Alberta Education HCS3000 - Workplace Safety Systems Curriculum 2-1

 
Alberta Education
                              HCS3000
                      Workplace Safety Systems
                             Curriculum

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                 2-1
Learner
                                         Outcomes

         HCS3000: Workplace Safety Systems
Learning Units
Unitl         !                           Safety: From Past to Present
                  After this unit, the learner will be able to:

                  Q Define the term:
                    -   Safety
                        Accident
                        Incident.

                  E   Explain the difference between past and present views of safety.

                  Q Explain the difference between "Direct Costs" and "Indirect Costs."

                  Q List 3 types of controls:
                         Engineering
                        Administrative
                         Basic/Point-of-Contact

                  0 Describe purpose of Safety Management Systems.

Unit 2        |         Health & Safety Management Systems: The 8 Elements
                  After this unit, the learner will be able to:

                  °   Identify and describe the 8 elements (key points) of a health and safety
                      management system (HSMS).

                  0   Explain why each part of a HSMS is important to workers.

                  0   Identify and describe the HSMS in a selected workplace.

Unit 3                                      Hazards: What are They?
                  After this unit, the learner will be able to:

                  a   Define "Hazard."

                  □ Explain the importance of identifying workplace hazards.

                  0   Identify the 5 major types of hazards and give examples for each type.

                  a   Identify and list hazards found in a selected workplace.

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                           3-1
Unit 4                             Ergonomics:   Fitting the Workplace to You
               After this unit, the learner will be able to:

                 o Define "Ergonomics".

                 0   Describe the role of ergonomics in the workplace.

                 0   Identify and describe ergonomic-related hazards found in various
                     workplaces.

                 0 Explain the connection between repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) and
                   ergonomics.

Unit 5                             Hazard and Risk Assessment and Controls
               After this unit, the learner will be able to:

                Q Describe the process of hazard and risk assessment.

                0    Explain the relationship among hazard identification, hazard
                     assessment and hazard controls.

                0 Describe how each of the 5 types of hazards may be assessed.

                □ Explain and give examples of how hazards may be eliminated or
                  controlled.

Unit 6                        Incident Investigation           and Injury   Prevention
               After this unit, the learner will be able to:

                0 Explain the purpose of an incident investigation.

                0 Describe the key components of an incident investigation.

                0 Conduct and report on a real or mock injury/incident investigation.

                0    Explain how and why incident investigations can help prevent injuries.

Unit 7                                     Job Safety and The Law
               After this unit, the learner will be able to:

                0    Define the terms "employer" and "worker".

                0    Discuss the rights and responsibilities regarding safety for employers.

                0 Discuss the rights and responsibilities regarding safety for workers.

                0 Explain the meaning of "Imminent Danger."

                g Explain why you can refuse to do unsafe work and not be fired.
© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                           3-2
Unit 8                                The Workers' Compensation          Act
               After this unit, the learner will be able to:

                0    Explain the key features of the Workers' Compensation Act and
                     what it offers to workers and employers.

                o    Describe what to do if you are injured on a job covered by the Workers'
                     Compensation Act.

Unit 9                             Workplace Injuries:         Are You Covered?
               After this unit, the learner will be able to:

                0    Identify occupations that are covered/excluded under the WCB Act.

                0    Identify employer and worker responsibilities when an injury occurs.

Unit 10                       Employment Standards Code and             Regulations
               After this unit, the learner will be able to:

                0    Identify legislation relating to employment standards of young persons and
                     adults.
                         Employment Standards Code.
                         Employment Standards Regulations.
                         Employment Standards Guide (provides highlights from Code and
                         Regulations).

                0    Describe key items in the Employment Standards Code and Regulations.
                        Minimum wages.
                        Hours of work.
                        Holidays and holiday pay.
                        Employment of person(s) (under 18 years).

                0    Identify and describe Employment Standards relating to:
                         Employment of adolescents (12 to 14 years).
                         Employment of young persons (15 to 17 years).

                0 Link key items of the Code to a selected workplace.

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                            3-3
Unit 11          Hazardous Materials                           (WHMIS)
Optional         (Nut.::   Ihh. llni< /.'■ -. i-i-jilli■:il nnii hi l!> ■'.'.' UniO: !/!/■».'17i/.rc: fl-ii;:'.],' t V :.N':;
Key
                                           Ideas

Fact Sheet 1: Safety: From Past to Present
0 Safety is the control of accidental injury, damage, and/or loss.

0 When workers are injured, there is loss and costs:

    1. Direct costs include:
       ■      Cost of medical treatment, benefits

    2. Indirect costs include:
       ■      Cost of property damage
       ■      Loss of production
        ■         Loss of profits

0 In the past, safety was said to be "freedom from injuries."

0 Safety programs now focus on:

  1. What management does.
  2. How workers do their work.
0 Health and safety management systems (HSMS) are designed to prevent:
     1.    Loss due to injuries
     2.    Loss of production
     3.    Damage to property.

0 Today, effective HSMS have three levels of loss control:

        ■         Engineering Controls

        ■        Administrative Controls
                 - management supports and encourages safe work practices
        ■         Basic/Point-of-Contact Controls (i.e., Personal Protective Equipment)

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                          5-2
Unit 1: Safety: From Past to Present

                                       Fact Sheet 1

               afety programs have come a
               long way. Companies have
               studied the mistakes of the past
               and have used these lessons to
               improve safe practices.

These improvements help to decrease the
number of workplace injuries and deaths.

Learning from the Past
                                                      □ Direct Costs:
In the past, safety programs were                       Costs related to injuries
designed to protect workers from injuries.              (e.g., medical and benefit
"Safety" was defined as "freedom from                   costs to worker)
injuries."
                                                      0 Indirect Costs:
Accidents were considered to be an                      Costs related to property
undesired event that resulted in harm to                damage, equipment
people. "Incidents" were seen as a                      damage, loss of productive
near accident or a near miss.                           work time, investigation
                                                        time, hiring and training
Most people believed that injuries were                 replacement workers, and
caused by workers performing unsafe acts.               loss of any business.
Therefore, safety programs focused on
training workers to practice safe work habits,        □ Safety:
to reduce the number of unsafe acts.                    Control of accidental loss.

The focus was on workers and the solution             0 Safety Management
was often to find someone to blame. For                 System:
this reason, workers did not report                     A problem-solving approach
incidents because they did not want to be               to safety.
blamed.

Managers would provide safety programs
but were not responsible for the outcome.
They provided the program for the worker;
it was now up to the worker to work safely.

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                      5-3
Organizations often viewed safety
programs as an expense... with the key
outcome being a reduction in worker             The definition of "safety" also changed
injuries.                                       from "freedom of injuries" to "control
                                                of accidental loss." In this definition,
Based on this view, employers saw only          accidents/incidents are caused not only
the costs of providing safety programs and      by unsafe acts but also by unsafe
not the costs of having workers injured or      conditions.
killed on the job.
                                                The term "unsafe act" has also been
                                                replaced by the terms substandard
                                                practices and substandard conditions.

