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CMUNC 2021 Secretariat
         Malvika Narayan

         Bryan Weintraub

          Chief of Staff
      James “Hamz” Piccirilli

        Director of Events
        Alexandra Tsalikis

       Director of Outreach
        Akosa Nwadiogbu

    Director of Communications
           Annie Rogers

        Director of Finance
         Daniel Bernstein

      Director of Operations
       Andrew Landesman

     Under-Secretary Generals
        Robyn Bardmesser
          Avery Bower
           John Clancy
        Mariana Goldlust

From Your Chair
Dear Delegates,

My name is Sarah Prokop and I will be your Chair for the World Health
Organization committee for CMUNC 2021. I am currently a senior studying
Industrial and Labor Relations with minors in Global Health and Law and
Society. We are all excited to welcome you to CMUNC 2021 and cannot wait to
start debate!

I have been involved in Model UN since 2014 when I joined my high school’s
club. Currently, I am the President of the Cornell International Affairs Society,
which is the parent organization of CMUNC. I have also participated in Model
UN in various other capacities as a delegate, Vice President of Membership, and
as a Chair for CIAC and CMUNC. In addition to my involvement in Model UN, I
am a member of the Cornell Political Union and Epsilon Eta.

The World Health Organization is the leading international body dedicated to
issues related to health and providing access to care. Actions taken by the World
Health Organization serve vulnerable populations, further international health
responses, and try to achieve universal health coverage. Through this
committee, is it crucial to uphold the values of the World Health Organization,
since they are critical to the success of its interventions. The two topics before
this committee include: Maternal health in Africa, and Health Concerns of
Displaced People.

I hope that during the course of the conference you are able to implement your
writing, debate, and research skills to the best of your ability in order to have
successful committee sessions and productive discussions. The rest of the
CMUNC 2021 staff and I are looking forward to working with you and hope that
you all have a great time!

If you have any questions or concerns about CMUNC 2021 or the WHO
Committee, please feel free to email me at smp366@cornell.edu.

All the Best,

Sarah Prokop
WHO Chair
CMUNC 2021

Topic 1: Maternal Health in Africa
Statement of Problem

UN Sustainable Development Goal 3 targets improving health and well-being.
Goal 3 encompasses reducing the global maternal mortality ratio and ensuring
reproductive health care services. The provisions outlined in Sustainable
Development Goal 3 have provided a solid framework for improving maternal
health both globally and regionally. The maternal mortality ratio has dropped
by 45% since 2013. In Eastern and Southern Asia, and Northern Africa, maternal
mortality has dropped by 66%. Other statistics from the United Nations include
a 15% increase of deliveries in developing countries being attended by skilled
health personnel, and the rural-urban gap of skilled care during childbirth has
been narrowed. Moreover, there have been considerable strides made in
providing universal reproductive health care. For example, antenatal care
(healthcare a woman would receive during their pregnancy) increased from 65%
to 83% by 2012 (United Nations). However, there is still significant work to be
done. Between 1990 and 2013, the global maternity ratio only declined by 2.6% a
year, far from the targeted 5.5% per year to achieve the fifth millennium goal
(WHO, 2014). According to the United Nations, maternal mortality in developing
regions is still fourteen times higher than in developed regions, and still only
half of women in these regions are receiving the recommended health care
plans. Though fewer teens are having children and more contraceptives are
being used, these trends in lowering maternal mortality have plateaued
considerably. Finally, though the need for family planning is being addressed
internationally, demand continues to increase rapidly and the Official
Development Assistance for maternal health remains low (United Nations).

The risk of maternal mortality is highest in adolescent girls under fifteen years
old especially in developing countries. Maternal mortality is largely as a result of
complications during and following pregnancy that include severe bleeding,
infections, high blood pressure during pregnancy, complications during
childbirth and abortions (WHO, 2014). The largest proportion of maternal
deaths represents inequality to access to health services as well as socio-
economic inequality. Women in poor, remote areas such as Africa or South Asia
are more likely to receive inadequate health care. Only 46% of women in low-
income countries actually receive skilled medical care during pregnancy and
childbirth. This disparity between high-income and low-income countries can
be shown the level of antenatal care visits, where almost all women in high-
income countries go to four antenatal doctor visits, while only a third of women

in low-income countries go to four antenatal doctor visits. Finally, other
circumstances that prevent women from receiving health care are distance, lack
of information, lack of actual health care services, and cultural practices.

