Australian Professional Standards for Teachers

 
Australian Professional Standards for Teachers
Australian Professional
Standards for Teachers
Australian Professional Standards for Teachers
Contents

Work on the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers (the Standards)
commenced under the auspices of the Ministerial Council for Education, Early
Childhood Development and Youth Affairs (MCEECDYA – now the Education
Council) in 2009. Significant work was undertaken by the Australian Standards
Sub-group of the Australian Education, Early Childhood Development and Youth
Affairs Senior Officials Committee (AEEYSOC) during 2009-10. The Australian
Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL) assumed responsibility for
validating and finalising the Standards in July 2010.

The Australian Professional Standards for Teachers were endorsed by MCEECDYA
in December 2010. AITSL appreciates Ministers’ commitment to quality teaching
and to the National Partnership on Improving Teacher Quality, and looks forward to
continuing work with them on these important national reforms.

© 2011 Education Services Australia as the legal entity for the Education Council.

ISBN: 978-0-9871650-2-2

Reprinted October 2018

Education Services Australia, as the legal entity for the Education Council owns
the copyright in this publication. This publication or any part of it may be used
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acknowledged. The publication may not be sold or used for any other commercial
purpose.

Other than as permitted above or by the Copyright Act 1968 (Commonwealth),
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Education Council, PO Box 202, Carlton South, VIC 3053, Australia.

The Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership was formed to provide
national leadership for the Commonwealth, state and territory governments in
promoting excellence in the profession of teaching and school leadership with
funding provided by the Australian Government.

Australian Professional Standards for Teachers, AITSL
Contents

Contents

Preamble. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
         The crucial role of the teacher.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
         Professional standards for teachers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
         Purpose of the Standards.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Organisation of the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Organisation of the Standards.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Professional Knowledge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
         Standard 1: Know students and how they learn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
         Standard 2: Know the content and how to teach it.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Professional Practice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
         Standard 3: Plan for and implement effective teaching and learning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
         Standard 4: Create and maintain supportive and safe learning environments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
         Standard 5: Assess, provide feedback and report on student learning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Professional Engagement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
         Standard 6: Engage in professional learning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
         Standard 7: Engage professionally with colleagues, parents/carers and the community. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Acknowledgements .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Australian Professional Standards for Teachers, AITSL   1
Contents

    Preamble

    The crucial role of the teacher                         Internationally6 and locally, education systems are     by teachers’ understanding of what is required
                                                            developing professional standards for teachers          at different stages of their careers. An extensive
    Teachers share a significant responsibility in          to attract, develop, recognise and retain quality       validation process involving almost 6,000 teachers
    preparing young people to lead successful and           teachers. ‘High performing school systems,              ensured that each descriptor was shaped by the
    productive lives. The Australian Professional           though strikingly different in construct and context,   profession.
    Standards for Teachers (the Standards) reflect          [maintain] a strong focus on improving instruction
    and build on national and international evidence        because of its direct impact upon student               “The greatest resource in Australian
    that a teacher’s effectiveness has a powerful           achievement’.7                                          schools is our teachers. They account
    impact on students,1 with broad consensus that
                                                                                                                    for the vast majority of expenditure
    teacher quality is the single most important in-        Professional standards for                              in school education and have the
    school factor influencing student achievement.2
    Effective teachers can be a source of inspiration       teachers                                                greatest impact on student learning,
    and, equally importantly, provide a dependable and      Developing professional standards for teachers          far outweighing the impact of any other
    consistent influence on young people as they make       that can guide professional learning, practice and
    choices about further education, work and life.
                                                                                                                    education program or policy.”
                                                            engagement facilitates the improvement of teacher
    As stated in the National Partnership on Improving      quality and contributes positively to the public        The Standards support the Melbourne Declaration,8
    Teacher Quality3 and the Melbourne Declaration          standing of the profession. The key elements of         which describes aspirations for all young
    on Educational Goals for Young Australians,4            quality teaching are described in the Standards.        Australians for the next decade. This commits
    improving teacher quality is considered an              They articulate what teachers are expected to know      Australian Education Ministers to the specific
    essential reform as part of Australia’s efforts to      and be able to do at four career stages: Graduate,      educational goals that Australian schooling
    improve student attainment and ensure it has a          Proficient, Highly Accomplished and Lead.               promotes equity and excellence and that all young
    world class system of education. ‘The greatest                                                                  Australians will become successful learners,
    resource in Australian schools is our teachers.         The Standards and their descriptors represent an        confident and creative individuals, and active and
    They account for the vast majority of expenditure in    analysis of effective, contemporary practice by         informed citizens.9 ‘All Australian governments,
    school education and have the greatest impact on        teachers throughout Australia. Their development        universities, school sectors and individual schools
    student learning, far outweighing the impact of any     included a synthesis of the descriptions of             have a responsibility to work together to support
    other education program or policy’.5                    teachers’ knowledge, practice and professional          high-quality teaching and school leadership,
                                                            engagement used by teacher accreditation and            including by enhancing pre-service10 teacher
                                                            registration authorities, employers and professional    education’.11
                                                            associations. Each descriptor has been informed

2   Australian Professional Standards for Teachers, AITSL
Contents

Purpose of the Standards                                The Australian Professional Standards for Teachers
                                                        are organised into four career stages and guide
The Australian Professional Standards for Teachers      the preparation, support and development of
are a public statement of what constitutes teacher      teachers. The stages reflect the continuum of a
quality. They define the work of teachers and           teacher’s developing professional expertise from
make explicit the elements of high-quality, effective   undergraduate preparation through to being an
teaching in 21st century schools that will improve      exemplary classroom practitioner and a leader in
educational outcomes for students. The Standards        the profession.
do this by providing a framework which makes
                                                        The Graduate Standards will underpin the
clear the knowledge, practice and professional
                                                        accreditation of initial teacher education programs.
engagement required across teachers’ careers.
                                                        Graduates from accredited programs qualify for
They present a common understanding and
                                                        registration14 in each state and territory.
language for discourse between teachers, teacher
educators, teacher organisations, professional          The Proficient Standards will be used to underpin
associations and the public.                            processes for full registration as a teacher and to
                                                        support the requirements of nationally consistent
Teacher standards also inform the development of
                                                        teacher registration.
professional learning goals, provide a framework
by which teachers can judge the success of              The Standards at the career stages of Highly
their learning and assist self-reflection and           Accomplished and Lead will inform voluntary
selfassessment.12                                       certification.15
Teachers can use the Standards to recognise their
current and developing capabilities, professional
aspirations and achievements.
Standards contribute to the professionalisation of
teaching and raise the status of the profession.
They could also be used as the basis for a
professional accountability model,13 helping to
ensure that teachers can demonstrate appropriate
levels of professional knowledge, professional
practice and professional engagement.