                                                 The focus on safety moved away from
                                                        worker to management.

 Due to injuries this workplace is closed for
 inspection. Ironworker Foreman Crushed
 when Bridge Support Element Broke during
 Dismantling (Case Report: 05NY013)             Safety Today
              — Occupational Health & Safety
                                                Industries now work very hard to have a
                                                safe workplace. This reduces the number
                                                of accidents. It also helps a company run
The definition of "accident" and                better.
"incident" changed to mean an
undesired event that results in                 A worker who cannot work because of
unintended harm or damage to people,            injuries is hard to replace. The tasks
property, environment, and/or loss of           done by this worker may not be done until
process/production.                             the worker returns. This lowers a
                                                company's productivity. That is, its ability
Incidents are also still recognized as a        to make profit.
near miss but if the near miss could have
caused harm, then it is investigated as an
accident.

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                     5-4
Workplace safety has three basic steps:         Safety management systems have now
                                                become an essential part of many
0    Hazard Identification:                     organizations and have greatly improved
     Knowing the things and actions that        workplace safety.
     may lead to accidents.

0    Hazard Evaluation:                         Loss Control
     Being able to judge the risk of each
     hazard.                                    Loss control is the term now used to
                                                describe actions taken in an organization to
0    Hazard Control:                            help prevent:
     Finding ways to reduce or get rid of
     each hazard.                               0 Injury to people
                                                0 Damage to property
Direct/Indirect Costs                           0 Loss of productivity and profit

                                                There are 3 levels of loss control:
Organizations could now include the direct
and indirect or hidden costs of injuries and
                                                1. Engineering Controls:
deaths.
                                                   - Seeks to create a culture of safety in
                                                     an organization.
Direct costs are related to injuries (e.g.,
medical and benefits to workers including
                                                2. Administrative Controls:
compensation costs.)
                                                   - Includes the setting up of safety
                                                     committees and ongoing safety
Indirect costs include property damage,
                                                     training.
equipment damage, loss of productive work
time, investigation time, hiring and training
                                                3. Basic Controls:
replacement workers, environmental and
                                                   - Includes the use of personal
insurance costs, and loss of any business.
                                                     protective equipment (PPE).

                                                More information on Loss Control methods
                                                is contained in the following units.
       Safety Management Systems
                                                Regardless of the method of control used,
                                                each control method should be checked
                                                regularly to be sure that it is effective.

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                      5-5
Employers and Workers' Responsibilities
          The Alberta Occupational Health and Safety Act states:

          2 (1) Every employer shall ensure, as far as it is reasonably practicable for
                the employer to do so.

                 a) the health and safety of

                      i)    workers engaged in the work of that employer, and
                      ii)   those workers not engaged in the work of that employer but
                               present at the work site at which that work is being carried
                               out, and

                 b) that the workers engaged in the work of that employer are aware of
                    their responsibilities and duties under this Act, the regulations and
                    the adopted code.

           (2) Every worker shall, while engaged in an occupation,
               a) take reasonable care to protect the health and safety of the worker
                  and of other workers present while the worker is working, and

                 b) co-operate with the worker's employer for the purposes of protecting
                    the health and safety of

                      i) the worker,
                      ii) other workers engaged in the work of the employer, and
                      iii) other workers not engaged in the work of that employer but
                           present at the work site at which that work is being carried out.

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                               5-6
Key
                                          Ideas

Unit 2: Health & Safety Management Systems:
        The 8 Elements
Q A health and safety management system (HSMS) is a series of processes put in place
  to protect workers and others.

0 A HSMS includes the following elements (processes/documents):

       1.    Management commitment or policy
       2.    Hazard identification and assessment
       3.    Hazard controls
       4.    Ongoing inspections
       5.    Qualifications assessment and training
       6.    Emergency Response Planning
       7.    Incident Reporting and Investigation
       8.    HSMS Administration.

0 An effective HSMS must include each of the 8 elements.

i Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                5-14
Unit 2: Health & Safety Management Systems:
        The 8 Elements
(The following information has been accessed and modified from http://emplovment.alberta.ca/SFW/996.htmn

                                        Fact Sheet 2

A      health and safety management system is a process put in place by an employer to
minimize the incidence of injury and illness to workers involved in their working operations.
This is accomplished through identifying, assessing and controlling risks to workers in all
operations of work. The scope and complexity of a health and safety management system
will vary according to the type of workplace and the nature of operations carried out.

To be effective, the following 8 components are considered to be essential and form the
basis of the health and safety management system:

1. Management Commitment and
   Policies

A written health and safety policy stating the                 0 Hazard control:
company's commitment, the overall goals                          Things done to avoid or
and objectives for their health and safety                       stop injury or loss.
program and the responsibilities of
management, workers, visitors and
                                                               0 Hazard evaluation:
contractors.
                                                                 Judging the level of risk
                                                                 for each hazard.
The policy should be dated and signed by
the senior operating manager and/or CEO for                    0 Hazard identification:
the work site.                                                   Being able to recognize
                                                                 things that could cause
2. Identify and assess             hazards                       injury or loss.

Evaluate all equipment, machinery, work                        0 Lost-time claim:
areas and work processes to identify and                         A report sent to the WCB
analyze all potential sources of harm to                         when a workplace injury
workers. A record of all hazards should be                       causes lost time.
kept, along with the degree of risk and level
of potential exposure for workers.

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                                  5-15
3. Hazards and Risk Controls                    6. Emergency Response             Planning
Control measures should be developed for        A serious emergency, such as an explosion,
each hazard identified.                         fire or flood could put any company out of
                                                business.
Typical control methods include:
                                                Even the best health and safety program
    •   Engineering,                            cannot protect from all natural or
    •   Administrative and                      unexpected disasters. However, a good
    •   Basic Point of Contact - Personal       emergency response plan that is in place
        Protective Equipment.                   and practiced regularly can reduce the risk
                                                of injury and loss.
Records of safe work practices and
procedures for hazardous operations             7. Incident Reporting and
should be readily available and all workers        Investigation
trained.
                                                When an incident occurs, it is important to
4. Workplace Inspection            Program      report it to a supervisor. The supervisor
                                                should:
To ensure that hazard control measures
are in place and effectively protect            • Investigate cause
workers, a regular inspection program is        • make sure previously uncontrolled
important.                                        hazards do not remain a risk
                                                • prevent the recurrence of similar
Inspection tours provide important                incidents
information, including information about        • determine if training or changes in
hazards or potential hazards that have not        control methods, such as personal
been noted before and a check that                protective equipment and procedures,
controls to eliminate or reduce risks of          need to be changed to make the
known hazards are in place and working.           workplace safer or healthier.

Records of all inspections should be kept,      All incidents must be investigated as soon
including the checklist used.                   as possible.

5. Worker competency and                        8. HSMS Program           Administration
   training:
                                                HSMS program administration ensures that
Worker training is an essential phase of an     all parts of a health and safety management
effective health and safety program.            system are properly documented and
Workers need to know how to do their jobs       communicated to employees. Records help
safely and without risk to their health.        to ensure that the program is effective in
                                                reducing the risk of injury and ill health at
New and/or young workers need special           the workplace.
consideration. New worker orientation
should be completed within the first week on
the job and critical information must be
covered on the first day. All training should
be documented.

