12.DM.2
                       pregnancy            parent              PR.12.AI.4
                       PR.12.CC.5           PR.12.INF.3

                       Compare and
                       contrast the
                       laws relating
                       to pregnancy,
                       adoption,
                       abortion and
                       parenting
                       PR.12.CC.6

21
                                                                                                                                                                           Standards by Grade Level
22
     Grades 9-12 (continued)
                        Core Concepts         Analyzing               Accessing             Interpersonal             Decision-Making        Goal Setting      Self-Management        Advocacy ADV
                        CC                    Influences INF          Information AI        Communication IC          DM                     GS                SM
      Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV
     By the end of     Describe                                       Explain how to        Demonstrate skills to     Apply a decision-                        Analyze individual
     the 12th grade,   common                                         access local STD      communicate with a        making model                             responsibility about
     students should   symptoms of and                                and HIV testing       partner about STD and     to choices                               testing for and
     be able to:       treatments for                                 and treatment         HIV prevention and        about safer sex                          informing partners
                       STDs, including                                services              testing                   practices, including                     about STDs and HIV
                       HIV                                            SH.12.AI.1            SH.12.IC.1                abstinence and                           status
                       SH.12.CC.1                                                                                     condoms                                  SH.12.SM.1
                                                                                                                      SH.12.DM.1
                                                                                                                                                                                                        National Sexuality Education Standards

                       Evaluate the           Analyze factors         Access medically-                                                      Develop a plan    Describe the steps     Advocate for
                       effectiveness          that may influence      accurate                                                               to eliminate or   to using a condom      sexually active
                       of abstinence,         condom use and          prevention                                                             reduce risk for   correctly              youth to get
                       condoms and other      other safer sex         information about                                                      STDs, including   SH.12.SM.2             STD/HIV testing
                       safer sex methods      decisions               STDs, including HIV                                                    HIV                                      and treatment
                       in preventing the      SH.12.INF.1             SH.12.AI.2                                                             SH.12.GS.1                               SH.12.ADV.1
                       spread of STDs,
                       including HIV
                       SH.12.CC.2

                       Describe the
                       laws related to
                       sexual health care
                       services, including
                       STD and HIV testing
                       and treatment
                       SH.12.CC.3
     Healthy Relationships
     By the end of     Describe               Explain how media       Demonstrate           Demonstrate effective
     the 12th grade,   characteristics        can influence           how to access         strategies to avoid
     students should   of healthy and         one’s beliefs about     valid information     or end an unhealthy
     be able to:       unhealthy              what constitutes        and resources to      relationship
                       romantic and/or        a healthy sexual        help deal with        HR.12.IC.1
                       sexual relationships   relationship            relationships
                       HR.12.CC.1             HR.12.INF.1             HR.12.AI.1

                       Describe a
                       range of ways to
                       express affection
                       within healthy
                       relationships
                       HR.12.CC.2

                       Define sexual          Analyze factors,                              Demonstrate effective                                              Demonstrate respect
                       consent and            including alcohol                             ways to communicate                                                for the boundaries
                       explain its            and other                                     personal boundaries as                                             of others as they
                       implications for       substances, that can                          they relate to intimacy                                            relate to intimacy
                       sexual decision-       affect the ability to                         and sexual behavior                                                and sexual behavior
                       making                 give or perceive the                          HR.12.IC.2                                                         HR.12.SM.1
                       HR.12.CC.3             provision of consent
                                              to sexual activity
                                              HR.12.INF.2
Core Concepts         Analyzing               Accessing              Interpersonal            Decision-Making   Goal Setting GS   Self-Management       Advocacy ADV
                       CC                    Influences INF          Information AI         Communication IC         DM                                  SM
     Healthy Relationships
     By the end of     Evaluate the                                                                                                                      Describe strategies
     the 12th grade,   potentially                                                                                                                       to use social media
     students should   positive and                                                                                                                      safely, legally and
     be able to:       negative roles                                                                                                                    respectfully
                       of technology                                                                                                                     HR.12.SM.2
                       and social media
                       in relationships
                       HR.12.CC.4
     Personal Safety
     By the end of     Compare and                                   Access valid           Demonstrate effective                                                              Advocate
     the 12th grade,   contrast situations                           resources for          ways to communicate                                                                for safe
     students should   and behaviors that                            help if they           with trusted adults                                                                environments
     be able to:       may constitute                                or someone             about bullying,                                                                    that encourage
                       bullying, sexual                              they know are          harassment, abuse or                                                               dignified and
                       harassment,                                   being bullied          assault                                                                            respectful
                       sexual abuse,                                 or harassed,           PS.12.IC.1                                                                         treatment of
                       sexual assault,                               or have been                                                                                              everyone
                       incest, rape and                              sexually abused or                                                                                        PS.12.ADV.1
                       dating violence                               assaulted
                       PS.12.CC.1                                    PS.12.AI.1