According to the World Health Organization, 95% of all maternal deaths occur
in developing countries and more than half in sub-Saharan Africa (WHO, 2014).
Specifically in sub-Saharan Africa, women have a 1 in 16 chance of dying during
childbirth, which is drastically lower than the 1 in 4,000 risk in a developing
country (UNICEF, 2012). At 429 deaths per 100,000 live births, Africa lags behind
all developing regions which have statistics of 240 deaths per 100,000 live births.
The ten countries with the highest maternal mortality ratios are in Africa. For
example, Nigeria accounted for 14% of total global maternal deaths in 2010. As
one can see in the subsequent chart, published in the article “Millennium
Development Goals Report 2013” by the United Nations Economic Commission
for Africa only two countries are on track for completion of the Millennium goal
of maternal health, with ten countries having no progress whatsoever. Clearly,
maternal health is a pertinent issue especially in Africa and must be addressed.
It is also important to note the strides that have been made since then through
the Sustainable Development Goals. Significant reduction have been made in
regards to maternal deaths, and improvements have been made in maternal
health and reproductive health services.

Haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death in Africa and in Southern
Africa, HIV/AIDS is also a top cause of death. Malaria is the leading indirect
cause of maternal mortality in Africa. However, more pressing than these
medical issues is the lack of health service providers. According to the same
“Millennium Development Goals Report 2013”, Southern, East, Central and
West Africa have fewer than 5 doctors per 100,000 people which is much below
the internationally recognized 20 doctors per 100,000 people. The report
attributes a major contributing factor as the distribution of health care workers.
Apparently, healthcare workers density is highest in urban cities with more
resources and higher income. Another factor includes the lack of medical
supplies in rural areas (UNECA, 2013).

In 2010, former UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon launched a “Global Strategy
for Women's and Children's Health” in which maternal health, especially in
Africa, comprises a large portion of this global strategy. This Global Strategy is a
road map that identifies the finance and policy changes needed, as well as
critical interventions that can truly impact the health of mothers and their
children. It lays out an approach for global, multilateral, bilateral, regional and
multi-sector collaboration. And of course, The World Health Organization as

well as UNAIDS, UNICEF and other organizations have become partners in this
global strategy and is working very intimately with the United Nations.

Many nonprofits and NGOs such as the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the
GAVI Alliance, and the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and
Malaria have also partnered with the team to ensure integration of services and
efforts to make international collaborative actions fully comprehensive. In a
Press Release by the United Nations, the Prime Minister of the United Republic
of Tanzania stated that “The Government of the United Republic of Tanzania is
highly committed to achieving Millennium Development Goals four and five
and fully supports the United Nations Secretary-General’s Global Strategy for
Women’s and Children’s Health (United Nations, 2010).” “The United States
congratulates the Secretary-General for this remarkable effort, both for the
breadth of partners he has convened — including governments, multilateral
organizations, civil society organizations, philanthropists, and corporations —
and for the substantial commitments made in response to his call for action,”
said United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton (United Nations, 2010). This
is just an example of an international action-directive that has rippling effects in
terms of improving maternal health not only in Africa, but around the world.

Possible Solutions

In a statement by the World Health Organization, they stated that “To improve
maternal health, barriers that limit access to quality maternal health services
must be identified and addressed at all levels of the health system (WHO, 2014).”
It will be up to the delegates to identify and address issues pertinent to the
problem of maternal health in Africa, especially through further research. The
WHO is currently working to reduce maternal mortality by “providing evidence-
based clinical and programmatic guidance, setting global standards, and
providing technical support to Member States (WHO, 2014).” The WHO also
advocates for affordable and effective medical treatment, medical training, and
medical resources.

