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C   arrier

                                             G   as

                                             E   xtraction

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               Gradiant Corporation © 2020
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CGE SOLUTION                           HOW IT WORKS                                                                          AT A GLANCE
Carrier Gas Extraction (CGE) is our    Wastewater is sent through a heat exchanger where it is heated up before being        • Novel Bubble Column Device provides efficient heat
flagship Humidification                pumped into the top of a direct-contact humidifier column. Simultaneously,            transfer
Dehumidification technology that       ambient air enters the bottom of the humidifier. As the air rises through the
has applications for both Zero         humidifier, the air and water interact resulting in evaporation. The vapor-air        • Elimination of metallic evaporator and condenser
Liquid Discharge (ZLD) as well as      mixture is then sent to the bottom of a multi-stage bubble column dehumidifer         reduces capital cost
Brine Concentration at half the        while a closed loop of fresh water is introduced to the top of the chamber. In each
cost of water as traditional           stage of the bubble column, micro-bubbles are created in shallow pools of fresh       • Decoupling of valuable heat transfer surface from
evaporators.                           water and from the surface of these bubbles condensation occurs producing             the sacrificial separation surface reduces
                                       fresh water. Heat is released in the condensation process, which is then recycled     pretreatment requirement
This evaporator-alternative mimics     back into the heat recovery heat exchanger to minimize the energy consumption.
nature’s rain cycle to reduce the                                                                                            • Thermodynamic balancing reduces energy
cost of treatment while increasing     One major breakthrough of the CGE process lies in the adaptive controls which         consumption
production reliability.                dynamically adjust to the variation of the brine concentration, flow, and
                                       temperature to achieve maximum water recovery and minimum opex. In                    • Low temperature operation allows for use of waste
The CGE system uses a carrier          comparison to conventional evaporative technologies, the Gradiant CGE system          heat to eliminate thermal energy costs
gas, typically air, to extract fresh   uses up to 50% less energy to achieve a brine concentration of over 300,000 mg/L
water from high total dissolved        TDS. What’s more, the CGE system greatly minimizes inorganic scale formation          • Proprietary thermodynamic algorithm controls
solids (TDS) wastewater,               within the column, dramatically lowering the cost of maintenance and eliminating      operating conditions to induce precipitation in the
concentrating brines to 25%            the need for harsh chemicals.                                                         humidifier and avoid scaling
salinity.
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CGE APPLICATIONS
Gradiant was awarded Global Water Intelligence’s “Technology Idol”
   in 2013 for this groundbreaking proprietary technology and has
 since installed the system for oil and gas produced water recovery,
        flue gas desulfurization wastewater, petrochemicals,
    pharmaceuticals, tanneries and textile wastewater recovery.

CGE products and services include:
Evaporative disposal
Brine concentration
Zero Liquid Discharge
Automated design
Mobile Services

CGE Case Study
Technology: Carrier Gas Extraction (CGE)
Capacity: 12,000 bpd (2000 m3/ day)
Products: Fresh water, clean brine, 10lb. Brine
Mobility: 2-3 months re-deployment

Treatment Requirement:
Treat 12,000 barrels per day of influent to deliver:                                                       Water
2,000 barrels per day of fresh water (TDS removal)                                                        Recovery
9,000 barrels per day of clean brine (De-oiling,
                                                                         CGE RECOGNITION
disinfection, solids and turbidity control,                              GWI Water Technology Idol
                                                                                                                           Zero Liquid
hardness and scaling control, pH adjustment)                             GWI Industrial Water Project of the Year           Discharge
1,000 barrels per day of 10-lb brine
                                                                         Fortune 500 Customers
                                                                         Over 200 Global Patents
Operation:
Clean brine TSS < 25 ppm, O&G < 25 ppm, Fe < 5 ppm                                                          Desalination
Bacteria 460 MPN/ml
Recovery ratio greater than 99.7% w/w
Solid waste produced less than 0.3% w/w