                                                                                                               Australian Professional Standards for Teachers, AITSL   3
Contents

    Organisation of the Australian
    Professional Standards for Teachers
    The Australian Professional Standards for Teachers       Domains of teaching      Standards                                 Focus areas and descriptors
    comprise seven Standards which outline what
    teachers should know and be able to do. The             Professional Knowledge    1. Know students and how they learn       Refer to the Standard at each
    Standards are interconnected, interdependent and                                                                            career stage
                                                                                      2. Know the content and how to teach it
    overlapping.
    The Standards are grouped into three domains of         Professional Practice     3. Plan for and implement effective
                                                                                         teaching and learning
    teaching; Professional Knowledge, Professional                                    4. Create and maintain supportive and
    Practice and Professional Engagement. In practice,                                   safe learning environments
    teaching draws on aspects of all three domains.                                   5. Assess, provide feedback and report
    Within each Standard focus areas provide further                                     on student learning
    illustration of teaching knowledge, practice
    and professional engagement. These are then             Professional Engagement   6. Engage in professional learning
                                                                                      7. Engage professionally with
    separated into Descriptors at four professional
                                                                                         colleagues, parents/carers and the
    career stages: Graduate, Proficient, Highly                                          community
    Accomplished and Lead.

4   Australian Professional Standards for Teachers, AITSL
Contents

Organisation of the Standards

Domains of teaching
 Professional Knowledge                                  Professional Practice                                 Professional Engagement

Teachers draw on a body of professional                 Teachers are able to make learning engaging and       Teachers model effective learning. They identify
knowledge and research to respond to the needs          valued. They are able to create and maintain safe,    their own learning needs and analyse, evaluate and
of their students within their educational contexts.    inclusive and challenging learning environments       expand their professional learning both collegially
                                                        and implement fair and equitable behaviour            and individually.
Teachers know their students well, including
                                                        management plans. They use sophisticated
their diverse linguistic, cultural and religious                                                              Teachers demonstrate respect and professionalism
                                                        communication techniques.
backgrounds. They know how the experiences                                                                    in all their interactions with students, colleagues,
that students bring to their classroom affect their     Teachers have a repertoire of effective teaching      parents/carers and the community. They are
continued learning. They know how to structure          strategies and use them to implement well             sensitive to the needs of parents/carers and can
their lessons to meet the physical, social and          designed teaching programs and lessons. They          communicate effectively with them about their
intellectual development and characteristics of their   regularly evaluate all aspects of their teaching      children’s learning.
students.                                               practice to ensure they are meeting the learning
                                                                                                              Teachers value opportunities to engage with
                                                        needs of their students. They interpret and use
Teachers know the content of their subjects                                                                   their school communities within and beyond the
                                                        student assessment data to diagnose barriers to
and curriculum. They know and understand the                                                                  classroom to enrich the educational context for
                                                        learning and to challenge students to improve their
fundamental concepts, structure and enquiry                                                                   students. They understand the links between
                                                        performance.
processes relevant to programs they teach.                                                                    school, home and community in the social and
                                                        They operate effectively at all stages of the         intellectual development of their students.
Teachers understand what constitutes effective,
                                                        teaching and learning cycle, including planning
developmentally appropriate strategies in their
                                                        for learning and assessment, developing learning
learning and teaching programs and use this
                                                        programs, teaching, assessing, providing feedback
knowledge to make the content meaningful to
                                                        on student learning and reporting to parents/
students.
                                                        carers.
Through their teaching practice, teachers develop
students’ literacy and numeracy within their subject
areas. They are also able to use Information and
Communication Technology to contextualise and
expand their students’ modes and breadth of
learning.

                                                                                                                            Australian Professional Standards for Teachers, AITSL   5
Contents

    Organisation of the Standards

    The Australian Professional Standards For Teachers                                                                        Professional capability at four
    The seven Standards identify what is expected of teachers within three domains of teaching. Teachers’                     career stages
    demonstration of the Standards will occur within their specific teaching context at their stage of expertise              The four career stages in the Standards provide
    and reflect the learning requirements of the students they teach.                                                         benchmarks to recognise the professional
                                                                                                                              growth of teachers throughout their careers.
                                                                                                                              The descriptors across the four career stages
     Domains of teaching                         Standards
                                                                                                                              represent increasing levels of knowledge, practice
    Standard 1:                                  1. Know students and how they learn                                          and professional engagement for teachers.
                                                                                                                              Progression through the stages describes a
    Standard 2:                                  2. Know the content and how to teach it
                                                                                                                              growing understanding, applied with increasing
                                                                                                                              sophistication across a broader and more complex
    Standard 3:                                  3. Plan for and implement effective teaching and learning
                                                                                                                              range of situations.
    Standard 4:                                  4. Create and maintain supportive and safe learning environments

    Standard 5:                                  5. Assess, provide feedback and report on student learning                   Graduate teachers
                                                                                                                              Graduate teachers have completed a qualification
    Standard 6:                                  6. Engage in professional learning
                                                                                                                              that meets the requirements of a nationally
    Standard 7:                                  7. Engage professionally with colleagues, parents/carers and the community
                                                                                                                              accredited program of initial teacher education.
                                                                                                                              The award of this qualification means that they
                                                                                                                              have met the Graduate Standards.
    Focus areas and descriptors                                                                                               On successful completion of their initial teacher
                                                                                                                              education, graduate teachers possess the requisite
    The focus areas and descriptors identify the components of quality teaching at each career stage. They
                                                                                                                              knowledge and skills to plan for and manage
    constitute agreed characteristics of the complex process of teaching. An effective teacher is able to
                                                                                                                              learning programs for students. They demonstrate
    integrate and apply knowledge, practice and professional engagement as outlined in the descriptors to
                                                                                                                              knowledge and understanding of the implications
    create teaching environments in which learning is valued.
                                                                                                                              for learning of students’ physical, cultural, social,
                                                                                                                              linguistic and intellectual characteristics.