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                    5-16
Evaluation/Audits

A comprehensive review of the employer's health and safety management system is
carried out through a workplace safety audit.

Alberta Employment and Immigration's Partnerships recognizes the efforts of employers
who meet provincial standards by issuing of a Certificate of Recognition (COR).

To qualify for a COR, a safety audit must be carried out by a qualified auditor. The auditor
must use an audit instrument that is approved for Partnerships use and is acceptable to a
Certifying Partner.

The audit will cover the basic elements of a health and safety management system and
will include interviews, documentation review and observation technique.

 > Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                        5-17
Key
                                     Ideas

Unit 3: Hazards: What Are They?
0 A safe place would have no hazards.
0 Hazards can be found everywhere: at home, in school, in all workplaces.
o Hazards in the workplace can cause:
  - injuries/death
  - loss of income
  - property damage
  - environmental damage
  - loss of production and profits.
0 Most hazards can't be removed. They can only be controlled and the
  risk of injury reduced.
0 Types of hazards include:
  - Physical
  - Chemical
  - Biological
  - Ergonomic
  - Psychological/Mental Health.
0 "Hazard control" means reducing risk of injury, damage or loss.
0 If a hazard is not controlled, it's only a matter of time before someone is
  injured.

                                   H|P

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                           5-24
Unit 3: Hazards: What Are They?

                                      Fact Sheet 3

A              safe workplace would have no hazards. There would be no machines,
               equipment or materials that could harm people.

 However, there are no safe workplaces.

 An important part of workplace safety is
 being able to identify hazards before
 someone gets injured.

 Identifying hazards is the first step in
 reducing risk or injury.

                                                      0 Environmental Damage:
  Incidents/Accidents                                   Damage to the air, trees or plants,
                                                        etc.
 An incident may be a "hit" or "near miss."
                                                      0 Hazard:
 It is an event that has or could have caused
                                                        An activity, event or condition that
 an injury.
                                                        could create an incident that
                                                        causes damage, injury or illness.
 Accidents are incidents that have caused
 one or more of:
                                                      o Paramedic:
                                                        Persons trained to give basic
  Q   Injuries to workers
                                                        medical aid.
  0   Property damage
  0   Environmental damage
                                                      0 Reducing:
  0   Loss of product
                                                        Making less.
 Reducing the number of accidents and
 incidents improves workplace safety.

                      i f a iij-ici/d JD not oontooflod,
           9
         tt s only a matter of tfme tefore someone Is J/JJU/ULL

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                      5-25
Hazards: What Are They?
A hazard is an activity, event or condition that could cause an accident or incident that
results in injury or illness to people and/or damage to property.

A hazard can be something as simple as a ladder left lying around. It can also be
something like a chemical substance used in a workplace.

                                                              o
© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                            5-26
Types of Hazards                              Physical Hazards include:
Hazard types include:                          0 Using equipment, machines and
                                                 tools
0   Physical                                   □ Working in extreme temperatures
0   Chemical                                   0 Personal movement and moving
0   Biological                                   things
0   Ergonomic
0   Psychological/mental health                  Types of physical hazards:
Ergonomic and psychological/ mental              0 Noisy equipment
health hazards are described in Unit 4           0 Vibrating equipment -
Ergonomics: Fitting the Workplace to               jack hammers, driving
You, Fact Sheet 4 and Unit 5 Hazard                vehicles
Risk and Assessment and Controls,                0 Being run over, crushed,
Fact Sheet 5.                                      or pinned.
                                                 □ Being caught in
Each industry has its own hazards.                 equipment, machinery
Industries often use labels to describe          0 Using the same tool in the
different types of hazards.                        same position all day long
                                                 0 Working in extreme cold
                                                   or hot conditions
                                                 0 Frayed electrical cords
                                                 0 Overhead power lines
                                                 0 Items lying on the floor
                                                 0 Working from heights
                / But'its  sued ^
                   but its such     (,r>.\       0 Falling objects
           I     a si

         fe\ N " rOM
                  -                 cv       Chemical Hazards include:
                            ii&vW villi
                      11   1 ^    "1 r       0 Chemical mists, vapors, gases, dusts
                                               or fumes

                                                 Types of chemical hazards:

                                                 i    Using strong cleaning
                                                      products
                                                 r    Oil-based paint
                                                 r    Working in area with lots of
                                                      dust
                                                 r    Being exposed to asbestos
                                                 i-   Using hazardous materials

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                               5-27
Biological Hazards include:                      Ergonomic Hazards include:
0 Insects, fungi mold viruses, and               m Inappropriate job and workstation design

0 Working with plant material                    0 Improperly adjusted work benches, desks,
                                                   keyboards.

                                                 0 Harvesting crops by hand.
 Types of biological hazards:
                                                 0 Poor lighting
 0 Insect stings
                                                 0 Repetitive Strain, i.e., operating machinery
 0 Some plants, fungi or                           for long periods of time, i.e., combines,
   mold, e.g., poison ivy                          tractors, jackhammers

 0 Wet or damp materials that                    Psychological (mental health;
   could grow fungi or mold,
   e.g., greenhouses,
                                                 psychosocial) include:
   granaries                                      m Workplace-induced and other stressors
 0 Contact with other people                      0 Excessive work hours and/or shift work
   or things carrying viruses
   or bacteria                                    o Challenging personal /Interpersonal
                                                    relationships

                                                  o Discrimination and harassment

                           Can this person improve his             safety?

                                         ■»5c.

                                   2V*

Yes!!  Remember - Wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)!
   (See Recommended Unit 12: Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).

) Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                       5-28
Key
                                   Ideas

Fact Sheet 4: Ergonomics:
              Fitting the Workplace to You
• A good fit between worker and workplace improves worker health
  and safety.
•   Ergonomics is concerned with:
    - how work is done e.g. sitting standing,
    - what work is done e.g. lifting, typing
    - using proper tools and equipment for the job
    - work area shape, size and space
    - lighting (dark, light, glare)
    - temperature (hot or cold)
    - reducing stress.
• Tasks done many times during the work day can cause a "repetitive
  strain injury".
• Breaks from work can help stop repetitive strain (ergonomic) injuries.

         Use the right too ifltieniui
© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                           5-34
Unit 4: Ergonomics: Fitting the Workplace to You

                                             Fact Sheet 4

E                  rgonomics is the study of the
                   fit between people and their
                   jobs.

The main goal of ergonomics is to improve:                  0 Adjustable:
                                                              Something that can be
     0 the well-being of workers                              made to fit or be used in
     0 the activity of workers                                many different ways by
     0 reduce risk of injury.                                 many different people.

                                                            0 Designers:
                                                              People who make things
                                                              to fit tasks and to meet
                                                              people's needs.

                                                            0 Ergonomics:
                                                              Fitting the workplace to
                                                              the worker.