Many other cost-effective methods can be used to improve maternal health in
Africa. As malaria is a major cause of deaths during pregnancy and childbirth,
affordable and effective solutions include preventive treatment and insecticide-
treated bed nets. This is a big issue, as they are often not available where needed
most and it would be up to the World Health Organization to coordinate and
fund such an undertaking. Furthermore, many maternal deaths occur due to
poor access to reproductive health services, and an idea that has been bounced

around the international community and the World Health Organization is
making progress in achieving universal access to reproductive health (UNECA,
2013). Of course, this will be a heavy investment of World Health Organization
resources so it would be up to the delegate’s prerogatives if this something they
wish to pursue. About 50% of deliveries in Africa occur in the home outside of a
healthcare facility, so increasing the number of skilled birth attendants to care
for mothers during delivery would increase maternal safety (ONE, 2013).
Increasing the time between births will lower maternal mortality. Better
distribution of the four central medications (oxytocin, misoprostol, magnesium
sulfate, and manual vacuum aspirators) that combat the leading causes of
maternal mortality would also reduce frequency. Improved transportation
would enhance access to health facilities, especially for women who live in more
rural areas. Educating women so they know when to seek healthcare services
during or soon after delivery is vital to improving maternal health. Educating
men (husbands, politicians, community and religious leaders) is also important
in the fight against maternal mortality. If men are well-informed about potential
risks and complications, the likelihood that future births will occur in health
care facilities rises (Bathala, 2013).

Bloc Positions

Africa: Countries of Sub-Saharan Africa are extremely supportive of measures
to improve maternal health. Since women make up more than half of the
population of the majority of Sub-Saharan Africa’s countries, high maternal
mortality will restrict human and socio-economic development. Improving
maternal health would also mean mothers can “effectively involve themselves in
the development process of the continent (Zuma, 2012).” Sub-Saharan African
countries are extremely supportive of improving maternal health for women to
achieve a sustainable track for progress.

United States: The United States is a huge supporter of improving health in
Africa, specifically ending preventable maternal deaths. By 2035, the U.S. hopes
to reduce preventable maternal deaths to less than 50 per 100,000 live births
(Office of the Press Secretary, 2014). Former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton
previously assured $75 million in U.S. support for improving maternal health in
Africa. A joint initiative between the U.S. and Norway centers on labor, delivery,
and the first 24 hours post-birth when the majority of maternal deaths happen
(Stearns, 2012). Although the U.S. is in support of advancing maternal health in
Africa, Clinton had stated that each country must “shape its own approach based
on individual needs and priorities (Stearns, 2012).” In 2012, the United States,

India, and Ethiopia hosted a forum called Child Survival Call to Action in
support of a global end to preventable child deaths and increased progress on
maternal health (Office of the Press Secretary, 2014).

Asia: Countries in the Asian bloc are also strong advocates for increasing
maternal health in Africa. For example, at the Fifth Tokyo International
Conference on African Development (TICAD V), Japan pledged their support to
major African programs to advance maternal health (United Nations Population
Fund, 2013). These initiatives include the Campaign on the Accelerated
Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa and the Plan of Action on Sexual and
Reproductive Health and Rights.

Topic 2: Health Concerns of Displaced
Statement of Problem

The UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) stated that, “It
has been aptly said that ‘refugee emergencies kill’.” The Rwandan genocide of
1994 resulted in the displacement of over one million Rwandan refugees who
fled to the Democratic Republic of the Congo, previously known as Zaire. There,
a quarter of the children were diagnosed with acute malnutrition and around
50,000 refugees died in just a matter of weeks primarily due to cholera (UNHCR,
1995). This is just one instance of the paramount problem that is the health of
displaced people. The complexity of this issue firstly stems from the multiple
definitions of “displaced peoples” and the various reasons for their

According to the World Health Organization, displaced people include both
people who remain in their own countries, known as Internally Displaced
People (IDP) as well as people who cross international borders, known as
refugees (WHO, 2015). The UNHCR, further defines displaced people into
Stateless People as well as Asylum-Seekers. The international legal definition of
a “Stateless Person” is outlined in the 1954 Convention relating to the Status of
Stateless Persons as “a person who is not considered as a national by any State
under the operation of its law.” According to the UNHCR, such a person is
essentially someone who does not have a nationality of any country (UNHCR,
2015). In terms of asylum-seeker, the UNHCR differentiates asylum-seekers as
one who “says he or she is a refugee, but whose claim has not yet been
definitively evaluated (UNHCR, 2015).” As one can conclusively see, the different
statuses of “displaced people” can make creating a comprehensive international
protocol for healthcare extremely difficult.