                       Analyze the           Describe potential      Demonstrate ways       Identify ways in which
                       laws related to       impacts of power        to access accurate     they could respond
                       bullying, sexual      differences             information and        when someone else
                       harassment,           (e.g., age, status      resources for          is being bullied or
                       sexual abuse,         or position)            survivors of sexual    harassed
                       sexual assault,       within sexual           abuse, incest, rape,   PS.12.IC.2
                       incest, rape and      relationships           sexual harassment,
                       dating violence       PS.12.INF.1             sexual assault and
                       PS.12.CC.2                                    dating violence
                                                                     PS.12.AI.2

                       Explain why           Analyze the
                       using tricks,         external influences
                       threats or            and societal
                       coercion in           messages that
                       relationships is      impact attitudes
                       wrong                 about bullying,
                       PS.12.CC.3            sexual harassment,
                                             sexual abuse, sexual
                                             assault, incest, rape
                                             and dating violence
                                             PS.12.INF.2

                       Explain why
                       a person who
                       has been raped
                       or sexually
                       assaulted is not
                       at fault
                       PS.12.CC.4

23
                                                                                                                                                                                                Standards by Grade Level
24
     Standards by Topic Area
     Anatomy and Physiology
                     Core Concepts     Analyzing        Accessing             Interpersonal      Decision-   Goal Setting   Self-Management   Advocacy ADV
                     CC                Influences INF   Information AI        Communication IC   Making DM   GS             SM
     By the end of the 2nd grade, students should be able to:
                    Use proper
                                                                                                                                                             National Sexuality Education Standards

                    names for body
                    parts, including
                    male and
                    female anatomy
                    AP.2.CC.1
     By the end of the 5th grade, students should be able to:
                    Describe male                       Identify medically-
                    and female                          accurate
                    reproductive                        information about
                    systems                             female and male
                    including body                      reproductive
                    parts and their                     anatomy
                    functions                           AP.5.AI.1
                    AP.5.CC.1
     By the end of the 8th grade, students should be able to:
                    Describe male                       Identify accurate
                    and female                          and credible
                    sexual and                          sources about
                    reproductive                        sexual health
                    systems                             AP.8.AI.1
                    including body
                    parts and their
                    functions
                    AP.8.CC.1
     By the end of the 12th grade, students should be able to:
                    Describe the
                    human sexual
                    response cycle,
                    including the
                    role hormones
                    play
                    AP.12.CC.1
Puberty and Adolescent Development
                     Core Concepts      Analyzing             Accessing             Interpersonal      Decision-            Goal Setting GS   Self-Management       Advocacy ADV
                     CC                 Influences INF        Information AI        Communication IC   Making DM                              SM
     By the end of the 2nd grade, students should be able to:
                    No items
     By the end of the 5th grade, students should be able to:
                    Explain the         Describe how          Identify medically-                                                             Explain ways to
                    physical, social,   peers, media,         accurate                                                                        manage the physical
                    and emotional       family, society and   information and                                                                 and emotional
                    changes that        culture influence     resources about                                                                 changes associated
                    occur during        ideas about body      puberty and                                                                     with puberty
                    puberty and         image                 personal hygiene                                                                PD.5.SM.1
                    adolescence         PD.5.INF.1            PD.5.AI.1
                    PD.5.CC.1