                                                            0 Ergonomic Hazard:
                                                              Any hazard that can
                                                              cause injury or harm to a
                                                              body part or system.

                                                            0 Focusing:
                                                              Keeping your mind and
                                                              eyes on what you are
                                                              doing.

                                                            0 Repetitive Strain
        o/li                                                  Injuries:
      Wotkkijtci                                              Injuries caused by doing
                                                              the same task over and
                                                              over again each and
                                                              every day.
                                   I   • •

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                   5-35
When setting up a workplace, this question
should be asked and answered:                  Ergonomics measures:
                                               0 body sizes and shapes
                                               0 body functions (muscle and sensory
      How can the workplace be
                                                   systems -sound, sight, smell, etc.)
      set up so that each worker
                                               0 mental activity (problem solving,
      can do the job well, with the
                                                   decision-making).
      most comfort, and with the
      least risk of injury?

The Goal of Ergonomics
The goal of ergonomics is to improve the
workers' health and comfort.

Workers who feel well work better.
                                                       \ i
Worker well-being can be improved by:
0 having a healthy and safe workplace
   reducing worker stress
   increasing job satisfaction
0  enhancing the quality of work life
                                               Work can be checked to see which of these
   reducing repetitive strain injuries.
                                               measures has the most effect on a worker.
Ergonomics looks at how:
0 people work with people
o people work with equipment                   Checking for Ergonomic Fit
0 people use furniture
o people work in different workplaces.         To   check workplace fit ask:
                                               0     What task(s) needs to be done?
                                               0     What tools and equipment are needed?
                                               0     Is a lot of physical work needed?
How People Function                            0     Is a lot of mental work needed?
                                               0     Is paying attention important to the
Because each person's body is shaped
                                                     work?
differently, it is important to make
workplaces that will fit (are adjustable) to
any worker.

Most new equipment and furniture can be
adjusted so it can fit people with different
sizes, shapes and needs.

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                5-36
made chairs are much more expensive to
                                                buy.
Fitting the Workplace to:                       Office furniture and equipment should
                                                adjust to fit most body shapes and sizes.
People
                                                People's Abilities
How can workplaces meet the needs of all
workers?
                                                People differ in how their muscles work
                                                and how their senses work. That's how
Ergonomic specialists divide people into
                                                eyes see, ears hear, and noses smell.
three height and size ranges:
 0 low
                                                Some people:
 0 average
                                                0 are stronger than others.
 0 high.
                                                0 are more flexible.
                                                0 have a stronger sense of smell.
This information is used in designing the
                                                0 have better hearing.
workplace. This ensures that equipment,
                                                0 have good eyesight.
fixtures, and furniture are usable by as many
people as possible. The best design is one
                                                Knowing the limits of most physical and
that can be adapted to fit everyone.
                                                sensory systems can help in fitting a
                                                workplace to its workers.
Lighting
                                                For example:
Ergonomic specialists try to put in proper
lighting for the job.
                                                0   In a factory where heavy objects must
                                                    be moved, a conveyor belt or trolley
Just like furniture and equipment, lighting
                                                    could be used to reduce lifting hazards.
should be adjustable.
                                                0   If a workplace needs workers to hear a
A workplace that is too light or too dark can
                                                    danger signal, then the sound should be
cause eye strain and headaches.
                                                    loud enough for all workers to hear.
Workspace
                                                In some cases, special needs can be met.
                                                For example:
Each workspace must be large enough for
larger as well as smaller sized workers.
                                                o   If a worker needs a quiet work area,
                                                    special screens can be put around the
Furniture
                                                    work area.
Office furniture can be made to fit different
                                                0   If a worker requires more lighting, then
body sizes.
                                                    a desk lamp may be added to the work
                                                    area.
Furniture designers now make chairs that
can be adjusted. These chairs can be used
by people of all shapes and sizes.

Chairs can also be custom-made to fit
unusual body sizes. However, custom-

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                   5-37
Mental Tasks
                                                  The Workplace -
Many jobs involve a lot of mental activity.
For example, jobs that require workers to:
                                                  If it Doesn't Fit
0     Receive information
0     Quickly assess it                           There can be a number of signs that a
0     Make a decision                             workplace is not fitted to a worker.
0     Take action.
                                                  For example:
These jobs can be very stressful as the
mental work may affect lives (e.g., air traffic   0   Aches in the same area of the body
controllers, pilots.)                                 during or after each work day.

Ergonomic specialists plan workplaces and         0   Stress headache from focusing too long
systems that lessen the chance of mental              and too hard on a specific job.
errors. To do this, they have to know how
people get information and what they do           o   Backache or pain that is constant from
with it. These specialists help workers get           lifting objects at work.
information and make decisions as quickly
and as easily as possible.

For example:

0    People hear a danger signal better if
     there is no background noise. People
     react better if they recognize different
     workplace sounds.

0    People react quickly to symbols that
     they see and recognize. This is why
     road signs use symbols.

0    Regular work breaks help people relax
     and be more focused when they return
     to their work.

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                   5-38
0   The workplace should be adjusted to fit
Many ergonomic type injuries are called
                                                     the worker.
Repetitive Strain Injuries (RSIs).
                                                 0   A desk or table may not be the right
RSIs are caused by work needing long                 height for the worker.
hours of the same movement (e.g., typing).
They can also be caused by work that             0   Workers can also be given breaks more
requires holding a body in a fixed position          often or asked to perform other tasks for
for long periods (e.g., holding shoulders in a       short periods.
fixed position while painting overhead).

RSIs: What To Do
RSIs, such as, pains in the same body part
every day should be reported. If the pain is
a result of an ergonomic hazard, the
employer must try to control the ergonomic
hazard.

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                    5-39
Key
                                   Ideas

Fact Sheet 5: Hazard and Risk Assessment and Controls
0 A hazard is anything that can cause injury or loss.
0 To reduce accidents, injuries and loss:
  - be able to identify hazards.
  - know if a hazard is a high, medium or low risk.
  - know what to do to control the hazard.
0 Hazard identification, assessment and control can help prevent injuries.
  - Identification is seeing a hazard and knowing what it is.
  - Assessment is knowing the risk of each hazard.
  - Control is what may be done to limit the hazard from causing harm or
    loss.
0 Types of hazards:
  - chemical, e.g. gas, acid,
  - physical, e.g. noise, electricity
  - biological, e.g. animals, viruses, bacteria
  - ergonomic, e.g. tools, equipment, work area
  - psychological, e.g. stress.

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                        5-44
Unit 5: Hazard and Risk Assessment and Controls

                                        Fact Sheet 5

W            ouldn't it be great if we were
             warned before an injury
             occurred?

For example, if we knew that a worker
                                                  0 Allergic Reaction:
                                                    When the body doesn't like the
was going to be badly cut while using               touch or smell of something, it may
a saw, we could give the worker safety              result in a rash, sneezing, spots
training before the incident. However,              (e.g., poison ivy, dust, mold).
we don't always know when incidents
are going to happen.                              o Environment:
                                                    The space around us. An
But we can reduce the number of                     environment can be good or bad,
incidents by assessing hazards and                  hot or cold, light or dark...
reducing the risk of injury.
                                                  0 Incident:
                                                    Something that has or could have
                                                    caused harm, injury or loss. If no
                                                    one is injured, it's a "near miss."