6   Australian Professional Standards for Teachers, AITSL
Contents

They understand principles of inclusion and              Proficient teachers                                   Proficient teachers are team members. They work
strategies for differentiating teaching to meet the                                                            collaboratively with colleagues; they seek out
specific learning needs of students across the full      Proficient teachers meet the requirements for full    and are responsive to advice about educational
range of abilities.                                      registration through demonstrating achievement of     issues affecting their teaching practice. They
                                                         the seven Standards at this level.                    communicate effectively with their students,
Graduate teachers have an understanding of
                                                         These teachers create effective teaching and          colleagues, parents/carers and community
their subject/s, curriculum content and teaching
                                                         learning experiences for their students. They         members. They behave professionally and ethically
strategies. They are able to design lessons that
                                                         know the unique backgrounds of their students         in all forums.
meet the requirements of curriculum, assessment
and reporting. They demonstrate the capacity to          and adjust their teaching to meet their individual
interpret student assessment data to evaluate            needs and diverse cultural, social and linguistic     Highly Accomplished teachers
student learning and modify teaching practice.           characteristics.
                                                                                                               Highly Accomplished teachers are recognised as
They know how to select and apply timely and             They develop safe, positive and productive learning   highly effective, skilled classroom practitioners and
appropriate types of feedback to improve students’       environments where all students are encouraged to     routinely work independently and collaboratively
learning.                                                participate.                                          to improve their own practice and the practice of
Graduate teachers demonstrate knowledge of               They design and implement engaging teaching           colleagues. They are knowledgeable and active
practical strategies to create rapport with students     programs that meet curriculum, assessment and         members of the school.
and manage student behaviour. They know how              reporting requirements. They use feedback and         Highly Accomplished teachers contribute to their
to support students’ wellbeing and safety, working       assessment to analyse and support their students’     colleagues’ learning. They may also take on roles
within school and system curriculum and legislative      knowledge and understanding. Proficient teachers      that guide, advise or lead others. They regularly
requirements.                                            use a range of sources, including student results,    initiate and engage in discussions about effective
They understand the importance of working                to evaluate their teaching and to adjust their        teaching to improve the educational outcomes for
ethically, collaborating with colleagues, external       programs to better meet student needs.                their students.
professional and community representatives, and          Proficient teachers are active participants in        They maximise learning opportunities for their
contributing to the life of the school. Teachers         their profession and with advice from colleagues      students by understanding their backgrounds and
understand strategies for working effectively,           identify, plan and evaluate their own professional    individual characteristics and the impact of those
sensitively and confidentially with parents/carers and   learning needs.                                       factors on their learning. They provide colleagues,
recognise their role in their children’s education.

                                                                                                                             Australian Professional Standards for Teachers, AITSL   7
Contents

    Organisation of the Standards

    including pre-service teachers, with support            Lead teachers                                            They lead processes to improve student
    and strategies to create positive and productive                                                                 performance by evaluating and revising programs,
    earning environments.                                   Lead teachers are recognised and respected by            analysing student assessment data and taking
                                                            colleagues, parents/carers and the community             account of feedback from parents/carers. This is
    Highly Accomplished teachers have in-depth
                                                            as exemplary teachers. They have demonstrated            combined with a synthesis of current research on
    knowledge of subjects and curriculum content
                                                            consistent and innovative teaching practice over         effective teaching and learning.
    within their sphere of responsibility. They model
                                                            time. Inside and outside the school they initiate and
    sound teaching practices in their teaching areas.                                                                They represent the school and the teaching
                                                            lead activities that focus on improving educational
    They work with colleagues to plan, evaluate and                                                                  profession in the community. They are professional,
                                                            opportunities for all students. They establish
    modify teaching programs to improve student                                                                      ethical and respected individuals inside and
                                                            inclusive learning environments that meet the
    learning.                                                                                                        outside the school.
                                                            needs of students from different linguistic, cultural,
    They keep abreast of the latest developments in         religious and socio-economic backgrounds. They
    their specialist content area or across a range of      seek to improve their own practice and to share          Conclusion
    content areas for generalist teachers.                  their experience with colleagues.
                                                                                                                     The development of the Australian Professional
    Highly Accomplished teachers are skilled in             They are skilled in mentoring teachers and               Standards for the teaching profession is an integral
    analysing student assessment data and use it to         preservice teachers, using activities that develop       part of ensuring quality learning and teaching in
    improve teaching and learning.                          knowledge, practice and professional engagement          Australian schools. With their development and
                                                            in others. They promote creative, innovative             implementation, Australian education systems are
    They are active in establishing an environment
                                                            thinking among colleagues. They apply skills and         well placed to be among the best in the world.
    which maximises professional learning and practice
    opportunities for colleagues. They monitor their        in-depth knowledge and understanding to deliver
                                                                                                                     These Standards build upon the significant work
    own professional learning needs and align them to       effective lessons and learning opportunities and
                                                                                                                     undertaken previously in Australia. They are a
    the learning needs of students.                         share this information with colleagues and pre-
                                                                                                                     fundamental component of the reforms agreed to
                                                            service teachers. They describe the relationship
                                                                                                                     in the National Partnership on Improving Teacher
    They behave ethically at all times. Their               between highly effective teaching and learning in
                                                                                                                     Quality and will help to realise the goals and
    interpersonal and presentation skills are highly        ways that inspire colleagues to improve their own
                                                                                                                     commitments set out in the Melbourne Declaration.
    developed. They communicate effectively and             professional practice.
    respectfully with students, colleagues, parents/
    carers and community members.