Moreover, the extenuating circumstances in which these people are forced out
of their homes differ extensively from crisis to crisis. In terms of the Rwandan
genocide displacement was due to politics and civil-war, “Within a few days after
it began, there were seven hundred thousand refugees in Goma and another
four hundred thousand at other camps in Zaire. More than half a million more
flooded into Tanzania. Another quarter of a million chose Burundi. These are all
countries that have difficulty caring for their own people and they were
immediately overwhelmed, wrote journalist Stephen Kinzer (Rwandan Stories).”

In terms of the refugee crisis due to the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster,
displacement was due to problems in national infrastructure. A New York Times
article states that “Two and a half years after the plant bleached plumes of
radioactive materials over northeast Japan, the almost 83,000 nuclear refugees
evacuated from the worst-hit areas are still unable to go home (Fackler, 2013).”

Displacement can also be caused by environmental crisis, as in the case of the
Indonesian Tsunami of 2004, where “according to the Indonesian government’s
disaster coordinating agency, BAKORNAS, by the end of March 2005, 128,645
people in Aceh had lost their lives, 37,063 were missing and 532,898 had been
displaced (Roofi et al., 2006).” There are many other examples of displaced
people, such as caused by the dissolution of the Soviet Union, which led to
statelessness in more than 267,000 people in Latvia and 91,000 in Estonia still as
of 2013 (UNHCR, 2015). Clearly, each of these circumstances leave displaced
people with different medical needs, it is up to the delegates of the World Health
Organization to now differentiate between these different medical
circumstances and adequately address each in a holistic manner.

Case Studies

Boxing Day Tsunami

A study conducted by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
investigated “Tsunami mortality and displacement in Aceh province,
Indonesia”. Aceh province was the most heavily hit region of the Tsunami that
resulted from the earthquake. This study found that of a pre-tsunami population
of 338,985 people, 30,564 internally displaced persons were residing in more than
30 locations in 10 sub-districts of Aceh Barat around a month after the Tsunami.
This study reported an average number of deaths reported in Internally
Displaced Households as 0.8 (SD of 1.3). Mortality risk among females was 1.9
times greater than men and higher mortality rate was observed in the oldest and
youngest age groups. Finally, in IDP households displaced by the tsunami, the
overall tsunami mortality rate was 13.9% (Roofi et al., 2006).

According to the World Health Organization, many hospitals and health centers
were destroyed and damaged. Water supplies were disrupted and contaminated,
sanitation and sewage treatment works were damaged. People were at risk of
Diarrhoeal diseases, while diseases such as salmonellosis, typhoid, cholera,

hepatitis, and shigellosis were also large problems especially in temporary
camps which also lacked adequate sanitation. Measles and acute respiratory
infection were also feared due to overcrowding. Furthermore, the WHO
observed injury-related tetanus as a serious initial threat, with mosquito-borne
disease as a later threat. Moreover, many individuals suffered from social and
mental distress (WHO).

However, international response to the disaster made the disaster largely
manageable. In response to this disaster, more than $9 billion was raised
internationally, with the U.S. military offering $250 million worth of support
across the region. This international response was documented as the “largest
privately funded emergency” (Akkoc, 2014). In its three month report, the World
Health Organization outlined its response to the event, “As WHO became aware
of the scale of the disaster it focused, quickly, on the potential health threats
faced by the survivors, and the risk that they might suffer - or even die - as a
result of disease. WHO provided support for a collective response and identified
as a primary objective the support to national health authorities so as to protect
the health of survivors - particularly the most vulnerable people (WHO).”

The WHO activated the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network
(GOARN) in which disease surveillance and response experts were posted to
Tsunami-affected areas to manage communicable diseases. Other initiatives of
the WHO included assessing the health situation, coordinating health actors,
and building national capacities to deal with crises (WHO).
What also contributed largely to the successful international response to the
Boxing Day Tsunami was international coordination and support. A few weeks
after the Tsunami, the UNHCR distributed more than 20,000 pieces of plastic
sheeting, 25,000 mats, more than 15,000 articles of clothing, and around 8,000
mosquito nets (UNHCR, 2005). Essential supplies like these are largely
beneficial to the health of displaced peoples. Lastly, the Boxing Day Tsunami
did highlight areas of improvement to healthcare systems, “in particular, the
ways in which the health sector should prepare for future natural disasters
including intersectoral cooperation, infrastructural preparedness, and sensitivity
to local knowledge (Carballo, 2005).”