                                                  0    Psychological:
                                                       How your mind works.

                                                  0 Reduce:
                                                    Make less.

                                                  o Risk Factor:
                                                    Amount of danger.

                                                  0 Stress:
                                                    The way your body reacts to things
                                                    it doesn't like.

                                                  0 Toxic:
                                                    Harmful, poisonous.

                                                  0 Viruses and bacteria:
                                                    Types of germs that can affect your
                                                    health.

 ) Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                 5-45
Hazard assessment includes:               Reporting all incidents is important
                                          for reducing hazards. It helps
0 Hazard identification, finding          improve the safety of all workers
  hazards that could cause                doing similar jobs.
  accidents in the workplace.
                                          Reporting incidents, including near
0 Hazard assessment: judging the          misses, is just as important as
  degree of danger that the hazard        reporting injuries.
  poses to workers (the risk factor)
                                          The next time, the same hazard that
0 Hazard control: developing a            once caused a near miss could result
  plan to reduce or remove a              in an injury or fatality if it goes
  hazard before it causes accidents       unreported.

An incident is often referred to as a
near miss or an event that could
                                          Identifying and
have led to an accident.                  Monitoring Hazards
Accidents may result in injuries to:      New hazards can appear at any
0 Workers                                 time... even after hazards have been
0 Property damage                         identified, assessed, and controlled.
0 Environmental damage
0 Loss of process.                        For example, equipment and
                                          Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Accidents include minor injuries (e.g.,   will wear out over time. Workers may
cut finger) as well as fatalities         not return equipment to its proper
(death).                                  place. So, checking for hazards must
                                          be ongoing.
Hazards Defined
A hazard is an act or condition that
could cause an incident that may end
in injury, illness or loss.

A hazard can be a ladder or tool left
lying on the ground and not returned                                    mnm
to its proper place.

It can also be chemicals that a
worker may have to use.

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                 5-46
0 Mechanical - Any type of
Types of Hazards                         equipment, machine or tool can
                                         be a mechanical hazard.
Some examples for each of the five
                                         Workers can be caught in,
types of hazards include:
                                         pinned between, or run over.
Physical Hazards                       0 Electrical - Any type of
Most injuries are the result of          electrical equipment can
physical hazards, such as:               become a hazard and cause
                                         injury or death.
0 Noise - Noisy equipment or a
                                       0 Gravitation - Objects or people
  noisy workplace can lead to
                                         falling and being pulled to the
  hearing loss.
                                         ground by gravity (the earth's
                                         pull).
0 Temperature extremes -
  Working in cold or hot conditions
  can lead to freezing/ loss of heat   Biological Hazards
  or burning/too much heat.
                                       Biological hazards include:
0 Radiation - The rays from the
  sun or other radioactive             0 Insects- may cause allergic
  materials can cause cancer and         reactions.
  other illnesses.
                                       0 Plant material - may cause an
0 Vibration - Shaking movements          allergic reaction.
  from equipment, such as jack
  hammers, can lead to many            o Fungi and mold - may cause
  kinds of injuries.                     allergic reactions or infections.
                                         Wet or damp materials that
0 Pressure - Changes in air              grow, for example, in
  pressure, such as working with         greenhouses or granaries.
  power tools, or working as a
  diver, or mountain climbers can      0 Viruses and bacteria - may
  result in injury.                      cause viral or bacterial infections
                                         or illnesses, e.g., the flu is a viral
                                         illness.

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                  5-47
Chemical Hazards                               Risk Factor
Chemical hazards include chemical
                                               Risk is the chance of injury, harm or
mists, vapours, gases, dusts of
                                               loss.
fumes. Chemical hazards may be in:
                                               Once a hazard is identified, the risk
0   Cleaning products.
                                               factor or level for that hazard can be
o   Paint materials.
                                               assessed by figuring out:
0   Dust/dirt.
0   Asbestos.
0   Hazardous chemicals.
                                               0 How likely is it that the incident
                                                 will occur?
Ergonomic Hazards
                                               0 If the incident occurs, how bad
Ergonomic hazards are things in the              will be the injury, harm or loss?
workplace that do not fit with a
worker's needs, such as:

0 Desks, chairs, and tables that do            The risk factor is greater when a
  not fit the worker's body shape              hazard is known to have caused
  and size.                                    harm, injury or loss in the past.

0 Equipment and tools not                      Knowing how often a worker is in
  adaptable to a worker's shape                contact with a hazard helps to
  and size.                                    identify the risk factor.

0 Workplaces that are not suited               If a worker is exposed to a hazard
  to the task (e.g., trying to answer          several times a day, then the risk
  the phone in a very noisy area.)             factor is probably high.
                                              ! 41 &?:''     u^uiiiKmmmmsmmm^mf.
Psychological Hazards
                                               } :
Psychological hazards include:
                                        \ l
                                              t¥+
                                                "
    Work-related stress.
    Deadlines or sales targets.
    Harassment in the workplace.
                                                  I
                                                  ' k^JS"-

                                                                   t
                                                                       /

    Stress from personal life (e.g.,
    divorce, moving, death)

Each person may react in a different
way to different psychological
hazards.
                                              Worksite should be kept clean and free of
                                              debris, trip hazards and fire hazards.
                                              Also, there is no fire extinguisher on this site.

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                            5-48
If the result of an injury incident needs only minor First Aid, then the risk factor is low.
If it leads to a serious injury or death, then the risk factor is high.

A graph below shows how the risk factor can be assessed.

                    73                    How severe are            LI it; IAJI   sequences?
                    u-                                FATAL                            MINOR INJURY
                    (0                                                            t
                    N
                    CO
                          h-
                    sz    z                                               Severity of Harm
                    a>    UJ
                                    Probability of
                    o     a       Occurrence of Harm Catastrophic    Serious          Moderate      Minor
                    73    LU
                    CD
                    to
                          a:
                          LL.
                    O      i I
                    Q.                Very Likely        High          High             High       Medium
                    X
                    CD
                    in
                     i_
                     d>                 Likely           High          High           Medium         Low
                    XL
                     o
                     
                    a=:
                     o    Q
                          LI]          Remote            Low           Low            Negligible   Negligible
                    o     LJ
                            >
                    X

Hazard Elimination and
Control
 "Hazard Elimination" means to remove                                     Engineering controls includes changing
the hazard so that it no longer is a hazard.                              the working conditions.
                                                                          Examples:
"Hazard control" means having a plan to                                    0 Improve ventilation (more air flow) to
reduce the risk of a hazard causing injury,                                   remove bad air.
harm or loss.                                                              0 Set up signs and/or barriers to keep
                                                                             workers from going into harmful
Knowing a hazard's risk factor can lead to                                   areas.
the control of the hazard.                                                 o Adjusting work areas to fit workers.