8   Australian Professional Standards for Teachers, AITSL
Contents
Contents

     Professional Knowledge

     Standard 1: Know students and how they learn
      Graduate                                               Proficient                                    Highly Accomplished                            Lead

     Focus area 1.1 Physical, social and intellectual development and characteristics of students
      Demonstrate knowledge and                              Use teaching strategies based on              Select from a flexible and effective           Lead colleagues to select and develop
      understanding of physical, social                      knowledge of students’ physical,              repertoire of teaching strategies to suit      teaching strategies to improve student
      and intellectual development and                       social and intellectual development           the physical, social and intellectual          learning using knowledge of the physical,
      characteristics of students and how these              and characteristics to improve student        development and characteristics of             social and intellectual development and
      may affect learning.                                   learning.                                     students.                                      characteristics of students.

     Focus area 1.2 Understand how students learn
      Demonstrate knowledge and                              Structure teaching programs using             Expand understanding of how students           Lead processes to evaluate the effectiveness
      understanding of research into how                     research and collegial advice about how       learn using research and workplace             of teaching programs using research and
      students learn and the implications for                students learn.                               knowledge.                                     workplace knowledge about how students
      teaching.                                                                                                                                           learn.

     Focus area 1.3 Students with diverse linguistic, cultural, religious and socioeconomic backgrounds
      Demonstrate knowledge of teaching                      Design and implement teaching strategies      Support colleagues to develop effective        Evaluate and revise school learning and
      strategies that are responsive to the                  that are responsive to the learning           teaching strategies that address the           teaching programs, using expert and
      learning strengths and needs of students               strengths and needs of students from          learning strengths and needs of students       community knowledge and experience,
      from diverse linguistic, cultural, religious           diverse linguistic, cultural, religious and   from diverse linguistic, cultural, religious   to meet the needs of students with
      and socioeconomic backgrounds.                         socioeconomic backgrounds.                    and socioeconomic backgrounds.                 diverse linguistic, cultural, religious and
                                                                                                                                                          socioeconomic backgrounds.

10   Australian Professional Standards for Teachers, AITSL
Contents

 Graduate                                      Proficient                                    Highly Accomplished                           Lead

Focus area 1.4 Strategies for teaching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students
 Demonstrate broad knowledge and               Design and implement effective teaching       Provide advice and support colleagues in      Develop teaching programs that support
 understanding of the impact of culture,       strategies that are responsive to the local   the implementation of effective teaching      equitable and ongoing participation of
 cultural identity and linguistic background   community and cultural setting, linguistic    strategies for Aboriginal and Torres Strait   Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students
 on the education of students from             background and histories of Aboriginal        Islander students using knowledge of and      by engaging in collaborative relationships
 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander         and Torres Strait Islander students.          support from community representatives.       with community representatives and parents/
 backgrounds.                                                                                                                              carers.

Focus area 1.5 Differentiate teaching to meet the specific learning needs of students across the full range of abilities
 Demonstrate knowledge and                     Develop teaching activities that              Evaluate learning and teaching                Lead colleagues to evaluate the
 understanding of strategies for               incorporate differentiated strategies         programs, using student assessment            effectiveness of learning and teaching
 differentiating teaching to meet the          to meet the specific learning needs           data, that are differentiated for the         programs differentiated for the specific
 specific learning needs of students           of students across the full range of          specific learning needs of students           learning needs of students across the full
 across the full range of abilities.           abilities.                                    across the full range of abilities.           range of abilities.

Focus area 1.6 Strategies to support full participation of students with disability
 Demonstrate broad knowledge                   Design and implement teaching                 Work with colleagues to access                Initiate and lead the review of school
 and understanding of legislative              activities that support the participation     specialist knowledge, and relevant            policies to support the engagement and
 requirements and teaching strategies          and learning of students with disability      policy and legislation, to develop            full participation of students with disability
 that support participation and learning       and address relevant policy and               teaching programs that support the            and ensure compliance with legislative
 of students with disability.                  legislative requirements.                     participation and learning of students        and/or system policies.
                                                                                             with disability.

                                                                                                                                             Australian Professional Standards for Teachers, AITSL   11
Contents

     Professional Knowledge

     Standard 2: Know the content and how to teach it
      Graduate                                               Proficient                                 Highly Accomplished                     Lead

     Focus area 2.1 Content and teaching strategies of the teaching area
      Demonstrate knowledge and                              Apply knowledge of the content and         Support colleagues using current and    Lead initiatives within the school to
      understanding of the concepts,                         teaching strategies of the teaching area   comprehensive knowledge of content      evaluate and improve knowledge of
      substance and structure of the content                 to develop engaging teaching activities.   and teaching strategies to develop      content and teaching strategies and
      and teaching strategies of the teaching                                                           and implement engaging learning and     demonstrate exemplary teaching of
      area.                                                                                             teaching programs.                      subjects using effective, research-based
                                                                                                                                                learning and teaching programs.

     Focus area 2.2 Content selection and organisation
      Organise content into an effective                     Organise content into coherent, well-      Exhibit innovative practice in the      Lead initiatives that utilise comprehensive
      learning and teaching sequence.                        sequenced learning and teaching            selection and organisation of content   content knowledge to improve the
                                                             programs.                                  and delivery of learning and teaching   selection and sequencing of content
                                                                                                        programs.                               into coherently organised learning and
                                                                                                                                                teaching programs.