                    Explain how the                           Identify parents
                    timing of puberty                         or other trusted
                    and adolescent                            adults of whom
                    development                               they can ask
                    varies                                    questions about
                    considerably                              puberty and
                    and can still be                          adolescent health
                    healthy                                   issues
                    PD.5.CC.2                                 PD.5.AI.2

                    Describe how
                    puberty prepares
                    human bodies for
                    the potential to
                    reproduce
                    PD.5.CC.3
     By the end of the 8th grade, students should be able to:
                    Describe the        Analyze how           Identify medically-                      Demonstrate
                    physical, social,   peers, media,         accurate sources                         the use of a
                    cognitive and       family, society and   of information                           decision- making
                    emotional           culture influence     about puberty,                           model to evaluate
                    changes of          self-concept and      adolescent                               possible outcomes
                    adolescence         body image            development and                          of decisions
                    PD.8.CC.1           PD.8.INF.1            sexuality                                adolescents might
                                                              PD.8.AI.1                                make
                                                                                                       PD.8.DM.1
     By the end of the 12th grade, students should be able to:
                    Analyze             Analyze how                                                    Apply a decision-
                    how brain           peers, media,                                                  making model to
                    development         family, society,                                               various situations
                    has an impact on    religion and                                                   relating to sexual
                    cognitive, social   culture influence                                              health
                    and emotional       self-concept and                                               PD.12.DM.1
                    changes of          body image
                    adolescence and     PD.12.INF.1
                    early adulthood

25
                                                                                                                                                                                   Standards by Topic Area

                    PD.12.CC.1
26
     Identity
                     Core Concepts       Analyzing              Accessing            Interpersonal            Decision-   Goal Setting   Self-Management        Advocacy ADV
                     CC                  Influences INF         Information AI       Communication IC         Making DM   GS             SM
     By the end of the 2nd grade, students should be able to:
                    Describe             Provide examples of
                    differences and      how friends, family,
                    similarities in      media, society and
                    how boys and         culture influence
                    girls may be         ways in which boys
                    expected to act      and girls think they
                    ID.2.CC.1            should act
                                         ID.2.INF.1
                                                                                                                                                                                      National Sexuality Education Standards

     By the end of the 5th grade, students should be able to:
                    Define sexual                               Identify parents                                                         Demonstrate ways       Demonstrate
                    orientation                                 or other trusted                                                         to treat others with   ways students can
                    as romantic                                 adults to whom                                                           dignity and respect    work together to
                    attraction to an                            they can ask                                                             ID.5.SM.1              promote dignity
                    individual of the                           questions about                                                                                 and respect for all
                    same gender or of                           sexual orientation                                                                              people
                    a different gender                          ID.5.AI.1                                                                                       ID.5.ADV.1
                    ID.5.CC.1
     By the end of the 8th grade, students should be able to:
                    Differentiate        Analyze external       Access accurate      Communicate                                                                Develop a plan to
                    between gender       influences that        information about    respectfully with and                                                      promote dignity
                    identity, gender     have an impact         gender identity,     about people of all                                                        and respect for
                    expression           on one’s attitudes     gender expression    gender identities,                                                         all people in the
                    and sexual           about gender,          and sexual           gender expressions and                                                     school community
                    orientation          sexual orientation     orientation          sexual orientations                                                        ID.8.ADV.1
                    ID.8.CC.1            and gender identity    ID.8.AI.1            ID.8.IC.1
                                         ID.8.INF.1

                    Explain the range
                    of gender roles
                    ID.8.CC.2
     By the end of the 12th grade, students should be able to:
                    Differentiate        Analyze the                                                                                     Explain how to         Advocate for
                    between              influence of peers,                                                                             promote safety,        school policies
                    biological           media, family,                                                                                  respect, awareness     and programs that
                    sex, sexual          society, religion                                                                               and acceptance         promote dignity
                    orientation, and     and culture on                                                                                  ID.12.SM.1             and respect for all
                    gender identity      the expression                                                                                                         ID.12.ADV.1
                    and expression       of gender, sexual
                    ID.12.CC.1           orientation and
                                         identity
                                         ID.12.INF.1

                    Distinguish
                    between sexual
                    orientation,
                    sexual behavior
                    and sexual
                    identity
                    ID.12.CC.2
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