There are 3 main types of hazard                                         Administrative controls direct the tasks
controls:                                                                of workers, but do not remove a hazard.
                                                                         They may reduce the worker's contact
0 Engineering controls.                                                  with the hazard.
0 Administrative controls.
o Basic controls (Personal                                                Examples:
  protective equipment).                                                  0 Training workers to work safely.
                                                                          o Training workers to properly use
                                                                             equipment, tools and materials.

© Job Safety Skills Society 2 0 1 1                                                                             5-49
Basic controls (Personal
Protective Equipment (PPE) does
                                       Types of Hazard Controls
not reduce or get rid of hazards.
                                       1. Control at the Source
They reduce the risk of injury from
certain hazards.
                                          0 Gets rid of or changes the
                                            hazard, e.g., replacing an older,
Examples of PPE are:
                                            unsafe machine.
0   Hard hats
                                          0 Change the layout of the
0   Eye goggles
                                            workplace or job to reduce an
0   Hearing protection
                                            ergonomic hazard.
0   Air-filter mask
0   Steel-toed boots
                                       2. Control along the path from the
0   Specialty coveralls.
                                          hazard to the worker

                   NOTE:                  0 Barriers or equipment guards
                                            protect workers from contact
                                            with moving parts. Screens to
    PPE is a control of last resort.
                                            block welding flash.
 Engineering and administrative
                                          0 Baffles to block or absorb noise.
controls are essential to making a
         workplace safer.
                                          0 Proper ventilation to remove
                                            toxic gases or dust.

                                       3. Control at the level of the worker
A good control meets four standards:
                                          0 Provide proper training in:
1. It prevents the hazard from               o Safe work practices and
   causing harm, injury or loss.               procedures
2. It protects those who could be            o   Emergency procedures (how
   harmed by the hazard.                         to handle fires or chemical
                                                 spills)
3. It must not create new hazards
   or problems.                           0 Proper support and supervision.

4. It must not create a hazard to
   the environment or public
   outside the workplace.

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                            5-50
Key
                                                    Ideas

Fact Sheet 6: Incident Investigation and Injury Prevention
          Every injury or incident should be investigated.

          Investigations help:

          •       identify the causes of the injury incident.

          •       prevent a similar incident in the future.

          Management and trained staff should conduct each investigation.

          The investigation procedure should include:
                 Collecting information.
                 Analyzing causes of the incident.
                 Recommending actions to prevent similar incidents.
                 Following up to check that recommended actions were put in place.
                 Writing an incident report.

                                                            . . - - * •   v         S"

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                  ■ **-«-'.    . 4 #          , J   \   .      -is-   v

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© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                         5-55
Unit 6: Incident Investigation and Injury Prevention

                                            Fact Sheet 6

            ncident investigations are an important part of any health and safety management
/           system. All incidents that occur on a worksite should be investigated.

T h e purpose of an incident                          The submitted information is used to record
investigation is to help an                           the type of injuries and fatalities that occur
                                                      in various industries and to improve worker
organization m a k e changes to                       health and safety regulations.
prevent a recurring incident.

Certain reports must be submitted to the
Workers' Compensation Board and to
Alberta Employment and Immigration's
Workplace Health and Safety.
                                                                 0   Investigation:
                                                                     Search for reasons.

                                                                 0    Incident:
                                                  I                  An unintended event
                                                                     that has or could have
                                                                     caused injury, damage
                                                                     or loss.

                                                                 o    "Near Miss":
                                                                     An unplanned event that
                                                                     could have caused an
                                                                     incident or accident.

    A 15-year-old trainee (Newnan GA) was
                                                      All incidents, including "near misses"
    killed when the forklift he was operating         should be recorded, reported and
    suddenly went into reverse, ran through the       investigated to eliminate and/or control
    loading-dock gates, flipped over and              the identified hazard.
    plunged four feet onto a concrete floor.

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                              5-56
Effective Investigations                                  Who Should Investigate?
An incident investigation should include:                 Management has the primary responsibility
                                                          for completing each investigation.
0 Describing what happened -
  witnesses may provide conflicting
  evidence.

    After receiving the information, an
    investigation will provide a detailed
    statement of what really happened.

0 Identifying or supposing the causes of
  the incident.

0 Determining the risks - some basis for
  establishing whether the incident will                                      rs.
  occur again and the potential for major
  loss must be included.

0 Identifying controls - new or improved                  Management knows the workers and the
  controls must be identified and put in                  conditions they work in, therefore, much of
  place to reduce or eliminate the                        the information can be provided by the
  chance of the incident happening                        supervisor. Management also knows the
  again.                                                  workers who would be able to provide the
                                                          pertinent information. Management will be
o Defining trends - there should be                       responsible for implementing any
  enough detailed information in the                      recommended changes.
  report so trends can be identified by
  looking at all injury reports.                          Management must be involved with all
                                                          investigations, especially those that result
0 Demonstrating concern - for other                       from a major loss or a high potential
  workers, incidents threaten their well-                 incident.
  being.
                                                          If it is a high loss situation, government, the
               A c c i d e n t AnaHysi                    public, and the owners will also be involved.
                                              Aff
                                                          Key decisions on new or improved controls
                                                          and work practices may need to be made
    Why &v                      ._ ^ f i " Not supplied   by higher levels of management.
                       Why 7
           'A Flying object-' hit Bob In the aye,
 Injury
          Why? ' o%Gl'*iar"«'*pJ.,cai,

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                                        "»,
© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                                  5-57
Investigation Procedure                        Causation Model
There are many tasks to completing an          The following model attempts to illustrate
investigation. While the tasks may vary        that the causes of any incident can be
with each situation, investigations should     grouped into five categories - task, material,
include:                                       environment, personnel, and management.
                                               When this model is used, possible causes
o Responding to the emergency                  in each category should be investigated.
  promptly and positively - a
  management representative/
  supervisor should go to the scene
  immediately upon being notified of an
  incident.

    Incident or Emergency Response
    instructions should be given to specific
    people. Keep unneeded workers out
    of the area.

    Management/supervisor must decide
    whether emergency personnel are
    required and whether workers should
    return to work or evacuate the site.

0 Collecting information about the
  incident - management/supervisor             □ Analyze significant causes:
  needs to ask questions to collect              • Determine the injuries or losses,
  required information.                          • Define the energy transfers,
                                                 • Identify substandard practices or
                                                   conditions, and
            Investigation          Questions
                                                 • Identify the basic causes.
    V What has happened?                       0 Develop and take safe actions:
    v Who should be interviewed?                 • Management/supervisor identifies
    V What is missing that should be at            what immediate actions are required
      the scene?                                   to ensure another incident does not
    v What is at the scene that should             occur.
      not be there?                              • Barriers, clean-up, or lock-out
    v What things might have failed or             procedures are used, if required?
      malfunctioned?                             • The investigation may also identify
                                                   changes required to provide new
    V What information is needed about
                                                   and/or better controls to ensure the
      training, repair, maintenance, and
                                                   incident does not occur again.
      other things that are kept on
      record?