     Focus area 2.3 Curriculum, assessment and reporting
      Use curriculum, assessment and                         Design and implement learning and          Support colleagues to plan and          Lead colleagues to develop learning and
      reporting knowledge to design learning                 teaching programs using knowledge of       implement learning and teaching         teaching programs using comprehensive
      sequences and lesson plans.                            curriculum, assessment and reporting       programs using contemporary             knowledge of curriculum, assessment and
                                                             requirements.                              knowledge and understanding of          reporting requirements.
                                                                                                        curriculum, assessment and reporting
                                                                                                        requirements.

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Contents

 Graduate                                  Proficient                                  Highly Accomplished                        Lead

Focus area 2.4 Understand and respect Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to promote reconciliation between Indigenous
and non­-Indigenous Australians
 Demonstrate broad knowledge of,           Provide opportunities for students to       Support colleagues with providing          Lead initiatives to assist colleagues
 understanding of and respect for          develop understanding of and respect        opportunities for students to develop      with opportunities for students to
 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander     for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander   understanding of and respect for           develop understanding of and respect
 histories, cultures and languages.        histories, cultures and languages.          Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander      for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
                                                                                       histories, cultures and languages.         histories, cultures and languages.

Focus area 2.5 Literacy and numeracy strategies
 Know and understand literacy and          Apply knowledge and understanding of        Support colleagues to implement            Monitor and evaluate the implementation
 numeracy teaching strategies and their    effective teaching strategies to support    effective teaching strategies to improve   of teaching strategies within the school to
 application in teaching areas.            students’ literacy and numeracy             students’ literacy and numeracy            improve students’ achievement in literacy
                                           achievement.                                achievement.                               and numeracy using research-based
                                                                                                                                  knowledge and student data.

Focus area 2.6 Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
 Implement teaching strategies for using   Use effective teaching strategies to        Model high-­level teaching knowledge       Lead and support colleagues within the
 ICT to expand curriculum learning         integrate ICT into learning and teaching    and skills and work with colleagues        school to select and use ICT with effective
 opportunities for students.               programs to make selected content           to use current ICT to improve their        teaching strategies to expand learning
                                           relevant and meaningful.                    teaching practice and make content         opportunities and content knowledge for
                                                                                       relevant and meaningful.                   all students.

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     Professional Practice

     Standard 3: Plan for and implement effective teaching and learning
      Graduate                                               Proficient                                 Highly Accomplished                         Lead

     Focus area 3.1 Establish challenging learning goals
      Set learning goals that provide                        Set explicit, challenging and achievable   Develop a culture of high expectations      Demonstrate exemplary practice and
      achievable challenges for students of                  learning goals for all students.           for all students by modelling and setting   high expectations and lead colleagues to
      varying abilities and characteristics.                                                            challenging learning goals.                 encourage students to pursue challenging
                                                                                                                                                    goals in all aspects of their education.

     Focus area 3.2 Plan, structure and sequence learning programs
      Plan lesson sequences using                            Plan and implement well-structured         Work with colleagues to plan, evaluate      Exhibit exemplary practice and lead
      knowledge of student learning, content                 learning and teaching programs or          and modify learning and teaching            colleagues to plan, implement and review
      and effective teaching strategies.                     lesson sequences that engage students      programs to create productive learning      the effectiveness of their learning and
                                                             and promote learning.                      environments that engage all students.      teaching programs to develop students’
                                                                                                                                                    knowledge, understanding and skills.

     Focus area 3.3 Use teaching strategies
      Include a range of teaching strategies.                Select and use relevant teaching           Support colleagues to select and apply      Work with colleagues to review, modify
                                                             strategies to develop knowledge,           effective teaching strategies to develop    and expand their repertoire of teaching
                                                             skills, problem solving and critical and   knowledge, skills, problem solving and      strategies to enable students to use
                                                             creative thinking.                         critical and creative thinking.             knowledge, skills, problem solving and
                                                                                                                                                    critical and creative thinking.

     Focus area 3.4 Select and use resources
      Demonstrate knowledge of a range of                    Select and/or create and use a range       Assist colleagues to create, select         Model exemplary skills and lead
      resources, including ICT, that engage                  of resources, including ICT, to engage     and use a wide range of resources,          colleagues in selecting, creating and
      students in their learning.                            students in their learning.                including ICT, to engage students in        evaluating resources, including ICT, for
                                                                                                        their learning.                             application by teachers within or beyond
                                                                                                                                                    the school.

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 Graduate                                  Proficient                                  Highly Accomplished                      Lead

Focus area 3.5 Use effective classroom communication
 Demonstrate a range of verbal and         Use effective verbal and non-­verbal        Assist colleagues to select a wide       Demonstrate and lead by example
 non­-verbal communication strategies to   communication strategies to support         range of verbal and non­-verbal          inclusive verbal and non-verbal
 support student engagement.               student understanding, participation,       communication strategies to support      communication using collaborative
                                           engagement and achievement.                 students’ understanding, engagement      strategies and contextual knowledge
                                                                                       and achievement.                         to support students’ understanding,
                                                                                                                                engagement and achievement.

Focus area 3.6 Evaluate and improve teaching programs
 Demonstrate broad knowledge of            Evaluate personal teaching and              Work with colleagues to review current   Conduct regular reviews of teaching and
 strategies that can be used to evaluate   learning programs using evidence,           teaching and learning programs using     learning programs using multiple sources
 teaching programs to improve student      including feedback from students and        student feedback, student assessment     of evidence including: student assessment
 learning.                                 student assessment data, to inform          data, knowledge of curriculum and        data, curriculum documents, teaching
                                           planning.                                   workplace practices.                     practices and feedback from parents/
                                                                                                                                carers, students and colleagues.

Focus area 3.7 Engage parents/carers in the educative process
 Describe a broad range of strategies      Plan for appropriate and contextually       Work with colleagues to provide          Initiate contextually relevant processes to
 for involving parents/carers in the       relevant opportunities for parents/         appropriate and contextually relevant    establish programs that involve parents/
 educative process.                        carers to be involved in their children’s   opportunities for parents/carers to be   carers in the education of their children
                                           learning.                                   involved in their children’s learning.   and broader school priorities and activities.