Operational Metrics:
Fresh Water Recovery at 100,000 mg/L TDS > 60%
Fresh Water Recovery at 150,000 mg/L TDS > 40%
Water quality monitored within prescribed effluent limits at all times
Solid waste disposed at appropriate landfill
All effluent reused within oil and gas operations
Utilized natural gas as energy source
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THE CGE ADVANTAGE
                                                PATENTED MULTI-STAGE BUBBLE COLUMN
                                               CGE has been tested at commercial scale and has shown to be consistently lower cost than
                                               traditional MVRs/MVCs. Learn more about this state-of-the-art technology and how Gradiant
                                                               beats the competition on cost, up-time, and sustainability.

      NOVEL MULTI-STAGE BUBBLE
      COLUMN DESIGN FOR DIRECT
       CONTACT PHASE CHANGE

 Our bubble column (BC) heat exchangers
 were invented at MIT and have extremely
high heat and mass transfer rates as they
employ direct contact condensation of the
 vapor-gas mixture in a column of shallow
 liquid unlike traditional techniques which
condense on a cold surface. New physical
understanding of heat transfer in BCs has
   led to low pressure-drop designs. The
    concept of multi-staging the uniform
       temperature column in several
     temperature steps has led to high
effectiveness designs (about 90%). These
      designs lead to significant cost
    advantages for CGE over traditional
     techniques like Mechanical Vapor
 Compressor (MVC) distillation systems.

 Gradiant has saved customers between
 30-50% on total cost of water compared
  to traditional evaporators through our
   patented multi-stage bubble column.
       Further, we as a company, are
 continuously adapting and evolving our
 CGE technology to meet and exceed our
             customers needs.

 This drive to perfect and create the most
     cost effective, sustainable set of
solutions for our clients through a tailored
 approach is what sets us apart from our
                competitors.
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THE CGE ADVANTAGE
               TOLERANCE TO SCALING AND PATENTED THERMODYNAMIC ALGORITHM
                                                                            Proprietary
                                                                       thermodynamic
                                                                    algorithm controls
                                                               operating conditions to
                                                                induce precipitation in
                                                                  humidifier and avoid
                                                                    scaling elsewhere

                                         THERMODYNAMIC BALANCING TO MINIMIZE THERMAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION

     When finite time thermodynamics is used to optimize the energy efficiency of thermal systems, the optimal design is one which produces the minimum entropy within the
  constraints of the problem (such as fixed size or cost). We applied this well-established principle, known generally as thermodynamic balancing, to the design of combined heat
  and mass exchange devices (dehumidifiers and humidifiers) for improving the energy efficiency of CGE systems. This resulted in novel designs and operating procedures for the
   CGE system that make it more energy efficient at treating hypersaline wastewater compared to traditional techniques like MVC. At the core of these innovations is a new non-
                                dimensional parameter which was invented to minimize the average local driving force for heat and mass transfer.

CHALLENGE:

The decoupling of phase change and heat transfer surfaces is crucial to
treating hypersaline water streams because of hardness scaling issues.
Scaling tendency increases with increasing salinity; the scale is likely to
form on the surface where phase change occurs. In a MVC system, the
phase change and the heat transfer occur on the same surface, resulting
in a drop in heat transfer efficiency when scale forms and acts as an
insulator.

SOLUTION:

 In CGE, however, the phase change occurs in the humidifier column and
the feed water is heated in the heat exchanger. Scale forms on the
packing material in the humidifier but does not affect the evaporation or
the performance of the system because the carrier gas is in direct contact
with the hypersaline water and there is no heat transfer through the
material of the packing. Therefore, the packing material requires
significantly less cleaning or replacement as compared to a traditional
MVC system. Another benefit of having high tolerance to scaling is that
the pretreatment requirements are lower than MVC systems which further
reduces operating costs.

This integration of our patented thermodynamic algorithm for improving
energy efficiency along with a separate phase change from the traditional
MVC surfaces to prevent scaling and improve performance creates a
sustainable, energy efficient, low cost solution to your water treatment
needs.
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