Syrian Refugee Crisis

The story of Syrian Refugees as a result of the Syrian Civil War paints a more
grim picture than that of the Boxing Day Tsunami. As of August 2012, the
UNHCR reported that the number of registered Syrian refugees had reached

over 200,000 (BBC, 2012) and the United Nations reported 4 million Internally
Displaced Peoples (Memmott, 2012). For example, due to a severe lack of
international support, many Syrian refugees in Lebanon are unable to access
medical care according to Amnesty International. In some situations, refugees
have returned to Syria to receive medical attention. Some Syrians have been
turned away from hospitals.

“‘Hospital treatment and more specialized care for Syrian refugees in Lebanon is
woefully insufficient, with the situation exacerbated by a massive shortage of
international funding. Syrian refugees in Lebanon are suffering as a direct result
of the international community’s shameful failure to fully fund the UN relief
programme in Lebanon,’ said Audrey Gaughran, Director of Global Thematic
Issues at Amnesty International (Amnesty International, 2014).” The health
system in Lebanon is highly privatize and expensive, leaving many refugees
reliant on subsidized fees from the UNHCR. However, to due to shortage of
funds, Arif, a 12-year-old boy who suffered severe burns on his legs, which
swelled and became infected, was only able to have the UNHCR cover the cost
of his treatment for five days.

“‘It’s time for the international community to recognize the consequences of its
failure to provide adequate assistance to refugees from the conflict in Syria.
There is a desperate need for countries to fulfil the humanitarian appeal for
Syria and step up efforts to offer resettlement places for the most vulnerable of
refugees, including those in dire need of medical treatment,’ said Audrey
Gaughran (Amnesty International, 2014).”

In a United Nations report, The refugee crisis has increasingly strained health
services in surrounding countries. The report which covers the first three
months of 2013 in Iraq, Jordan and Lebanon shows more than 1 million refugees
that need medical attention. The United Nations asserts the cause of the two
problems to be low funding for the refugee crisis and the increasing numbers of
people needing medical help is straining existing health services. Former UN
Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon has called upon the Security Council and
countries in the region to draft a unified position to persuade greater
international support. He says, “We risk an entire generation of children being
scarred for life. The children of Syria are our children. They need our
help.” (United Nations, 2013).

Still, the international community is providing support for Syrian refugees. In
the Zaatari camp in Jordan, the World Health Organization and its partners
continue to implement and introduce a number of health initiatives. The main
concerns of these refugees residing in camps include “upper respiratory tract
infections, diarrhoea, and skin conditions. Chronic diseases include
gastrointestinal complaints, hypertension, asthma, diabetes and cardiovascular
conditions.” The WHO also completed nutritional assessment of children under
the age of five and women. The WHO is also working with the Ministry of
Health to implement a deworming campaign that administers 250,000
deworming tablets to school children in order to address intestinal parasites.
The WHO and UNICEF are planning the measles and polio immunization
campaign for Irbid and Mafraq (WHO).

Possible Solutions

After recent studies were carried out it was discovered that the most pivotal
concern amongst the health needs of displaced people was to maintain their
reproductive health specifically in adolescents and women.

In June 1995, an inter-agency symposium was conducted on the reproductive
health of displaced people, specifically refugees, and it went on to conclude that
certain reproductive health needs have not yet been dealt with. Furthermore it
went on to pinpoint the important need to deal with aspects ranging from:
   • Safe motherhood
   • Family planning service
   • Control of sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV/AIDS
   • Management of sexual and gender based violence
   • Overall primary health care services

For whichever country the displaced people are residing in, the host country’s
government has the crucial responsibility for providing for them. There have
been several instances where the host governments are unlikely to help
immediately when a displacement has to occur due to a lack of resources
available. Help from the outside is essential and must be provided to the host
government, though, it must be done sustainably and with the idea that
eventually the integration of health services must be done simultaneously.

Emergency interventions would therefore benefit from a primary health care
(PHC) approach, which would emphasize preventive programs. There would
also be a greater involvement of the displaced people in the provision of these
health services and effective coordination as well as information gathering must
always be maintained. A PHC approach seems to offer greater longevity both for
the host country and the displaced population as well, whilst simultaneously
being cost-effective when dealing with the health and nutrition of the displaced

The World Health Organization has a duty to make sure constant coordinated
and sustained efforts as well as an optimal use of resources occurs when dealing
with displaced people. These include the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC), in order to develop common objectives, standards, priorities
and a strong network of professional support. Furthermore, NGOs must also be
considered in implementing the solutions that are thought of related to
displaced people (WHO, 2015).