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     Professional Practice

     Standard 4: Create and maintain supportive and safe learning environments
      Graduate                                               Proficient                               Highly Accomplished                      Lead

     Focus area 4.1 Support student participation
      Identify strategies to support inclusive               Establish and implement inclusive        Model effective practice and support     Demonstrate and lead by example the
      student participation and engagement                   and positive interactions to engage      colleagues to implement inclusive        development of productive and inclusive
      in classroom activities.                               and support all students in classroom    strategies that engage and support all   learning environments across the school
                                                             activities.                              students.                                by reviewing inclusive strategies and
                                                                                                                                               exploring new approaches to engage and
                                                                                                                                               support all students.

     Focus area 4.2 Manage classroom activities
      Demonstrate the capacity to organise                   Establish and maintain orderly           Model and share with colleagues a        Initiate strategies and lead colleagues
      classroom activities and provide clear                 and workable routines to create an       flexible repertoire of strategies for    to implement effective classroom
      directions.                                            environment where student time is        classroom management to ensure all       management and promote student
                                                             spent on learning tasks.                 students are engaged in purposeful       responsibility for learning.
                                                                                                      activities.

     Focus area 4.3 Manage challenging behaviour
      Demonstrate knowledge of practical                     Manage challenging behaviour by          Develop and share with colleagues        Lead and implement behaviour
      approaches to manage challenging                       establishing and negotiating clear       a flexible repertoire of behaviour       management initiatives to assist
      behaviour.                                             expectations with students and address   management strategies using expert       colleagues to broaden their range of
                                                             discipline issues promptly, fairly and   knowledge and workplace experience.      strategies.
                                                             respectfully.

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 Graduate                                       Proficient                                    Highly Accomplished                           Lead

Focus area 4.4 Maintain student safety
 Describe strategies that support students’     Ensure students’ wellbeing and safety         Initiate and take responsibility for          Evaluate the effectiveness of student
 wellbeing and safety working within school     within school by implementing school          implementing current school and/              wellbeing policies and safe working
 and/or system, curriculum and legislative      and/ or system, curriculum and legislative    or system, curriculum and legislative         practices using current school and/
 requirements.                                  requirements.                                 requirements to ensure student wellbeing      or system, curriculum and legislative
                                                                                              and safety.                                   requirements and assist colleagues to
                                                                                                                                            update their practices.

Focus area 4.5 Use ICT safely, responsibly and ethically
 Demonstrate an understanding of the            Incorporate strategies to promote the         Model, and support colleagues to develop,     Review or implement new policies and
 relevant issues and the strategies available   safe, responsible and ethical use of ICT in   strategies to promote the safe, responsible   strategies to ensure the safe, responsible
 to support the safe, responsible and           learning and teaching.                        and ethical use of ICT in learning and        and ethical use of ICT in learning and
 ethical use of ICT in learning and teaching.                                                 teaching.                                     teaching.

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     Professional Practice

     Standard 5: Assess, provide feedback and report on student learning
      Graduate                                               Proficient                                  Highly Accomplished                        Lead

     Focus area 5.1 Assess student learning
      Demonstrate understanding of                           Develop, select and use informal and        Develop and apply a comprehensive          Evaluate school assessment policies
      assessment strategies, including                       formal, diagnostic, formative and           range of assessment strategies to          and strategies to support colleagues
      informal and formal, diagnostic,                       summative assessment strategies to          diagnose learning needs, comply with       with: using assessment data to diagnose
      formative and summative approaches                     assess student learning.                    curriculum requirements and support        learning needs, complying with curriculum,
      to assess student learning.                                                                        colleagues to evaluate the effectiveness   system and/or school assessment
                                                                                                         of their approaches to assessment.         requirements and using a range of
                                                                                                                                                    assessment strategies.

     Focus area 5.2 Provide feedback to students on their learning
      Demonstrate an understanding of                        Provide timely, effective and appropriate   Select from an effective range of          Model exemplary practice and initiate
      the purpose of providing timely and                    feedback to students about their            strategies to provide targeted feedback    programs to support colleagues in
      appropriate feedback to students about                 achievement relative to their learning      based on informed and timely               applying a range of timely, effective and
      their learning.                                        goals.                                      judgements of each student’s current       appropriate feedback strategies.
                                                                                                         needs in order to progress learning.

     Focus area 5.3 Make consistent and comparable judgements
      Demonstrate understanding of                           Understand and participate in               Organise assessment moderation             Lead and evaluate moderation activities
      assessment moderation and its                          assessment moderation activities to         activities that support consistent and     that ensure consistent and comparable
      application to support consistent and                  support consistent and comparable           comparable judgements of student           judgements of student learning to
      comparable judgements of student                       judgements of student learning.             learning.                                  meet curriculum and school or system
      learning.                                                                                                                                     requirements.

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 Graduate                                  Proficient                                Highly Accomplished                        Lead

Focus area 5.4 Interpret student data
 Demonstrate the capacity to interpret     Use student assessment data               Work with colleagues to use data           Co­ordinate student performance and
 student assessment data to evaluate       to analyse and evaluate student           from internal and external student         program evaluation using internal and
 student learning and modify teaching      understanding of subject/content,         assessments for evaluating learning        external student assessment data to
 practice.                                 identifying interventions and modifying   and teaching, identifying interventions    improve teaching practice.
                                           teaching practice.                        and modifying teaching practice.

Focus area 5.5 Report on student achievement
 Demonstrate understanding of a range      Report clearly, accurately and            Work with colleagues to construct          Evaluate and revise reporting and
 of strategies for reporting to students   respectfully to students and parents/     accurate, informative and timely reports   accountability mechanisms in the school
 and parents/carers and the purpose of     carers about student achievement,         to students and parents/carers about       to meet the needs of students, parents/
 keeping accurate and reliable records     making use of accurate and reliable       student learning and achievement.          carers and colleagues.
 of student achievement.                   records.