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                      5-58
0 Review findings and
  recommendations -
                                             Writing the Report
   Every investigation report should be
                                             All information requested on the report
   reviewed by the next higher level of
                                             should be completed.
   management. This is to ensure that
   nothing has been overlooked and to
                                             The report should include:
   identify other people who should read
   the report.
                                             0 Name of worker(s) involved.
0 Follow-up -                                0 Department and job titles.
  Follow-up ensures that the
  recommendations are being acted            0 Location, date and time of incident.
  upon and that these actions are
  having the desired results.                0 Description of incident.

                                             0 Identification of substandard practices
Investigation Reports                          and conditions.
The incident report details the total        0 Identification of causes.
investigation and recommends new and/
or better controls.                          0 What worked well in the emergency
                                               response plan.
Most organizations have a standard
incident reporting form. Using a standard    0 Recommended actions to prevent a
form:                                          similar incident from occurring.

0 ensures that key procedures are
  followed.

0 ensures key questions are answered.

0 provides consistent reporting, and

0 helps follow-up on recommended
  actions.

                                    Injury Prevention

                      Knowledge of the causes and consequences of
                      past incidents, including near misses, help to
                      prevent future injury incidents.

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                  5-59
SAMPLE
                               Incident Investigation Report
                     SUPERVISOR INCIDENT INVESTIGATION REPORT
                                            (Pleas© Fill Out Form C o m p l e t e l y )
NAME O F INJURED WORKER:                John Jones                 Date of Injury: August 15, 2011 11:45 am
Department/Area Name:     Vehicle s e r v i c i n g                Co-worker(s): Katherine Brown
1. WORKER'S USUAL OCCUPATION                                       2. LENGTH OF EMPLOYMENT
      Mechanic                                                     [ ] Less than 1 mo.            [ ] 6 mos. to 5 yrs.
                                                                   [X] 1-5 mos.                   [ ] More than 5 yrs.
3. TIME IN OCCUPATION AT TIME OF                                   4a. EMPLOYMENT CATEGORY
  INJURY/INCIDENT                                                  [X] Regular, full time        [ ] Temporary
[ ] Less than 1 mo.      [ X] 6 mos. to 5 yrs.                     [ ] Regular, part time        [ ] Seasonal
[ ] 1-5 mos.              [ ] More than 5 yrs.                     [ ] Student
4 b . EMPLOYMENT CATEGORY                                          5.   NAMES OF OTHERS INJURED in SAME INCIDENT
                               nd                     rd                Katherine Brown
[ X] 1st shift         [ ] 2        shift      [ ]3        shift

• TIME OF                             7. PHASE OF                  8. SPECIFIC LOCATION OF INJURY/INCIDENT
INJURY/INCIDENT                       WORKER'S WORKDAY                  Service Bay 3
A. Time within shift                  AT TIME OF
[ ] Before 1st Break                  INJURY/INCIDENT
[X] Before Lunch                      [ ] During rest period       9. TASK AND ACTIVITY AT TIME OF INJURY/INCIDENT
[ ] Before 2nd Break                  [ ]Working overtime          A. General type of task:   engine repairs
[ ] After 2nd Break                   [ ]Entering or leaving
                                                                   B. Specific activity
B. Length of shift                    work
                                                                   C. Worker was working:
[ ] < 8 h r s [ ] 12 hours            [X] Performing work          [ ] Alone        [X]With co-worker(s)
[ ] 8 h r s [ ] 16hours               duties
                                                                   [ ] Other, specify:
[X]10hrs [ ]           Other          [ ] Other, specify

10.    Accident Reported to:                                       1 1 . Accident Reported to:
      Joe MacDonald, Supervisor                                    Larry James, Regional OH&S Officer
12.     DESCRIBE HOW THE INJURY/INCIDENT OCCURRED John Jones, 20, was in his second month at this job,
 with some experience. His duties included servicing engines. John received no orientation or training, and had a
 minimum of experience working in an automotive repair shop. At 10:30 am, Joe asked John to clean some
 grease from an engine block. Joe gave John an unmarked five-gallon pail and told him to pour some gasoline
 from an approved container into the pail and use that to clean the engine block.
          Katherine Brown, a licensed mechanic, was working on a truck in the stall closest to where John was
 working. Katherine turned on a cutting torch to remove a rusted bolt from the truck. An explosion ensued,
 engulfing John in flames. Katherine's overalls started on fire, but she quickly put out the flames, and then turned
 off the cutting torch. Katherine put out the fire with a fire extinguisher and administered first aid to John. Joe
 called an ambulance, which arrived within five minutes and took John to the hospital. John received second
 degree burns to his face, neck and hands, and third degree burns to his lower arms.

13.    Conditions at time of accident (weather, status of job, housekeeping, etc.) Working space was
 quite clean. Tools were well organized and kept clean. A number of dirty engine parts were sitting in one corner
 waiting to be cleaned (see diagram). All three hoists were occupied and trucks were being serviced. Overhead
 doors were closed. Ventilation was turned on. Cold, windy, rainy day (6° C).

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                                             5-60
14. What were the causes of the accident?
    Immediate:
    • Substandard practice: failing to warn workers, using equipment/material improperly
    • Substandard condition: inadequate warning system, fire and explosion hazard.

    Basic:
    • Lack of knowledge and skills (training)
    • Inadequate supervision
    • Inadequate purchasing — handling and storing of materials
    • Inadequate work standard - no standards for working with flammable material
    • Inadequate ventilation

15. Recommended Actions:
    Immediate
    • Additional training for supervisor and training for worker
    • Switching materials used to clean parts
    • Proper containers and labeling for all flammable materials

    Long-term:
    • Installation of barrier isolating welding equipment
    • Improved ventilation
    • Additional monitoring by supervisor of new standards

    Person(s) responsible for implementing corrective action(s)          Joe MacDonald
    injuries-Person injured        John Jones, 155-15 Street, Buckwheat, AB TOZ 0Z3 DOB: June 13, 1991

Witnesses
Henry Battle (mechanic), Joe Fixes Trucks         (555-8992)
Susan Fisher (customer), Delta Super A Foods (555-7722)

Was First Aid given? Yes. By Katherine Brown, co-worker.
Was injured transported to medical aid? Yes by Delta Response Ltd. to Cornpatch County Hospital. Seen by
Dr. Marianne Mitchell (Emergency Room)
ADDITIONAL SPACE FOR COMMENTS and/or DIAGRAM
(IF MORE SPACE IS NEEDED, PLEASE ATTACH A SHEET OF PAPER)

SUPERVISOR'S NAME: Joe MacDonald
SUPERVISOR'S SIGNATURE                                                        DATE

Follow-up re: recommended actions                                             By: Larry James,
                                                                                  Regional OH&S Officer

                                                Joe Fixes Trucks
                                134 Industrial Way, Delta, AB TOZ 0Z0   555-8992
               ***TO SUPERVISOR: KEEP A COPY FOR YOUR RECORD**"
09/2011

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                                5-61
Key
                                   Ideas

Unit 7: Job Safety and The Law
0 The Occupational Health and Safety Act (OH&S ACT) sets rules for
  ensuring workplace safety.

a The OH&S Act covers most occupations, workers and employers.

