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CGE SOLUTION HOW IT WORKS AT A GLANCE Carrier Gas Extraction (CGE) is our Wastewater is sent through a heat exchanger where it is heated up before being • Novel Bubble Column Device provides efficient heat flagship Humidification pumped into the top of a direct-contact humidifier column. Simultaneously, transfer Dehumidification technology that ambient air enters the bottom of the humidifier. As the air rises through the has applications for both Zero humidifier, the air and water interact resulting in evaporation. The vapor-air • Elimination of metallic evaporator and condenser Liquid Discharge (ZLD) as well as mixture is then sent to the bottom of a multi-stage bubble column dehumidifer reduces capital cost Brine Concentration at half the while a closed loop of fresh water is introduced to the top of the chamber. In each cost of water as traditional stage of the bubble column, micro-bubbles are created in shallow pools of fresh • Decoupling of valuable heat transfer surface from evaporators. water and from the surface of these bubbles condensation occurs producing the sacrificial separation surface reduces fresh water. Heat is released in the condensation process, which is then recycled pretreatment requirement This evaporator-alternative mimics back into the heat recovery heat exchanger to minimize the energy consumption. nature’s rain cycle to reduce the • Thermodynamic balancing reduces energy cost of treatment while increasing One major breakthrough of the CGE process lies in the adaptive controls which consumption production reliability. dynamically adjust to the variation of the brine concentration, flow, and temperature to achieve maximum water recovery and minimum opex. In • Low temperature operation allows for use of waste The CGE system uses a carrier comparison to conventional evaporative technologies, the Gradiant CGE system heat to eliminate thermal energy costs gas, typically air, to extract fresh uses up to 50% less energy to achieve a brine concentration of over 300,000 mg/L water from high total dissolved TDS. What’s more, the CGE system greatly minimizes inorganic scale formation • Proprietary thermodynamic algorithm controls solids (TDS) wastewater, within the column, dramatically lowering the cost of maintenance and eliminating operating conditions to induce precipitation in the concentrating brines to 25% the need for harsh chemicals. humidifier and avoid scaling salinity.
CGE APPLICATIONS Gradiant was awarded Global Water Intelligence’s “Technology Idol” in 2013 for this groundbreaking proprietary technology and has since installed the system for oil and gas produced water recovery, flue gas desulfurization wastewater, petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, tanneries and textile wastewater recovery. CGE products and services include: Evaporative disposal Brine concentration Zero Liquid Discharge Automated design Mobile Services CGE Case Study Technology: Carrier Gas Extraction (CGE) Capacity: 12,000 bpd (2000 m3/ day) Products: Fresh water, clean brine, 10lb. Brine Mobility: 2-3 months re-deployment Treatment Requirement: Treat 12,000 barrels per day of influent to deliver: Water 2,000 barrels per day of fresh water (TDS removal) Recovery 9,000 barrels per day of clean brine (De-oiling, CGE RECOGNITION disinfection, solids and turbidity control, GWI Water Technology Idol Zero Liquid hardness and scaling control, pH adjustment) GWI Industrial Water Project of the Year Discharge 1,000 barrels per day of 10-lb brine Fortune 500 Customers Over 200 Global Patents Operation: Clean brine TSS < 25 ppm, O&G < 25 ppm, Fe < 5 ppm Desalination Bacteria 460 MPN/ml Recovery ratio greater than 99.7% w/w Solid waste produced less than 0.3% w/w Operational Metrics: Fresh Water Recovery at 100,000 mg/L TDS > 60% Fresh Water Recovery at 150,000 mg/L TDS > 40% Water quality monitored within prescribed effluent limits at all times Solid waste disposed at appropriate landfill All effluent reused within oil and gas operations Utilized natural gas as energy source
THE CGE ADVANTAGE PATENTED MULTI-STAGE BUBBLE COLUMN CGE has been tested at commercial scale and has shown to be consistently lower cost than traditional MVRs/MVCs. Learn more about this state-of-the-art technology and how Gradiant beats the competition on cost, up-time, and sustainability. NOVEL MULTI-STAGE BUBBLE COLUMN DESIGN FOR DIRECT CONTACT PHASE CHANGE Our bubble column (BC) heat exchangers were invented at MIT and have extremely high heat and mass transfer rates as they employ direct contact condensation of the vapor-gas mixture in a column of shallow liquid unlike traditional techniques which condense on a cold surface. New physical understanding of heat transfer in BCs has led to low pressure-drop designs. The concept of multi-staging the uniform temperature column in several temperature steps has led to high eﬀectiveness designs (about 90%). These designs lead to significant cost advantages for CGE over traditional techniques like Mechanical Vapor Compressor (MVC) distillation systems. Gradiant has saved customers between 30-50% on total cost of water compared to traditional evaporators through our patented multi-stage bubble column. Further, we as a company, are continuously adapting and evolving our CGE technology to meet and exceed our customers needs. This drive to perfect and create the most cost effective, sustainable set of solutions for our clients through a tailored approach is what sets us apart from our competitors.
THE CGE ADVANTAGE TOLERANCE TO SCALING AND PATENTED THERMODYNAMIC ALGORITHM Proprietary thermodynamic algorithm controls operating conditions to induce precipitation in humidifier and avoid scaling elsewhere THERMODYNAMIC BALANCING TO MINIMIZE THERMAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION When ﬁnite time thermodynamics is used to optimize the energy efﬁciency of thermal systems, the optimal design is one which produces the minimum entropy within the constraints of the problem (such as ﬁxed size or cost). We applied this well-established principle, known generally as thermodynamic balancing, to the design of combined heat and mass exchange devices (dehumidiﬁers and humidiﬁers) for improving the energy efﬁciency of CGE systems. This resulted in novel designs and operating procedures for the CGE system that make it more energy efficient at treating hypersaline wastewater compared to traditional techniques like MVC. At the core of these innovations is a new non- dimensional parameter which was invented to minimize the average local driving force for heat and mass transfer. CHALLENGE: The decoupling of phase change and heat transfer surfaces is crucial to treating hypersaline water streams because of hardness scaling issues. Scaling tendency increases with increasing salinity; the scale is likely to form on the surface where phase change occurs. In a MVC system, the phase change and the heat transfer occur on the same surface, resulting in a drop in heat transfer efficiency when scale forms and acts as an insulator. SOLUTION: In CGE, however, the phase change occurs in the humidifier column and the feed water is heated in the heat exchanger. Scale forms on the packing material in the humidifier but does not affect the evaporation or the performance of the system because the carrier gas is in direct contact with the hypersaline water and there is no heat transfer through the material of the packing. Therefore, the packing material requires significantly less cleaning or replacement as compared to a traditional MVC system. Another benefit of having high tolerance to scaling is that the pretreatment requirements are lower than MVC systems which further reduces operating costs. This integration of our patented thermodynamic algorithm for improving energy efficiency along with a separate phase change from the traditional MVC surfaces to prevent scaling and improve performance creates a sustainable, energy efficient, low cost solution to your water treatment needs.
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