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     Professional Engagement

     Standard 6: Engage in professional learning
      Graduate                                               Proficient                             Highly Accomplished                       Lead

     Focus area 6.1 Identify and plan professional learning needs
      Demonstrate an understanding of                        Use the Australian Professional        Analyse the Australian Professional       Use comprehensive knowledge of
      the role of the Australian Professional                Standards for Teachers and advice      Standards for Teachers to plan personal   the Australian Professional Standards
      Standards for Teachers in identifying                  from colleagues to identify and plan   professional development goals,           for Teachers to plan and lead the
      professional learning needs.                           professional learning needs.           support colleagues to identify and        development of professional learning
                                                                                                    achieve personal development goals        policies and programs that address the
                                                                                                    and pre-­service teachers to improve      professional learning needs of colleagues
                                                                                                    classroom practice.                       and pre-­service teachers.

     Focus area 6.2 Engage in professional learning and improve practice
      Understand the relevant and                            Participate in learning to update      Plan for professional learning by         Initiate collaborative relationships
      appropriate sources of professional                    knowledge and practice, targeted to    accessing and critiquing relevant         to expand professional learning
      learning for teachers.                                 professional needs and school and/or   research, engage in high quality          opportunities, engage in research,
                                                             system priorities.                     targeted opportunities to improve         and provide quality opportunities and
                                                                                                    practice and offer quality placements     placements for pre­-service teachers.
                                                                                                    for pre-­service teachers where
                                                                                                    applicable.

     Focus area 6.3 Engage with colleagues and improve practice
      Seek and apply constructive feedback                   Contribute to collegial discussions    Initiate and engage in professional       Implement professional dialogue within the
      from supervisors and teachers to                       and apply constructive feedback from   discussions with colleagues in a range    school or professional learning network(s)
      improve teaching practices.                            colleagues to improve professional     of forums to evaluate practice directed   that is informed by feedback, analysis of
                                                             knowledge and practice.                at improving professional knowledge       current research and practice to improve
                                                                                                    and practice, and the educational         the educational outcomes of students.
                                                                                                    outcomes of students.

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 Graduate                               Proficient                           Highly Accomplished                      Lead

Focus area 6.4 Apply professional learning and improve student learning
 Demonstrate an understanding of the    Undertake professional learning      Engage with colleagues to evaluate the   Advocate, participate in and lead
 rationale for continued professional   programs designed to address         effectiveness of teacher professional    strategies to support high­-quality
 learning and the implications for      identified student learning needs.   learning activities to address student   professional learning opportunities for
 improved student learning.                                                  learning needs.                          colleagues that focus on improved student
                                                                                                                      learning.

                                                                                                                        Australian Professional Standards for Teachers, AITSL   21
Contents

     Professional Engagement

     Standard 7: Engage professionally with colleagues, parents/carers and the community
      Graduate                                               Proficient                                  Highly Accomplished                          Lead

     Focus area 7.1 Meet professional ethics and responsibilities
      Understand and apply the key                           Meet codes of ethics and conduct            Maintain high ethical standards and          Model exemplary ethical behaviour
      principles described in codes of                       established by regulatory authorities,      support colleagues to interpret codes of     and exercise informed judgements in
      ethics and conduct for the teaching                    systems and schools.                        ethics and exercise sound judgement in       all professional dealings with students,
      profession.                                                                                        all school and community contexts.           colleagues and the community.

     Focus area 7.2 Comply with legislative, administrative and organisational requirements
      Understand the relevant legislative,                   Understand the implications of and          Support colleagues to review and             Initiate, develop and implement relevant
      administrative and organisational                      comply with relevant legislative,           interpret legislative, administrative, and   policies and processes to support
      policies and processes required for                    administrative, organisational and          organisational requirements, policies        colleagues’ compliance with and
      teachers according to school stage.                    professional requirements, policies and     and processes.                               understanding of existing and new
                                                             processes.                                                                               legislative, administrative, organisational
                                                                                                                                                      and professional responsibilities.

     Focus area 7.3 Engage with the parents/carers
      Understand strategies for working                      Establish and maintain respectful           Demonstrate responsiveness in all            Identify, initiate and build on opportunities
      effectively, sensitively and confidentially            collaborative relationships with parents/   communications with parents/carers           that engage parents/carers in both the
      with parents/carers.                                   carers regarding their children’s           about their children’s learning and          progress of their children’s learning and in
                                                             learning and wellbeing.                     wellbeing.                                   the educational priorities of the school.

     Focus area 7.4 Engage with professional teaching networks and broader communities
      Understand the role of external                        Participate in professional and             Contribute to professional networks and      Take a leadership role in professional
      professionals and community                            community networks and forums to            associations and build productive links      and community networks and support
      representatives in broadening teachers’                broaden knowledge and improve               with the wider community to improve          the involvement of colleagues in external
      professional knowledge and practice.                   practice.                                   teaching and learning.                       learning opportunities.

22   Australian Professional Standards for Teachers, AITSL
Contents

Glossary

Item                     AITSL

Accreditation            Endorsement that a program meets approved standards.

Advocate                 Promote a view or position or provide support to others.

Assessment – formal      Evaluating student performance through a structured (often written) assessment.

Assessment – formative   Evaluating student learning to provide feedback to students and devise/change teaching and learning programs.

Assessment – informal    Evaluating student performance through techniques such as observation and anecdotal records

Assessment – summative   Evaluating student achievement of learning goals at a point in time.

Broad                    Ensuring variety, not narrow or limited; i.e. comprehensive in content, knowledge, experience, ability, or application.

Career stage             Benchmarks which recognise the professional growth of teachers throughout their careers, represented by increasing levels of knowledge, practice and
                         professional engagement.

Certification            Credential attained by teachers who have met specified requirements.

Classroom                Physical environment where learning takes place, including:
                         • classrooms in schools
                         • rooms in early childhood education and care services
                         • other areas where teaching and learning occurs.