Bloc Positions

Considering the fact that this is primarily a social topic with a slight political
aspect, the bloc positions would not be as stark. However, there are always
different approaches taken amongst certain groups of countries. To consider
those approaches these are the likely bloc positions:
    • The Western bloc: North American countries, European countries,
       Generally South American countries
    • The African bloc: Generally consisting of all the African countries
    • The Asian bloc: China, Russia, Generally Central Asian countries, Brazil,
       South Africa, India

Issues to Consider

Aside from the conventional problems of displaced people in refugee camps
such as water-borne diseases, waste management, crowding and dead bodies,
which delegates are absolutely expected to address, some more unconventional
problems are brought up throughout this background guide. These should be
the focus of any resolution and discussion of the World Health Organization,
which includes:
   • Funding: A lot of the crises that occur that displace people either
      internally or internationally do not receive adequate funding from the
      international community or NGO’s such as the World Health
      Organization or UNICEF. It is up to the delegates to discuss provisions
      that will adequately fund any crises that may occur. As one might see,
      money is the first priority as a well-funded humanitarian response will
      dramatically reduce mortality rates of refugees as seen in the Boxing Day
      Tsunami case study.
   • Women and Children: As also seen in the Boxing Day Tsunami case
      study, women and children are at severe risk of mortality during crises.
      Delegates are expected to find realistic solutions that target the health of
      women and children.
   • Mental Health: Mental Health in displaced people due to crisis, whether it
      is environmental or political, is extremely important and an often
      overlooked health issue. A Washington Post article follows the story of
      Amira, who saw her uncle bleed to death, her home shattered by shells
      and her arm struck by burning shrapnel. After, she had stopped eating,
      her muscles atrophied and legs no longer able to bear her weight. Amira’s
      case offers a small glimpse into the devastating mental-health crisis that is
      taking hold among Syria’s refugees, especially children. There is no

mental-health infrastructure in Lebanon, and most aid organizations lack
    the expertise and resources to provide therapy and treatment to children
    who witness brutality (Shaheen, 2014). Again, the delegates of the World
    Health Organizations are especially encouraged to discuss and provide a
    comprehensive solution to address mental health, which has otherwise
    not been discussed on an international forum.
•   Unregistered Displaced People: Moreover, a lot of refugees are not
    registered with organizations such as the UNHCR, Red Cross or World
    Health Organization. This provides an extremely complicated problem as
    these displaced people severely need medical attention, but are unable to
    even conceive of receiving treatment because they are unregistered. These
    problems are largely due to lack of logistical capacity of these
    organizations or lack of knowledge and awareness on part of the refugees.
    Much improvement is needed on this front in order to help a large portion
    of unknown displaced people.
•   People Without Identities: As stated above, a “Stateless Person” is also
    considered a displaced person. A stateless person does not have national
    identity and finds it extremely difficult to obtain a national identity. This
    is a problem in the sense that a stateless person will not have the necessary
    documentation to obtain proper health care. It is up to the delegates of
    this committee to again, come up with innovative solutions that will target
    these specific people and provide long-term solutions.
•   Lack of Medical Infrastructure: This is pretty self explanatory. Many
    countries that host refugees or internally displaced people lack the proper
    medical infrastructure to deal with the influx of human population.
    Moreover, many countries do not have the proper guidelines and
    preparation to be able to accommodate an extenuating crisis such as the
    Rwandan Genocide or Fukushima Nuclear Incident. It is up to the World
    Health Organizations to provide the necessary medical infrastructure
    including personnel in case of an international crisis.
•   National Sovereignty: Of course, under the mandate of the United
    Nations, delegates must be wary of national sovereignty. For example, it
    would not be under the mandate of the World Health Organization to
    reform the healthcare system of Lebanon to better support Syrian
    refugees. Instead, the World Health Organization may provide
    recommendations or incentives, or create its own programs to deal with
    the needs of Syrian refugees. Ultimately, the decisions of healthcare in
    Lebanon is up to Lebanon itself but remember, diplomacy and
    international cooperation is the guiding force of all nations in the WHO.
    Any resolution passed by the WHO must take into account national
    sovereignty. =

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