0 Most farming operations are exempt under the OH&S Act, except for
  food processing; greenhouses; mushroom farms; nurseries;
  landscaping; sod farms; pet breeders which are covered.

0 Employers must look after the safety of workers,

0 It's against the law for:

     ■ anyone to force you to do work that you think is unsafe.

     ■ an employer to run an unsafe business.

     ■ you to work if you think there is imminent danger.

■a You can't lose your job for refusing to do work you think is an imminent
   danger.

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                              5-70
Unit 7: Job Safety and The Law

                                       Fact Sheet 7

D             id you know that it is against the law for anyone to force you to do work that you
              think is unsafe (i.e., if there is imminent danger to yourself or to other workers)?

 Did you also know that it is against the law
 for an employer to operate an unsafe
 business?

                                                            °    Employers:
 Occupational Health &                                          A person who hires one or more
                                                                workers, or a person who works for
 Safety Act                                                     themself.

 Each province in Canada has an                             a Imminent Danger:
 Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) Act.                   Any danger not normally found in
                                                              the job, or a danger under which a
 Each OH&S Act specifies the safety                           person doing that job would not
 standards designed to protect the health and                 normally carry out the work.
 safety of workers.
                                                            n Worker:
 The OH&S Act includes the rights and duties                  Any person working in a job as
 of employers, workers and others with the                    defined by the OH&S Act.
 workplace.

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                             5-71
Employers and Workers
The first step to knowing the OH&S Act is to know the meaning of the terms, "Employers'
and "Workers" as defined in the OH&S Act.

An employer is a person who employs one or more workers, or a person who is self-
employed.

A worker is any person working at a job.

Who is Covered by the                            You May Be a Worker or
OH&S Act?                                        an Employer?
The OH&S Act covers most workers and             The OH&S Act is important because:
employers, except:
                                                  a If you work for someone else, you are a
° Domestic workers, such as nannies or              worker. You need to know your rights
   housekeepers                                     and what can be expected of you.
Ei Federal government workers                     Q If you decide to start your own business
D Workers in industries regulated by the            and hire others, you are an employer.
   federal government (banks, national            Q If you are paid for mowing lawns or
   transportation companies, television             painting a house, you are self-
   and radio broadcasters)                          employed.
Q Farmers and other agricultural workers.

                                             In Alberta,
                                   both employers and workers
                                        are responsible for
                                     safety in the workplace.

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                    5-72
What the OH&S Act Says                         What the OH&S Act Says
About Employers                                About Workers
Section 2(1) of the OH&S Act states that       Section 2(2) states that every worker shall:
every employer shall ensure, as far as it is
reasonable for him/her to do so:               a) take reasonable care to protect his/her
                                                  own health and safety as well as the
a) the health and safety of workers               other workers present while at work,
   engaged in the work of that employer,          and
   and
                                               b) co-operate with the employer to protect
b) that the workers are aware of their            the health and safety of self and other
   responsibilities and duties under this         workers at the workplace.
   Act and the regulations.

                  In other words,

              your employer must

             look after your safety.

The OH&S Act also states that employers
must:                                                  Each worker is responsible
                                                           for taking care of
a make sure workers are competent. In
  other words, they must make sure                         both themself and
  workers have the training to do their job                  other workers
  well.                                                    in the workplace.

B provide safety equipment and training.

& ensure workers have personal safety
  equipment and that they know how to
  use it.

s tell workers about all safety hazards.

E make sure workers are trained to
  handle dangerous products.

Q investigate accidents that cause serious
  injuries and any incidents that could
  cause serious injuries.

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                    5-73
The OH&S Act also states that workers      Refusing Unsafe Work
must:
                                           What do you do if you are told to do
a use safety equipment and follow all
                                           dangerous work?
  safety procedures outlined by the
  employer.
                                           Section 27(1) states, no worker shall:
0 know the hazards of the job.
                                           a) do any work if he/she believes that
                                              there is an imminent danger to the
E make sure all equipment, including
                                              health or safety of that worker,
  safety equipment, is working properly.
                                           b) carry out any work if he/she believes
Q wear personal protective equipment,
                                              that it will cause imminent danger to
  when needed, and use it properly.
                                              the health or safety of that worker or
                                              another worker present at the
D be familiar with emergency equipment,
                                              workplace, or
  know where it is and how to use it.
                                           c) operate any tool, appliance or
                                              equipment if he/she believes that it will
                                              cause an imminent danger to the
                                              health or safety of that worker or
                                              another worker.

                                                          IT IS .
                                                    AGAINST THE LAW
                                                    FOR-VOUTO'WORK.
                                                    v lF¥0UTHiNlC ■•■■''
                                                        NEREIS-
                                                                                         11

> Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                  5-74
What is Imminent Danger?                          You must tell your employer/supervisor
                                                  right away that something is unsafe.
The regulations say the imminent danger           Section 27 (4) then states that the
is any danger that is not normally found in       employer/supervisor must check your
the job, or a danger under which a person         concern(s), and whenever necessary, fix
doing that job would not normally carry out       the danger.
his/her work.

Tell your Employer                                 "Wait a minute!" You're thinking,
                                                   "If I tell my boss that I think a job
If you think that something at work is            is unsafe, I will get fired."
unsafe, what must you do?
                                                  Right?
Section 27(3) states that a worker who:

b)    refuses to carry out work, or

c)    refuses to operate a tool, appliance or
      equipment

shall, as soon as possible, notify the
employer at the workplace of the refusal
and the reason for the refusal.                         ■
                                                        ' ■•-.".You- Gan'f Be fired
                                                                  for refusing
                                                      to perform an unsafe task.

The Act also has that covered!

Section 28 states:

No person shall dismiss or take any other disciplinary action against a worker
because that person did what this Act told them to do.

                                   Yo.ii cannot be fired for
                                   jjtolttg the right thing! I!

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                    5-75
The Law Works For You!!!

                       The purpose of the OH&S Act is to protect you at work.

                                        Always remember:

                                            No one
                                        can force you
                                   to do something at work
                                        that you think
                                          is unsafe.
If you refuse to do work that you think is unsafe and are fired, the following actions may be
taken:

                                      Section 28.1 (OH&S Act)

               The worker files a complaint with a Workplace Health and Safety
               (WHS) officer at any Alberta Employment, Immigration and
               Industry office.

               The WHS o             —
               conduct an investigation that includes information from
               employer. If the WHS officer determines, through the
               investigation, that the claim is valid, a report stating what action
               needs to be taken by the employer is ■■• ' "         ' — ' —
               both the employer and the complains

               If either party wishes, they may request a review o. ...
               investigation by the Workplace Health and Safety Council within
               30 days of receiving a copy of the investigating officer's report.

               The WHS Council may choose not to review the claim or they
               may require re-instatement of the worker and/or cessation of
               disciplinary action and/or payment of money equivalent to what
               the worker would have received if the worker had not been
               dismissed and/or remove reprimand from the worker's work file.

© Job Safety Skills Society 2011                                                         5-76
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