Collaboration            Working with one or more colleagues to achieve a common goal.

Colleague                Other professionals and paraprofessionals (inside and outside the school) including but not limited to, teachers, principals, specialist teachers, pre-service
                         teachers, industry partners, education assistants, teachers’ aides.

Context                  The set of circumstances or facts that surround a particular event, situation or environment.

                                                                                                                                            Australian Professional Standards for Teachers, AITSL   23
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     Glossary

      Item                                         AITSL

      Curriculum content                           What teachers are expected to teach and students are expected to learn. Curriculum content includes knowledge, skills and understanding that students
                                                   are expected to learn and is usually described for a particular learning area at a particular year level.

      Demonstrate                                  To show or make evident knowledge and/or understanding.

      Effective teaching strategies                Strategies which research and workplace knowledge suggests contribute to successful learning outcomes for students.

      Evidence                                     Data that is considered reliable and valid which can be used to support a particular idea, conclusion or decision.

      Exemplary                                    A high standard of practice, serving as a model or example for students, colleagues and the community

      ICT                                          Information and Communication Technology; the generation and application of knowledge and processes to develop devices, methods and systems.

      Learning and teaching program                An organised and sequenced program of teaching activities and strategies; assessment strategies and resources.

      Learning goals                               The specific, measurable, attainable, realistic and time-targeted (SMART) objectives set with, by and for students.

      Mentor                                       A more experienced person who supports and assists another person to grow and learn in their role.

      Lesson                                       Learning, including:
                                                   • lessons taught by a teacher in a school
                                                   • learning opportunities taught by a teacher in an early childhood setting
                                                   • lessons or learning opportunities taught by a teacher in other education settings.

      Non-verbal communication                     The use of unspoken cues generated by both the teacher and their environment that have potential message value to students.
                                                   This could include but is not limited to eye contact, gestures, proximity and visual aids.

      Pre-service teachers                         Students in initial teacher education programs provided by higher education institutions.

24   Australian Professional Standards for Teachers, AITSL
Contents

Item                  AITSL

Range                 The set of available strategies or tools that can be used in different situations.

Registration          Regulatory processes for entry and continued employment in the teaching profession.

School                Education settings, including:
                      • schools
                      • early childhood education and care services
                      • other locations where teaching and learning occurs.

Stages of learning    Levels of learning aligned to the age or development of students.

Student               Learners, including:
                      • students taught by a teacher in a school
                      • children taught by a teacher in an early childhood setting
                      • students / children taught by a teacher in other education settings.

Subject               Specific, recognised body of learning that is described in a curriculum document or is the focus of undergraduate studies.

Teaching area         The curriculum and learning area/s in which the teacher provides instruction.

Workplace knowledge   Knowledge of learning and teaching developed by practitioners within the context of their work environment.

                                                                                                                                     Australian Professional Standards for Teachers, AITSL   25
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     Notes

     1.    J Hattie, ‘Teachers make a difference: what is the research   8.    Ministerial Council for Education, Employment, Training
           evidence?’ Paper presented to Australian Council for                and Youth Affairs, Melbourne declaration on educational
           Educational Research Annual Conference, Melbourne,                  goals for young Australians, Melbourne, 2008, viewed
           19 – 21 October 2003.                                               24 November 2010, http://www.curriculum.edu.au/verve/_
                                                                               resources/National_Declaration_on_the_Educational_
     2.    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
                                                                               Goals_for_Young_Australians.pdf
           (OECD), Teachers matter: Attracting, developing and
           retaining effective teachers, 6th edn, Paris, OECD            9     Although Australian education systems perform strongly
           Publishing, 2005.                                                   against other OECD countries, low equity is still a
                                                                               significant issue. In response to this, the Melbourne
     3.    Council of Australian Governments (COAG), National
                                                                               Declaration commits to specific actions such as improving
           partnership on improving teacher quality, Canberra,
                                                                               educational outcomes for Indigenous youth and students
           2008, viewed 31 January 2011, http://www.coag.gov.au/
                                                                               with disability.
           intergov_agreements/federal_financial_relations/docs/
           national_partnership/national_partnership_on_improving_       10.   The terminology ‘initial teacher education’ has replaced the
           teacher_quality.pdf                                                 term pre-service teacher education.
     4.    Ministerial Council for Education, Employment, Training       11.   Ministerial Council for Education, Employment, Training
           and Youth Affairs, Melbourne declaration on educational             and Youth Affairs, Melbourne declaration on educational
           goals for young Australians, Melbourne, 2008, viewed                goals for young Australians, Melbourne, 2008, viewed 31
           31 January 2011, http://www.curriculum.edu.au/verve/_               January 2011, p. 11. http://www.curriculum.edu.au/verve/_
           resources/National_Declaration_on_the_Educational_                  resources/National_Declaration_on_the_Educational_
           Goals_for_Young_Australians.pdf                                     Goals_for_Young_Australians.pdf
     5.    B Jensen, What teachers want: Better teacher                  12.   RJ Yinger & MS Hendricks-Lee, The language of standards
           management, Melbourne, Grattan Institute, 2010, p. 5.               and teacher education reform, Educational Policy, 14(1),
                                                                               2000, 94–106, viewed 18 January 2011,
     6.    OECD, ‘Teacher evaluation: a conceptual framework and
                                                                               http://epx.sagepub.com/content/14/1/94
           examples of country practice’, paper presented at the
           OECD-Mexico workshop, Towards a teacher evaluation            13.   ibid.
           framework in Mexico: international practices, criteria and
                                                                         14.   In New South Wales (NSW) “accreditation” is the
           mechanisms, Mexico City, 1-2 December 2009.
                                                                               equivalent of “registration”.
     7.    M Barber & M Mourshed, How the world’s best-performing
                                                                         15.   “Accreditation” in NSW.
           school systems come out on top, London, McKinsey &
           Company, 2007, p. 13.

26   Australian Professional Standards for Teachers, AITSL
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